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Sample records for dry cleaning industry

  1. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  2. Energized CO{sub 2} dry ice blast cleaning firmly grounded in the Canadian electrical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, K.

    1999-02-01

    Development and use of energized carbon dioxide dry ice blast technology for cleaning electrical distribution system components by Oakville Hydro and Milton Hydro (both in Ontario) is discussed. The technology was developed by Alpheus Cleaning Technologies of California and Puget Sound Power and Light Company after a two-year study that commenced in 1991, and has been supplied in Canada by Wickens Industrial Ltd., since 1993 for cleaning various industrial and non-energized electrical applications in the automotive, printing , food processing and other manufacturing industries and hydro generating facilities. The unique cleaning dynamics of this technology allow for the removal of contaminants that are much more stubborn than those encountered in pad-mounted switchgear and other electrical apparatus. Dry ice pellets, by expanding to 400 times their solid state on impact, create a flushing action that helps to remove contaminants. No grit or solvents are required and the process is non-toxic. In using the process workers wear fire retardant clothing, 40 kV-Class 4 rubber gloves and full face shields. Dielectric tests are performed routinely to confirm the dielectric integrity of the spray wand components. A two stage inspection/trouble report is completed on every job. Use of this technology eliminates power interruptions to customers, improves system reliability and safety, reduces cleaning time to a minimum, and eliminated the need for reclamation of grit or solvent containment.

  3. Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley David L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term.

  4. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  6. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  7. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  8. Dry-cleaning with high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosmalen, M.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dry-cleaning is a process for removing soils and stains from fabrics and garments which uses a non-aqueous solvent with detergent added. The currently most used dry-cleaning solvent is perchloroethylene (PER), which is toxic, environmentally harmful and suspected to be carcinogenic. Carbon dioxide

  9. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  10. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  11. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  12. Clean industrial room for drift tube assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Evtukhovich, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volume (∼ 190 m 3 ), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2%). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer. (author)

  13. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  14. Exposure to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning shops in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rylander, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially exposed. We report here on results of 1296 measurements of tetrachloroethylene undertaken in Nordic dry cleaning shops 1947-2001.......Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially exposed. We report here on results of 1296 measurements of tetrachloroethylene undertaken in Nordic dry cleaning shops 1947-2001....

  15. 40 CFR 52.246 - Control of dry cleaning solvent vapor losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of dry cleaning solvent vapor... cleaning solvent vapor losses. (a) For the purpose of this section, “dry cleaning operation” means that process by which an organic solvent is used in the commercial cleaning of garments and other fabric...

  16. Facile Dry Surface Cleaning of Graphene by UV Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Haidari, Mohd Musaib; Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Hakseong; Yu, Young-Jun; Park, Jonghyurk

    2018-05-01

    Graphene has been considered an ideal material for application in transparent lightweight wearable electronics due to its extraordinary mechanical, optical, and electrical properties originating from its ordered hexagonal carbon atomic lattice in a layer. Precise surface control is critical in maximizing its performance in electronic applications. Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is widely used but it produces polymeric residue following wet/chemical transfer process, which strongly affects its intrinsic electrical properties and limits the doping efficiency by adsorption. Here, we introduce a facile dry-cleaning method based on UV irradiation to eliminate the organic residues even after device fabrication. Through surface topography, Raman analysis, and electrical transport measurement characteristics, we confirm that the optimized UV treatment can recover the clean graphene surface and improve graphene-FET performance more effectively than thermal treatment. We propose our UV irradiation method as a systematically controllable and damage-free post process for application in large-area devices.

  17. Exposure to organic solvents used in dry cleaning reduces low and high level visual function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Astrid Jiménez Barbosa

    Full Text Available To investigate whether exposure to occupational levels of organic solvents in the dry cleaning industry is associated with neurotoxic symptoms and visual deficits in the perception of basic visual features such as luminance contrast and colour, higher level processing of global motion and form (Experiment 1, and cognitive function as measured in a visual search task (Experiment 2.The Q16 neurotoxic questionnaire, a commonly used measure of neurotoxicity (by the World Health Organization, was administered to assess the neurotoxic status of a group of 33 dry cleaners exposed to occupational levels of organic solvents (OS and 35 age-matched non dry-cleaners who had never worked in the dry cleaning industry. In Experiment 1, to assess visual function, contrast sensitivity, colour/hue discrimination (Munsell Hue 100 test, global motion and form thresholds were assessed using computerised psychophysical tests. Sensitivity to global motion or form structure was quantified by varying the pattern coherence of global dot motion (GDM and Glass pattern (oriented dot pairs respectively (i.e., the percentage of dots/dot pairs that contribute to the perception of global structure. In Experiment 2, a letter visual-search task was used to measure reaction times (as a function of the number of elements: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 100 in both parallel and serial search conditions.Dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents had significantly higher scores on the Q16 compared to non dry-cleaners indicating that dry cleaners experienced more neurotoxic symptoms on average. The contrast sensitivity function for dry cleaners was significantly lower at all spatial frequencies relative to non dry-cleaners, which is consistent with previous studies. Poorer colour discrimination performance was also noted in dry cleaners than non dry-cleaners, particularly along the blue/yellow axis. In a new finding, we report that global form and motion thresholds for dry cleaners were also

  18. Characteristics of wet work in the cleaning industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F H W; Van Der Harst, J J; Schuttelaar, M L; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

    Wet work is the main cause of occupational contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Dermatologists and occupational physicians need to base their primary and secondary prevention for workers in the cleaning industry on the characteristics of wet work exposures. We quantified the burden of wet

  19. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  20. Influence of Dry Cleaning on the Electrical Resistance of Screen Printed Conductors on Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazani Ilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrically conducting inks were screen printed on various textile substrates. The samples were dry cleaned with the usual chemicals in order to investigate the influence of the mechanical treatment on the electrical conductivity. It was found that dry cleaning has a tremendous influence on this electrical conductivity. For several samples, it is observed that the electrical resistance increases with the square of the number of dry cleaning cycles. In order to explain this observation a theoretical model and a numerical simulation have been carried out, by assuming that dry cleaning cycles introduce a crack in the conducting layer. The theoretical analysis and the numerical analysis both confirmed the experimental observations.

  1. Textile Dry Cleaning Using Carbon Dioxide : Process, Apparatus and Mechanical Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrics that are sensitive to water, may wrinkle or shrink when washed in regular washing machines and are usually cleaned by professional dry cleaners. Dry cleaning is a process of removing soils from substrate, in this case textile, using a non-aqueous solvent. The most common solvent in

  2. Biomass gasification for CHP with dry gas cleaning and regenerative heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Small scale CHP plants based on biomass gasification technologies are generally expensive and not very efficient due to gas quality problems which increase operation and maintenance cost as well as breakdown. To overcome this situation the team has developed, integrated and tested a complete biomass gasification combine heat and power prototype plant of 250 kWth equipped with a specifically developed dry gas cleaning and heat recovery system. The dry gas cleaning device is a simple dry gas regenerative heat exchanger where tars are stopped by condensation but working at a temperature above due point in order to avoid water condensation. Two types of heat particles separation devices have been tested in parallel multi-cyclone and ceramic filters. After several month spent on modelling design, construction and optimisation, a full test campaign of 400 hours continuous monitoring has been done where all working parameters has been monitored and gas cleaning device performances has been assessed. Results have shown: Inappropriateness of the ceramic filters for the small scale unit due to operation cost and too high sensibility of the filters to the operation conditions fluctuating in a wide range, despite a very high particle separation efficiency 99 %; Rather good efficiency of the multi-cyclone 72% but not sufficient for engine safety. Additional conventional filters where necessary for the finest part; Inappropriateness of the dry gas heat exchanger device for tar removal partly due to a low tar content of the syngas generated, below 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} , but also due to their composition which would have imposed, to be really efficient, a theoretical condensing temperature of 89 C below the water condensation temperature. These results have been confirmed by laboratory tests and modelling. However the tar cracking phase have shown very interesting results and proved the feasibility of thermal cracking with full cleaning of the heat exchanger without further mechanical

  3. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  5. Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Aage; Rylander, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -cleaning workers identified from the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Dry-cleaning work in the Nordic countries during the period when tetrachloroethylene was the dominant solvent was not associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [rate ratio (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval...... not found in women directly involved in dry cleaning. We found an excess risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93) not associated with length of employment. The finding of no excess risk of esophageal cancer in Nordic dry cleaners differs from U.S. findings. Chance, differences in level...

  6. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  7. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  8. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  9. CO2 dry cleaning: Acoustic cavitation and other mechanisms to induce mechanical action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.; Dutschk, Victoria; Mankiewicz, J.; van Roosmaalen, M.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    High pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) is a potential solvent for textile dry cleaning. However, the particulate soil (e.g. clay, sand) removal in CO2 is generally insufficient. Since cavitation has been proven to be beneficial in other CO2 cleaning applications, this study aims to investigate the

  10. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    To control chemical hazards in work places, substitution of harmful substances with less harmful or non-toxic products is now a method used in many countries and in many companies. It has previously been demonstrated that it is desirable and possible to use non-volatile, low-toxic vegetable...... cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  11. How the nuclear industry keeps it gases clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The paper surveys briefly the papers presented at a conference on gas filtration in the nuclear industry. The theory, development, design, use (under various conditions of temperature, humidity, corrosion), performance, cleaning and testing of fibrous, HEPA, metal, packed bed and magnetic filters are included, and the problems, advantages and disadvantages of the various types of filter are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  13. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well as the pros...

  14. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  15. Industrial rag cleaning process for the environmentally safe removal of petroleum-based solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the cleaning of industrial rags contaminated with environmentally unsafe petroleum-based solvent is described, comprising the step of: (a) placing a load of the industrial rags in a mechanically driven rotary drum; (b) revolving the drum at a high speed sufficient to physically extract liquid petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the industrial rags; (c) routing the extracted petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the rotary drum to a waste solvent collection line for environmentally safe disposal; (d) revolving the rotary drum to cause a tumbling of the industrial rags while maintaining the temperature within the drum at below the flash point of the petroleum-based solvent; (e) intermittently forcing cold air and hot air through the rotary drum to vaporize solvent from the industrial rags; (f) routing the vaporized petroleum-based solvent contaminant from the rotary drum to a condenser wherein the petroleum-based solvent contaminate is condensed and thereafter further routing said condensed solvent to a waste collection line for environmentally safe disposal; and (g) cleaning the industrial rags in the presence of a dry cleaning solvent to remove residual petroleum-based solvents and soil

  16. Rickett’s Dry Cleaning Site, Village of Ballston Spa, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rickett’s Dry Cleaning Site is located in a mixed commercial and residential area in the village of Ballston Spa on County Route 50. The site was the location of a family owned dry cleaner/ laundromat that went out of business in 2014. The site has

  17. Multiphysics modelling and simulation of dry laser cleaning of micro-slots with particle contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Liyang; Wang Zengbo; Li Lin

    2012-01-01

    Light could interact differently with thin-film contaminants and particle contaminates because of their different surface morphologies. In the case of dry laser cleaning of small transparent particles, it is well known that particles could function like mini-lenses, causing a localized near-field hot spot effect on the cleaning process. This paper looks into a special, yet important, phenomenon of dry laser cleaning of particles trapped in micro-sized slots. The effects of slot size, particle size and particle aggregate states in the cleaning process have been theoretically investigated, based on a coupled electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical multiphysics modelling and simulation approach. The study is important for the development and optimization of laser cleaning processes for contamination removal from cracks and slots. (paper)

  18. Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Aage; Rylander, Lars; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pål; Jensen, Per; Clausen, Lene Bjørk; Johansen, Kristina

    2006-02-01

    U.S. studies have reported an increased risk of esophageal and some other cancers in dry cleaners exposed to tetrachloroethylene. We investigated whether the U.S. findings could be reproduced in the Nordic countries using a series of case-control studies nested in cohorts of laundry and dry-cleaning workers identified from the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Dry-cleaning work in the Nordic countries during the period when tetrachloroethylene was the dominant solvent was not associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [rate ratio (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-1.69], but our study was hampered by some unclassifiable cases. The risks of cancer of the gastric cardia, liver, pancreas, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were not significantly increased. Assistants in dry-cleaning shops had a borderline significant excess risk of cervical cancer not found in women directly involved in dry cleaning. We found an excess risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93) not associated with length of employment. The finding of no excess risk of esophageal cancer in Nordic dry cleaners differs from U.S. findings. Chance, differences in level of exposure to tetrachloroethylene, and confounding may explain the findings. The overall evidence on bladder cancer in dry cleaners is equivocal.

  19. Clean energy: Revisiting the challenges of industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Adele C.; Nivola, Pietro S.; Schultze, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Large public investments in clean energy technology arguably constitute an industrial policy. One rationale points to market failures that have not been corrected by other policies, most notably greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil. Another inspiration for clean energy policy reflects economic arguments of the 1980s. It suggests strategic government investments would increase U.S. firms' market share of a growing industry and thus help American firms and workers. This paper examines the reasoning for clean energy policy and concludes that: •While a case can be made that subsidizing clean energy might help address market failures, the case may be narrower than some assert, and turning theory into sound practice is no simple feat. •An appropriate price on greenhouse gases is an essential precondition to ensuring efficient incentives to develop and deploy cost-effective emissions-abating technologies. However, efficient prices alone are unlikely to generate efficient levels of basic research and development by private firms. •Government investments in clean energy are unlikely to produce net increases in employment in the long run, in part because pushing home-grown technologies at taxpayers' expense offers no guarantee that the eventual products ultimately would not be manufactured somewhere else. •Spending on clean energy technologies is not well suited to fiscal stimulus. The authors recommend that: •Federal energy spending should invest in technologies with the lowest expected cost of abatement and highest probability of market penetration. •Funding decisions ought to be insulated – as much as possible – from rent-seeking by interest groups, purely political distortions, and the parochial preferences of legislators. - Highlights: ► Clean energy technology policy may be less justifiable than many assert, and doing it well is hard. ► The government should appropriately price greenhouse gas emissions and fund technology R and D.

  20. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethylene (PERC is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994–2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  1. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; Lessner, L.; Lessner, L.; Carpenter, D.O.; Schreiber, J.

    2010-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994-2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  2. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  3. Dry cleaning device for protective cloths for use in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the use of fron 113 as laundry liquid so that sterilizing effect can also be attained during drying. Constitution: After cleaning various kinds of contaminations deposited to cloths in a laundry drum with fron 113 (trichlorofluoroethane), gases in the drum are recycled by a blower passing through a drying condenser and a heater to evaporize solvents or moisture content remained in the cloths. The evaporated solvent or moistures are condensated to recover when they pass through the condenser cooled by the coolants of a refrigerator. Accordingly, since high temperature drying is enabled and moistures can be dried as well by the use of fron 113, no additional provision of the drier is required and sterilizing effect can also be effected at high temperature drying. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Fundamentals and applications of dry CO2 cryogenic aerosol for photomask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Bowers, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    There is a dire need for the removal of all printable defects on lithography masks. As the technology node advances, smaller particles need to be efficiently removed from smaller features without any damage or adders. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning is a dry, residue-free and chemically inert technique that doesn't suffer from disadvantages of conventional wet cleaning methods such as transmission/reflectivity loss, phase change, CD change, haze/progressive defects, and/or limitation on number of cleaning cycles. Ultra-pure liquid CO2 when dispensed through an optimally designed nozzle results in CO2 clusters that impart the required momentum for defect removal. Historically nanomachining debris removal has been established with this technique. Several improvements have been incorporated for cleaning of advanced node masks, which has enabled Full Mask Final Clean, a new capability that has been successfully demonstrated. The properties of the CO2 clusters can be captured utilizing the Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and effect of varying process and design parameters can be verified. New nozzles have been designed to widen the cleaning process window for advanced node optical masks, without any damage to the weak primary features and/or sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). This capability has been experimentally proven for high aspect ratio SRAFs e.g. 2.79 (52nm wide by 145 nm tall) as well as SRAFs 45nm wide by 73 nm tall. In this paper, 100% removal of soft defects that would have printed on advanced node masks is demonstrated. No printed defects larger than 50nm is observed after the CO2 cleaning. Stability of the cleaning and handling mechanisms has been demonstrated over the last 4.5 months in a production environment. The CO2 cleaning technique is expected to be effective for more advanced masks and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography.

  5. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  6. The Ready System of Clean Water for Population in Musuk District to Respon Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Priyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research about ready system of clean water in District of Musuk, Sub-Province of Boyolali. This research aim to study how ready system of clean water, research area especially of dry season. That wish to know how much amount of resident drinking water consumption at area District of Musuk. The method of research in this research is survey method. The data which collected in this research consist of primary data result of interview by 150 responded (head of house hold and perception in field. Secondary data an obtain from governmental institution, books, other resource person and reference related to this topic of research. Intake of sample done with area of random sampling, to know the target of research to description analyses and tabulation. The result of research indicate that ready system of clean water at dry season most relying on rainwater with accommodating the rainwater at pools, besides to overcome water of water supply of rain of society buy water of springs pass tank truck, small to partly use surface water and also of PDAM. Water consumption at mean dry season 48.47 liter/day/capita. But at high area (volcanic slope its slimmer consumption in comparing plain area of Fluvial foot/feet of Volcano.

  7. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  8. Method of and system for cleaning and/or drying the inner walls of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhaus, H.

    1989-04-04

    For cleaning and/or drying the inner walls of long distance pipelines the pressure in the interior of the pipeline is decreased and the vapour formed by evaporation of the substance adhering to the pipe inner wall (and, if applicable, foreign gases present) are exhausted from the pipeline. Upon exit from the pipeline and prior to entry into the exhausting apparatus, the exhausted medium passes through a condensating apparatus whose cooling surfaces are maintained at a temperature that is lower than the pipe wall temperature. With a temperature difference sufficient to condense the substance vapour on said cooling surfaces, it is possible to enhance the drying rate considerably, compared to pure vacuum-type drying. 1 fig.

  9. Kazakhstan uranium industry: towards the XXI century with clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.; Zabaznov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan is a leading country of the world by uranium resources, and in the it Earth's interior 19 % of world proved resources are concentrated. At present the National Atomic Company (NAC) Kazatomprom is responsible for uranium mining and production of natural uranium and its compounds in the Republic. The company activity covers the exploring, mining and export of natural uranium; production of slightly enriched uranium compounds and fuel pellets production for nuclear reactors. In the company there are three Uranium Ore Mining Departments in the South Kazakhstan, VolgovGeology Geological Exploration Enterprise and Ulba Metallurgical Plant. Mining is carrying out by technologically progressive ecologically clean technology of in-situ well leaching. The key importance the company pays to environment protection activities. NAC Kazatomprom sees perspectives of Kazakhstan uranium industry in formation of general all-sufficient technological cycle from uranium mining to fuel supply on the nuclear plants. The missing links - enrichment by U-235 isotope and fuel assemblies production - should be replaces by formation of steady partnership cooperation with foreign enterprises

  10. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  11. Modeling of an industrial drying process by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Assidjo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A suitable method is needed to solve the nonquality problem in the grated coconut industry due to the poor control of product humidity during the process. In this study the possibility of using an artificial neural network (ANN, precisely a Multilayer Perceptron, for modeling the drying step of the production of grated coconut process is highlighted. Drying must confer to the product a final moisture of 3%. Unfortunately, under industrial conditions, this moisture varies from 1.9 to 4.8 %. In order to control this parameter and consequently reduce the proportion of the product that does not meet the humidity specification, a 9-4-1 neural network architecture was established using data gathered from an industrial plant. This Multilayer Perceptron can satisfactorily model the process with less bias, ranging from -0.35 to 0.34%, and can reduce the rate of rejected products from 92% to 3% during the first cycle of drying.

  12. Clean energy industries and rare earth materials: Economic and financial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Lucia; Peri, Massimo; Vandone, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, rare earth materials (REM) prices have experienced a strong increase due to geopolitical and sustainability issues. Financial markets could already have factored in concerns about shortages of REM supplies into clean energy companies’ valuations. We use a multifactor market model for the period January 2006 to September 2012 to analyze the impact of REM price trends – specifically dysprosium and neodymium – on six clean energy indices (NYSE–BNEF) tracking the world's most important companies in the clean energy sector. The results show that during period of price increase, there is a negative relationships between REM price changes and the stock market performance of some clean energy indices. The European clean energy index is also negatively affected, and this effect could be relevant to policy makers, considering that Europe is implementing some relevant policy actions to support the development of the clean energy industry. - Highlights: • Clean energy is an industry with a double-digit growth market rate in the last years. • Rare earth materials are a key component in the development process of this industry. • Recently REMs’ prices have skyrocketed and the clean energy industry is in turmoil. • We analyze the effect of REMs price on the stock market performances of clean industry. • We find negative relation between REMs price increase and stock market performances

  13. An evaluation of retrofit engineering control interventions to reduce perchloroethylene exposures in commercial dry-cleaning shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Ewers, Lynda M; Ruder, Avima M; Petersen, Martin R; Kovein, Ronald J

    2002-02-01

    Real-time monitoring was used to evaluate the ability of engineering control devices retrofitted on two existing dry-cleaning machines to reduce worker exposures to perchloroethylene. In one dry-cleaning shop, a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine that had a water-cooled condenser to reduce the air temperature, improve vapor recovery, and lower exposures. In a second shop, a carbon adsorber was retrofitted on a machine to adsorb residual perchloroethylene not collected by the existing refrigerated condenser to improve vapor recovery and reduce exposures. Both controls were successful at reducing the perchloroethylene exposures of the dry-cleaning machine operator. Real-time monitoring was performed to evaluate how the engineering controls affected exposures during loading and unloading the dry-cleaning machine, a task generally considered to account for the highest exposures. The real-time monitoring showed that dramatic reductions occurred in exposures during loading and unloading of the dry-cleaning machine due to the engineering controls. Peak operator exposures during loading and unloading were reduced by 60 percent in the shop that had a refrigerated condenser installed on the dry-cleaning machine and 92 percent in the shop that had a carbon adsorber installed. Although loading and unloading exposures were dramatically reduced, drops in full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were less dramatic. TWA exposures to perchloroethylene, as measured by conventional air sampling, showed smaller reductions in operator exposures of 28 percent or less. Differences between exposure results from real-time and conventional air sampling very likely resulted from other uncontrolled sources of exposure, differences in shop general ventilation before and after the control was installed, relatively small sample sizes, and experimental variability inherent in field research. Although there were some difficulties and complications with installation and

  14. Petroleum industry is cleaning up its act -- Self-cleaning filters to maximize profits, minimize waste and reduce liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent steps taken by the petroleum industry to control end-of-pipe pollution and to minimize waste at the source by changing over to self-cleaning, backwashable filters instead of the traditional disposable filters such as bags or cartridges, are discussed. Various self-cleaning filter systems and their advantages are described, using REACTOGARD which provides total protection for catalysts in fixed-bed reactors and EROSIONGARD, used in fluidized catalytic crackers, as examples. Both filter systems have been developed by RPA Process Technologies, Inc., a global leader in industrial filtration systems. Major advantages attributed to self-cleaning filters include significantly reduced costs through reducing the number of catalyst change-out cycles, maximized platform productivity through virtually eliminating the risk of plugged wells, reduced waste through ability to recycle cleaning liquids, increased profits through shorter return-on-investment cycles, reduced emissions and reduced future liability through higher safety in the workplace; also reduced pollution of landfill sites. 1 photo

  15. Fouling and Cleaning of Membrane Filtration Systems in the Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander

    not necessarily be perfect hydraulic cleanliness in order to restore processing performance. Consequences of reduced cleaning could however be observed in subsequent CIPs; hydraulic cleanliness reached a lower level. Further research is required to assess the practical significance of these consequences......membranes that were industrially used for a longer period of time (“aged membranes”) to study fouling and cleaning phenomena. During this study, reduced cleaning (a onestep CIP instead of a three-step CIP) was investigated, leading to the suggestion that the aim of a cleaning procedure should...

  16. Flow pattern and cleaning performance of a stationary liquid jet operating at conditions relevant for industrial tank cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldung Damkjær, N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Jensen, B. B. B.

    2017-01-01

    jet was studied using a 19m3 tank and settings applicable to industrial operations; nozzle internal diameters, dN, of 2–5.5mm, cleaning distances, L, of 80–2490mm, and flow rates, Q, of 0.05–3.0m3h−1. Experimental data and model predictions of the behaviour of the jet when striking an unsoiled surface...

  17. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  19. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  20. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  1. Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

  2. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  3. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Boosts Clean Energy Commercialization Efforts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    For more than a decade, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Industry Growth Forum has been the nation's premier event for early-stage clean energy investment. The forum features presentations from the most innovative, promising, and emergent clean energy companies; provocative panels led by thought leaders; and organized networking opportunities. It is the perfect venue for growing cleantech companies to present their business to a wide range of investors.

  4. Clean Energy Industries and rare Earth Materials: Economic and Financial Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Lucia; Peri, Massimo; Vandone, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years Rare Earth Materials (REMs) prices have experienced a strong increase, due to geopolitical policies and sustainability issues. Provided that these materials at risk of supply disruptions are largely employed in the development of new technologies - such as clean energy industries - financial markets may already have included these concerns into clean energy companies evaluation. We use a multifactor market model for the period January 2006-September 2012 to analyse the i...

  5. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  6. INDUSTRIAL EVALUATION OF RE-DRY STRATEGY FOR SOFTWOOD LUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Avramidis, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the first commercial scale dry-sort-redry (DSRD) strategy for drying of 2x4 Pacific coast hemlock (PCH) lumber. The DSRD strategy is a methodology designed to reduce final moisture content variability in kiln dried lumber by complementing conventional drying with radio frequency vacuum (RFV) drying technology. The strategy′s objective is to avoid producing over-dried lumber in conventional drying by setting the target moisture content to...

  7. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  8. Clean enough for industry? An airborne geophysical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Beard, L.P.

    1996-01-01

    Data from two airborne geophysical surveys of the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were extremely valuable in deciding whether a 1000-acre (400 hectare) parcel of the ORR should be released to the City of Oak Ridge for industrial development. Our findings, based on electromagnetic and magnetic data, were incorporated in the federally mandated Environmental Assessment Statement (EAS), and in general supported claims that this land was never used as a hazardous waste disposal site. We estimated the amount of iron required to produce each anomaly using a simple dipole model. All anomalies with equivalent sources greater than approximately 1000 kg of iron were checked in the field, and the source of all but one identified as either a bridge, reinforced concrete debris, or a similarly benign object. Additionally, some smaller anomalies (equivalent sources of roughly 500 kg) have been checked; thus far, these also have innocuous sources. Airborne video proved invaluable in identifying logging equipment as the source of some of these anomalies. Geologic noise may account for some of the remaining anomalies. Naturally occurring accumulations of magnetic minerals in the soil on the ORR have been shown to produce anomalies which, at a sensor height of 30 m, are comparable to the anomaly produced by about 500 kg of iron. By comparison, the electronic noise of the magnetic gradiometer, 0.01--0.02 nT/m, is equivalent to only about 50--100 kg of iron at a 30 m sensor height. The electromagnetic data, combined with field mapping of karst structures, provided evidence of a northeast-southwest striking conduit spanning the parcel. The possible existence of a karst conduit led the EAS authors to conclude that this is a ''sensitive hydrologic setting.'' We conclude that aerial geophysics is an extremely cost-effective, and efficient technique for screening large tracts of land for environmental characterization

  9. Investment threshold and management reflection for industrial system cleaning: a case for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2012-03-01

    The recognition that industrial activity plays an essential role in a sustainable society is now widespread. To understand the causal relationship between industrial pollution abatement expenditure and industrial system cleaning level in China is of considerable importance, especially under extremely rapid industrial growth and serious pressure of industrial pollutants abatement context. We use composite index assessment method and regression analysis in this paper. We establish the mathematical model between composite industrial cleaner index and investment intensity for industrial pollutants abatement, and analyze the effects of industrial pollutants treatment and discharge indicators on composite industrial cleaner index in China. Results show that: (1) There is significant nonlinear relationship between composite industrial cleaner index and investment intensity for industrial pollutants abatement. (2) From single indicator perspective, the effect of investment intensity on pollutants treatment indicators is positively, on the contrary, the effect of investment intensity on pollutants discharge indicators is negatively; (3) From decomposition cleaner index perspective, the effect of pollutants discharge level (process control) is higher than pollutants treatment capacity (end-of-pipe) on composite industrial cleaner index; (4) There is threshold between investment intensity and composite cleaner industrial index, it is a crucial reference scale for industrial environmental management in selected period.

  10. Forced Flexibility and Exploitation: Experiences of Migrant Workers in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ollus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has resulted in structural changes in the labor markets over the last decades. These changes have weakened some of the economic and social dimensions of work. At the same time, migration and especially labor migration have increased on the global level. This article looks at the situation of migrant workers in the cleaning industry in Finland. It is based on interviews with migrant workers who have experienced labor exploitation in the cleaning industry, representatives of cleaning industry employers, and representatives of labor unions. The primary aim is to give voice to the migrant workers themselves and to analyze how they experience their work and their position in working life. The findings suggest that there is a risk that migrant workers in the cleaning sector experience various forms of exploitation. This article argues that the demand and need for (employee flexibility may turn into forced flexibility that exploits the powerless and vulnerable migrant workers who have few other options than to agree to work on poor terms. The article suggests that the structural reasons that make the exploitation of migrant labor possible should be identified and addressed in order to prevent misuse of any workers, especially migrants.

  11. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweet carbon: An analysis of sugar industry carbon market opportunities under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNish, Tyler; Jacobson, Arne; Kammen, Dan; Gopal, Anand; Deshmukh, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse power generation projects provide a useful framework for evaluating several key aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. On the positive side, our analysis, which draws in part from a data set of 204 bagasse electricity generation projects at sugar mills, indicates that these projects provide Annex I country investors with a cost-effective means to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Our analysis also confirms that the marketplace for Clean Development Mechanism-derived offsets is robust and competitive. Moreover, bagasse projects appear to provide a positive example in a 'new wave' of clean energy investment that has replaced the earlier industrial gas projects. At the same time, we also identify two aspects of the CDM that demand improvement. First, the additionality standard needs to be tightened and made more transparent and consistent. Financial additionality should be required for all projects; however, any financial additionality test applied by the Clean Development Mechanism's Executive Board must be informed by the significant barriers faced by many projects. Second, the administrative processes for registration and verification of offsets need to be streamlined in order to prevent long registration time lags from chilling clean energy investment.

  13. Solar-assisted drying of timber at industrial scale: management paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While ambient air drying depends on the weather conditions, conventional hightemperature dryers cause high investments and energy costs. Up to now, solar dryers could not be established in industrial timber production, due to their insufficient drying capacity and the lack of an adequate control of the drying conditions.

  14. Energy optimization in industrial drying systems; Optimizacion energetica en sistemas de secado industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Daniel; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The drying of products -meaning the extraction of water or excess humidity down to adequate levels for its conservation and final presentation- demands a large amount of energy, mainly from fuels of fossil origin. Nevertheless, from the standpoint of the energy efficiency, the burning of fuels at very high temperature for using them at a very low temperature, represents an astonishing energy waste, which can be clearly established by means of an energy and exergy balance of these drying installations. In this study the methodology for the energy analysis for industrial drying systems is presented and it is applied to different practical cases. The efficiency of the entire system is evaluated and the losses for each concept, in order to obtain the potential energy saving. [Espanol] El secado de productos, entendido como la extraccion de agua o humedad en exceso, hasta niveles adecuados para su conservacion o presentacion final, demanda una gran cantidad de energeticos, principalmente de origen fosil. No obstante, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia energetica, el quemar combustible a muy alta temperatura para emplearlos a una muy baja, representa un dispendio energetico impresionante, lo cual puede ser claramente establecido mediante el balance energetico y exergetico de dichas instalaciones de secado. En el presente estudio se presenta la metodologia de analisis energetico de sistemas industriales de secado y se aplica a distintos casos practicos. Se evalua la eficiencia total del sistema y las perdidas por cada concepto con la finalidad de obtener los potenciales de ahorro de energia.

  15. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  16. Accelerating the implementation of the clean development mechanism in South African industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Little

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the responses to the threat of global warming is the Kyoto Protocol and the associated Clean Development Mechanism (CDM to reduce greenhouse gases. South Africa is an ideal country for the implementation of industrial CDM projects, yet lags behind many other countries. This qualitative research determines the factors that cause South Africa to lag other developing countries in the implementation of industrial CDM projects and the interventions that will have the most impact on accelerating implementation. The research involved interviews with 30 experts involved in the South African CDM process. The results identify the factors perceived to be facilitating and inhibiting the use of CDM opportunities and a framework for CDM practitioners to develop an implementation strategy within South African industry is established.

  17. Drying of Ceramic Hollow Bricks in an Industrial Tunnel Dryer: A Finite Volume Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tavares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the drying of industrial hollow bricks in a tunnel dryer cross flow type. The theoretical model is based on mass and energy conservation equations applied to air and product. To validate the methodology, numerical and experimental results for the moisture content and the temperature of brick during the drying in an industrial scale are compared and a good correlation was obtained. Results of moisture content and temperature of the product, and temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity of drying air as a function of drying time and position in the dryer are presented and analyzed.

  18. The implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) in the construction and built environment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Ken L.; Han, Seung H.; Choi, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities are the main contributors to global climate change, a problem that should not be ignored. Through the clean development mechanism (CDM) introduced under the Kyoto Protocol, developing countries are able to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits through a myriad of emission reduction projects. This study aims to explore the potential of implementing CDM projects in the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry, which has been criticized for not only consuming an enormous amount of resources, but also for contributing to adverse environmental health. In this research, we limit the boundary of the C and BE industry to include the planning, procurement, construction, occupation and refurbishment/demolition phases of a project's life cycle. Surveys and in-depth follow-up interviews with experts have generated useful insights pertaining to CDM potential and its adaptation into the C and BE industry. From this foundation, this paper evaluates the current obstacles to CDM and presents feasible suggestions to increase CDM projects related to the C and BE industry. - Highlights: • We review the development and limitation of CDM relates to the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry. • We obtain experts' opinions on the feasibility of CDM in the C and BE industry. • Validation, monitoring, verification and additionality of CDM projects are crucial. • Experts agreed that most of our suggestions are feasible in principle

  19. Competing initiatives: a new tobacco industry strategy to oppose statewide clean indoor air ballot measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Hendlin, Yogi H; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-03-01

    To describe how the tobacco and gaming industries opposed clean indoor air voter initiatives in 2006, we analyzed media records and government and other publicly available documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. In an attempt to avoid strict "smoke free" regulations pursued by health groups via voter initiatives in Arizona, Ohio, and Nevada, in 2006, the tobacco and gaming industries sponsored competing voter initiatives for alternative laws. Health groups succeeded in defeating the pro-tobacco competing initiatives because they were able to dispel confusion and create a head-to-head competition by associating each campaign with its respective backer and instructing voters to vote "no" on the pro-tobacco initiative in addition to voting "yes" on the health group initiative.

  20. Textile sustainability: reuse of clean waste from the textile and apparel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broega, A. C.; Jordão, C.; Martins, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Today societies are already experiencing changes in their production systems and even consumption in order to guarantee the survival and well-being of future generations. This fact emerges from the need to adopt a more sustainable posture in both people’s daily lives and productive systems. Within this context, textile sustainability emerges as the object of study of this work whose aim is to analyse which sustainability dimensions are being prioritized by the clean waste management systems of the textile and garment industries. This article aims to analyse solutions that are being proposed by sustainable creative business models in the reuse of discarded fabrics by the textile industry. Search also through a qualitative research by a case study (the Reuse Fabric Bank) understand the benefits generated by the re-use in environmental, economic, social and ways to add value.

  1. Drying of Ceramic Hollow Bricks in an Industrial Tunnel Dryer: A Finite Volume Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    F Tavares; S Neto; E Barbosa; A Lima; C Silva

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the drying of industrial hollow bricks in a tunnel dryer cross flow type. The theoretical model is based on mass and energy conservation equations applied to air and product. To validate the methodology, numerical and experimental results for the moisture content and the temperature of brick during the drying in an industrial scale are compared and a good correlation was obtained. Results of moisture content and temperature of the product, and temperature, relative hu...

  2. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  3. Comparison of Fenton process and adsorption method for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the characterization of industrial container and drum cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater samples were characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD 5 , TSS, NH 3 -N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Initial COD values were in the range of 11,300-14,200 mg/L. The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were 35-40 g/L for H 2 O 2 , 2-5 g/L for Fe 2+ , and 13-36 for H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 h, respectively. Removal efficiencies of characterized parameters for the three samples were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Possibilities of Mercury Removal in the Dry Flue Gas Cleaning Lines of Solid Waste Incineration Units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, JAN 15 (2016), s. 499-511 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : waste incineration * mercury removal * flue gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  5. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workpl...

  6. Thermogravimetric study and kinetic analysis of dried industrial sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangrui; Song, Huijuan; Wu, Jinhu

    2015-07-01

    Thermogravimetric experiments of two different industrial sludge samples were carried out with non-isothermal temperature programs. The results indicated that the pyrolysis process contains three obvious stages and the main decomposition reaction occurred in the range of 200-600°C. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was also proposed describing equally well the pyrolysis behavior of the samples. The calculated activation energy was ranged from 170 to 593kJ/mol and 125 to 756kJ/mol for SLYG (sludge sample from chemical fiber factory) and SQD (sludge sample from woody industry), respectively. The reliability of this model not only provided good fit for all experiments, but also allowed accurate extrapolations to relative higher heating rates. Besides, the FTIR measurement was also used to further understand the relationship between pyrolysis behavior and chemical structures for industrial sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  8. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35 C to 65 C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  9. Characterization of wet and dry deposition in the downwind of industrial sources in a dry tropical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Agrawal, M

    2001-12-19

    ), respectively. The study clearly showed that both dry and wet depositions varied between the sites and season, suggesting significant impact of industrial activities in modifying the atmospheric input. The nonacidic deposition suggests that there is no threat of acidification of the receiving ecosystem at present.

  10. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  11. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  12. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  13. Cleaning up: environmental services are bound to stay a growth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental protection regulations with particular regard for the oil and natural gas industry are reviewed. New flaring regulations will be reduced by 70 per cent within the next seven years and remaining flares will operate at nearly 100 per cent efficiency in burning harmful substances. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) is currently targeting other emission sources from oilfield equipment. Benzene emissions from glycol dehydrators will be reduced by 90 per cent by 2007. Soil remediation targets are also very ambitious. The standard is 1,000 parts per million of hydrocarbons. As an indication of the difficulties experienced by oil companies in land reclamation, one out of five topsoil replacement and revegetation applications have failed. As a result of these stringent regulations, a multi-billion dollar environmental industry has emerged, constantly searching for better and more cost effective ways to comply with rising standards. The most immediate challenge is to snuff out some 5,300 flare stacks. The science behind environmental protection is still weak and controversial, and satisfactory answers are still some years away; in the meantime oil companies must meet existing requirements, inventing new equipment and approaches in the process. Incineration may be one answer, but alternative approaches are also being investigated. Wellsite reclamation, cleaning up of exhausted fields, identifying and preserving wild animal habitats, protecting endangered species, accounting for human populations and their effects, greenhouse gas emissions and the complex issues of emissions trading and credits are just some of the issues that will ensure that environmental services will continue to be a growth industry

  14. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting The Business Operating Model and How-To Manual for 450 Specific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maasberg, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting is the first proprietary manual for cleaning and rehabilitation through pressure-washing, hydro-blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting (UHP).   It examines the cleaning, restoration and rehabilitation of statuary and historical structures; manufacturing hardware; and application technologies for residential, commercial and industrial areas, structures and buildings. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting contains over 450 applications from agricultural, marine, municipal, food processing, paper-pulp, pharmaceutical and cosmetic, industrial and power generating maintenance areas. It includes gear lists to help readers easily identify the appropriate tooling and equipment for each specific application and industry.   Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting supplies readers with the tools to create a successful business model for re...

  15. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RBF–ARX model of an industrial furnace for drying olive pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova-Peláez, P.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Palomar-Carnicero, J.M.; Dorado, R.; López-García, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a real furnace, fuelled with orujo, used to dry olive pomace. ► We apply a radial basic functions–auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs–RBFs) method. ► Root-mean-square error and r 2 are used to validate the ARX–RBF model. - Abstract: Drying operations are common in food industries. One of the main components in a drying system is the furnace. The furnace operation involves heat–mass transfer and combustion, thus it demands a complex mathematic representation. Since autoregressive methods are simple, and help to simulate rapidly a system, we model a drying furnace of olive pomace via an auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs) method. A neural network of radial basic functions (RBFs) defines the ARX experimental relation between the amounts of dry pomace (moisture content of 15%) used like fuel and the temperature of outlet gases. A real industrial furnace is studied to validate the proposed model, which can help to control the drying process.

  17. Characterization of Wet and Dry Deposition in the Downwind of Industrial Sources in a Dry Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2001-01-01

    .67 to 2.70 mg l�1, respectively. The study clearly showed that both dry and wet depositions varied between the sites and season, suggesting significant impact of industrial activities in modifying the atmospheric input. The nonacidic deposition suggests that there is no threat of acidification of the receiving ecosystem at present.

  18. Impact of industrial dry-milling on fumonisin redistribution in non-transgenic corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Ono, Mario Augusto; Garcia, Glauco Tironi; Fazani, Victor Hugo Meconi; Vizoni, Édio; Rodrigues, Karem Caroline Bonacin; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B 1 (FB 1 ) and B 2 (FB 2 ) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%. Fumonisin levels in cornmeal and grits were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission. Therefore, corn industrial dry-milling can contribute to reducing fumonisin levels in corn products intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  20. Failure of Cleaning Verification in Pharmaceutical Industry Due to Uncleanliness of Stainless Steel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Blasko, Andrei

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this work is to identify the parameters that affect the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons. A series of factors were assessed, including drug product spike levels, spiking procedure, drug-excipient ratios, analyst-to-analyst variability, intraday variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned the coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of cleaning the surface of the coupons with clean-in-place solutions (CIP) gave high recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (Srel≤4%) regardless of the conditions that were assessed previously. The approach was successfully applied for cleaning verification of small molecules (MW <1,000 Da) as well as large biomolecules (MW up to 50,000 Da).

  1. Energy and exergy analysis of industrial fluidized bed drying of paddy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Md. Sazzat Hossain; Ibrahim, Mohd Nordin; Abdul Aziz, Norashikin; Punan, Mohd Salleh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents energy and exergy analysis of industrial fluidized bed paddy drying. The maximum design capacity of the dryer was 22 t/h. Existing energy and exergy models developed applying the First and Second law of Thermodynamics are employed to estimate the amounts of energy used, the ratios of energy utilization, magnitude of exergy losses and exergy efficiencies during the drying process. The analysis shows that energy usage and (EUR) energy utilization ratios vary between 38.91 kJ/s to 132.00 kJ/s and 5.24–13.92 %, respectively while exergy efficiency vary from 46.99 to 58.14%. A simple exergy balance reveals that only 31.18–37.01 % exergy are utilized for drying of paddy and the remaining large amount of exergy are wasted. Exergy can be increased through providing sufficient insulation on dryer body and recycling the exhaust air which need to be studied further for investigating the economic feasibility. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis of industrial fluidized bed paddy drying are presented. • Energy usage varies from 38.91 kJ/s to 132.00 kJ/s. • Energy usage ratio is found to vary between 5.24 and 13.38%. • Exergy efficiency varies from 41.30 to 58.14%. • Only 31.18–37.01 % exergy are utilized in the paddy drying system

  2. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  3. Energy and rice quality aspects during drying of freshly harvested paddy with industrial inclined bed dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, M.S.H.; Ibrahim, M. Nordin; Ab. Aziz, N.; Mohd. Salleh, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented performance evaluation approach for industrial inclined bed paddy dryer. • Specific electrical energy consumption was 1.44–1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Specific thermal energy consumption was 2.77–3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Dryer yielded 1–4% higher head rice at drying temperature of 38–39 °C than 41–42 °C. • Dryers should be operated at 38–39 °C for 1–4% higher head rice at reasonable energy. - Abstract: The performance evaluation of any industrial dryer regarding energy consumption and product quality should be assessed to check its present status and to suggest for further efficient operation. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the impact of drying temperature and air flow on energy consumption and quality of rice during paddy drying with industrial inclined bed dryer (IBD) with average holding capacity of 15 ton in the selected complexes of Padiberas Nasional Berhad (BERNAS)-the national paddy custodian of Malaysia. In reducing paddy moisture content (mc) from 22% to 23% wet basis (wb) down to around 12.5% wb, the final mc, the specific electrical (in terms of primary energy) and the specific thermal energy consumption were found to be varied between 1.44 to 1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated and 2.77 to 3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated, respectively. Analysis revealed that the specific electrical energy consumption was around 20% lesser and the specific thermal energy consumption of IBDs was around 10% higher during drying with air temperature of 41–42 °C than drying with 38–39 °C in reducing paddy mc from 22% to 23% (wb) down to around 12.5% (wb). However, paddy being with almost same initial mc dried using drying temperature of 38–39 °C, IBDs yielded 1–4% higher head rice yield while milling recovery and whiteness were comparable at acceptable milling degree and transparency. The bed air flows between 0.27 and 0.29 m 3 m −2 s −1 resulted in higher head rice yield slightly while its

  4. Price Formation of Dry Bulk Carriers in the Chinese Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JIANG, Liping

    In this paper we present, for the first time, the price formation of China’s dry bulk carrier using vessel prices quoted by major Chinese shipyards in actual shipbuilding orders. This allows us to investigate the relationship of price and determinants in the Chinese shipbuilding industry by inclu......In this paper we present, for the first time, the price formation of China’s dry bulk carrier using vessel prices quoted by major Chinese shipyards in actual shipbuilding orders. This allows us to investigate the relationship of price and determinants in the Chinese shipbuilding industry...... by including generic market factors as well as Chinese elements. The analysis, employing Principal Component Regression (PCR) approach, indicates that the time charter rate has the most significantly positive impact. While increases in other four factors, namely shipbuilding cost, price cost margin...... to investigate what would happen to the Chinese dry bulk carrier prices under changes of time charter rate and shipbuilding cost. This paper has implications for the Chinese shipyards, shipbuilding industry customers and industry policy makers....

  5. Making sense of the "clean label" trends: A review of consumer food choice behavior and discussion of industry implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asioli, Daniele; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Caputo, Vincenzina; Vecchio, Riccardo; Annunziata, Azzurra; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Consumers in industrialized countries are nowadays much more interested in information about the production methods and components of the food products that they eat, than they had been 50years ago. Some production methods are perceived as less "natural" (i.e. conventional agriculture) while some food components are seen as "unhealthy" and "unfamiliar" (i.e. artificial additives). This phenomenon, often referred to as the "clean label" trend, has driven the food industry to communicate whether a certain ingredient or additive is not present or if the food has been produced using a more "natural" production method (i.e. organic agriculture). However, so far there is no common and objective definition of clean label. This review paper aims to fill the gap via three main objectives, which are to a) develop and suggest a definition that integrates various understandings of clean label into one single definition, b) identify the factors that drive consumers' choices through a review of recent studies on consumer perception of various food categories understood as clean label with the focus on organic, natural and 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products and c) discuss implications of the consumer demand for clean label food products for food manufacturers as well as policy makers. We suggest to define clean label, both in a broad sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by assumption and through inference looking at the front-of-pack label and in a strict sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by inspection and through inference looking at the back-of-pack label. Results show that while 'health' is a major consumer motive, a broad diversity of drivers influence the clean label trend with particular relevance of intrinsic or extrinsic product characteristics and socio-cultural factors. However, 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products tend to differ from organic and natural products. Food

  6. Nitrogen behaviour during thermal drying of mechanically dewatered biosludge from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Kati; Deviatkin, Ivan; Havukainen, Jouni; Horttanainen, Mika

    2018-04-01

    An ongoing call to implement a circular economy is underway in the European Union, and a specific attention has been placed on the forest industry, which seeks additional recycling routes for its side streams, including biosludge. Biosludge is often dried and incinerated, thus wasting the nitrogen contained therein. This paper describes a study in which the release of nitrogen during thermal drying, the impact of the drying temperatures of 130°C, 180°C, and 210°C on the mass of ammonia released, and the potential for recovery of nitrogen from biosludge were examined. The results indicate that 1310-1730 mg kgTS -1 of nitrogen was released, which corresponded to 56-74% of the soluble nitrogen in biosolids or 4.0-5.3% of the total nitrogen. Of this released nitrogen, 83-85% was identified in condensate and absorbing water, thus indicating a high potential for recovering nitrogen from biosludge.

  7. Mixing systems for wet and dry plumes and cleaning equipment for the heat exchangers of the dry section. Two indispensible components of an effective and safe hybrid cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, W.

    1990-01-01

    At first glance, the hybrid cooling tower seems to be an ingenious combination of the well known components of an evaporative cooling tower and a dry cooling tower. The calculation of the air mass flows for both the wet and dry sections required to achieve an invisible plume does not represent an unsolvable problem to the engineer experienced in thermodynamics. The same also applies to the dimensioning of the heat exchangers and cooling fills. The hybrid cooling tower requires a well designed mixing system in order to ideally mix, the dry plume into the wet plume. If the cooling tower proves its efficiency during commissioning it is important that the ratio of the performance of the wet section to that of the dry section be maintained also in the long term. The performance of the fill in a wet cooling tower is consistently stable. Dirt deposits can form very quickly on the inner and outer surfaces of the heat exchangers of the dry section. In this case the thermal resistance increases rapidly. The respective performance of the wet and dry sections is then no longer balanced and the invisibility of the plume is no longer assured. This can be avoided by providing appropriate cleaning equipment

  8. Potential impacts of energy efficiency policies in the U.S. industry: Results from the clean energy futures study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) studied the role that efficient clean energy technologies can play in meeting the economic and environmental challenges for our future energy supply. The study describes a portfolio of policies that would motivate energy users and businesses to invest in innovative energy efficient technologies. On the basis of the portfolios, two policy scenarios have been developed, i.e. a moderate scenario and an advanced scenario. We focus on the industrial part of the CEF-study. The studied policies include a wide scope of activities, which are organized under the umbrella of voluntary industrial sector agreements. The policies for the policy scenarios have been modeled using the National Energy Modeling System (CEF-NEMS). Under the reference scenario industrial energy use would grow to 41 Quads in 2020, compared to 34.8 Quads in 1997, with an average improvement of the energy intensity by 1.1% per year. In the Moderate scenario the annual improvement is a bout 1.5%/year, leading to primary energy use of 37.8 Quads in 2020, resulting in 10% lower CO2 emissions by 2020 compared to the reference scenario. In the Advanced scenario the annual improvement increases to 1.8% per year, leading to primary energy use of 34.3 Quads in 2020, and 29% lower CO2 emissions. We report on the policies, assumptions and results for industry

  9. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipos, Balint; Reczey, Kati [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Szt. Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kreuger, Emma; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Lund University, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Sven-Erik [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture - Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materials, impregnation with 2% SO{sub 2} followed by steam pretreatment at 210 C for 5 min were found to be the optimal conditions leading to the highest overall yield of glucose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments carried out with optimised pretreatment conditions resulted in ethanol yields of 163 g kg{sup -1} ensiled hemp (dry matter) (71% of the theoretical maximum) and 171 g kg{sup -1} dry hemp (74%), which corresponds to 206-216 l Mg{sup -1} ethanol based on initial dry material. (author)

  11. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Solvent Use and Surface Coating Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the solvent use and surface coating industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  12. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikols, E.H.; Gill, A.S.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  13. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  14. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-14

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  15. Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    OpenAIRE

    Angelis, Dejanira F. de; Corso, Carlos R.; Bidoia, Ederio D.; Moraes, Peterson B.; Domingos, Roberto N.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD) and chemical (COD) oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD) showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was s...

  16. Production of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase from agro-industrial wastewater and its application in raw food cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qin; Xu, Xi-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Tai, Yu-Kai; Luo, Yan-Fei; He, Jian; Hong, Qing; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Yan, Xin

    2017-06-01

    To reduce the fermentation cost for industrialization of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), agro-industrial wastewaters including molasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermentation wastewater were used to substitute for expensive carbon and nitrogen sources and fresh water for lab preparation. The results showed that molasses and CSL could replace 5% carbon source and 100% organic nitrogen source respectively to maintain the same fermentation level. Re-fermentation from raffinate of ultra-filtered fermentation wastewater could achieve 61.03% of initial Chd activity and reach 96.39% activity when cultured in a mixture of raffinate and 50% of original medium constituent. Typical raw foods were chosen to evaluate the chlorothalonil removal ability of Chd. After Chd treatment for 2 h at room temperature, 97.40 and 75.55% of 30 mg kg -1 chlorothalonil on cherry tomato and strawberry respectively and 60.29% of 50 mg kg -1 chlorothalonil on Chinese cabbage were removed. Furthermore, the residual activity of the enzyme remained at 78-82% after treatment, suggesting its potential for reuse. This study proved the cost-feasibility of large-scale production of Chd from agro-industrial wastewater and demonstrated the potential of Chd in raw food cleaning. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  18. Industrial plant for flue gas cleaning with use of electron beam at the 'Pomorzany' Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Kostrzewski, R.; Sobolewski, L.; Cybulski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Construction of the second in the world installation for fuel gas cleaning with the use of electron beam at the POMORZANY Power Plant has been completed in 2001 and test operation started. During the last year all the units of installation as well as measuring and control systems were tested and corrected. 200 t of a fertilizer have been produced in 2001 and ca. 31 t in January 2002. Emission of corresponding amount of acidic pollutants was reduced and the Power Plant POMORZANY paid lower fines for the emission. (author)

  19. Graphene packed needle trap device as a novel field sampler for determination of perchloroethylene in the air of dry cleaning establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Emam, Maryam Rafiei; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a needle trap microextraction device packed with graphene nanoplatelets for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. The study was carried out in two phases. First the parameters for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene by NTD were evaluated and optimized in the laboratory. Then the sampler was used to determine the levels of perchloroethylene in a dry-cleaning shop. In the laboratory phase of the study the performance of the NTD packed with the proposed sorbent was examined in a variety of sampling conditions to evaluate the technique. The technique was also compared with NTDs packed with PDMS as well as SPME with Carboxen/PDMS-coated fibers. Both the NTDs and SPME performed better at lower sampling temperatures and relative humidity levels. The post-sampling storage times for a 95% recovery of the analyte were 5, 5 and 3 days for NTD-graphene, NTD-PDMS and SPME-CAR/PDMS respectively. The optimum desorption time was 3 min for NTDs packed with either graphene or PDMS and 1 min for SPME-CAR/PDMS. The limits of detection for the GC/MS detection system were 0.023 and 0.25 ng mL(-1) for NTDs packed with graphene and PDMS and 0.014 ng mL(-1) for SPME coated with CAR/PDMS. In the second stage of the study the evaluated technique was applied to the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. In this environment the performance of the NTD-graphene as a field sampler for PCE was similar to that of the SPME-CA/PDMS, and better than the NIOSH 1003 method which had greater measurement variations. The results show that a NTD packed with carbonic graphene nanoplatelets and used as an active exhaustive sampling technique is effective for determination of VOC and HVOC occupational/environmental pollutants in air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and demonstration of calculation tool for industrial drying processes ''DryPack''; Udvikling og demonstration af beregningsvaerktoej til industrielle toerreprocesser ''DryPack''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P.; Weinkauff Kristoffersen, J.; Blazniak Andreasen, M. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B.; Kaern, M. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ.. DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Monrad Andersen, C. [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Grony, K. [SE Big Blue, Kolding (Denmark); Stihoej, A. [Enervision, Kolding (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In this project we have developed a calculation tool for calculating energy consumption in different drying processes - primarily drying processes with air. The program can be used to determine the energy consumption of a current drying process, after which it can be calculated how much energy can be saved by various measures. There is also developed a tool for the simulation of a batch drier, which calculates the drying of a batch depending on the time. The programs have demonstrated their usefulness in connection with three cases that are reviewed in the report. In the project measurements on four different dryers have been carried out, and energy consumption is calculated using ''DryPack''. With ''DryPack'' it is possible to find potential savings by optimizing the drying processes. The program package includes utilities for the calculation of moist air: 1) Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air; 2) Device operation with moist air (mixing, heating, cooling and humidification); 3) Calculation of the relative change of the drying time by changing the process parameters; 4) IX-diagram at a temperature above 100 deg. C. (LN)

  1. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  2. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  3. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  4. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  5. Towards defect free EUVL reticles: carbon and particle removal by single dry cleaning process and pattern repair by HIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, N. B.; Molkenboer, F. T.; van Veldhoven, E.; Oostrom, S.

    2011-04-01

    We report on our findings on EUVL reticle contamination removal, inspection and repair. We show that carbon contamination can be removed without damage to the reticle by our plasma process. Also organic particles, simulated by PSL spheres, can be removed from both the surface of the absorber as well as from the bottom of the trenches. The particles shrink in size during the plasma treatment until they are vanished. The determination of the necessary cleaning time for PSL spheres was conducted on Ru coated samples and the final experiment was performed on our dummy reticle. Finally we show that the Helium Ion Microscope in combination with a Gas Injection System is capable of depositing additional lines and squares on the reticle with sufficient resolution for pattern repair.

  6. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 μm in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ≅ 17 μm. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  9. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with fungus-cleaning properties on brazed aluminum for industrial application in heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Hwang, Woonbong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive research has been carried out concerning the application of superhydrophobic coating in heat exchangers, but little is known about the application of this technique to brazed aluminum heat exchangers (BAHEs). In this work, we describe a new superhydrophobic coating method, which is suitable for BAHE use on an industrial scale. We first render the BAHE superhydrophobic by fabricating micro/nanostructures using solution dipping followed by fluorination. After the complete removal of the silicon residue, we verify using surface analysis that the BAHE surface is perfectly superhydrophobic. We also studied the fungus-cleaning properties of the superhydrophobic surface by growing fungus for 4 weeks in a moist environment on BAHE fins with and without superhydrophobic coating. We observed that, whereas the fungus grown on the untreated fins is extremely difficult to remove, the fungus on the fins with the superhydrophobic coating can be removed easily with only a modest amount of water. We also found that the coated BAHE fins exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. The superhydrophobic coating method that we propose is therefore expected to have a major impact in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning industry market.

  10. The Clean Air Act implementation and the coal industry: A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolka, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Utility regulators are responsible for insuring that there is a sufficient supply of electricity to meet consumers needs at a reasonable price. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Act (CAA) compliance strategies are effective at the lowest possible cost. Those potential compliance costs in Pennsylvania may exceed $3 billion by the end of the decade. This does not include worst case estimates of over $750 million per year in added operations and maintenance costs. In the face of these expenses, concerns such as jobs and the health of Pennsylvania's coal industry may carry little weight. The Commission cannot relieve companies of their responsibility for complying. Thus, in order to maintain its market among electric companies, coal will have to be competitive both in offering solutions to the emissions requirements of the CAA and in providing acceptable alternatives for future, new generating plants

  11. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  12. Commercialization of innovative clean technologies : manufacturing know-how in Italian industry; Generazione e diffusione di tecnologie pulite: le esperienze delle imprese italiane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaman, S [Istituto per la Ricerca, Milan (Italy); [Fondazione ENI, Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy); Cima, S [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Last years show an increasing effort of the Italian industry toward the reduction of the environmental impact of both production processes, products utilization and their final disposal. On account of this trend, the target of our research is to understand its general characters. For this reason a database has been implemented on innovative grounds. It provides data on the main innovative clean technologies developed by the Italian industry to cut down external effects (192 clean technologies within 168 companies) and offers a new approach to the issue by turning attention from the company case studies to the technological ones. Thanks to this methodology it is possible to study the companies` strategy according to the legal and industrial environment. Actually this work tries to explain the behaviour of Italian companies related to their perception of the environmental policy, competitors strategy and consumers choice focusing on sectorial, dimensional and geographical distribution of clean technologies. It is also concerned with the analysis of company costs and benefits resulting from the introduction of clean technologies, processes and products together with the capacity of combining environmental with economic targets.

  13. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA

  14. Characterization and application of dried plants to remove heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Tahrouch, Saida [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Persin, Michel [European Membrane Institute, CRNS, Montpellier (France)

    2011-04-15

    Low cost adsorbents were prepared from dried plants for the removal of heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from industrial wastewaters. The efficiency of these adsorbents was investigated using batch adsorption technique at room temperature. The dried plant particles were characterized by N{sub 2} at 77 K adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and phytochemical screening. The adsorption experiments showed that the microparticles of the dried plants presented a good adsorption of heavy metals, phosphate, and nitrate ions from real wastewaters. This adsorption increased with increasing contact time. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for heavy metals and nitrate ions and 240 min for phosphate ions. After the adsorption process, the Pb(II) concentrations, as well as those of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) were below the European drinking water norms concentrations. The percentage removal of heavy metals, nitrates, and phosphates from industrial wastewaters by dried plants was {proportional_to}94% for Cd{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}92% for Cu{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}99% for Pb{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}97% for Zn{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}100% for NO{sub 3}{sup -} and {proportional_to}77% for PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions. It is proved that dried plants can be one alternative source for low cost absorbents to remove heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from municipal and industrial wastewaters. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non....... However, the tool may be used to analyze overall effects of inlet temperature, volume flow rate, geometry, infiltration etc. on the performance in terms of drying time, heat consumption and blower power....

  16. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P Food Technologists®

  17. Evaluation method of economic efficiency of industrial scale research based on an example of coking blend pre-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żarczyński Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on new and innovative solutions, technologies and products carried out on an industrial scale is the most reliable method of verifying the validity of their implementation. The results obtained in this research method give almost one hundred percent certainty although, at the same time, the research on an industrial scale requires the expenditure of the highest amount of money. Therefore, this method is not commonly applied in the industrial practices. In the case of the decision to implement new and innovative technologies, it is reasonable to carry out industrial research, both because of the cognitive values and its economic efficiency. Research on an industrial scale may prevent investment failure as well as lead to an improvement of technologies, which is the source of economic efficiency. In this paper, an evaluation model of economic efficiency of the industrial scale research has been presented. This model is based on the discount method and the decision tree model. A practical application of this proposed evaluation model has been presented based on an example of the coal charge pre-drying technology before coke making in a coke oven battery, which may be preceded by industrial scale research on a new type of coal charge dryer.

  18. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  19. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuapoehuk, W.; Piadang, S.; Tinnungwattana, W.

    1998-01-01

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60 Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  20. Industrial dry electro-stunning followed by chilling and decapitation as a slaughter method in Claresse (Heteroclarias sp.) and African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, A.; Lambooij, E.; Sharifi, H.; Abbink, W.; Reimert, H.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the industrial application of dry electro-stunning for Claresse® and African catfish via monitoring of brain and heart activities, behavioral responses to noxious stimuli and meat quality. Dry electro-stunning (150 V, AC + DC, 100 Hz) of Claresse® for 0.7 ± 0.2 s (mean ± SD)

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO 2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  3. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  4. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  5. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  6. Magnitudes and sources of precipitation and dry deposition fluxes of industrial and natural leads to the North Pacific at Enewetak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    A total atmospheric PB input flux of 7 ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 was measured in the North Pacific Easterlies at Enewetak. Parameters used to measure this flux were ratio of dry deposition flux to precipitation flux; Pb/ 210 Pb in precipitation and seawater; 210 Pb flux; washout factor; and Pb concentrations in air, rain, and dry deposition deposits. Relations among these parameters estabilished at Enewetak were used to recompute and comfirm previous estimates of lead fluxes to the oceans (ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 ) at the following locations: North Altantic Westerlies, 170; North Pacific Westerlies, 50; and South Pacific Easterlies, 3. Prehistoric lead output fluxes to sediments (ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 ) at these locations have been previously measured and were 4 (Enewetak); 30 North Atlantic Westerlies; 3 North Pacific Westerlies; 4 South Pacific Easterlies. These data show that the rates of atmospheric imputs of lead to the oceans vary directly with variations in rates of upwind emission of industrial lead from urban complexes on land. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, present rates of atmospheric lead inputs are 10-fold greater than prehistoric outputs. In equatorial regions, present inputs and past outputs are more nearly equal. These observations disclose the effects of intense industrial atmospheric emissions of lead in the northern hemisphere westerlies which have overwhelmed prehistoric natural fluxes of lead to the oceans. The average concentration of lead in marine air at Enewetak is 170n pg m - 3 and varies less than a factor of 2 from that mean. One to 15% of this lead comes from seaspray, while the remainder comes from sources on land. About 90% of the seaspray lead is industrial, while 80 to 99% of that originating from land sources is industrial. Concentrations of lead in rain at Enewetak range from 6 to 63 pg/g with a mean value of 28

  7. Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer...... provides significantly better control of the residual moisture content, increases the throughput and decreases the energy consumption compared to conventional PI-control. The MPC operates the spray dryer closer to the residual moisture constraint of the powder product. Thus, the same amount of feed...

  9. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    the nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped......The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect....... In order to investigate the relation between incineration temperatures and the production of inhibitory compounds, the process air was burned at temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C. The termically affected condensate was collected and the nitrification inhibition effect of the condensate was tested using...

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Garment Industry. The Case of the Clean Clothes Campaign and Developing States

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) organization and its efforts to alleviate the poor situation of workers in developing states and to promote the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility. It starts with a brief example of two such developing countries, Bangladesh and Cambodia, data for which has been drawn from Eurostat, Trading Economics, and the CIA’s World Factbook. It then moves to its main focus, that is, the description of the structure of the CCC,...

  11. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  13. Various forms of dyring apparatus and criteria for the choice of drying methods. [Industry]. Forskellige toerringsapparater samt kriterier ved valg af toerringsmetode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soininen, M. (Aabo Akademi (FI))

    1989-01-01

    Various forms of dewatering apparatus are described and richly illustrated with the help of diagrams. A model is presented on the basis of which decisions can be made in relation to the utilization of natural gas for direct drying process. Natural gas has for some time been used within the food industry for drying milk, serum, malt, coffee powder, potato starch, for baking and for roasting coffe and flakes. (AB).

  14. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals

  16. Development of a Method for Evaluating Floor Dry-Cleanability from Wheat Flour in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, F; Cardinali, G D; Borgese, E; Russo, M

    2017-04-01

    Many productive processes are characterized by inadequate protocols of sanitation that increase the possibility of proliferation of microbial contaminants, especially on surfaces. The use of this method for evaluating the degree of floor cleanability in agri-food companies is important not only to reduce the risk of contamination of products, but also to provide companies with a tool to identify critical issues. The method is based on the usage of bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) in a solution at a 1:50 ratio of Cu 2+ /BCA, which is ideal for detecting the amount of proteins contained in wheat flour residues on industrial flooring. Spectrophotometric analysis allowed identifying maximum absorbance values at 562 nm for different protein concentrations, although the construction of a regression function led to the definition of the intervals of evaluation corresponding to different degrees of cleanliness from residues of wheat flour. The results of the absorbance curves, obtained by applying the proposed evaluation method to 6 tiles commonly used in agri-food buildings, showed the clear persistence of food material on 2 tiles with surface relief. In particular, such tiles showed a higher presence of proteins, with a level of contamination 440% higher. Furthermore, a robotic system was designed to standardize the cleaning method commonly employed in agri-food companies to remove solid particles from flooring. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  18. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  19. The Crux of Clean Coal Technology for industrialization%合理的机制有效的政策是实现洁净煤技术产业化的关键

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俊杰; 俞珠峰; 杜铭华

    2001-01-01

    Clean coal technology can be used as a leading technology forresolvi ng the coal use and environmental problem. Therefore, it was attached and develo ped by industrial countries. In China, to establish reasonable management system and policy is the key for clean coal technology industrialization. The law, pol icy and existing problem with concerned the clean coal technology in China are d iscussed in this paper. The obstacle to develop clean coal technology industrial ization is point out and an policy suggestion to speed up the clean coal technol ogy industrialization is put forward.%洁净煤技术作为解决煤炭利用和环境问题的主导技术,在各工业发达国家得到重视和发展,建立合理的机制、制定配套的政策对促进中国洁净煤技术产业化发展至关重要。本文阐述了中国现行的洁净煤技术相关法律、政策及其存在问题,指出了洁净煤技术产业化发展遇到的障碍,提出了加快洁净煤技术产业化发展的政策建议。

  20. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  1. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; Francisco Cuadros; Talal Yusaf

    2017-01-01

    The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain) and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The ana...

  2. Investigation of the process of vacuum freeze drying of bacterial concentrates for the meat industry with cryogenic freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Poymanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research results of the nutritional value of the products manufactured are presented in the article. The main directions of bacterial concentrates application in the meat industry were determined. The analysis of starter cultures was given. The range of products manu-factured with bacterial concentrates was analyzed. It was shown that the introduction of innovative technologies will enable dynamic development of both large and small enterprises, which will create prerequisites for the growth of the Russian market of meat products. Economic efficiency of the studied substances treatment methods was proved. The relevance of the development of technology of pro-duction of dry bacterial concentrates with cryogenic freezing was proved. An integrated approach to the development of competitive domestic technologies and equipment for cryofreezing and sublimation dehydration by the use of granulation for the intensification of the internal heat and mass transfer, reducing specific energy consumption through the use of a combined cold supply system was pro-posed. Results of the study of the kinetics of the freezing process with the traditional method and cryofreezing are given in the paper. Rational parameters of the cryofreezing process were proposed. The optimum composition of cryoprotective medium was recommended. The research of the process of bacterial concentrate vacuum sublimation dehydration in the layer and granular form were conducted. The research confirmed that the use of the cryofreezing and granulation can increase the number of viable microorganisms in the bacterial concentrate and reduce the drying time. Rational vacuum sublimation dehydration modes were proposed. Methods of reduc-ing the defects of the processed products and improvement of the efficiency of production facilities were specified. Quality indicators of dried bacterial concentrates were given. The results obtained allow to carry out engineering calculations

  3. Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Foo; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL sampling sites were found to be 1650 +/- 1240, 1220 +/- 520, and 831 +/- 427 ng/m3, respectively. The results indicated that PAH concentrations were higher at INDUSTRY and URBAN sampling sites than the RURAL sampling sites because of the more industrial processes, traffic exhausts and human activities. The estimation dry deposition and size distribution of PAHs were also studied. The results indicated that the estimated dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs were 58.5, 48.8, and 38.6 microg/m2/day at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL, respectively. The BaP equivalency results indicated that the health risk of gas phase PAHs were higher than the particle phase at three sampling sites of central Taiwan. However, compared with the BaP equivalency results to other studies conducted in factory, this study indicated the health risk of PAHs was acceptable in the ambient air of central Taiwan.

  4. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  5. Biomass equipments. Dryers. Drying, crushing, agglomeration of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the French Promill Company activity in the design and manufacturing of complete drying-crushing-agglomerating units for agro-industrial products (pulp of beet, lucerne, etc..). The paper focusses on the thermal and mechanical efficiency of the high temperature dryer and on the pulp granulating squeezer. (J.S.)

  6. Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean savannah and industrial environments in South Africa: analysis based on observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown very high frequencies of atmospheric new particle formation in different environments in South Africa. Our aim here was to investigate the causes for two or three consecutive daytime nucleation events, followed by subsequent particle growth during the same day. We analysed 108 and 31 such days observed in a polluted industrial and moderately polluted rural environments, respectively, in South Africa. The analysis was based on two years of measurements at each site. After rejecting the days having notable changes in the air mass origin or local wind direction, i.e. two major reasons for observed multiple nucleation events, we were able to investigate other factors causing this phenomenon. Clouds were present during, or in between most of the analysed multiple particle formation events. Therefore, some of these events may have been single events, interrupted somehow by the presence of clouds. From further analysis, we propose that the first nucleation and growth event of the day was often associated with the mixing of a residual air layer rich in SO2 (oxidized to sulphuric acid into the shallow surface-coupled layer. The second nucleation and growth event of the day usually started before midday and was sometimes associated with renewed SO2 emissions from industrial origin. However, it was also evident that vapours other than sulphuric acid were required for the particle growth during both events. This was especially the case when two simultaneously growing particle modes were observed. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the relative contributions of estimated H2SO4 and other vapours on the first and second nucleation and growth events of the day varied from day to day, depending on anthropogenic and natural emissions, as well as atmospheric conditions.

  7. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The anaerobic digestion was developed in a complete mixing continuous digester with a capacity of 6.2 L at 37 °C and a feed rate of 350 mL/day. From the results obtained for the co-digestion of the feeding effluent of the slaughterhouse waste, without and with serum added, in the same operating conditions, comparative data about the biological depuration and biogas production have been obtained. A 10 L biogas production was obtained with the slaughterhouse waste and 18 L with the slaughterhouse waste with serum added. In conclusion, the highest energetic yield (97.52% higher was obtained in the second case, due to the positive action of catalytic enzymes present in the animal serum.

  8. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  9. Vigilance in industry: cosmetics and household cleaning products. Balance sheet of case report from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld-Lecanu, S; Zajaczkowski, F; Dubourg, S; Martin, L; Lefort, S; Siest, S

    2010-12-01

    Unlike medicinal products, cosmetics are not subject to marketing authorization in France. Nevertheless, the Agence Francaise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS; French Agency for the Safety of Healthcare Products) has been working on the development of a cosmetovigilance system for several years, with the aim of establishing standard procedures for collecting adverse reactions to cosmetics from the manufacturers. To assess the incidence of skin reactions to cosmetics or household products. Unilever established its own 'vigilance' standard system in France in late 2003. This report describes the experience acquired from 2005 to 2007. Case reports were collected in compliance with a standard procedure. The cases were then analysed by the consultant dermatologist in accordance with a pharmacovigilance-based method (chronological criteria, clinical criteria, possible rechallenge test, patch tests). During the period 2005 to 2007, a total of 102,689 consumers contacted the consumer department, including 842 (0.82%) who reported skin reactions. After analysis of the collected data, 0.144 skin reaction cases per million units sold were found to be attributable to cosmetic or household products. The implementation of a structured vigilance system in the cosmetics and household products industry is an efficient tool for manufacturers, both for information purposes and for product improvement, as well as meeting the transparency requirements of health authorities and consumers. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Equipment for biomass. Dryers. Drying, crushing, aggregating of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse, les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill, 28 - Serville (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French society Promill has developed complete units for the drying, crushing and aggregating of agro-industrial products (beet roots, agricultural wastes, lucerne, maize, etc.). Drying is conducted in a three-pass drum, using any type of fuel (fuel oil, gas, electric power, coal), and ensuring a thermal yield of 680 kCal/kg and ash emission rates complying with French and European legislation. Granulation is conducted with vapour addition, with a granulate flowrate reaching 15 T/h. Crushing is carried out in a hammer mill

  11. FY 2001 report on the results of the trend survey of introduction of clean energy vehicle for the transport industry; 2001 nendo unso yo clean energy jidosha no donyu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    Survey/analysis were made on the details of the plan on the leading introduction of clean energy vehicle by 632 transporters who applied for the project on promotion of clean energy vehicle in FY 2001. As a result of the survey, the following were made clear. The clean energy vehicles to be planned to be introduced by transporters are all natural gas vehicles. The transporters planning the leading introduction are mostly in large cities and are spreading also in the periphery. Fifty three percent of the transporters predicts that the predicted average running distance of the clean energy vehicle to be introduced is the same as those of the vehicles they owns, and 39% predicts that it is shorter. About the form of utilization, they use it overwhelmingly for the regional collection/delivery. It is considered that the improvement in running distance per 1 fuel filling of clean energy vehicle will contribute to the spread. Fuel supply stations that the clean energy cars to be introduced use concentrate in the good location. It is necessary to strongly promote preparation of the infrastructure. (NEDO)

  12. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  13. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA

  14. Environmental Factors' Consideration at Industrial Transportation Organization in the «Seaport - Dry port» System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravev, Dmitri; Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr

    2016-11-01

    Currently, container shipping development is directly associated with an increase of warehouse areas for containers' storage. One of the most successful types of container terminal is an intermodal terminal called a dry port. Main pollution sources during the organization of intermodal transport are considered. A system of dry port parameters, which are recommended for the evaluation of different scenarios for a seaport infrastructure development at the stage of its strategic planning, is proposed in this paper. The authors have developed a method for determining the optimal values of the main dry port parameters by simulation modeling in the programming software Any- Logic. Dependencies thatwere obtained as a result of modeling experiments prove the adequacy of main selected dry port parameters for the effective scenarios' evaluation of throughput and handling capacity at existing seaports at the stage of strategic planning and a rational dry port location, allowed ensuring the improvement of the ecological situation in a port city.

  15. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m 3 corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m 3 . It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m 3 /h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m 3 of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  16. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  17. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  18. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  19. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  20. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  1. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  2. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  3. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  4. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  5. Cleaning and decontamination: Experimental feedback from PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    After the first few years of operation of PHENIX, it proved necessary to clean, then decontaminate sodium-polluted components, particularly large components such as the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and the primary pumps (PP). Ibis document presents the evolution of the cleaning and decontamination processes used, and specifies the reasons for this evolution. As regards the cleaning, experimental feedback and a greater rigour with respect to the hydrogen hazard have resulted in a modification of the process. The new cleaning process used at present (since 1994) is described in greater detail in this document. The main steps are: cold CO 2 bubbling in water, followed by hot CO 2 bubbling, spraying phase, then drying for inspection before immersion. In order to optimize and validate the process, the cleaning and decontamination plant has been highly instrumented, which, in particular, has allowed confirmation of the contention that the major part of the sodium is eliminated during the bubbling phases. With respect to decontamination, the objective is to perfect an efficient process that allows both human intervention with no particular biological shield for repair or maintenance of the components, and requalification of the materials after the decontamination operation. Owing to the high operating temperature of Fast Breeder Reactor components (400 to 550 deg. C), the activated corrosion products deposited on the components melt into the metal. The decontamination process therefore consists in either dissolving the deposits on the surface, or dissolving a thickness of about less than ten micrometers of the base metal. The reference process for austenitic-type steels is the SPm process, which consists in immersing the component in a sulphuric-phosphoric bath (sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid) at a temperature of 60 deg. C for 6 hours. The problem linked to this process is the treatment of the effluents that are produced, particularly phosphate releases. A

  6. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  7. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  8. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium on energy research in its 3rd year (Development of an environmentally-friendly industrial cleaning system using supercritical CO2 fluid); 1999 nendo chorinkai ryutai wo mochiita kankyo chowagata kogyo senjo sochi no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In high-technology industries such as the semiconductor industry, cleaning operations are indispensable. In these industries, replacement of the current method with a new one has become an urgent matter, thanks to the new control imposed on pollutant CFC (chlorofluorocarbon). Using a supercritical fluid, whose density and other features may be regulated extensively and continuously by controlling temperature and pressure, various conditions may be set in detail for the cleaning element, such as the dissolving power, dispersion force, surface activity, and chemical reactivity. The fluid is environmentally friendly and free of pollution. Facilities for recovering, regenerating, and circulating the solvent are incorporated into a test cleaner built in the preceding fiscal year, and a new system is completed. The system is operated in a test run for performance assessment, and data are collected to specify cleaning conditions best for each kind of the target items. Studies are made to expand the scope of system application for use under supercritical conditions. An experiment is conducted using a pollutant model, and a method to analyze the degree of cleaning is studied using an effective diffusion coefficient. A self-cleaning method is studied for the filter for the regeneration of the supercritical cleaning solvent. A market research is carried out for the commercialization of the industrial cleaning system. (NEDO)

  9. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  10. Towards the development of a rapid, portable, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy based cleaning verification system for the drug nelarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Salton, Neale A; Preston, Chris; Piletsky, Sergey

    2010-09-01

    Cleaning verification is a scientific and economic problem for the pharmaceutical industry. A large amount of potential manufacturing time is lost to the process of cleaning verification. This involves the analysis of residues on spoiled manufacturing equipment, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) being the predominantly employed analytical technique. The aim of this study was to develop a portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS was conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer and a commercially available SERS substrate to develop a rapid and portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine. Samples of standard solutions and swab extracts were deposited onto the SERS active surfaces, allowed to dry and then subjected to spectroscopic analysis. Nelarabine was amenable to analysis by SERS and the necessary levels of sensitivity were achievable. It is possible to use this technology for a semi-quantitative limits test. Replicate precision, however, was poor due to the heterogeneous drying pattern of nelarabine on the SERS active surface. Understanding and improving the drying process in order to produce a consistent SERS signal for quantitative analysis is desirable. This work shows the potential application of SERS for cleaning verification analysis. SERS may not replace HPLC as the definitive analytical technique, but it could be used in conjunction with HPLC so that swabbing is only carried out once the portable SERS equipment has demonstrated that the manufacturing equipment is below the threshold contamination level.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  12. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  13. 养猪业清洁生产途径与循环经济发展模式探讨%Pig industry clean production and recycling and the mode of economic development approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严良政; 朱金城; 林成先; 矫学成

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, China's pig industry has developed rapidly, faster economic growth in rural areas, farmers" incomes and living standards improved significantly. Meanwhile, the pig pig manure produced increasingly serious pollution has seriously affected production and living of local residents and health.To remove the rural pig farm pig manure smell of sewage and pollution, improve environmental quality in rural areas, promote agricultural economic development, Authors conscientiously sum up long been engaged in clean production and recycling economic development research experience, made a clean way of producing the pig industry and the recycling economy development model, aimed at prevention and control at source pollution, clean production and vigorously promote the pig farming industry and rural economy can be recycled sustainable development,and concern for clean production and recycling of China's pig counterparts reference of economic development.%近年来,我国养猪业发展迅速,农村经济增长较快,农民收入和生活水平明显提高。同时,养猪业产生的猪粪便污染日趋严重,已严重影响当地居民生产生活和身体健康。为了彻底消除农村养猪场猪粪便污水和臭味污染,改善农村环境质量,促进农业经济发展,总结了长期从事清洁生产和循环经济发展研究的实践经验,提出了养猪业清洁生产途径和循环经济发展模式,意在从源头预防控制污染,大力推进养猪业清洁生产与农村经济可循环持续发展,并供关心我国养猪清洁生产与循环经济发展的同行借鉴参考。

  14. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  15. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  16. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  17. Meeting the clean air demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, C.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the impacts to the emissions control industry and the future of small independent projects of the Clean Air Act. Topics discussed include technological and market niche of pollution control companies, risk reduction by owning and operating the emission control portion of the plant as a separate entity, the diversity of technologies, and legislative effects

  18. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  19. Mechanics ofadhesion and contact self-cleaning of bio-inspired microfiberadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa Anthony

    The remarkable attachment system of geckos has inspired the development of dry microfiber adhesives through the last two decades. Some of the notable characteristics of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives include: strong, directional, and controllable adhesion to smooth and rough surfaces in air, vacuum, and under water; ability to maintain strong adhesion during repeated use; anti-fouling and self-cleaning after contamination. Given these outstanding qualities, fibrillar adhesives promise an extensive range of use in industrial, robotic, manufacturing, medical, and consumer products. Significant advancements have been made in the design of geckoinspired microfiber adhesives with the characteristic properties listed above, with the exception of the anti-fouling and self-cleaning features. The self-cleaning mechanism of the gecko's adhesion system plays an important role to its ability to remain sticky in various environments. Similarly, enabling self-cleaning capability for synthetic microfiber adhesives will lead to robust performance in various areas of application. Presently, the practical use of fibrillar adhesives is restricted mainly to clean environments, where they are free from contaminants. The goal of this thesis is to conduct a detailed study of the mechanisms and mechanics of contact-based self-cleaning of gecko-inspired microfiber adhesives. This work focuses on contact self-cleaning mechanisms, as a more practical approach to cleaning. Previous studies on the cleaning of microfiber adhesives have mostly focused on mechanisms that involve complete removal of the contaminants from the adhesive. In this thesis, a second cleaning process is proposed whereby particles are removed from the tip of the microfibers and embedded between adjacent microfibers or in grooves patterned onto the adhesive, where they are no longer detrimental to the performance of the adhesive. In this work, a model of adhesion for microfiber adhesives that take the deformation of the

  20. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  1. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Solvent NESHAP for cleaning or drying parts, except any cold cleaning machine that uses a solvent which... cleaning machines in which parts such as film, coils, wire, and metal strips are cleaned at speeds... requires each cleaning machine to have [[Page 34650

  2. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  3. Análisis de viabilidad de un proyecto de inversión en el sector empresarial, para mejoramiento tecnológico e incremento de producción de la empresa lavacuenca Professionally Dry Clean de la ciudad de Cuenca, provincia del Azuay

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Bueno, Diego Vinicio; Universidad de Guayaquil. Maestría de la Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas

    2012-01-01

    LAVACUENCA, Professionally Dry Clean, al ser una empresa pequeña, pretende incrementar su producción en un 84% respecto de la cantidad de prendas lavadas en el año 2007, que fue de 67.855 prendas con un promedio mensual de 5.650 prendas. Al producirse este incremento, en el año 2009 alcanzaría a 93.639 prendas mientras que en el 2013 llegaría a 112.367 prendas lavadas, mejorando sustancialmente la estructura productiva y financiera de la empresa al captar más ingresos por ventas. La informaci...

  4. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  5. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  6. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  7. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  8. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  9. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  10. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  11. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  12. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  13. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  14. A model of strategic intelligence of industrial property information and in the field of clean energy; Un modelo de inteligencia estrategica de la informacion y propiedad industrial en el campo de las energias limpias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente O' Conor, J. L. de la

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the model Intelligence Cell, as an Internet based strategic intelligence element for the management of interim key information of a company, is presented. The model has been profusely tested for technology watch, economic intelligence, and competitive intelligence related purposes within a general framework of technology deployment in a clean and renewable focused innovation department. As a practical example, is proposed, step by step, how to launch a fully operative specialized cell for analyzing how to deal with electric mobility, battery technologies and electric car issues so that challenges, opportunities, and threats can be tracked and anticipated so that a business strategy might be established. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  16. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... of the filter. A numerical, FE- and BE-based model for calculation of the response of ultrasonic transducers of various geometries formed the basis for the design of such transducers. During laboratory experiments frequency and output power have been varied in order to find the optimal transducer design...

  17. Large-scale staged low-far gasification, phase 1c. Continuous tests and dry gas cleaning. Final report; Storskala trinopdelt lavtjaereforgasning, fase 1c. Kontinuerte forsoeg og toer gasrensning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Bentzen, J.; Hummelshoej, R.M. (COWI A/S (DK)); Henriksen, Ulrik (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU-MEK (DK)); Geest, C. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (DK))

    2007-05-15

    On basis of successful process verification at the laboratory plant during the project's Phase 1a, a gas cleaning system has been designed, established and commissioned during this Phase 1c project, with the objective of demonstrating that the gas from the LT-BIG gasifier can be cleaned by means of bag filter, in order for the gas to become suitable for motor operation and possibly other purposes. It has further been a purpose of the project to document continuous operation of the laboratory plant. Thus, 3 tests have been made during the project with a duration of 12 hours, 66 hours and 211 hours, respectively, in total ca. 100 hours' operation. In total, the pilot plant has now been operating for 150-200 hours. During the tests, tar measurements have been made before bag filter, after bag filter and after the activated carbon filter. The gas cleaning system is designed so that a partial current of the gas can be led to a cooler and a bag filter, where the temperature and speed over the filter can be adjusted. Particles are caught in the bag filter, and the vaporous tar materials near the bag filter are caught in a following activated carbon filter. (au)

  18. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  19. Electrochemical cleaning of Sv-08G2S wire surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.I.; Degtyarev, V.G.; Novikov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of industrial tests of the Sv-08G2S wire with different state of surface fwith technological lubrication, after mechanical cleaning, with electrochemically cleaned surface) are presented. Advantages of welding-technological properties of the wire with electroe chemically cleaned surface are shown. An operation principle of the electrochemical cleaning facility is described. A brief specf ification f of the facility is given [ru

  20. Application of the ecologically clean technology of mining metallurgy and power industry wastes recycling based on the use of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhrenova, N.R.; Askarova, G.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    Advantage of electron beam technologies application for industrial wastes recycling is illustrated for following trends: 1).Off gases of mining metallurgy and the thermal power plant can be refined from SO 2 and NO x toxic combination by means of their further chemical and radiation oxidation with following obtaining of acids on the base industrial accelerator ELV-8. In this method a radiation-chemical process in irradiated gas results in excited complexes, radicals and ion formation. Ion cause the activation of reaction chain which convert SO 2 and NO x toxic gases into the combination with high number of oxidation. In presence of water, coming from drip cooler, the combination of sulphuric and nitric acids neutralization results in the obtaining of ammonium solid combination which are mainly sulphates and nitrates; 2). For waste water refinement from organic pollution, for instance butyl xanthate, ions of heavy metals and etc.; 3). For non-ferrous, sparse and and dispersed metal extraction from the cinder and slag wastes. Different technological schemes for mineral extraction are elaborated

  1. Roadmap 2030 Dutch Glass Industry. Towards a clean, efficient and cost-effective future; Routekaart 2030 Nederlandse Glasindustrie. Naar een schone, zuinige en rendabele toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Roadmap is the result of the covenant signed by the Dutch glass industry and the Dutch national government in 2009 on a Long Term Agreement on Energy Efficiency. Participating companies committed to continuous improvement in energy performance in both manufacturing processes as well as the supply chain from raw material to final product. The Dutch glass industry has undertaken a strategic study regarding the possibilities of achieving far-reaching energy efficiency improvement by 2030. The overall industry's target is to realise an energy efficiency improvement of 25%, compared to its energy consumption and production level of 2009. Several related areas were identified for actions and measures for energy efficiency improvement: (1) Alternatives to primary raw materials; (2) Intensified use of secondary raw materials (cullet); (3) Innovations in batch preparation; (4) Innovations in glass composition; (5) Innovations in process control; (6) Innovations in furnace design; (7) New methods of waste heat recovery; (8) Improved performance of glass products [Dutch] Dit rapport is tot stand gekomen in het kader van de Meerjarenafspraak Energie-Efficientie ETS (Emission Trading System) ondernemingen, ook wel het MEE-convenant genoemd. Dit convenant nodigt de deelnemende sectoren uit tot het opstellen van een Routekaart voor 2030. De Routekaart is een strategische studie die inzichtelijk maakt hoe invulling wordt gegeven aan het realiseren van energie-efficientie verbeteringen binnen de bedrijven en in de keten op de route naar 2030. Hoofdstuk 1 is een introductie op de Routekaart 2030 en de wijze waarop de Routekaart tot stand is gekomen. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft in vogelvlucht de sector, op welke manier nu al invulling wordt gegeven aan duurzame ontwikkeling en energie, en geeft een beschrijving van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Glasfabrikanten (VNG). Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft algemene trends en de visie van de sector op de toekomst. Daarnaast wordt de markt in 2030

  2. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented

  3. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  5. Rheinbraun`s experience in hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzenbrink, W.; Wischnewski, R. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    For the introduction of modern types of power stations like IGCC, PCFBC, etc. the application of a functional hot gas filter is of essential importance. A hot gas filter with two tiers for dry and complete dedusting of the entire raw gas flow of 53,000 m{sup 3}(STP)/h was started up in 1993 in the High Temperature Winkler (HTW) coal gasification demonstration plant in Hurth/Berrenrath near Cologne, Germany. The operational data of the filter are a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 270{degree}C. The filter was supplied by the `LLB` company and is characterised by the principle of upright arrangement of the ceramic filter elements. During nearly 8,000 h of plant operation up to September 1995 the filter showed stable and safe operation, a separation efficiency of {gt}99.98%, a 21% reduction in filtration surface, reduction in cleaning gas requirement by factor 10, reduction in cleaning gas pressure to 16 bar and a significant reduction in maintenance and operating costs. The resultant clean gas dust content was {lt} 3 mg/m{sup 3}(STP) compared to the design value of 5 mg/m{sup 3}(STP). In a test to the limit of operation one failure occurred when 20 candles broke. In order to yield larger filtering surfaces in very large filter units, e.g. for IGCCs, without using more than one filter the multistage design is the only sensible solution. Prior to industrial-scale application such a system has to be tested. Therefore the two-tier filter was converted into a three-tier type with separate filter modules at the end of 1995. After another 5,400 h of plant operation this three-tier filter shows safe and stable operation with a clean gas dust content of {lt} 2 mg/m{sup 3}(STP). 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  8. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  9. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  10. Modeling and experimental study of oil/water contact angle on biomimetic micro-parallel-patterned self-cleaning surfaces of selected alloys used in water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelsen, Simin; Moghadam, Afsaneh Dorri, E-mail: afsaneh@uwm.edu; Ferguson, J.B.; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Wetting behavior of four metallic materials as a function of surface roughness has been studied. • A model to predict the abrasive particle size and water/oil contact angles relationship is proposed. • Active wetting regime is determined in different materials using the proposed model. - Abstract: In the present study, the wetting behavior of surfaces of various common metallic materials used in the water industry including C84400 brass, commercially pure aluminum (99.0% pure), Nickle–Molybdenum alloy (Hastelloy C22), and 316 Stainless Steel prepared by mechanical abrasion and contact angles of several materials after mechanical abrasion were measured. A model to estimate roughness factor, R{sub f}, and fraction of solid/oil interface, ƒ{sub so}, for surfaces prepared by mechanical abrasion is proposed based on the assumption that abrasive particles acting on a metallic surface would result in scratches parallel to each other and each scratch would have a semi-round cross-section. The model geometrically describes the relation between sandpaper particle size and water/oil contact angle predicted by both the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter contact type, which can then be used for comparison with experimental data to find which regime is active. Results show that brass and Hastelloy followed Cassie–Baxter behavior, aluminum followed Wenzel behavior and stainless steel exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie–Baxter. Microstructural studies have also been done to rule out effects beyond the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories such as size of structural details.

  11. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Dry washing: the solution for contaminated liquid effluent releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'homme, D.; Trambouze, P.

    1998-01-01

    The release of wash water used for contaminated garments poses an ever-increasing problem on nuclear sites. Even though the radioactivity is low, it mixes with organic compounds, thus polluting a large quantity of liquid effluents. In many cases, several thousands of m 3 /year per nuclear site are produced, which at times represents more than 30% of the volume of total releases. The conventional dry cleaning process is not a viable option, given that repeated washing cause clothes to fade and the odors are rot removed completely. In order to eliminate releases, STMI has developed, after several years of research with the Technological University of Compiegne, France, a solvent dry washing process for garments used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  13. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  14. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  16. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  17. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  18. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  19. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  20. Ultra-clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroether, K.

    1987-01-01

    No other method guarantees such a thorough cleaning of contaminated materials' surfaces. Only ultrasound can reach those cavities crevices and corners where any manual cleaning fails. Furthermore there is no cumbersome and time-consuming manual decontamination which often has to be carried out in glove boxes and hot cells. Depending on the design the cleaning effect can reach from removing adhering dirt particles to removing complete surface layers. (orig./PW) [de

  1. Carotenoid content of the varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicumannuum L.) and response during the industrial slow drying and grinding steps in paprika processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Pérez-Gálvez, A; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of the pepper varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicum annuum L. ) ripen as a group, enabling a single harvesting, showed a uniform carotenoid content that is high enough (7.9 g/kg) for the production of paprika. The drying system at mild temperature showed that fruits with moisture content of 85-88% generated a dry product with carotenoid content equal to or higher than the initial one. Those high moisture levels allowed the fruits to have a longer period of metabolic activity, increasing the yellow fraction, the red fraction, or both as a function of what biosynthetic process was predominant. This fact indicates under-ripeness of the fruits in the drying step. The results obtained allow us to establish that both varieties, Jaranda and Jariza, fit the dehydration process employed, yielding a dry fruit with carotenoid concentration similar to that the initial one. During the grinding step of the dry fruit, the heat generated by the hammers of the mill caused degradation of the yellow fraction, while the red fraction is maintained. The ripeness state of the harvested fruits and the appropriateness or severity of the processing steps are indicated by the ratio of red to yellow (R/Y) and/or red to total (R/T) pigments, since fluctuations in both fractions and in total pigments are reflected in and monitored by these parameters.

  2. Solar heating of air used for the drying at medium and large scale, of forestry, fishery, agriculture, cattle and industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, F.

    1991-01-01

    The drying process and/or preservation of grains is improved through the previous heating of air. In many cases it is enough to raise the temperature only a few degrees (from 10 to 15 Centigrade), in order to increase their capacity to absorb dampness. This can be done using very simple solar captors. A massive use of solar energy in the drying process of products, by means of hot air, can only be done with very expensive equipment. For this reason, it is recommended the use of lower thermic heaters, which will have a lower cost too. (Author)

  3. Methods of industrial waste water cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Brehuv

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  4. The Ontology of Creativity in Industrial Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik; Wicmandy, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is (e.g. Gadner, 1993) often associated with the arts, science, technology, high-end products developed (cf. Plucker, Beghetto & Dow, 2004) by a genius working through long, complicated, isolated, arduous and mythical procedures. But, what about ordinary people doing ordinary work...

  5. Problems of clean coals production as a sources of clean energy generation; Problemy produkcji czystych wegli jako zrodlo wytwarzania czystej energii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Mineral and Energy Economy Institute

    2004-07-01

    The paper advises of clean coal technology programme objectives. Issues connected with clean coals preparation for combustion have been discussed. The quality of steam fine coals has been presented, including those used in the commercial power industry. A small supply of 'clean coals' has been started in Poland, related however to a limited demand. Factors affecting the reduction in clean coal production have been discussed. The fact that there are no significant reasons to constrain supplies of clean coals has been emphasised. The quality of coal in deposits is very good, and the condition of preparation enables production of clean coal. Clean energy generation from clean coal requires only cooperation between the hard coal mining industry and the commercial power industry, passing over particular sectoral interests. 15 refs.

  6. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    new research in the renewable and clean energy area. The educational outreach provided as a result of the grant included activities to introduce renewable and clean energy design projects into the Mechanical and Materials Engineering senior design class, the development of a geothermal energy demonstration unit, and the development of renewable energy learning modules for high school students. Finally, this grant supported curriculum development by Sinclair Community College for seven new courses and acquisition of necessary related instrumentation and laboratory equipment. These new courses, EGV 1201 Weatherization Training, EGV 1251 Introduction to Energy Management Principles, EGV 2301 Commercial and Industrial Assessment, EGV 2351 LEED Green Associate Exam Preparation, EGV 2251 Energy Control Strategies, EGV Solar Photovoltaic Design and Installation, and EGV Solar Thermal Systems, enable Sinclair to offer complete Energy Technology Certificate and an Energy Management Degree programs. To date, 151 students have completed or are currently registered in one of the seven courses developed through this grant. With the increasing interest in the Energy Management Degree program, Sinclair has begun the procedure to have the program approved by the Ohio Board of Regents.

  7. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  8. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  10. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force

  11. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  12. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  13. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  14. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  15. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property; Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtraengning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m{sup 3} corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m{sup 3}/h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m{sup 3} of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  16. Process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Filterstoffes zur Reinigung von industriellen oder Brennkraftmaschinen-Abgasen und ein hiernach hergestellter Filterstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumbalek, A.

    1986-01-02

    This is a process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. The filter material is manufactured from the mineralized combustion product of peel of tropical fruits burnt at a temperature of 820/sup 0/C to 840/sup 0/C in an oxidising atmosphere excluding the production of carbon, particularly using banana skins and orange peels, which product is granulated with carrier materials or compressed.

  17. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions

  18. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / Development of an environmentally friendly industrial cleaning system using near-critical and supercritical carbon dioxide (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / chorinkai ryutai wo mochiita kankyo chowagata kogyo senjo sochi no kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the manufacturing process of semiconductors and in the high tech industry, cleaning is indispensable. At present, when regulation of the use of CFC which used to be much used has been decided on, the conversion to the use of substitutes for CFC cleaning is urgently needed. Transfer to cleaning by water/alcohol/hydrocarbon has been proceeded with, but there are a lot of problems. Out of the development of the cleaning method using supercritical fluid, the paper described the fiscal 1997 result. As to enhancement of efficiency and decrease in size of equipment, a cleaning experiment by high pressure CO2 around the critical point was conducted by integrating nozzle, ultrasonic generator and cavitation generator and adding solvent circulating system. Multi-purpose and energy saving of the equipment were also studied. To establish an analysis method for the cleaning degree, the contaminated component film of trace organic matter with a specified thickness was formed on the silicon wafer, and using the Fourier transform ultrared spectroscopy, a method to determine the film thickness was studied. For the function evaluation for precision machine parts and determination of optimum cleaning conditions, the cleaning/degreasing process of valves were compared with the conventional method. For the product manufacturing, the paper investigated and prepared the data in Japan and from abroad. 55 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A; Hase, A [eds.; VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  20. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  3. New Clean Air Act complicates power plant operation, design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In November the president signed into law the new Clean Air Act, ushering in a new era in the power generation industry. This paper reviews the six important sections of the Clean Air Act and their impact on power plant operation and design

  4. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  5. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  7. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  8. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  9. Hot gas cleaning, a targeted project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I. [University of Essen, Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Advanced hot gas cleaning systems will play a key role in future integrated combined cycle technologies. IGCC demonstration plants in operation or under construction are at present equipped with conventional wet gas scrubbing and cleaning systems. Feasibility studies for those IGCC plants have shown that the total efficiency of the processes can be improved using hot gas cleaning systems. However, this technology has not been developed and tested at a technical scale. Six well-known European industrial companies and research centres jointly worked together since January 1996 on a Targeted Project `Hot Gas Cleaning` to investigate and develop new hot gas cleaning systems for advanced clean coal power generation processes. In addition project work on chemical analysis and modelling was carried out in universities in England and Germany. The latest main findings were presented at the workshop. The main project aims are summarised as follows: to increase efficiency of advanced power generation processes; to obtain a reduction of alkalis and environmental emissions e.g. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and dust; and to develop the design basis for future industrial plants based on long-term operation of laboratory, pilot and demo-plants. To cover a range of possible process routes for future hot gas cleaning systems the following research programme is under investigation: removal of trace elements by different commercial and self developed sorbents; gas separation by membranes; separation of gas turbine relevant pollutants by hot filter dust and; H{sub 2}S removal and gas dedusting at high temperatures. 13 figs.

  10. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  18. 6 Home Cleaning Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aluminum, brass, ceramics, chrome, copper, fiberglass, glass/quartz, plastic, and steel. GLASS CLEANER 1 cup vinegar 1 ... originally filled with commercial cleaning products. Instead, reuse plastic water bottles.  Always place a label on the ...

  19. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  1. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  2. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  5. Bacterial amplification and in-place carpet drying: implications for category 1 water intrusion restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jim; Banta, John; Passmore, Boni; Ayers, Mark; Abbott, Sean P; Cole, Eugene C

    2012-05-01

    The study described in this article investigated whether in-place carpet drying processes resulted in bacterial amplification following water intrusion from a clean water source (category 1) in a residential indoor environment. Bacterial amplification was examined after wetting a 10-year-old carpet and pad that had no history of water intrusion. Three test areas were extracted and dried using industry-recommended procedures for in-place drying and compared to a control area that was not extracted or dried. Results from carpet, pad, and subsurface dust demonstrated that bacterial amplification occurred in all test areas. CFUs of bacteria per gram of carpet surface dust and subsurface dust prior to water intrusion were lower than levels in subsurface dust after in-place drying. The authors' study contributes to information regarding the restoration of water-based carpet damage by professional water damage restoration companies, building maintenance personnel, and housekeeping managers. Results suggest that the appropriate response time for carpet pad salvage is considerably shorter than the current industry recommendation of 72 hours.

  6. Quality control in cleaning services : case: Uusi Era Siivous Palvelu

    OpenAIRE

    Kyengo, Anthony M

    2007-01-01

    Quality control is a phenomenon that has come to play a significant role in the cleaning industry today. Cleaning companies and customers alike are now more than ever, well informed of how important it is to maintain a healthy working environment and the structural well being of the facility. The need for a clean environment both indoors and outdoors is constantly and continuously being emphasized by the need to improve cleaning methods and services. The aim of this research was to find out h...

  7. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  8. Dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    In transferring radioactive material between the preparation and clean chambers of a dry storage complex, irradiated nuclear fuel is posted from the preparation chamber to a sealable canister supported in a closable bucket in the clean chamber, or a contaminated sealed canister is posted from a closed bucket in the clean chamber into the preparation chamber by using a facility comprising two coaxial tubes constituting a closable orifice between the two chambers, the tubes providing sealing means for the bucket, and masking means for the bucket and canister closures together with means for withdrawing the closures into the preparation chamber. (author)

  9. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  10. Optimisation of single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion under high organic loading rates of industrial municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-10-01

    Different high feed organic loading rates (OLRs) (from 5.7 g to 46.0 g TVS/l/d) or hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 15 d to 2 d) in single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were investigated. The specific gas production (SGP) values (0.25-0.53 m(3)/kg TVS) and the percentages of Eubacteria, Archaea, H2-utilising methanogens (HUMs) and acetate-utilising methanogens (AUMs) were stable within the ranges 80.2-91.1%, 12.4-18.5%, 4.4-9.8% and 5.5-10.9%, respectively. A HUM/AUM ratio greater than 0.7 seems to be necessary to maintain very low partial pressures of H2 required for dry AD process. Increasing OLR resulted in an increase in all the populations, except for propionate-utilising acetogens (PUAs). Optimal conditions were obtained at 3d HRT (OLR=30.7 g TVS/l/d), which is lower than the doubling time of acetogens and methanogens. The methane production (MP) was clearly higher than those reported in AD of OFMSW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  12. Cleaning Robot for Solar Panels in Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Lu-Bin; Shen, Cheng-Wei; Bian, Huai-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The dust particles on solar panel surface have been a serious problem for the photovoltaic industry, a new monorail-tracked robot used for automatic cleaning of solar panel is presented in this paper. To meet the requirement of comprehensive and stable cleaning of PV array, the monorail-tracked pattern of robot is introduced based on the monorail structure technique. The running and striding mechanism are designed for mobility of robot on the solar panels. According to the carrying capacity and water circulation mechanism, a type of self-cleaning device with filtering system is developed. Combined with the computer software and communications technology, the control system is built in this robot, which can realize the functions of autonomous operation, positioning and monitoring. The application of this developed cleaning robot can actualize the Industrialization of automatic cleaning for PV components and have wide market prospect.

  13. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  14. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  15. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  16. New Approaches to Cleaning Liquid Radioactive Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial cleaning methods of liquid radioactive waste and technologically contaminated solutions, which contain heavy metals and radionuclides, are considered. It is shown that in the case when heavy metal ions exclusively exist in ionic form, the cleaning method with highest efficiency is electrodialysis. In the case when components, which must be removed, are in ionic and colloidal forms at the same time, the previous destruction of colloidal and organic matter (method of hydrodynamic cavitation, lowtemperature plasma etc is necessary. The developed «PTANK» method enables an effective purification of multicomponent metalcontaining man-made solutions, which contain additionally organic substances and complexes. Development of advanced membrane technologies, creation of complex recycling schemes and their synergistic combination will provide an opportunity to achieve deep cleaning of technologically contaminated solutions and minimize the amount of secondary wastes.

  17. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  18. Making it easier for clean technologies to get returns from GHG credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how clean technologies can get returns from greenhouse gases credits. Businesses recognize that climate change opportunity is bigger than information technology. Clean technologies and climate change will transform the economy. Clean technologies will bring business opportunities, revitalize industry and the economy, bring jobs and increase exports.

  19. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  20. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  1. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  2. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  3. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  4. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  5. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean energy market creation is the focus of this dissertation. The dissertation contributes to several bodies of literature in the area of entrepreneurship, new industry creation, corporate venturing, and venture capital research. The dissertation uses a grounded theory approach. The study is guided by three data collection approaches with an emphasis on the first two. First, interviews with European and North American VC and CVC firms that have invested in the clean energy sector were carried out. Second, a clean energy venture financing survey that consisted of qualitative, essay-format questions and some quantitative questions was carried out. Third, interviews with clean energy stakeholders were carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the emerging sector. The research results consist of three main findings. First, the research results suggest that clean energy ventures face the following three main entrepreneurial challenges: financing, market education, and growth management. A further study of three clean energy industry categories revealed additional challenges that varied according to the industry development stage. Second, the results demonstrate that, from a venture capitalist perspective, clean energy venture risk characteristics can be divided into two groups: generally recognized risk characteristics and cognitive risk characteristics. The identified generally recognized risk characteristics were market demand and adaptation, incompatibility with the VC model

  6. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  7. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  9. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  10. Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanira F. de Angelis

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD and chemical (COD oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was significantly increased; furthermore, Fe2+ ions liberated by the electrodes cause microorganisms to die and, when oxidised to Fe3+, contribute for the flocculation and sedimentation of solid residues.

  11. Dynamic self-cleaning in gecko setae via digital hyperextension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Lopez, Stephanie; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2012-01-01

    Gecko toe pads show strong adhesion on various surfaces yet remain remarkably clean around everyday contaminants. An understanding of how geckos clean their toe pads while being in motion is essential for the elucidation of animal behaviours as well as the design of biomimetic devices with optimal performance. Here, we test the self-cleaning of geckos during locomotion. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that geckos clean their feet through a unique dynamic self-cleaning mechanism via digital hyperextension. When walking naturally with hyperextension, geckos shed dirt from their toes twice as fast as they would if walking without hyperextension, returning their feet to nearly 80 per cent of their original stickiness in only four steps. Our dynamic model predicts that when setae suddenly release from the attached substrate, they generate enough inertial force to dislodge dirt particles from the attached spatulae. The predicted cleaning force on dirt particles significantly increases when the dynamic effect is included. The extraordinary design of gecko toe pads perfectly combines dynamic self-cleaning with repeated attachment/detachment, making gecko feet sticky yet clean. This work thus provides a new mechanism to be considered for biomimetic design of highly reuseable and reliable dry adhesives and devices. PMID:22696482

  12. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  13. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  14. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  16. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  17. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  19. The Utilization of Premix Flour with Sorghum Mutant Lines Zh-30 Based as Material For Dough Making And Dry Noodle Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Djoko Slamet Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes on several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on flour quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in dry noodle. Subsequent experiments, i.e. the effect of kansui (alkaline salt Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ) on rheological properties of dough, the effect of egg addition on rheological properties of dough and cooked noodles. Observations were done on dough which were premix flour I, II and III with 10.2 %, 14.5 % and 17.4 % protein content respectively. The influence of each alkaline salt and their mixture on dough rheology i.e., dough consistency and resistant to extension and extensibility. The kansui Concentration applied were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. Obviously premix flour I + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal consistency, resistance and extensibility of the dough. The addition of five ml egg to premix I dough + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal results. The increase of egg mellowed the dough, and increase noodle texture and reduce stickiness. Addition of five ml egg already gave significant increase of elasticity, with the highest elasticity was reached by addition of 35 ml egg, although no difference was found for 5 - 35 ml.. (author)

  20. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE FROM INSTALLATION OF SEMI-DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANT IN JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Plaskacz-Dziuba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of waste from semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation installation called Integrated Novel Desulphurisation (NID. A comprehensive analysis of the physicochemical properties was conducted, including analyzes of the content of ions SO32- and SO42- (relating to 2CaSO3·H2O i CaSO4·2H2O, moisture, SiO2 and R2O3 and SEM-EDX analysis. The original method for the determination of sulphates (IV using a potentiometric titrator was designed. Determined that the main component of both studied wastes was 2CaSO3·H2O, and its content is for NID 1 – 41,24±0,63%, for NID 2 – 45,53±0,33%. The content of CaSO4·2H2O, which was determined by gravimetric method amounted for the NID 1 – 8,92±0,12%, for the NID 2 – 8,27±0,08%. The moisture content for both tested materials was about 4%, the content of SiO2 was in the range of 8–10%, and R2O3 content was about 1%. It was also shown that the test material is not homogenous. Images from scanning electron microscope showed that in the waste occured irregularly agglomerates with a diameter between 30 and 100 microns. EDX analysis revealed that elements constituted NID wastes are oxygen, sulfur, calcium, chlorine, silicon, aluminum, copper and carbon.

  1. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  3. New NOx cleaning technology helps the government fulfil promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian, Bergen-based company ECO Energy has recently launched a new cleaning technology halving NO x emissions from industry plants without requiring large investments. Thus, governmental promises to finance NO x cleaning equipment for Norwegian industry have become a less expensive to reach. ECO Energy has ensured world patent on the 'stopNOx' technology. Its method consists of adding water and urea to oil before the combustion process. The technology has been applied in Italy, reducing NO x emissions from industry in average with above 50 percent (ml)

  4. Microwave wood strand drying: energy consumption, VOC emission and drying quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Du, G.; Zhang, Y. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop microwave drying technology for wood strand drying for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. The advantages of microwave drying included a reduction in the drying time of wood strands and a reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through a decrease in the thermal degradation of the wood material. Temperature and moisture content changes under different microwave drying conditions were investigated. The effects of microwave drying on VOC emissions were evaluated and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Microwave power input and the mass of drying materials in the microwave oven were found to have a dominant effect on drying quality. Results indicated that an increase in microwave power input and a decrease in sample weights resulted in high drying temperatures, short drying times and a high drying rate. The effect of microwave drying on the strand surfaces was also investigated. Different strand geometries and initial moisture content resulted in varying warm-up curves, but did not influence final moisture content. VOC emissions were quantified by comparing alpha-pinene concentrations. The microwave drying resulted in lower VOC emissions compared with conventional drying methods. It was concluded that the microwave drying technique provided faster strand drying and reduced energy consumption by up to 50 per cent. In addition, the surface wettability of wood strands dried with microwaves was better than with an industrial rotary drum drier. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and...

  6. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Model-based optimization of the primary drying step during freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Nopens, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    Since large molecules are considered the key driver for growth of the pharmaceutical industry, the focus of the pharmaceutical industry is shifting from small molecules to biopharmaceuticals: around 50% of the approved biopharmaceuticals are freeze-dried products. Therefore, freeze- drying is an ...

  8. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  11. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively.

  12. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  15. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented

  16. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  17. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  18. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  19. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  20. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount

  1. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  2. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  3. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  4. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions and tailored matrix formulations are required to avoid severe heat damage leading to loss in enzyme activity or reduced survival of bacteria. An overview is provided on the use of protective carbo...

  5. Commercial Cleaning Products for Chemical Decontamination: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    and may injure human skin without dilution), although this approach is less favoured in a mass casualty decontamination situation than soap and water...commercial cleaning products, full strength K-O-K® liquid bleach (5.25% aqueous solution of NaOCl), dish-washing detergent Cascade® with Extra...Bleach Action Gel, OxiClean® Versatile Stain Remover Powder, and ZEP® Industrial Purple liquid cleaner (proprietary caustic cleaner containing

  6. Determinação do teor de edta remanescente em soluções de limpeza de equipamentos industriais Determination of edta content in cleaning solutions after their use in industrial equipaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Antonio Rodella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning solutions containing EDTA are widely employed to remove incrustation despite of the costs involved. The free content of EDTA in commercial solutions may be determined by mixing an aliquot to ammonium oxalate and using a standard calcium solution as titrant. The end-point is detected by the formation of insoluble calcium oxalate after all EDTA is complexed. A system for turbidimetric detection of the end-point was envisaged to substitute the visual detection, which impaired the analyses of dark samples. The proposed method was tested with real samples and good accuracy and precision was obtained.

  7. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  8. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  9. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  12. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  13. A contribution from Gaz de France to the economic performance of industries; Contribution de Gaz de France a la perfomance economique des industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depail, J.C. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the policy of the French national gas utility, Gaz de France, towards industries, is to promote natural gas as a competitive fuel compared to fuels and electric power, with energy efficient solutions that are easy to implement and maintain: space heating, paint curing, surface cleaning, bath heating, vapour generation, waste treatment (especially for molding sand and volatile organic compounds, sludge drying). Gaz de France proposes also expertise schemes and audits

  14. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  15. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  16. Clean energy and the hydrogen economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, N P; Kurban, Z

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems. This paper presents the opportunities for the use of hydrogen in key sectors of the economy and identifies the benefits and challenges within the hydrogen supply chain for power-to-gas, power-to-power and gas-to-gas supply pathways. While industry players have already started the market introduction of hydrogen fuel cell systems, including fuel cell electric vehicles and micro-combined heat and power devices, the use of hydrogen at grid scale requires the challenges of clean hydrogen production, bulk storage and distribution to be resolved. Ultimately, greater government support, in partnership with industry and academia, is still needed to realize hydrogen's potential across all economic sectors.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The effects of fixed-bed drying on the yield and composition of essential oil from long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Braga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervium C.DC (Piperaceae is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the state of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves are 3 to 4 % essential oil rich in safrole, within the range of 90 to 94 %. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the synergistic effect of PBO; therefore, its industrial future is linked to the continued availability of PBO. As a fragrance, safrole has many applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents and cleaning agents. In this work, leaves were dried in a fixed-bed dryer using different drying-air temperatures (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 ºC and drying times (900, 2700 and 3600 seconds. Essential oil was extracted by cohobation (meaning that the condensed water that comes out of the flask is recycled from both raw and dried leaves. The essential oil yield and safrole content are susceptible to rapid loss of moisture by Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves. It was observed that the essential oil yield increased twice after the drying process. However, safrole content decreased about 20 percent when temperature was above 50 ºC and drying times were more than 2700 minutes.

  18. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  19. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  1. Nuclear industry technology boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholler, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits to the medical, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, computer, video, bioscience, laser, defense, and numerous high-tech industries from nuclear technology development fallout are indeed numerous and increase every day. Now those industries have made further progress and improvements that, in return, benefit the nuclear industry. The clean-air and particle-free devices and enclosures needed for protection and decontamination are excellent examples

  2. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  3. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  4. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Cichanowicz, J.E.; Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  5. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  6. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  7. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  8. Cleaning and Disinfection of Bacillus cereus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amanda; Klein, Dan; Lopolito, Paul; Schwarz, John Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to disassociated B. cereus spores and biofilm from a non-spore-forming species. Further, we assessed the impact that pre-cleaning has on increasing that susceptibility. Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to

  9. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  10. Dry rotary swaging with structured and coated tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Marius; Schenck, Christian; Kuhfuss, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Rotary swaging is a cold bulk forming process for manufacturing of complex bar and tube profiles like axles and gear shafts in the automotive industry. Conventional rotary swaging is carried out under intense use of lubricant usually based on mineral oil. Besides lubrication the lubricant fulfills necessary functions like lubrication, flushing and cooling, but generates costs for recycling, replacement and cleaning of the workpieces. Hence, the development of a dry process design is highly desirable, both under economic and ecological points of view. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute the functions of the lubricant. This was realized by the combination of newly developed a-C:H:W coating systems on the tools to minimize the friction and to avoid adhesion effects. With the application of a deterministic structure in the forging zone of the tools the friction conditions are modified to control the axial process forces. In this study infeed rotary swaging with functionalized tools was experimentally investigated. Therefore, steel and aluminum tubes were formed with and without lubricant. Different structures which were coated and uncoated were implemented in the reduction zone of the tools. The antagonistic effects of coating and structuring were characterized by measuring the axial process force and the produced workpiece quality in terms of roundness and surface roughness. Thus, the presented results allow for further developments towards a dry rotary swaging process.

  11. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  12. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  13. Clean Carbon Communism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-05-07

    May 7, 2008 ... failure are especially dire for the downtrodden masses in the most vulnerable societies. ... that carbon trading has become exceedingly profitable for polluting .... 1 : Energy industries (renewable - / non-renewable sources).

  14. Experimental investigation on cleaning of corroded ancient coins using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huazhong; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the work reported is to study experimentally on the removal of corrosion layer from the ancient coins using laser beam as the conservation tool. With the use of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm, dry laser cleaning, steam laser cleaning and chemical-assisted laser cleaning were used to find out a more suitable and efficient laser treatment for corrosion removal. Cleaning tests were performed on ancient Chinese coins. Experimental results shows that the dry laser cleaning was not successful at removing all types of corrosion crust. It was possible to remove the outer thicker layer of the corrosion products (typically known as patina), but failed on the thinner layer of cuprite. The steam laser cleaning could decrease the initial removal threshold and improve the removal efficiency especially for the oxidation with powdery structure. As for chemical-assisted laser treatment, the cleaning results demonstrate that the combination of laser and chemical reagent could provide a considerable improvement in corrosion removal compared with the conventional laser treatments. Most of the corrosion contaminant was stripped, even the cuprite layer. Moreover, no secondary pollution was formed on the cleaned surface. X-ray fluorescence was applied to determine the variation of composition of surface layer and bulk metal before and after the coins cleaned. It shows that all of the three laser treatments were efficient to reduce the chlorine concentration on the surface of the coins more than 75%.

  15. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  16. Recent advances in nanostructured biomimetic dry adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras ePattantyus-Abraham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques.

  17. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  18. A comparative study of direct and indirect solar drying of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of direct and indirect solar drying of mango. ... Thus, indirect solar dryer was found to be suitable for industrial or semi industrial mango drying, whereas direct solar dryer was appropriate to a family ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  1. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life

  2. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  3. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  4. Cleaning and sterilization in biotechnological clean system. Biotechnological clean system no senjo sakkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M.

    1994-02-20

    Despite their usefulness for mankind, many of microorganisms are generally emphasized of the aspect of their harmfulness as decomposable and pathogenic microorganisms, apt to implant people with wrong preconception. Moreover, the food industries have a habitual practice that they leave unexpectedly unclean conditions unattended. This paper indicates such actual circumstances by quoting various examples, and introduces characteristics and test results on commercially available chemicals having excellent cleansing and sterilizing effects. High-pressure and high-temperature sterilization processes fit the purpose of preservation, but secondary contamination may occur in subsequent processing, for example, from the ceiling and walls of a work room, or operators' fingers. Problems exist there that should be considered in biotechnological clean systems. Technologies have been advanced that mix a small amount of chemicals into plastic sheets, wall materials, and floor materials so that their surfaces are kept away from growth of microorganisms for extended periods of time. About 300 kinds of chemicals have been developed, and are available commercially. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  6. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  7. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  8. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungdong; Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Bumsik; Kim Yangeun

    1999-01-01

    An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. The converging/diverging nozzle can control the size of snows from sub-microns to 10 micron size. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. (author)

  9. Timing of adoption of clean technologies by regulated monopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Slim Ben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a monopoly firm producing a good and, at the same time, polluting and using fossil energy. By incurring an investment cost, this firm can adopt a lower production cost clean technology using renewable energy. We determine the optimal adoption date for the firm in the case where it is not regulated at all and in the case where it is regulated at each period. Interestingly, the regulated firm adopts the clean technology earlier than what is socially optimal, as opposed to the nonregulated firm. The regulator can induce the firm to adopt the clean technology at the socially optimal date by a postpone adoption subsidy. Nevertheless, the regulator may be interested in the earlier adoption of the firm to encourage the diffusion of the use of clean technologies in other industries.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  11. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  12. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  13. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and dry scrubbing for sulfur oxides (SO2) and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx). There is however, a desire of increasing the energy produced in electrical power plants by firing CO2-neutral biomass/waste or biomass/waste in combination with fossil fuels. Thus, the EU reached agreement in March......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  14. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  15. Clean contest for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, John.

    1996-01-01

    Reinvestment in the nuclear power generation industry is identified as the key to solving the conflict between rising energy demand over the next fifty years and protecting the environment. Nuclear power, it is argued, can readily meet consumers, rising demand for electricity, but will not contribute to global warming problems or other forms of atmospheric pollution. The chief problems seem not to be technical, but rather to convince policy makers and the general public that the nuclear industry is an acceptable, environmentally sound contributer to the energy generation conundrum. (UK)

  16. Dry storage cells for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Paget, F.T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for posting irradiated nuclear fuel from a preparation cell of a dry storage complex into storage canisters located in buckets within a clean cell comprises a telescopic tubular port member for sealably connecting the preparation cell to a canister. In operation the closure of the canister is screened against contamination and withdrawn from the canister into the preparation cell via a retractable grab prior to posting of the fuel into the canister. (author)

  17. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  18. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  19. Evaluation of boiler chemical cleaning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The EPRI/SGOG process, which has been selected by Ontario Hydro for use at the Bruce A station, is described. This process consists of alternating iron removal and copper removal steps, the two metals which comprise the bulk of the deposit in the Bruce A SGs. The iron removal solvent consists of ethylenediameinetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydrazine, ammonium hydroxide and a proprietary corrosion inhibitor CCI-801. The copper removal solvent consists of EDTA, ethylene diamine and hydrogen peroxide. Ontario Hydro proposes to clean a bank of four SGs in parallel employing a total of six copper removal steps and four iron removal steps. Cleaning all eight SGs in a single Bruce A unit will generate 2,200 m 3 of liquid waste which will be treated by a wet air oxidation process. The iron and copper sludges will be buried in a landfill site while the liquid waste will be further treated by the Bruce sewage treatment plant. Some ammonia vapour will be generated through the wet air oxidation process and will be vented through a stack on top of the high bay of the spent solvent treatment plant. With the exception of the proprietary corrosion inhibitor, all chemicals that will be employed in the cleaning and waste treatment operations are standard industrial chemicals which are well characterized. No extraordinary hazards are anticipated with their use as long as adequate safety precautions are taken

  20. Use of acoustic field in gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, D.; Madelaine, G.; Malherbe, C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of acoustic field in gas cleaning can be done in two ways: the first is the conditioning of an aerosol by acoustic agglomeration before filtration by conventional methods (cyclones, granular beds, etc.), the second is the collection efficiency improvement of granular bed filters exposed to an acoustic field. In a first part, experimental results are given on the acoustic agglomeration of a polydisperse aerosol of mass concentration between 0.5 and 1 g/m 3 . An important effect of wall precipitation of particles is described and deposition velocity due to the presence of an acoustic field are measured as a function of particle diameter, sound pressure level and acoustic frequency. A dimensionless relationship between the deposition velocity and particle relaxation time is established for these results. At the end of this part energetic criteria for the use of acoustic agglomeration in a gas cleaning train is given. In a second part, experimental results are given to the influence of acoustic field on the collection efficiency of monodispersed aerosols ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm. For these both uses of acoustic field in industrial gas cleaning the different alternatives for the acoustic field generation are discussed

  1. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  2. Impact of dry eye on work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  4. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  5. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  6. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  7. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  8. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  9. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  10. (Preoxidation cleaning optimization for crystalline silicon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments has been performed in Sandia's Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory to evaluate the effect of various chemical surface treatments on the recombination lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers subjected to a high-temperature dry oxidation. From this series of experiments we have deduced a relatively simple yet effective cleaning sequence. We have also evaluated the effect of different chemical damage-removal etches for improving the recombination lifetime and surface smoothness of mechanically lapped wafers. This paper presents the methodology used, the experimental results obtained, and our experience with using this process on a continuing basis over a period of many months. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  12. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... national and regional government officials; and networking events. Participating in an official U.S... and sanitation, etc., in 63 cities nationwide.) The booming Indian economy, rapid industrialization... environmental quality. The city's size makes it particularly attractive market for large investments in clean...

  13. Clean water and family forest management: some emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Bisson

    2011-01-01

    Demand for clean water for a variety of uses will increase. Watersheds are where we live, grow crops and create various forms of industry. As the Pacific Northwest's human population expands, competition for water and the ecological goods and services that water provides will grow more intense. With this in mind it is helpful to review emerging issues that are of...

  14. Ultrasonic and immersion cleaning: a comparison using aqueous and fluorocarbon solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; Kearsey, A.

    1984-11-01

    Decontamination is a necessary process in reducing radiation levels in the working environment in the nuclear industry. Components from active areas which require decontamination for re-use or maintenance operations. In this report, a typical chemical cleaning process using liquid pumping, airagitation and physical movement for agitation is compared with ultrasonic cleaning, now an established cleaning process in many industries. The chosen traditional method is immersion in an agitated solution of warm SDG.3 solution; an established decontaminating reagent. The decontamination effect of this process is compared with the effect of cleaning in an ultrasonic bath containing the same reagent at the same concentration and temperature. Fluorocarbon reagents are of particular interest to the nuclear industry for they offer the ability to clean electrical components without damage, and can clean product contaminated material without the risk of criticality. Such reagents are based on 1,1,2-trichloro, 1,2,2-trifluoroethane and azeotropic mixtures. This reagent and one mixture with 6% methanol were tested under agitation and ultrasonic immersion at the same temperature. Parallel control experiments were conducted using demineralised water as the cleaning media in an agitated bath. SGG3 is a good reagent for general purpose cleaning (it can remove 99% of particulate contamination) using scrubbing, immersion or spraying techniques. There is little evidence to show that ultrasonic cleaning increases its effectiveness. For special purpose fluorocarbon solvents will give satisfactory results when used in an ultrasonic system. (author)

  15. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  16. Safe, reliable desulfurization of high and very high H{sub 2}S loadings by UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}; Sichere, zuverlaessige Entschwefelung hoher und sehr hoher H{sub 2}S-Beladungen durch UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelsmann, Herbert [UGN-Umwelttechnik GmbH, Gera (Germany); Hilgert, Walter [Rietzler-Gruppe GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 for complete, safe desulfurization of biogas/biogenic fuel gases (hydrolysis and pyrolysis gas, landfill gas, sewage gas,..), natural gas and associated petroleum gases and industrial production exhaust gases are market introduced and tested worldwide. In particular, the complete surrender of gas cooling, gas drying and gas reheating, the H{sub 2}S removal to zero level and proven in practice loading capacity of up to % 80 percent characterize the UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 external as a cost-effective, efficient and sustainable desulfurization medium. The further development of the pellets to the UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - that is, to internally hollow pellets with correspondingly enlarged, outer surface - is the next logical step to further improve performance whilst fully retaining the advantages of pellets. [German] UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 zur vollstaendigen, sicheren Entschwefelung von Biogas/biogenen Brenngasen (Hydrolyse- und Pyrolysegas, Deponiegas, Klaergas,...), Erdgas und Erdoelbegleitgasen sowie industriellen Produktionsabgasen sind markteingefuehrt und weltweit erprobt. Insbesondere der vollstaendige Verzicht auf Gaskuehlung, Gastrocknung und Gaswiederaufheizung, die H{sub 2}S-Entfernung auf Nullniveau sowie die in der Praxis nachgewiesene Beladungskapazitaet von bis zu 80-Gew% zeichnen die UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 als ein kostenguenstiges, effizientes und nachhaltiges externes Entschwefelungsmedium aus. Die Weiterentwicklung der Pellets zu den UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - d.h. zu innen hohlen Pellets mit entsprechend vergroesserter, aeusserer Oberflaeche - ist der naechste konsequente Schritt zur weiteren Leistungssteigerung bei vollstaendiger Beibehaltung der Vorteile der Pellets.

  17. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  18. Whistleblower Issues in the Nuclear Industry. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, July 15, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This hearing concerns NRC's treatment of whistleblowers in the nuclear industry. Whistleblowers are defined as people who inform the NRC of nuclear safety concerns, or people who allege that they were intimidated and harassed by their employer because they raised safety issues. Testimony from the following is included in this volume: P. Blanch; A.W. Dahlbergy III CEO Georgia Power Co.; J. Goldberg, President, Nuclear Division, Florida Power and Light; A. Mosbaugh; Hon. Ivan Selin, NRC; Hon. David C. Williams, Inspector General, NRC

  19. A "clean cigarette" for a clean nation: a case study of Salem Pianissimo in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To illustrate, through internal industry documents, how RJ Reynolds exploited the concerns of the Japanese society about cleanliness to market the concept of cleaner, implicitly healthier cigarettes in Japan. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Industry documents show that RJ Reynolds developed marketing plans based upon their cultural assumptions of Japanese people as fastidious about hygiene and manners, and with relatively high penchants to try new products. RJ Reynolds found there was also a growing concern for health, the environment, and smokers were conscious about annoying others. Deodorised consumer products were one of Japan's biggest trends. These characteristics presented RJ Reynolds with a profitable formula for marketing Salem Pianissimo, a clean cigarette with less smell and smoke. Salem Pianissimo, a 100 mm cigarette claiming to contain 1 mg tar and 0.1 mg nicotine, targeted women since menthol cigarettes were popular among 18-24 year old female smokers, although Japan's law prohibited those below 20 years to smoke and the tobacco industry had a voluntary code disallowing advertising to women and youth. RJ Reynolds successfully launched its clean cigarette, Salem Pianissimo, in Japan aiming to exploit perceived cultural characteristics such as a penchant for cleanliness, an eagerness to try new products, and social harmony.

  20. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  3. Usage of Heat Pump Dryer in Food Drying Process and Apple Drying Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gürlek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, drying is achieved natural method by spreading out the material on the ground. In this way, there are many disadvantages like low quality and hygienic problems. The resulting loss of food quality in the dried products may have effect negatively trade potential and economical worth. For preventing the deterioration of the materials different types of drying methods have been developed. Low energy consumption applications are important for drying industry besides high product quality. For this purpose, heat pump dryer is gaining importance day by day in drying applications. In this study, the working principle of the heat pump dryer, heat pump types in the drying process and the heat pump dryer performance criteria will be considered. An example of application will be described using obtained results from apple drying operation that is conducted in the heat pump dryer.

  4. Identifying optimal cleaning cycles for heat exchangers subject to fouling and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogiatzis, Thomas; Ishiyama, Edward M.; Paterson, William R.; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.; Wilson, D. Ian

    2012-01-01

    Fouling of heat exchangers causes reduced heat transfer and other penalties. Regular cleaning represents one widely used fouling mitigation strategy, where the schedule of cleaning actions can be optimised to minimise the cost of fouling. This paper investigates, for the first time, the situation where there are two cleaning methods available so that the mode of cleaning has to be selected as well as the cleaning interval. Ageing is assumed to convert the initial deposit, labelled 'gel', into a harder and more conductive form, labelled 'coke', which cannot be removed by one of the cleaning methods. The second method can remove both the gel layer and the coke layer, but costs more and requires the unit to be off-line longer for cleaning. Experimental data demonstrating the effects of ageing are presented. The industrial application is the comparison of cleaning-in-place methods with off-line mechanical cleaning. A process model is constructed for an isolated counter-current heat exchanger subject to fouling, where ageing is described by a simple two-layer model. Solutions generated by an NLP-based approach prove to be superior to a simpler heuristic. A series of case studies demonstrate that combinations of chemical and mechanical cleaning can be superior to mechanical cleaning alone for certain combinations of parameters.

  5. Self-cleaning efficiency of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Koch, Kerstin

    2009-03-03

    The hierarchical structured surface of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.) leaf provides a model for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces. On these water-repellent surfaces, water droplets move easily at a low inclination of the leaf and collect dirt particles adhering to the leaf surface. Flat hydrophilic and hydrophobic, nanostructured, microstructured, and hierarchical structured superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated, and a systematic study of wettability and adhesion properties was carried out. The influence of contact angle hysteresis on self-cleaning by water droplets was studied at different tilt angles (TA) of the specimen surfaces (3 degrees for Lotus wax, 10 degrees for n-hexatriacontane, as well as 45 degrees for both types of surfaces). At 3 degrees and 10 degrees TA, no surfaces were cleaned by moving water applied onto the surfaces with nearly zero kinetic energy, but most particles were removed from hierarchical structured surfaces, and a certain amount of particles were captured between the asperities of the micro- and hierarchical structured surfaces. After an increase of the TA to 45 degrees (larger than the tilt angles of all structured surfaces), as usually used for industrial self-cleaning tests, all nanostructured surfaces were cleaned by water droplets moving over the surfaces followed by hierarchical and microstructures. Droplets applied onto the surfaces with some pressure removed particles residues and led to self-cleaning by a combination of sliding and rolling droplets. Geometrical scale effects were responsible for superior performance of nanostructured surfaces.

  6. Cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with stethoscope cleaning among medical practitioners in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, O

    2012-07-01

    Stethoscope diaphragms are frequently colonized by bacteria. This cross-sectional study described the frequency and factors associated with reporting ever cleaning stethoscopes among 408 medical students and doctors at a medical college and 2 teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A minority of the respondents (37.7%) reported having ever cleaned their stethoscope. Following normal clinical use, wiping with a dry cloth was the most frequently reported method of cleaning (53.2%). After contamination of the diaphragm with blood or secretions, cleaning with an alcoholic swab was the most common method (64.3%). In univariate and multivariate analyses, history of receiving information on stethoscope cleaning, utilization of personal stethoscope at last use and affiliation with internal medicine department were factors strongly associated with ever cleaning of stethoscope. Future research for improving stethoscope cleaning practices should explore educational interventions aimed at health care professionals.

  7. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  8. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  9. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  10. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  11. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  13. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  14. Gas plant cleaning case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, B

    1971-03-22

    Basic steps to be taken before using any cleaning method are select a responsible group and give it full responsibility; know the problem, what type of fouling, lab samples, amount of material, time and cost; sell the idea to management; maintain the cleaning equipment; and follow up each cleaning operation. These principles have been applied to advantage in the amine contractor at Taylor, a vessel 60 ft high with 78-in. OD, containing carbon steel deck trays with stainless steel caps. The original attempt to clean with wire scrapers manually involved much lost time and several crews. There was limited space in the tray vessels, design created areas difficult to clean, working conditions were unpleasant, equipment downtime was extended, labor cost was high, and the final result was not satisfactory. Chemical cleaning was substituted, preceded by a water wash. Five hours of caustic wash with a 3% solution at 170$F were followed by a water wash, an acid wash, 1-hr neutralization with a weak soda ash solution, and finally passivation to eliminate iron oxide. For the acid wash, sulfamic acid was found best, in 10% concentration for 4 hr. Cascading was most economical, but flooding has been employed sometimes at 2-1/2 times the cost, to reach all the dark corners.

  15. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  16. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  17. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Djeison Cesar Batista; Márcio Pereira da Rocha; Ricardo Jorge Klitzke

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i) drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii) ph...

  19. Phyllanthus muellerianus and C6H15NO3 synergistic effects on 0.5 M H2SO4-immersed steel-reinforced concrete: Implication for clean corrosion-protection of wind energy structures in industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Loto, Cleophas Akintoye

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 (triethanolamine: TEA) synergistic effects on reinforcing-steel corrosion-inhibition and the compressive-strength of steel-reinforced concrete immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4. This is to assess suitability of the synergistic admixture usage for wind-energy steel-reinforced concrete structures designed for industrial environments. Steel-reinforced concrete specimens were admixed with individual and synergistic designs of Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures and immersed in the 0.5 M H2SO4. Electrochemical monitoring of corrosion potential, as per ASTM C876-91 R99, and corrosion current were obtained and statistically analysed, as per ASTM G16-95 R04, for modelling noise resistance. Post-immersion compressive-strength testing then followed, as per ASTM C39/C39M-03, for detailing the admixture effect on load-bearing strength of the steel-reinforced concrete specimens. Results showed that while individual Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract concentrations exhibited better inhibition-efficiency performance than C6H15NO3, synergistic additions of C6H15NO3 to Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract improved steel-rebar corrosion-inhibition. Thus, 6 g Phyllanthus muellerianus + 2 g C6H15NO3 synergistically improved inhibition-efficiency to η = 84.17%, from η = 55.28% by the optimal chemical or from η = 74.72% by the optimal plant-extract admixtures. The study also established that improved compressive strength of steel-reinforced concrete with acceptable inhibition of the steel-rebar corrosion could be attained through optimal combination of the Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures.

  20. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  1. Clean mobility; future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    As much the energy as the transport have been fundamental pillars of the humanity's development. Their importance is evidenced when observing the map of Colombia: our more old, bigger or more important cities are located along the axis demarcated by the natural access roads of our geography: the rivers Magdalena and Cauca. Regions of big natural wealth, as the oriental plains, are punctually developed and you only consent to the progress when roads that connect them with the rest of the country appear. The transport allows the connection among the sources of resources, the production complexes and the consumption centers. It is clear that it has deep relationship with the employment, the health, the education and other activities that impact in the quality of life of the towns and it also constitutes the essential nucleus of industrial and commercial processes to whose surroundings rotate the economic development of regions or countries. Without physical access to resources and markets is stagnation of the development and the mitigation of the poverty is untenable in the time. During the second half of the century nineteen, with the population's growth and of the trade activities, derived of the industrial revolution, the sector transports it was developed in two big fronts of a part, it gave answer to the necessities of mobility in the nascent cities and of another it connected the productive centers with the consumption centers in the whole orb. In that time, the commercialization of products to scale World cup demanded that they became more and more long journeys, in a quicker way and with more load. The appearance of the machine of vapor constituted an important answer for the challenge faced by the means of that time transport, because it substituted sources of low energy density as and wind in the marine sailing and the animal traction for the mobility of people and of terrestrial load. At the beginning of the present century, the motors of internal

  2. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  3. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  5. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  6. Comparative study of aqueous and solvent methods for cleaning metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Goad, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the comparative effectiveness of solvent and aqueous detergent methods for cleaning various metals. The metals investigated included 304L stainless steel, beryllium, uranium-6.5 wt percent niobium alloy, and unalloyed uranium ( 238 U). The studies were initiated in response to governmental regulations restricting the use of some chlorinated solvents. Results showed that aqueous detergent cleaning was more effective than solvents, i.e. trichloroethylene and methyl chloroform, for the removal of light industrial soils. The subsequent adoption of aqueous cleaning at this plant has facilitated waste disposal, which contributed to recorded economic savings. The controlled use of aqueous detergents is environmentally acceptable and has decreased the hazards of fire and toxicity that are generally associated with solvents. 8 tables, 15 figures

  7. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  9. Steam generator secondary side chemical cleaning at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, S.

    2006-01-01

    After more than 20 years of operation, the secondary side of the four steam generators at Gentilly-2 were chemically cleaned during the 2005 annual outage. The FRAMATOME ANP high temperature cleaning process used to remove magnetite loading involved stepwise injection of solvent with PHT temperature in the range 160 o C to 175 o C. The heat required to maintain the PHT temperature was provided by the operation of the main PHT pumps and the reactor core residual heat. The temperature control was accomplished by the shutdown cooling system heat exchangers. A total of 1280 kg of magnetite was removed from the four steam generators. A copper-cleaning step was applied after the iron step. The PHT has been cooled down and the steam generators drained to temporary tanks and dried in preparation of the copper step. The process has been applied at room temperature, two boilers at a time. The solvent removed a total of 116 kg of copper. During the iron step, steam flow to the feedwater tank chemically contaminate the Balance Of Plant (BOP) systems. The isolation of this path should have been part of the G2 procedures. Around 700 m3 of water had to be drained to interim storage tanks for subsequent resin treatment before disposal. Visual inspection of BO1 tubesheet and first support plate showed clean surfaces without measurable sludge pile. Upper support plates visual inspection of BO4 revealed that broach holes blockage reported in 2000 is still present in peripheral area. Following the plant restart, the medium range level measurement instability observed since several years for BO3 was no more present. As anticipated, it also has been observed that the medium and wide range level measurements have shifted down as a result of downcomer flow increase after the cleaning. The cleaning objectives were achieved regarding the fouling reduction on the steam generators secondary side but broach holes blockage of the upper support plate is still present in periphery. (author)

  10. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  11. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based...... on an experimental study, a technology called clean air heat pump is proposed as a practical approach for indoor air cleaning....

  12. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  13. Alberta's clean energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the future of clean energy in Alberta. With the present economic growth of the oil sands industry in Alberta, it is expected that there will be very considerable increases in job opportunities and GDP in both Canada and US. The challenges include high-energy demand and reduction of the carbon footprint. Alberta has adopted certain approaches to developing renewable and alternate forms of energy as well as to increasing the efficiency of present energy use and raising environmental consciousness in energy production. Three areas where the effects of clean energy will be felt are energy systems, climate change, and regional impacts, for instance on land, water, and wildlife. Alberta's regulatory process is shown by means of a flow chart. Aspects of oil sands environmental management include greenhouse gas targets, air quality assurance, and water quality monitoring, among others. Steps taken by Alberta to monitor and improve air quality and water management are listed. In conclusion, the paper notes that significant amounts of money are being pumped into research and development for greenhouse gas and water management projects.

  14. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  15. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  16. Stethoscope Cleaning During Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Ghazi Wahla; Ahmad, Nina; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in two community teaching hospitals to better understand clinicians' beliefs and practices related to cleaning of their stethoscopes. The study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2016. Among the total 358 responses received, 45%, 40%, 10% and 5% were from attending physicians, medical students, nurses, and resident physicians, respectively. Although the majority of the respondents (76%) frequently used a stethoscope at work, and almost all (93%) believed that stethoscopes can be involved in pathogen transmission, only 29% of participants reported cleaning their stethoscopes after every use. Hospitals should include stethoscope cleaning into their overall infection prevention efforts. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-05.asp].

  17. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  18. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  19. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  20. Cleaning of road accessories with powdered sodium bicarbonate; Jutansan natrium ryu wo mochiita doro fuzokubutsu no senjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H.; Amagori, Y.; Mori, E. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-25

    A method for cleaning highway accessories with powdered sodium bicarbonate is developed, to replace mechanical cleaning by a multi-purpose vehicle or manual cleaning, and thereby to reduce road maintenance cost. It pneumatically blows sodium bicarbonate particles by a blaster connected to a water tank and compressor onto a variety of stains to remove them. The cleaning system is applicable to a variety of purposes, allowing dry and wet cleaning modes to be easily switched from each other. Sodium bicarbonate, being naturally occurring, is harmless, and its type can be freely chosen. This method was applied in FY1996 mainly to cleaning interior plates in highways, to collect the basic data. Its cleaning effectiveness has been confirmed by applying it to the internal plates, which are difficult to clean by a multi-purpose vehicle, and illuminators in tunnels, whose cleaning areas are narrow. It recovers reflectivity of plates to 85% of the initial level at the highest, and shows 3 times higher efficiency for heavily stained plates. The test was continued in FY1997. It shows an approximately 5 times higher cleaning capacity than the conventional method, greatly reducing cleaning time, especially for illuminators in tunnels. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  2. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  3. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  4. Development of a method to determine the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores in milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia Ostrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial damages caused by biofilm forming bacteria in the dairy industry are a fundamental threat to safety and quality of dairy products. In order to ensure the optimal level of equipment hygiene in the dairy industry, it is necessary to determine the biofilm removal efficiency of cleaning agents used for cleaning-in-place procedures. However, currently there is no standard method available for evaluating and comparing cleaning agents for use in cleaning-in-place procedures in the dairy industry under realistic conditions. The present study aims to establish a cleaning-in-place model system to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores from the surfaces of stainless steel which is the predominant substrate in milking equipment on dairy farms. The system is based on Bacillus subtilis spores surrounded with exopolymeric substances produced by bacteria during biofilm formation. The spores applied on sampling plates were mounted on T-junctions protruding 1.5 – 11-times the milk pipe diameter from the main loop to resemble different levels of cleaning difficulty. The cleaning tests were conducted using commercial alkaline detergents and caustic soda at conditions which are relevant to actual farm environment. The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates before and after cleaning. Evaluation of the cleaning and disinfecting effect of cleaning agents towards biofilm derived spores was further performed, which indicates whether spores elimination effect of an agent is due to killing the spores or removing them from the surfaces of dairy equipment. Moreover, it was established that the presence of extracellular matrix is an important factor responsible for high level of cleaning difficulty characteristic for surface attached spores. In overall, the results of this study suggest that the developed model system simulates actual farm conditions for

  5. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  6. Surface fixation of dried blood by glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Bloss, R; Martiny, H

    2004-06-01

    The difficulties of successful prion inactivation by chemical agents has led to changes in recommendations regarding the reprocessing of instruments including flexible endoscopes. One of the changes is the preference for peracetic acid instead of glutaraldehyde in order to avoid fixation of organic material, but the surface fixation by various active agents has not been fully investigated. We used a standardized amount of dried blood soil on metal carriers (on average 22 mg). One part of the carriers was exposed to different disinfectants (four based on peracetic acid, three based on glutaraldehyde, two based on quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), one based on QAC and amines, one based on phenols and one cleaning agent) and air dried. The difference compared with the non-exposed soiled carrier was taken as the measure of blood removal by exposure to the disinfectants. In addition the other part of the carriers was exposed to a cleaning agent and air dried. The cleaning agent itself was capable of removing more than 99% of the dried blood and served as a control for non-fixation. The rate of fixation of dried blood was calculated as the ratio of the weight of residual soil on 'soiled, disinfected and cleaned' carriers and on 'soiled and disinfected' carriers. All experiments were repeated eight times. Blood removal varied between 90.3% +/- 1.5% (phenol-based disinfectant) and peracetic acid. No other preparations showed a potential for blood fixation (peracetic acid, and support the evidence that effective cleaning should precede the chemical disinfection. Copyright 2004 The Hospital Infection Society

  7. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  8. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  9. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The boom of clean energies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.

    2009-01-01

    The author outlines the strong current development of wind and solar energy in China, with an increasing and already rather high wind energy production, and a solar panel production which is, until now, mostly exported. He observes that the development of these industries is based on economic, political and security issues: China is now strongly dependent on energy imports (even coal imports), looks to reduce the social cost of pollution and environment degradation, and wants to be a major actor of the renewable energy sector. The development of this sector is mainly financed by public investments, but the clean sector is weakened by the slow development of distribution networks, and by a too fragmented production market. The author discusses the new approach adopted by the Chinese government to overcome these drawbacks, and the consequences of this approach for the international context

  11. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  12. New, clean handling process introduced to improve cable quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C G

    1990-05-01

    The clean room system introduced by Canada Wire and Cable Limited in its Toronto plant for its cable manufacturing operation is described. While clean room technology is common in the food processing industry, optical and aerospace manufacturing processes, this is the first time it has been applied to wire and cable extrusion in North America. The purpose of the clean compound handling system is to prevent particle contamination in the shielding and cable insulation materials, as part of an effort to prevent premature underground electric cable failures. Two rooms are dedicated to handling different types of insulation compound, two are dedicated to receiving semi-conducting shielding material, and the fifth room functions as an air lock for the two insulation rooms. The atmosphere is highly regulated with programmable logic control. The air supply filters capture 99.97% of all particles 0.3 microns or larger. The system also maintains air temperature, relative humidity and static pressure. The life variability of cross-linked polyethylene primary distribution cable is dependant on five factors: material purity, extra clean compound handling, cable design, manufacturing process, and installation and operation practices. The clean room system is expected to result in cable that is more resistant to water treeing failures. 2 figs.

  13. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  14. Efficacy of low-pressure foam cleaning compared to conventional cleaning methods in the removal of bacteria from surfaces associated with convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, A A; Human, I S; Doughari, J H; Lues, J F R

    2014-09-01

    Food borne illnesses and food poisoning are cause for concern globally. The diseases are often caused by food contamination with pathogenic bacteria due largely to poor sanitary habits or storage conditions. Prevalence of some bacteria on cleaned and sanitised food contact surfaces from eight convenience food plants in Gauteng (South Africa) was investigated with the view to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning methods used with such food contact surfaces. The microbial load of eight convenience food manufacturing plants was determined by sampling stainless steel food contact surfaces after they had been cleaned and sanitised at the end of a day's shift. Samples were analysed for Total Plate Count (TPC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria species. Results showed that 59 % of the total areas sampled for TPC failed to comply with the legal requirements for surfaces, according to the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act ( 0.05) in terms of Listeria species isolates obtained from both cleaning methods. The LPF method proved to be the superior cleaning option for lowering TPC counts. Regardless of cleaning method used, pathogens continued to flourish on various surfaces, including dry stainless steel, posing a contamination hazard for a considerable period depending on the contamination level and type of pathogen. Intensive training for proper chemical usage and strict procedural compliance among workers for efficient cleaning procedures is recommended.

  15. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  16. Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengüç, Yigit; Röhrig, Michael; Abusomwan, Uyiosa; Hölscher, Hendrik; Sitti, Metin

    2014-05-06

    The exceptionally adhesive foot of the gecko remains clean in dirty environments by shedding contaminants with each step. Synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives have achieved similar attachment strengths to the gecko on smooth surfaces, but the process of contact self-cleaning has yet to be effectively demonstrated. Here, we present the first gecko-inspired adhesive that has matched both the attachment strength and the contact self-cleaning performance of the gecko's foot on a smooth surface. Contact self-cleaning experiments were performed with three different sizes of mushroom-shaped elastomer microfibres and five different sizes of spherical silica contaminants. Using a load-drag-unload dry contact cleaning process similar to the loads acting on the gecko foot during locomotion, our fully contaminated synthetic gecko adhesives could recover lost adhesion at a rate comparable to that of the gecko. We observed that the relative size of contaminants to the characteristic size of the microfibres in the synthetic adhesive strongly determined how and to what degree the adhesive recovered from contamination. Our approximate model and experimental results show that the dominant mechanism of contact self-cleaning is particle rolling during the drag process. Embedding of particles between adjacent fibres was observed for particles with diameter smaller than the fibre tips, and further studied as a temporary cleaning mechanism. By incorporating contact self-cleaning capabilities, real-world applications of synthetic gecko adhesives, such as reusable tapes, clothing closures and medical adhesives, would become feasible.

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  18. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  19. Laser decontamination and cleaning of metal surfaces: modelling and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontyev, A.

    2011-01-01

    Metal surface cleaning is highly required in different fields of modern industry. Nuclear industry seeks for new methods for oxidized surface decontamination, and thermonuclear installations require the cleaning of plasma facing components from tritium-containing deposited layer. The laser ablation is proposed as an effective and safe method for metal surface cleaning and decontamination. The important factor influencing the laser heating and ablation is the in-depth distribution of laser radiation. The model of light propagation in a scattering layer on a metal substrate is developed and applied to analyse the features of light distribution. To simulate the contaminated surfaces, the stainless steel AISI 304L was oxidized by laser and in a furnace. Radioactive contamination of the oxide layer was simulated by introducing europium and/or sodium. The decontamination factor of more than 300 was demonstrated with found optimal cleaning regime. The decreasing of the corrosion resistance was found after laser cleaning. The ablation thresholds of ITER-like surfaces were measured. The cleaning productivity of 0.07 m 2 /hour.W was found. For mirror surfaces, the damage thresholds were determined to avoid damage during laser cleaning. The possibility to restore reflectivity after thin carbon layer deposition was demonstrated. The perspectives of further development of laser cleaning are discussed. (author) [fr

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  1. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  2. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  3. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system [it

  4. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  5. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...

  6. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  7. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  8. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  9. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  10. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  11. US Department of Energy first annual clean coal technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The first public review of the US DOE/Industry co-funded program to demonstrate the commercial readiness of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) was held at Cleveland, Ohio Sept. 22--24, 1992. The objectives were to provide electric utilities, independent power producers, and potential foreign users information on the DOE-supported CCT projects including status, results, and technology performance potential; to further understanding of the institutional, financial, and technical considerations in applying CCTs to Clean Air Act compliance strategies; to discuss to export market, financial and institutional assistance, and the roles of government and industry in pursuing exports of CCTs; and to facilitate meetings between domestic and international attendees to maximize export opportunities

  12. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Exploratory Development for Air Force Systems. Delivery Order 0001: Quick Reaction NDE and Characterization--Effects of Chemical Effects of Chemical Etching after Pre-Inspection Mechanical Cleaning on Fluorescent Penetrant Indications of Fatigue Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specimen 625 -58 Cleaned with 50-ksi Water Jet ....................... 18 Figure 12. SEM Images of Inconel Specimen 626-63 Cleaned with 50-ksi Water...SEM Images of Inconel Specimen 626-22 Cleaned with Wet Glass Bead.......................... 21 Figure 15. SEM Images of Titanium Specimen 625 -02...Figure 18. SEM Images of Titanium Specimen 625 -40 Cleaned with Dry Al2O3 (240 grit) ............... 24 Figure 19. SEM Images of Inconel Specimen

  14. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  15. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  16. Floor cleaning: effect on bacteria and organic materials in hospital rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B M; Rasch, M; Kvist, J; Tollefsen, T; Lukkassen, R; Sandvik, L; Welo, A

    2009-01-01

    Routine surface cleaning is recommended to control the spread of pathogens in hospital environments. In Norway, ordinary cleaning of patient rooms is traditionally performed with soap and water. In this study, four floor-mopping methods--dry, spray, moist and wet mopping--were compared by two systems using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence (Hygiena and Biotrace). These systems assess residual organic soil on surfaces. The floor-mopping methods were also assessed by microbiological samples from the floor and air, before and after cleaning. All methods reduced organic material on the floors but wet and moist mopping seemed to be the most effective (P < 0.001, P < 0.011, respectively, ATP Hygiena). The two ATP methods were easy to use, although each had their own reading scales. Cleaning reduced organic material to 5-36% of the level present before cleaning, depending upon mopping method. All four mopping methods reduced bacteria on the floor from about 60-100 to 30-60 colony-forming units (cfu)/20cm2 floor. Wet, moist and dry mopping seemed to be more effective in reducing bacteria on the floor, than the spray mopping (P=0.007, P=0.002 and P=0.011, respectively). The burden of bacteria in air increased for all methods just after mopping. The overall best cleaning methods seemed to be moist and wet mopping.

  17. Review of cleaning techniques and their effects on the chemical composition of foliar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Raitio, H.

    2003-07-01

    Chemical foliar analysis is a tool widely used to study tree nutrition and to monitor the impact and extent of air pollutants. This paper reviews a number of cleaning methods, and the effects of cleaning on foliar chemistry. Cleaning may include mechanical techniques such as the use of dry or moistened tissues, shaking, blowing, and brushing, or use various washing techniques with water or other solvents. Owing to the diversity of plant species, tissue differences, etc., there is no standard procedure for all kinds of samples. Analysis of uncleaned leaves is considered a good method for assessing the degree of air contamination because it provides an estimate of the element content of the deposits on leaf surfaces or when the analysis is aimed at the investigation of transfer of elements along the food chain. Sample cleaning is recommended in order (1) to investigate the transfer rate of chemical elements from soil to plants, (2) to qualify the washoff of dry deposition from foliage and (3) to separate superficially absorbed and biomass-incorporated elements. Since there is not a standard cleaning procedure for all kinds of samples and aims, it is advised to conduct a pilot study in order to be able to establish a cleaning procedure to provide reliable foliar data. (orig.)

  18. Potter's Industries tests of spherical frit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.L.; Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Potter's Industries has been collaborating with Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) concerning application of glass beads in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Potter's has previously supplied SRL with 2000 lbs of spheroidized Frit 131 for experimental development. Representatives of Potter's Industries visited SRL recently to discuss results of blasting tests and pumpability tests comparing beads to frit. These tests were conducted at their laboratory facilities in New Jersey. Their blasting work suggested speed of cleaning was higher with frit media than with bead media; however, metal-to-oxide removal ratios were also higher with frit media. Fracture rate of beads used in dry blasting tests was excessive. Low fracture rates were found in -80 +200 mesh beads used in wet blasting tests. Blasting with bead media produced a shiny peened surface while frit media produced a dull matte surface. Some frit impregnation was noted in blasting with -20 +80 frit. Pumpability of bead/water slurries was superior to frit/water slurries at 40 wt % concentrations. 4 tables

  19. Dry desulfurization product as raw material for building components. Afsvovlingstoerprodukt som raavare fortrinsvis i byggematerialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J P; Tram, B

    1988-05-01

    The report describes a number of investigations carried out with the purpose of finding useful applications for a waste product form the flue-gas cleaning process at coal-fired power plants, especially applications in the field of industrial building components. The waste product originates from a cleaning device, where the content of sulphur dioxide is removed from the flue-gas by the so called spray absorption method, developed by the Danish company Niro Atomizer A/S. The product is a finely divided, dry powder, consisting of a mix of calcium sulfite, calcium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride and fly ash. Trials were made, using the waste product mainly as a filler in the following products: Brick mortar, flue for ceramic tiles, stopping, filler for plastic paint, filler for plastics, filler for paper and paper-coating, autoclaved light-weight concrete, autoclaved fibre-cement sheets. The investigations has shown some interesting possiblilities for the use of named waste product in light-weight concrete, where good mechanical properties could be obtained, using a raw material mix, consisting mainly of the sulfuric waste product and fly ash. Also used as a filler in fibre-cement sheets, the waste material showed some interesting abilities. The waste product affects the properties of cellulosefibre reinforced sheets with a cementsilica matrix in a way, that leads to increased toughness of these, often rather brittle sheets. The MOR however will decrease slightly. (EG).

  20. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch Extracts. ... Cassava starch is one of the main industrial products of cassava processing. ... Also, cassava starch samples dried at lower temperature have better functional and ...