WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry active waste

  1. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  2. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  3. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  4. Addition of polyaluminiumchloride (PACl) to waste activated sludge to mitigate the negative effects of its sticky phase in dewatering-drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Dewil, Raf; Vernimmen, Luc; Van den Bogaert, Benno; Smets, Ilse Y

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new application of polyaluminiumchloride (PACl) as a conditioner for waste activated sludge prior its dewatering and drying. It is demonstrated at lab scale with a shear test-based protocol that a dose ranging from 50 to 150 g PACl/kg MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids) mitigates the stickiness of partially dried sludge with a dry solids content between 25 and 60 %DS (dry solids). E.g., at a solids dryness of 46% DS the shear stress required to have the pre-consolidated sludge slip over a steel surface is reduced with 35%. The salient feature of PACl is further supported by torque data from a full scale decanter centrifuge used to dewater waste sludge. The maximal torque developed by the screw conveyor inside the decanter centrifuge is substantially reduced with 20% in the case the sludge feed is conditioned with PACl. The beneficial effect of waste sludge conditioning with PACl is proposed to be the result of the bound water associated with the aluminium polymers in PACl solutions which act as a type of lubrication for the intrinsically sticky sludge solids during the course of drying. It can be anticipated that PACl addition to waste sludge will become a technically feasible and very effective method to avoid worldwide fouling problems in direct sludge dryers, and to reduce torque issues in indirect sludge dryers as well as in sludge decanter centrifuges.

  5. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadkia, M.; Gholami, M.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.; Yaghmaeian, K.; Shams Khorramabadi, G.

    2009-07-01

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  6. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  7. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  8. Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of technology for Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste (MEFDSW) is proposed. The present state of the art for solid waste stabilization using...

  9. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

    2003-02-24

    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  10. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  11. Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of advanced methods for Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste (MEFDSW) is proposed. Methods for the recovery of relatively pure water as a...

  12. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  13. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg(-1)waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry fermentation of organic waste; Trockenfermentation von organischen Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoridis, J. [BEKON Energy Technologies GmbH und Co. KG, Unterfoehring (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The dry fermentation according to the BEKON process enables a methanization of throwable biomasses from the agriculture and from the waste management without transferring the materials into a pumpable liquid substrate. In July 2003, the first dry fermentation plant according to the patented BEKON process could be taken into operation at the location Munich. Up to 8,000 tons of biological wastes from separated collection are processed annually. In the context of a scientific research program, the most important operating parameters were included. In the contribution under consideration, results from the practical operation are presented. Although the concept of the plant has minimized the expenditure for the mechanical treatment and the mixing of the fermentation substrate, so far acceptable yields of biogas could be determined for the assigned substrates. The yields lie in a range comparable to other fermentation processes which realize a higher expenditure during the mechanical preparation of substrate.

  15. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  16. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  17. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  18. Thermo gravimetric and kinetic studies on dried solid waste of post-methanated distillery effluent under oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, C; Premalatha, M

    2014-12-01

    This work seeks for the possibility of using solid waste generated by drying the post-methanated distillery effluent, as fuel. TGA has been employed to analyse the kinetics of thermal degradation of the solid waste at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, and 40°Cmin(-1) in pyrolysis and combustion modes. In combustion mode, the activation energy changes from 253.58 to 87.91kJmol(-1), corresponding to the changes in heating rates of 10°Cmin(-1) to 40°Cmin(-1), whereas, there is no significant change of activation energy in pyrolysis mode. The Arrhenius equation based kinetic model with regression analysis using LINEST function is able to predict the kinetic variables of dried solid waste in both the modes. Solid waste almost completely degrades at the end of isothermal condition in pyrolysis mode.

  19. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study

    OpenAIRE

    Khedkar, Manisha; Nimbalkar, Pranhita; Gaikwad, Shashank; Chavan, Prakash; Bankar, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol- ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60–120 C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE pro...

  20. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasol, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  1. Evaluation of radwaste minimization program of dry and wet active waste in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant; Evolucion del programa de minimizacion de desechos solidos secos y humedos en la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Garza, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Veracruz (Mexico). Central Nucleoeletrica Laguna Verde; Zarate-Montoya, Norma [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    A growing rate of radwaste volume production combined with an increase of both, costs and associated dose involved in its treatment and disposition processes have created a serious problem to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (BWR, two Units, 682 Mwe each) in Mexico. Due the lack of a Final Repository in the country, the solution in the short or long terms relies on the success of a continuous and aggressive minimization program mainly based on modifications and upgrades applied to these processes. Technical and administrative strategies adopted by LVNPP for the reduction of Liquid Effluents and Dry and Wet Active Waste in the next three years are described. Based on the results of the LVNPP current radwaste process systems, an estimated accumulation of 11,502 m{sup 3} by the year 2035 will exceed the actual on-site storage capacity. If the strategies succeed, this production would fall to an expected manageable volume of 4067 m{sup 3}. (author)

  2. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste

  3. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste

  4. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  5. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  6. Drying Pre-treatment on Empty Fruit Whole Bunches of Oil Palm Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalib, N. Che; Abdullah, N.; Sulaiman, F.

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on the drying pre-treatment on whole empty fruit bunches [EFB] oil palm wastes. The drying process of whole EFB wastes by conventional method is investigated using the conventional oven in order to obtain less than 10 mf wt % moisture content. Normally, the biomass is dried to less than 10 mf wt % in most laboratory experiments and commercial processes for thermal conversion technologies such as pyrolysis. The result shows that the moisture content of EFB of less than 10 mf wt % is achieved after 29 hours of drying process.

  7. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  8. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- c

  9. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brummeler, E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIO

  10. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  11. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  12. Start-up performances of dry anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of organic solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shu-guang; IMAI Tsuyoshi; UKITA Masao; SEKINE Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    Two dry anaerobic digestions of organic solid wastes were conducted for 6 weeks in a lab-scale batch experiment for investigating the start-up performances under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The enzymatic activities,i.e., β-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-α -benzoyl-L-argininamide (BAA)-hydrolysing protease, urease and phosphatase activities were analysed. The lower BAA-hydrolysing protease activity during the first 2-3 weeks was due to the inhibition of the low pH, but was enhanced simultaneously later with the pH increase. β-glucosidase activity showed the lowest values in weeks 1-2, and recovered simultaneously with the increase of BAA-hydrolysing protease activity. Acetic acid dominated most of the total VFAs in thermophilic digestion, while propionate and butyrate dominated in mesophilic digestion. Thermophilic digestion is confirmed more feasible for achieving better performance against misbalance, especially during the start-up period in a dry anaerobic digestion process.

  13. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Al-Kayiem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in four different drying modes, namely, open sun, mixed direct and indirect solar, thermal backup, and hybrid. The results from the four modes used to dry 2.5 kg of EFB were summarized and compared. The results indicated that the solar drying mode required around 52 to 80 hours to dry the EFB, while the open sun drying mode required 100 hours. Usage of the thermal backup as heat source reduced the drying time to 48–56 hours. With the hybrid mode, the drying time was considerably reduced to 24–32 hours. The results demonstrate that the combined solar and thermal backup effectively enhanced the drying performance. The application of a solar dryer with a biomass burner is practical for massive production of solid fuels from EFB.

  14. Waste heat potentials in the drying section of the paper machine in Umka Cardboard Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper production is one of the most energy intensive industrial processes. The use of waste heat is very important for energy efficiency improvement in paper industry. This paper deals with methods for calculation of potentials of waste heat generated in paper/board production process. For that purpose, the material and heat balance of the cardboard machine at Umka Cardboard Mill has been determined. Field measurements were conducted in order to define the unknown values of process parameters used for calculation in the balance equations and modelling. The focus was given to the cardboard drying section, which consumes most of the energy supplied to the machine. Additional aim of the work presented in the paper was to evaluate the specific energy consumption and the thermal efficiency of all individual energy units within the machine’s drying section. The results indicate two main sources of waste heat: waste heat released to the atmosphere with the discharge air from the present waste heat recovery system (14,380 kW; and waste heat released into the hall from the machine and extracted by the hall ventilation system (4,430 kW. Waste heat from both sources is characterized by fairly low temperatures 58-75ºС and fairly high moisture content (30-40 g/kg. The waste heat can be partly utilized for preheating the fresh air in cardboard drying process, saving up to 13% of steam consumption. The specific heat consumption and specific steam consumption (consumption per tonne of produced cardboard of the machine was 1,490 kWh/t and 1.4 t/t, respectively. The thermal efficiency of drying section and coating drying section was 55.6% and 33.6%, respectively. All these figures imply necessity for further waste heat utilization with the aim of improving the efficiency of energy use.

  15. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  16. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-01

    At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m3/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  17. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    H. H. Al-Kayiem; Y. Md Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in fou...

  18. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable.

  19. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  20. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  1. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  2. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  3. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Issues related to waste sewage sludge drying under superheated steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawand Ihsan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge was dried in a rotary drum dryer under superheated steam. Particle size and moisture content were shown to have significant influences on sticking and agglomeration of the materials. Pouring partially dried sludge (70–80% moisture content, wet basis directly into the screw feeder of the drum dryer resulted in a significant sticking to the surface of the drum and the final particle size of the product was greater than 100 mm in diameter. The moisture content of this product was slightly less than its initial value. To overcome this issue, the sludge was mixed with lignite at variety ratios and then chopped before being introduced to the feeding screw. It was found that mixing the sludge with lignite and then sieving the chopped materials through a four millimetre mesh sieve was the key to solve this issue. This technique significantly reduced both stickiness and agglomeration of the material. Also, this enabled for a significant reduction in moisture content of the final product.

  5. Radioactive waste caracterisation by neutron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Tangi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce radioactive wastes classified following their radioactive level and decay time. An accurate characterization is necessary for efficient classification and management. Medium and high level wastes containing long lived radioactive isotopes will be stored in deep geological storage for hundreds of thousands years. At the end of this period, it is essential to ensure that the wastes do not represent any risk for humans and environment, not only from radioactive point o...

  6. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  7. Combined influence of growth and drying conditions on the activity of dried Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, L.J.M.; Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Riet, K.V. van 't

    1998-01-01

    The production of active dried starter cultures can be influenced at several levels in the production process. In this paper the following process factors are discussed: osmotic stress during growth and cell density prior to drying. Contradicting results are reported in the literature on the influen

  8. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-02-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60-120°C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE production. The production of ABE was further accomplished via acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation process. Maximum total sugar release obtained by using acid hydrolysis was 97g/L with 95-97% and 10-50% removal of phenolics and acetic acid, respectively during detoxification process. The maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.23g/L with 55.6% substrate consumption when samples dried at 120°C were used as a substrate (after detoxification). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluidized-bed potato waste drying experiments at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-06-01

    A fluidized-bed dryer was built and operated at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho to test the feasibility of using low-temperature (145/sup 0/C or lower) geothermal fluids as an energy source for drying operations. The dryer performed successfully on two potato industry waste products that had a solid content of 5 to 13%. The dried product was removed as a sand-like granular material or as fines with a flour-like texture. Test results, observations, and design recommendations are presented. Also presented is an economic evaluation for commercial-scale drying plants using either geothermal low-temperature water or oil as a heat source.

  10. Use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction for feeding lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANE FERNANDES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best level of utilization of dried waste of cassava starch extraction (WCSEd as a substitute for corn for lactating cows. Four lactating cows were fed diets with increasing levels (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of WCSEd as a substitute for corn. The intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, milk production and composition, blood parameters of glucose and urea and microbial synthesis of the diets were evaluated. There was a reduction in dry matter intake, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate, and increased intake of acid detergent fiber. Nutrient digestibility was not affected while the synthesis of microbial protein increased. These changes resulted in reduced milk production, without altering the efficiency of production or the constituents of milk, with a decreasing effect on daily production of lactose, solids and minerals. Metabolic parameters, glucose and urea nitrogen in plasma, remained within appropriate levels. The dried residue from the extraction of cassava starch can be used as feed for dairy cows to replace up to 100% of the corn ration. However, its use promotes a reduction in intake of dry matter and nutrients as well as a reduction in the production of milk, with impacts on the profitability of the product.

  11. Modeling ohmic heating in the drying zone of the plasma shaft electric furnace, when recycling the technogenic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferov, A. I.; Anshakov, A. S.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Domarov, P. V.; Danilenko, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Efficient use of ohmic heating in the drying zone of the plasma shaft furnace for gasification of organic and technogenic wastes is studied. It is shown that by using ohmic heating in the drying zone, energy release takes place in the filling along the entire zone.

  12. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla

    2013-05-10

    Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) via spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol. Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome formulations.

  13. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  14. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  15. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed under different drying methods to promote storage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, So'bah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Saleena Taip, Farah; Shamsudin, Rosnah; M, Siti Roha A.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of two drying methods, oven and microwave drying on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed were studied. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy are the main indicators used for moisture movement within the material. Hence, it is beneficial to determine an appropriate drying method to attain a final moisture content of rambutan seed that potentially could be used as secondary sources in the industry. An appropriate final moisture content will provide better storage stability that can extend the lifespan of the rambutan seed. The rambutan seeds were dried with two drying methods (oven and microwave) at two level of the process variables (oven temperature; 40°C and 60°C and microwave power; 250W and 1000W) at constant initial moisture contents. The result showed that a higher value of effective moisture diffusivity and less activation energy were observed in microwave drying compared to oven drying. This finding portrays microwave drying expedites the moisture removal to achieve the required final moisture content and the most appropriate drying method for longer storage stability for rambutan seed. With respect to the process variables; higher oven temperatures and lower microwave powers also exhibit similar trends. Hopefully, this study would provide a baseline data to determine an appropriate drying method for longer storage period for turning waste to by-products.

  16. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of simulated organic fraction of municipal solid waste: process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Güelfo, L A; Álvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2011-01-01

    Solid retention time (SRT) is a very important operational variable in continuous and semicontinuous waste treatment processes since the organic matter removal efficiency--expressed in terms of percentage of Dissolved Organic Carbon (% DOC) or Volatile Solids (% VS) removed--and the biogas or methane production are closely related with the SRT imposed. Optimum SRT is depending on the waste characteristics and the microorganisms involved in the process and, hence, it should be determined specifically in each case. In this work a series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of SRT, from 40 to 8 days, on the performance of the dry (30% Total Solids) thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (OFMSW) operating at semicontinuous regime of feeding. The experimental results show than 15days is the optimum SRT (the best between all proved) for this process. Besides, data of organic matter concentration and methane production versus SRT have been used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the kinetic model of Romero García (1991): the maximum specific growth rate of the microorganisms (μmax=0.580 days(-1)) and the fraction of substrate non-biodegradable (α=0.268).

  17. Dry anaerobic digestion of rejects from pre-treated food waste; Torroetning av rejekt fraan foerbehandling av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene [NSR, Helsingborg (Sweden); Murto, Marika; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Bioteknik, LTH, Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Haakan [Rosqvist Resurs, Klaagerup (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    When the organic fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is digested anaerobically in a continuously stirred tank reactor there is a need for a pretreatment to make the waste pumpable and remove contaminants. In one type of pretreatment the material passes through a screw press which separates waste in a liquid fraction and a dry fraction (the reject). At NSR this technique is used and at present the reject is incinerated. A previous study has shown that about 30 % of the methane potential of the incoming organic waste can be found in the reject. The aim of the present project was to investigate the possibilities of realizing the methane potential through batch wise dry anaerobic digestion followed by composting as an alternative to incineration. In the technique used in the present project the material was digested in an anaerobic leach-bed with recirculation of leachate over the bed. It is important that the material is sufficiently porous to let the leachate spread evenly through the leach-bed. Treatment of reject and a mixture of reject and structural material were tested to investigate if the addition of structural material had an effect on the porosity. The flow of liquid through a leach-bed of reject and one of reject mixed with structural material was studied using LiBr as tracer. The digestate from the dry digestion process was composted, and the resulting compost was evaluated. The odor from the digestate, the active compost and the compost product was measured by analyzing the odor in the air of the porous space in heaps of the different materials. This was used to evaluate the risk of odor problems. The dry digestion and the tracer experiment both showed that mixing the reject with structural material had a positive effect on the flow of liquid through the material and the digestion process. Addition of structural material to the reject was needed in order to achieve an efficient digestion process. Using tracers proved to be a useful way of

  18. PCDD/F enviromental impact from municipal solid waste bio-drying plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Zardi, D; Laiti, L; Ferrari, A

    2011-06-01

    The present work indentifies some environmental and health impacts of a municipal solid waste bio-drying plant taking into account the PCDD/F release into the atmosphere, its concentration at ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are presented for the process air treatment and management: biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation treatment, at two different heights. A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used in order to model the dispersion and deposition of the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere. Considerations on health risk, from different exposure pathways are presented using an original approach. The case of biofilter at ground level resulted the most critical, depending on the low dispersion of the pollutants. Suggestions on technical solutions for the optimization of the impact are presented.

  19. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  20. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  1. Feasibility of drying system using waste heat as the heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M. N.; Shi, Y. L.; Chen, L. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a wastewater heat pump system was proposed and its thermal performance was analyzed. The proposed system includes two evaporators: an air-source evaporator and a water-source evaporator. The air-source evaporator absorbs heat from the moist hot air which exhaust from the drying oven. The water-source evaporator absorbs heat from the waste water, while the waste water recovers heat from the mechanical energy, which was produced by cutting and polishing in stone production. The thermodynamic model was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The energetic analysis was carried out to investigate the influences of the temperature of fresh air. The results show significantly higher energy efficiency, compact-sized and energy-saving compared with the system which uses air as the heat source. Among the seven of alternative refrigerants (R152a, R123, R1234yf, R1234ze, R600a, R22 and R600) investigated, R123 was suggested to be used in this heat pump for its high heating efficiency, inflammable, very low ODP(Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP(Global warming potential).

  2. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  3. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  4. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  5. Oxidation of anthracene using waste Mn oxide minerals: the importance of wetting and drying sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Catherine; Tourney, Janette; Johnson, Karen

    2012-02-29

    PAHs are a common problem in contaminated urban soils due to their recalcitrance. This study presents results on the oxidation of anthracene on synthetic and natural Mn oxide surfaces. Evaporation of anthracene spiked Mn oxide slurries in air results in the oxidation of 30% of the anthracene to anthraquinone. Control minerals, quartz and calcite, also oxidised a small but significant proportion of the anthracene (4.5% and 14% conversion, respectively) when spiked mineral slurries were evaporated in air. However, only Mn oxide minerals showed significant anthracene oxidation (5-10%) when evaporation took place in the absence of oxygen (N2 atmosphere). In the fully hydrated systems where no drying took place, natural Mn oxides showed an increase in anthracene oxidation with decreasing pH, with a conversion of 75% anthracene at pH 4. These results show both acidification and drying favor the oxidation of anthracene on Mn oxide mineral surfaces. It has also been demonstrated that non-redox active mineral surfaces, such as calcite, may play a role in contaminant breakdown during wetting and drying sequences. Given that climate changes suggest that wetting and drying sequences are likely to become more significant these results have important implications for contaminated land remediation technologies.

  6. Recovery of rare metal compounds from nickel-metal hydride battery waste and their application to CH4 dry reforming catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Motohide; Miyake, Michihiro

    2009-09-30

    The recovery of valuable components such as nickel from nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery waste by chemical processes and their applications to CH(4) dry reforming catalysts were investigated. Three types of compound, identified by XRD analysis as NiO, CeO(2) and LaCoO(3) phases, were successfully separated from the waste by a series of chemical processes at room temperature using aqueous solutions of HCl, NaOH and NH(3), and Ni component of approximately 70% in Ni-MH battery waste was recovered. The separated NiO, CeO(2) and LaCoO(3) showed catalytic activities for CH(4) dry reforming. In particular, the separated NiO easily reduced to Ni(0) at an initial stage, and exhibited excellent catalytic activity in terms of CH(4) conversion and stability. Furthermore, it was found that the resulting Ni from separated NiO exhibited an anomalous catalysis from the comparison with that from regent NiO.

  7. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the

  8. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Motion analysis of waste rock in gas-solids fluidized bed in coal dry beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎福; 陈安华; 张永忠; 邓志鹏; 毛树楷

    2002-01-01

    Through the analysis of forces acting on the waste rock in the gas-solid fluidized bed, the waste rock velocity equations and displacement equations in the gas-solids fluidized bed were achieved and the influential factors of the waste rock motion in the fluidized bed were studied in this paper. The conclusions show that the primary factors influencing the waste rock motion are the waste rock grain size and the scraper velocity according to the computer simulation. This has provided the theoretical foundation both for improving the separating effect and ascertaining the length of the separating cell.

  10. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  11. Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala.

  12. International Symposium on Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste, Cordoba, Spain, 13-17 December 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The topical issues addressed by the symposium were: policies and strategies for low activity radioactive waste; very low activity radioactive waste; low activity radioactive waste from decommissioning; long lived low activity radioactive waste and other materials; and unique low activity radioactive waste.

  13. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-08-24

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  14. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  15. ISOLATION OF ENT-KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC AND ENT-TRACHILOBAN-19-OIC ACIDS FROM THE SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.DRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicon Ungur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of ultrasonic ... Key word: Waste activated sludge (WAS), ultrasonic, solubilization, disintegration degree, enzyme activity. ... burning and land filling, have been carried out for the disposal of ...

  17. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH4(+) and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  18. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol......Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties...... remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB) via...

  19. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides.

  20. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS(-1)), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS(-1)) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    tests with dried APC-residue than in tests with wet residues. The effect of drying appeared to be a combination of decreasing the reduction capacity of the sample (Cr), decreasing pH (Cd, Cu) and in column tests also a wash-out of salts (probably affecting Cd and Pb). If the leaching tests are intended...... to mimic landfill conditions, the results of this paper suggest that the tests should be done on wet, non-dried residue samples, although this may be less practical than testing dried samples....... for the batch and column leaching test; however, these standards do not specify whether or not the residue samples should be dried prior to the leaching testing. Laboratory tests were performed in parallel (dried/nondried) on treated APC-residue samples and evaluated with respect to Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn...

  2. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  3. Environmental Management of Human Waste Disposal for Recreational Boating Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer; Yoon

    1998-01-01

    / A methodology to estimate the number of pump-out facilities and dump stations required to service human waste disposal for recreational power boating activities in Pennsylvania during the 1994 boating season is described. Study results suggest that a total of 39 additional pump-out stations and 13 dump stations may be required on seven major waterbodies: The Three Rivers Area, Lake Erie/Presque Isle Bay, Raystown Lake, the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, Lake Wallenpaupack, and the Kinzua Reservoir. Suggestions for improving the methodology are provided. KEY WORDS: Human waste; Recreation; Power boating; Waste facilities; Waste disposal; Pennsylvania

  4. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    %. Proteins of Biobardins are inhomogeneous by their molecular mass and solubility in water and salt solutions. Both Biobardins are characterized by the mineral composition identical to the composition of relative distillers grains phase. During the experiments on animals practical nontoxicity and hepatotoxicity absence of Biobardins were established. Using prednisole stomach ulcers of rats as a model a signified gastroprotective influence of Biobardin BM was established. It was shown in a reduction of the number of ulcerative and hemorrhagic blennoses, secretory and proteolytic functions of stomach. Models of electroreduction, peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL of oleic acid, POL of egg yolk, and rats' hepatitis proved signified antioxidant activity of Biobardin UL which exceeds comparable substances by 8,3-30,1%; absence of fatty degeneration of rats' lever was shown under the influence of Biobardin UL. Composition of Biobardin BM and Biobardin UL pills as rational medicine form was justified and designed. Distillers grains processing allows reduction of industrial waste toxicity index – chemical consumption of oxygen (CCO by 74%, making distillers grains ecologically-friendly waste water.

  5. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  6. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 μmol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.

  7. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: Leaching and NMR multinuclear approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.ponzoni@unimore.it [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy); Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy); Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa [University of Palermo CGA-UniNetLab, Palermo (Italy); Martino, Delia Chillura [University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Caponetti, Eugenio [University of Palermo CGA-UniNetLab, Palermo (Italy); University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Armetta, Francesco [University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Leonelli, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Inertization of chromium liquid waste in aluminosilicate matrix. • Water less inertization technique exploiting the waste water content. • Liquid waste inertization without drying step. • Long term stabilization study through leaching test. • SEM analysis and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR in relation with long curing time. - Abstract: A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process - from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening - of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20% wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of T−O−T bonds (where T is Al or Si) by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for

  8. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  9. Characteristic and mercury adsorption of activated carbon produced by CO2 of chicken waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yaji; JIN Baosheng; ZHONG Zhaoping; ZHONG Wenqi; XIAO Rui

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from chicken waste is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for Hg removal.A three-stage activation process (drying at 200℃,pyrolysis in N2 atmosphere,followed by CO2 activation) was used for the production of activated samples.The effects of carbonization temperature (400-600 ℃),activation temperature (700-900 ℃),and activation time (1-2.5 h) on the physicochemieal properties (weight-loss and BET surface) of the prepared carbon were investigated.Adsorptive removal of mercury from real flue gas onto activated carbon has been studied.The activated carbon from chicken waste has the same mercury capacity as commercial activated carbon (Darco LH) (HgV:38.7% vs.53.5%,HgO:50.5% vs.68.8%),although its surface area is around 10 times smaller,89.5 m2/g vs.862 m2/g.The low cost activated carbon can be produced from chicken waste,and the procedure is suitable.

  10. Evaluation of dried bread waste as feedstuff for growing crossbred pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Biswajit Roy; G. P. Lakhani; Jain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect of bread waste feeding on feed intake, utilization and growth performance of crossbred pigs and to evaluate the economics of bread waste feeding. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 3 months (December, 2012-March, 2013). Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi) were included in the study. A total of 24 weaned crossbred growing pigs were randomly assigned to four different groups, with six animals in each group. The exp...

  11. A Comparative Evaluation of Dried Activated Sludge and Mixed Dried Activated Sudge with Rice Husk silica to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mehdinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dried activated sludge (DAS and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica (DAS & RHS for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Two laboratory-scale filter columns (packed one litter were operated. Both systems were operated under different conditions of two parameters, namely different inlet gas concentrations and different inlet flow rates. The DAS & RHS packed filter showed more than 99.96% removal efficiency (RE with empty bed residence time (EBRT of 45 to 90 s and 300 mg/L inlet concentration of H2S. However, the RE decreased to 96.87% with the EBRT of 30 s. In the same condition, the DAS packed filter showed 99.37% RE. Nonetheless, the RE was shown to have dropped to 82.09% with the EBRT of 30 s. The maximum elimination capacity (EC was obtained in the DAS & RHS packed filter up to 52.32 g/m3h, with the RE of 96.87% and H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. The maximum EC in the DAS packed filter was obtained up to 44.33 g/m3h with the RE of 82.09% and the H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. After 53 days of operating time and 54 g/m3h of loading rates, the maximum pressure drop reached to 3.0 and 8.0 (mm H2O for the DAS & RHS packed and DAS packed filters, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the DAS & RHS could be considered as a more suitable packing material to remove H2S.

  12. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  13. Quality factors, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of jet-tube dried rabbiteye blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Laura A; Pegg, Ronald B; Kerr, William L

    2013-06-01

    Rabbiteye blueberries are an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals. They are often dried, which can degrade health-promoting compounds. Means of shortening exposure to high-temperature drying air are desirable. Five cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries ('Premier', 'Tifblue', 'Brightwell', 'Alapaha', and 'Powderblue') were dried in a jet-tube fluidized bed air dryer with varying pretreatments including mechanical abrasion and osmotic dehydration. Drying time ranged from 66 to 95 min at 107 °C, achieving a final water activity of 0.347-0.605. Prior osmotic dehydration significantly reduced the drying time. Vacuum osmotic dehydration for 70 min achieved similar moisture contents to soaking blueberries for 24 h. Jet-tube dried blueberries exhibited greater color saturation than commercially available blueberries. While drying reduced the total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) content, this occurred to a lesser extent than by other processing methods. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (H-ORACFL values) increased after drying. 'Premier' was the most preferred vacuum-infused dried blueberry, with a water activity (aw) of 0.53 and 157 g H2O kg(-1). 'Tifblue' was most preferred amongst the overnight-infused and also unsweetened dried blueberries. Jet-tube drying can substantially reduce drying times while yielding blueberries with good color, sensory properties, TMA, TPC, and H-ORACFL values. Furthermore, some cultivars produce better-quality dried blueberries than others. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeena Beevi, B; Madhu, G; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day(-1).

  15. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajeena Beevi, B., E-mail: sajeenanazer@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala 680 009 (India); Madhu, G., E-mail: profmadhugopal@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India); Sahoo, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: dksahoo@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  16. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of freeze-dried raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, i.e. the total content of bioactive compounds (phenolics 2209.86 ± 70.32 mg GAE/100g FDR, flavonoids 831.87 ± 12.61 mg R/100g FDR and anthocyanins 144.55 ± 0.39 mg CGE/100g FDR, in freeze-dried raspberry (FDR was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Vitamin C content was determined by HPLC analysis (88.81 ± 4.38 mg vit C/100g FDR. Antioxidant activities of FDR extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically on stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR method on hydroxyl radicals (•OH. EC50 values were evaluated. EC50 DPPH• was 0.127 ± 0.013 mg/ml, while EC50 •OH was 1.366 ± 0.026 mg/ml. Antiproliferative activity of the FDR extract was evaluated in vitro in three human cell lines by colorimetric sulphorhodamine B (SRB assay. The most pronounced effects were obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7. EC50 value was 395.07 ± 96.38 μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity was determined by disk diffusion method. The FDR extract produced a clear inhibition zone (without visible colonies only toward Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal bactericidal (MBC concentrations of FDR extract were evaluated. The values MIC were in the range of 4.7 - 100 mg/ml, and of MBC in the range of 6.3 - > 100 mg/ml.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  17. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  18. Performance and carcass yield of barrows fed dried poultry waste as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... The use of poultry waste as a protein supplement for livestock has been .... formulated to totally replace the PKC in the reference diet. The proximate .... followed the same trend; N27,280 vs N24,640, respect- tively. The net ...

  19. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  20. A study of the impact of moist-heat and dry-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements migration in food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Qiu, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Using laboratory experiments, the authors investigated the impact of dry-heat and moist-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in food waste and explored their distribution patterns for three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components. The results indicated that an insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste-0.61-14.29% after moist-heat treatment and 4.53-12.25% after dry-heat treatment-and a significant reduction in hazardous trace elements (except for Hg without external addition) after centrifugal dehydration (P treatment, over 90% of the hazardous trace elements in the waste were detected in the aqueous and solid components, whereas only a trace amount of hazardous trace elements was detected in the oil component (treatment process did not significantly reduce the concentration of hazardous trace elements in food waste, but the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk considerably. Finally, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment on the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements. An insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste showed that heat treatment does not reduce trace elements contamination in food waste considerably, whereas the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk significantly. Moreover, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment for the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements, by exploring distribution patterns of trace elements in three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components.

  1. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN: Active Permitted Solid Waste Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains active permitted solid waste site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  2. Wet and dry cooling systems optimization applied to a modern waste-to-energy cogeneration heat and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barigozzi, G.; Perdichizzi, A.; Ravelli, S. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bergamo University (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    In Brescia, Italy, heat is delivered to 70% of 200.000 city inhabitants by means of a district heating system, mainly supplied by a waste to energy plant, utilizing the non recyclable fraction of municipal and industrial solid waste (800,000 tons/year, otherwise landfilled), thus saving annually over 150,000 tons of oil equivalent and over 400,000 tons of CO{sub 2} emissions. This study shows how the performance of the waste-to-energy cogeneration plant can be improved by optimising the condensation system, with particular focus on the combination of wet and dry cooling systems. The analysis has been carried out using two subsequent steps: in the first one a schematic model of the steam cycle was accomplished in order to acquire a knowledge base about the variables that would be most influential on the performance. In the second step the electric power output for different operating conditions was predicted and optimized in a homemade program. In more details, a thermodynamic analysis of the steam cycle, according to the design operating condition, was performed by means of a commercial code (Thermoflex {sup copyright}) dedicated to power plant modelling. Then the off-design behaviour was investigated by varying not only the ambient conditions but also several parameters connected to the heat rejection rate, like the heat required from district heating and the auxiliaries load. Each of these parameters has been addressed and considered in determining the overall performance of the thermal cycle. After that, a complete prediction of the cycle behaviour was performed by simultaneously varying different operating conditions. Finally, a Matlab {sup copyright} computer code was developed in order to optimize the net electric power as a function of the way in which the condensation is operated. The result is an optimum set of variables allowing the wet and dry cooling system to be regulated in such a way that the maximum power is achieved. The best strategy consists in

  3. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  5. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  6. Airborne bio-aerosols and noise in a dry waste treatment plant in Pietarsaari, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, O K

    2001-04-01

    Ewapower Ltd in Pietarsaari, Finland produces pellets from paper and plastic waste for burning. During 1998 and 1999, several measurements were made to determine the dust, particle, microbe and endotoxin concentrations, and also the noise level in the hall where the waste is received and pre-crushed. The noise level exceeded the Finnish recommended level of 85 dBA. The dust and the particle concentrations were low, but the microbe concentrations, especially in the summer and in the autumn, were at a level which may be harmful to health. The total concentration of microbes (both dead and alive) was high--approximately 4.8 million particles m(-3). The concentrations of endotoxins was high in summer and in autumn, from 340 to 1000 ng m(-3) and exceeded recommended values. In the winter, the concentration of the endotoxin was lower, ranging between 4.7 and 33 ng m(-3).

  7. Participation of the ININ in the activities of radioactive waste management of the Laguna Verde Central; Participacion del ININ en las actividades de gestion de desechos radiactivos de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano L, M.; Rodriguez C, C.; Linares R, D. [ININ, Gerencia Subsede Sureste (Mexico); Ramirez G, R.; Zarate M, N. [Central Laguna Verde, CFE (Mexico)]. e-mail: maam@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    From the beginning of the operation of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has come supporting the CLV in the activities of administration of the humid and dry radioactive waste generated by the operation of the two units of the CLV, from the elaboration of procedures to the temporary storage in site, the implementation of a program of minimization and segregation of dry solid wastes, until the classification of the lots of humid waste and bulk dry wastes. In this work the description of the management activities of radioactive wastes carried out by the ININ in the facilities of the CLV to the date is presented, as well as some actions that they are had drifted in the future near, among those that it stands out the determination of the total alpha activity in humid samples by means of scintillation analysis. (Author)

  8. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  9. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  10. Drying method effects on the antioxidant activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quince has many health benefits. Dried quince has been used as a tea for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of two drying methods on the antioxidant activity of the quince. Materiał and methods. Fifty two fresh Iranian ąuinces (Cydonia oblonga were obtained from different parts of Shiraz. Half of the ąuinces were peeled and both peel and flesh immediately frozen at -20°C individually. The remainder was divided in two groups, and dried with sun and oven drying methods. Proximate analysis, caloric, minerał and vitamin C contents were determined in the fresh ąuinces. The total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power analysis were done on flesh, peel, sun-dried and ovendried ąuinces. Results. The proximate and nutritional composition of the fresh ąuinces was similar to those reported by other researchers. Oven-dried and ąuince peel contained higher amounts of phenolics than the sun-dried and flesh ąuinces, respectively. Sun-dried and flesh samples showed lower radical scavenging effect and reducing antioxidant capacity than oven-dried and ąuince peel, respectively. Conclusion. Overall, oven drying can better preserve the antioxidative activity of the ąuince.

  11. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  12. The drying purine process in the biological wastes management; El proceso de secado de purines en el marco de una gestion integral de residuos ganaderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flotats, X.; Bonmati, A.; Campos, E.; Teira, M. R. [Universidad de Lleida (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This article tackles the concept of livestock wastes management, the applicable treatments and their flux diagram; the suitability of drying and pre-treatment, necessary for the process and the quality control of the final product, are analysed. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Evaluation of dried bread waste as feedstuff for growing crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect of bread waste feeding on feed intake, utilization and growth performance of crossbred pigs and to evaluate the economics of bread waste feeding. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 3 months (December, 2012-March, 2013. Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi were included in the study. A total of 24 weaned crossbred growing pigs were randomly assigned to four different groups, with six animals in each group. The experimental animals were fed as per their body weight following Indian Council of Agricultural Research requirements. They were fed twice a day according to schedule at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm. The water was kept available to animals round the clock. The cost of the experimental diets was calculated based on the existing price of the ingredients during the experimental period. Samples of feed were collected for analysis of proximate principles as per Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Body weight of all animals was recorded fortnightly basis in the morning before feeding with the use of platform type electronic weighing balance. Feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein conversion ration was calculated by using a standard formula. Data were analyzed, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Means showing significant differences in the ANOVA table were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. Results: Crude protein content (% of the diets was 16.01±0.02, 16.13±0.02, 16.14±0.02, 16.04±0.02, 16.08±0.02 and 12.72±0.03, respectively for the G1, G2, G3 and G4, groups. Proximate compositions (% of diets used in the experiment were not significantly different. Digestibility coefficients of all the nutrients were significantly varied among the experimental groups. Daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05 varied among the groups. Average daily gain (kg/pig/day were significantly (p<0.01 higher in group G2 (0.377. FCR was significantly (p<0.01 higher in the

  14. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  15. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Novel Efficient Combined Process by Hydrothermal Degradation and Superheated Steam Drying of Degradable Organic Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqing GUO; Yunhan XIAO; Wendong TIAN; Zhedian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the combination of hydrothermal degradation (HTD) and superheated steam (SHS) drying in disposal and processing of degradable organic wastes in municipal solid wastes (MSW). In SHS drying, a fraction of dryer thermal energy input can be recovered and used to satisfy the heat requirement in maintaining the HTD operating temperature. Both energy and exergy analysis are applied to the combined process. The analysis covers ranges of dryer inlet temperatures of 202.38-234.19℃ and feed water content of 32.5-65%. Thermal energy analysis shows that the combination of HTD and SHS drying can achieve thermal energy self-sufficiency (TES)by manipulating process variables. The exergy analysis indicates the location, type, and magnitude of the exergy losses during the whole process by applying the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency.

  17. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  18. Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solutions using Dried Activated Sludge and Dried Activated Nano-Sludge: Adsorption on a Fixed-Bed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ahmari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present time study,dried activated sludge(DAS and dried activated nano sludge(DANS was used for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of important parameters including the flow rate and bed height were examined. Dried activated nano sludge column regeneration using 1 M concentration of HNO3 has been studied.The Thomas model was used for the mathematical description of the adsorption of Copper at different flow rate and various bed height to determine parameters of the column suitable for process design. Both exhaustion time and breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height, while the adsorption bed capacity decreased as the flow rate increased.

  19. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  20. Deliverable D2.4: Status of Dry Electrode Development Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of dry electrode development activity within the WP2 is tobuild a dry electrode prototype for brain wave sensing that is comfortable for the user and provides sufficient signal quality. The electrodes are to be utilized in BCI applications, namely Steady-StateVisually Evoked Potential

  1. Deliverable D2.4: Status of Dry Electrode Development Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of dry electrode development activity within the WP2 is tobuild a dry electrode prototype for brain wave sensing that is comfortable for the user and provides sufficient signal quality. The electrodes are to be utilized in BCI applications, namely Steady-StateVisually Evoked Potential (S

  2. [Determination of the biological activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics on a dry nutrient medium of Soviet manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, V M; Andreeva, Z M; Astanina, L N; Shiriaeva, V L; Gridneva, N I

    1981-06-01

    Possible use of the dry nutrient medium manufactured in the USSR for the assay of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity with the agar diffusion method was studied. The optimal conditions for the antibiotic activity assay on this medium were developed. The dry nutrient medium may be used for the activity assay of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, i. e. streptomycin sulfate, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, neomycin sulfate, monomycin and gentamicin sulfate.

  3. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  4. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  5. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  6. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined.

  7. Assessment of xylanase activity in dry storage as a potential method of reducing feedstock cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Radtke, Corey W; Carter, Brady

    2009-05-01

    Enzymatic preprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass in dry storage systems has the potential to improve feedstock characteristics and lower ethanol production costs. To assess the potential for endoxylanase activity at low water contents, endoxylanase activity was tested using a refined wheat arabinoxylan substrate and three commercial endoxylanases over the water activity range 0.21-1.0, corresponding to water contents of 5% to >60% (dry basis). Homogeneously mixed dry samples were prepared at a fixed enzyme to substrate ratio and incubated in chambers at a variety of fixed water activities. Replicates were sacrificed periodically, and endoxylanase activity was quantified as an increase in reducing sugar relative to desiccant-stored controls. Endoxylanase activity was observed at water activities over 0.91 in all enzyme preparations in less than 4 days and at a water activity of 0.59 in less than 1 week in two preparations. Endoxylanase activity after storage was confirmed for selected desiccant-stored controls by incubation at 100% relative humidity. Water content to water activity relationships were determined for three lignocellulosic substrates, and results indicate that two endoxylanase preparations retained limited activity as low as 7% to 13% water content (dry basis), which is well within the range of water contents representative of dry biomass storage. Future work will examine the effects of endoxylanase activity toward substrates such as corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass in low water content environments.

  8. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  9. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  10. Hospitalar radioactive waste of low activity, a daily practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil - CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction According to the law we should have a specific area for storing and treating waste. That area should have special containers for temporary storage in order to assure the radioactive decay for all the radioactive waste, biological contaminated or non biological and in solid or liquid form. According with that law the limits established for discharge are: For solid waste, we must not discharge more than 370 MBq in a minimum volume of 0,1 m{sup 3} and is not allowed waste with activities higher than 3,7 kBq; For liquid waste discharges from the department to the public sewer, the average concentrations calculated taking into account the water flow of the sewer system that serves the installation, should be the following:The annual medium concentration must not exceed 3 times the reference concentration (C.R.) for that nuclide; The monthly medium concentration must not exceed 15 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The daily medium concentration must not exceed 60 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The reference concentration (C.R.), expressed in Bq.m{sup -3}, should be calculated taking into account the relevant incorporation per ingestion. The calculation of C.R. in liquid waste should have into account the following: For the general public the effective dose E achieved, per ingestion by an individual in the group of age g is determined according to the following formula(1):E= {sigma}{sub i} h(g){sub j,ing} X J{sub j,ing}, where h(g){sub j,ing} is the committed effective dose per unit-intake for the ingested radionuclide j (Sv/Bq) by an individual in the group of age g; J{sub j,ing} is the relevant intake via ingestion of the radionuclide j (Bq). The effective dose E achieved by an individual in the group of age g should not be higher than 0,1 mSv/year. If the average water volume ingested by an individual adult is 800 l, the value J{sub j,ing}, calculated by the formula (1) should be referred to 1000 l, in order to obtain the C.R., for the

  11. Optimisation of the two-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of sulphate-containing municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-11-01

    Microbial population dynamics and anaerobic digestion (AD) process to eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 25d to 3.5d) in two-phase dry-thermophilic AD from sulphate-containing solid waste were investigated. Maximum values of gas production (1.9 ± 0.2 l H2/l/d; 5.4 ± 0.3 l CH4/l/d and 82 ± 9 ml H2S/l/d) and microbial activities were obtained at 4.5d HRT; where basically comprised hydrolysis step in the first phase (HRT=1.5d) and acidogenic step finished in the second phase as well as acetogenic-methanogenic steps (HRT=3d). In the first phase, hydrolytic-acidogenic bacteria (HABs) was the main group (44-77%) and Archaea, acetogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) contents were not significant; in the second phase (except to 2d HRT), microbial population was able to adapt to change in substrate and HRTs to ensure the proper functioning of the system and both acetogens and Archaea were dominated over SRBs. Decreasing HRT resulted in an increase in microbial activities.

  12. Antioxidant activity changes during hot-air drying of Moringa oleifera leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder in capsule is now a popular food supplement in Thailand. To investigate its health benefits, antioxidant activities of M. oleifera leaves (3 varieties: Num Phrae, Ang Thong and PKM1 during drying in hot-air oven at 50C and 100C were studied by 3 different methods, viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation decolourisation, together with the determination of total phenolic content and browning pigment formation. It was found that the antioxidant activities and total phenolic content tend to decrease in the early stage of drying and then increase in the later stage, and that the dried leaves still have at least 60% of antioxidant activities compared to fresh leaves.

  13. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray dry flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robson Miranda da Gama; Marcelo Guimares; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Jos Armando-Junior

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried flowers of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray (T. diversifolia) dry flower-a shrubby plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and very common in Brazil, providing data to help prevent premature aging skin. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included total phenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. The active antioxidant was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl method. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. diversifolia dry flowers revealed the presence of phenolic compounds (tannins, flavonoids and total phenols), while alkaloids and saponins were not detected. The IC50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the plant extracts. Conclusions: Therefore, this study suggests the possibility of using dry flowers extracts of T. diversifolia for the prevention of cell aging, as was shown to have significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia R. C. Porto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L., Euphorbiaceae, spray-dried standardized extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of spray-dried standardized extract was observed in carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycolate-induced leukocyte migration, while antinociceptive effects were observed using Randall & Selitto, tail flick, and hot plate tests. This study showed that intraperitoneal spray-dried standardized extract at 100, 200, 800, or 1600 mg/kg reduced the vascular response in the inflammatory process of paw edema induced by 1% carrageenan. Oral spray-dried standardized extract at 100 or 200 mg/kg inhibited leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation induced by 3% thioglycolate. In rats, at 100 and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the extract exhibited a marked peripheral analgesic effect in a Randall & Selitto assay and showed significant central analgesic activity in a hot plate and tail flick assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract has potent inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and that these activities are not modified by standard drying process, making it feasible to use the dry extract standardized to obtain a phytotherapic preparation and thus validating its use for the treatment of pain and inflammation disorders.

  15. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  16. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  17. Obtaining a Dry Extract from the Mikania laevigata Leaves with Potential for Antiulcer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mariana Viana; Oliveira, Ezequiane Machado; Martins, Jose Luiz Rodrigues; de Paula, Jose Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mikania laevigata leaves are commonly used in Brazil as a medicinal plant. Objective: To obtain hydroalcoholic dried extract by nebulization and evaluate its antiulcerogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Plant material and hydroalcoholic extract were processed and analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. A method using HPLC was validated to quantify coumarin and o-coumaric acid. Hydroalcoholic extract was spray dried and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of its physicochemical parameters and potential for antiulcerogenic activity. Results: The analytical method proved to be selective, linear, precise, accurate, sensitive, and robust. M. laevigata spray dried extract was obtained using colloidal silicon dioxide as adjuvant and was shown to possess 1.83 ± 0.004% coumarin and 0.80 ± 0.012% o-coumaric acid. It showed significant antiulcer activity in a model of an indomethacin-induced gastric lesion in mice and also produced a gastroprotective effect. Conclusion: This dried extract from M. laevigata could be a promising intermediate phytopharmaceutical product. SUMMARY Research and development of standardized dried extract of Mikania laevigata leaves obtained through spray drying and the production process was monitored by the chemical profile, physicochemical properties and potential for anti-ulcerogenic activity. Abbreviations used: DE: M. laevigata spray dried extract, HE: hydroalcoholic extract. PMID:28216886

  18. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  19. Antioxidant activity, some nutritional and colour properties of vacuum dried strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hülya Orak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background.Thestrawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. fruit contains a higher amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds than many other cultivated species, however, the edible use of this fruit is currently not widespread. In this study, the influences of vacuum drying have been investigated in terms of changing of some nutritional characteristics, antioxidant properties, and colour. Material and methods. Fruits were collected from Çanakkale province in Turkey and next vacuum dried. Ethyl oleate and water blanching pre-treatments were applied to fruits before drying. Ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, minerals, colour, total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching activity and HMF formation were determined. Results. The EO pretreatment shortened the drying time more than WB and gives a higher β-carotene bleaching activity, lower HMF and higher yellowness and brightness of external colour characteristics. Conclusions. In this research, the effects of vacuum drying process on the colour, antioxidant activity and nutritional characteristics of fruit have been determined and it has been concluded that the strawberry tree fruit is assessable in food industry by drying due to rich nutritional components, antioxidant activity and attractive colour of the fruit.  

  20. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  1. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  2. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter, and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents.

  3. From plums to prunes: influence of drying parameters on polyphenols and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Antonio; Del Caro, Alessandra; Corda, Giampaola

    2003-06-04

    Prunes, which are industrially obtained by dehydrating fresh plums at 85-90 degrees C for 18 h, contain higher levels of phenolic compounds than most other fruits. Prune phenolics have shown beneficial effects on human health. Reports are available in the literature on ascorbic acid, phenol composition, and antioxidant activity of fresh plums and prunes, but there is a lack of publications on the influence of drying parameters on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. A study was carried out on two plum cultivars using two sets of air-drying temperatures: (i) air temperature at 85 degrees C until 50% of prune moisture level and then the temperature was lowered to 70 degrees C; (ii) air temperature at 60 degrees C. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (catechins, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid changes were affected by both process parameters and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, and there was a significant decrease in flavonols. Ascorbic acid was drastically reduced in relation to process temperature. The most striking result was that drying at 85 degrees C doubled antioxidant activity in both cultivars, while contradictory results were found for 60 degrees C processed plums.

  4. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  5. Strength and Drying Shrinkage of Alkali-Activated Slag Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-chieh Chi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the strengths and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar were measured with various liquid/slag ratios, sand/slag ratios, curing ages, and curing temperatures. Experimental results show that the higher compressive strength and tensile strength have been observed in the higher curing temperature. At the age of 56 days, AAS mortars show higher compressive strength than Portland cement mortars and AAS mortars with liquid/slag ratio of 0.54 have the highest tensile strength in all AAS mortars. In addition, AAS pastes of the drying shrinkage are higher than AAS mortars. Meanwhile, higher drying shrinkage was observed in AAS mortars than that observed comparable Portland cement mortars.

  6. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). (a)(1) All commercial storers, transporters, and disposers...

  7. Active dry granular flows: Rheology and rigidity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkov, Anton; Claudin, Philippe; Clément, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    The constitutive relations of a dense granular flow composed of self-propelling frictional hard particles are investigated by means of DEM numerical simulations. We show that the rheology, which relates the dynamical friction μ and the volume fraction ϕ to the inertial number I, depends on a dimensionless number A , which compares the active force to the confining pressure. Two liquid/solid transitions —in the Maxwell rigidity sense— are observed. As soon as the activity is turned on, the packing becomes an “active solid” with a mean number of particle contacts larger than the isostatic value. The quasi-static values of μ and ϕ decrease with A . At a finite value of the activity At , corresponding to the isostatic condition, a second “active rigidity transition” is observed beyond which the quasi-static values of the friction vanishes and the rheology becomes Newtonian. For A>At , we provide evidence for a highly intermittent dynamics of this “active fluid”.

  8. Temporal evolution of activities in wastes from Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mo-99 is commonly produced by fission of U-235 because this is still the only process capable of generating the required amounts of Mo-99 with high specific activity. This method involves the dissolution of the irradiated U-235 target, followed by several stages of chemical separation, which generate wastes in all steps of the process, some with high levels of radiation, which irrevocably need to be managed. This paper presents a simulation of the evolution of the radioisotopic inventory that is expected to be generated in the planned production of Mo-99 in Brazil, as a contribution to designing the waste treatment plan. The code SCALE 6.0 was used to generate activity data using as input the geometry and composition of the target, the irradiation time, neutron flux and Mo-99 production schedule. The radionuclides of greatest interest for the waste management were identified. Shielding and cooling determined the criteria for initial storage; the transport limits are important for the step of treatment and packing; radiotoxicity of each radionuclide is considered in possible future scenarios of migration from final repository. (author)

  9. Activities of autonomic neurotransmitters in meibomian gland tissues are associated with menopausal dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxiang Li; Dongling Jin; Jinsheng Gao; Liguang Wang; Xianjun Liu; Jingzhang Wang; Zhongxin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The secretory activities of meibomian glands are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The change in density and activity of autonomic nerves in meibomian glands during menopause play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. In view of this, we established a dry eye rat model by removing the bilateral ovaries. We used neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as markers of autonomic neurotransmitters. Our results showed that the concentration of estradiol in serum significantly decreased, the density of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly increased, the density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly decreased, and the ratio of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/neuropeptide Y positive staining significantly decreased. These results suggest that a decrease in ovary activity may lead to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, thereby affecting the secretory activity of the meibomian gland, which participates in sexual hormone imbalance-induced dry eye.

  10. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with a thermal dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Vasileiadis, I; Fountoulakis, M; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-08-11

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. However, transportation and storage of wastes to WWTP may be the bottleneck for the successful implementation of this technology. In case of wet wastes and wastewater it is possible to reduce their volume and as a result the transportation and storage cost by using a drying process. During this study, the optimization of biogas production from sewage sludge (SS) was attempted by co-digesting with a dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater (FCO). A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors at 37°C, fed with thermal dried mixtures of FCO at concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7%. The overall process was designed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24days. FCO addition can boost biogas yields if the mixture exceeds 3% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of 5% FCO causes a small increase in biogas production. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 287ml CH4/Lreactor/d before the addition of FCO and 815ml CH4/Lreactor/d (5% v/v in the feed). The extra FCO-COD added (7% FCO v/v) to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to have the same results. In all cases, the estimated biodegradability of mixtures was over 80%, while the VS removal was 22% for the maximum biomethane production (5% v/v). Moreover, co-digestion improved biogas production by 1.2-2.7 times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel active comb-shaped dry electrode for EEG measurement in hairy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important biopotential, and has been widely applied in clinical applications. The conventional EEG electrode with conductive gels is usually used for measuring EEG. However, the use of conductive gel also encounters with the issue of drying and hardening. Recently, many dry EEG electrodes based on different conductive materials and techniques were proposed to solve the previous issue. However, measuring EEG in the hairy site is still a difficult challenge. In this study, a novel active comb-shaped dry electrode was proposed to measure EEG in hairy site. Different form other comb-shaped or spike-shaped dry electrodes, it can provide more excellent performance of avoiding the signal attenuation, phase distortion, and the reduction of common mode rejection ratio. Even under walking motion, it can effectively acquire EEG in hairy site. Finally, the experiments for alpha rhythm and steady-state visually evoked potential were also tested to validate the proposed electrode.

  12. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  13. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  14. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L., mango (Mangifera indica L., papaya (Carica papaya L., muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb. were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05 differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC, were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05 change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05 but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  15. Mixed Incineration with Dry Sludge in Waste Incineration Plant%垃圾焚烧发电厂中掺烧干化污泥探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石靖宇

    2015-01-01

    介绍了污泥焚烧处理技术的主要方式(联合焚烧和单独焚烧)及应用现状,阐述了垃圾焚烧发电厂中掺烧干化污泥技术在国内外应用情况及其工艺流程与烟气处理工艺,并提出了垃圾焚烧发电厂掺烧干化污泥的可行性及优势。%The main modes (united-incineration and separate incineration) and application status of sludge incineration treatment technology were introduced. The application status of mixed incineration technology with dry sludge in waste incin-eration plants at home and abroad was expounded, as well as its process and flue gas treatment technology. And the feasibility and advantages of waste incineration mixing with dry sludge in waste incineration plant were put forward.

  16. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  18. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  19. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  20. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

  1. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Effect of Drying Methods on the Structure and Combustion Activity of Mn-Substituted Hexaaluminate Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinguang Xu; Zhijian Tian; Junwei Wang; Yunpeng Xu; Zhusheng Xu; Liwu Lin

    2003-01-01

    Conventional oven drying (COD) and supercritical drying (SCD) methods were applied to the preparation of Mn-substituted hexaaluminate (BaMnAl11O19-α) catalysts. The effect of drying methods on phase composition, specific surface area, pore structure, reduction behavior of Mn3+ ions, and combustion activity of the samples was investigated. The homogenous mixing of the components in the sol-gel process could be maintained by SCD, and the hexaaluminate phase was almost the only phase of the resulting materials after calcination. H2-TPR revealed that the Mn3+ ions in the sample obtained by SCD were easier to be reduced than that by COD. Moreover, the samples obtained by SCD have higher surface area, narrower pore size distribution, and higher combustion activity than those obtained by COD.

  3. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (RC shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms.

  4. Activity and Enantioselectivity of the Hydroxynitrile Lyase MeHNL in Dry Organic Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanefeld, U.; Paravidino, M.; Sorgedrager, M.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2010-01-01

    Water concentration affects both the enantioselectivity and activity of enzymes in dry organic media. Its influence has been investigated using the hydrocyanation of benzaldehyde catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase cross-linked enzyme aggregate (MeHNL-CLEA) as a model reaction. The enzyme displayed hi

  5. Effect of emulsification and spray-drying microencapsulation on the antilisterial activity of transcinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Lejmi, Raja; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Dumas, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Thanh, Mai Le; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Spray-dried redispersible transcinnamaldehyde (TC)-in-water emulsions were prepared in order to preserve its antibacterial activity; 5% (w/w) TC emulsions were first obtained with a rotor-stator homogeniser in the presence of either soybean lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. These emulsions were mixed with a 30% (w/w) maltodextrin solution before feeding a spray-dryer. The antibacterial activity of TC alone, TC emulsions with and without maltodextrin before and after spray-drying were assayed by monitoring the growth at 30 °C of Listeria innocua in their presence and in their absence (control). Whatever the emulsifier used, antilisterial activity of TC was increased following its emulsification. However, reconstituted spray-dried emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate had a higher antibacterial activity suggesting that they better resisted to spray-drying. This was consistent with observation that microencapsulation efficiencies were 27.6% and 78.7% for emulsions stabilised by lecithin and sodium caseinate, respectively.

  6. Activity and Enantioselectivity of the Hydroxynitrile Lyase MeHNL in Dry Organic Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanefeld, U.; Paravidino, M.; Sorgedrager, M.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2010-01-01

    Water concentration affects both the enantioselectivity and activity of enzymes in dry organic media. Its influence has been investigated using the hydrocyanation of benzaldehyde catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase cross-linked enzyme aggregate (MeHNL-CLEA) as a model reaction. The enzyme displayed

  7. Activity and Enantioselectivity of the Hydroxynitrile Lyase MeHNL in Dry Organic Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanefeld, U.; Paravidino, M.; Sorgedrager, M.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2010-01-01

    Water concentration affects both the enantioselectivity and activity of enzymes in dry organic media. Its influence has been investigated using the hydrocyanation of benzaldehyde catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase cross-linked enzyme aggregate (MeHNL-CLEA) as a model reaction. The enzyme displayed hi

  8. A comparative study between standard dry needling technique and rapid dry needling technique on active gluteus medius muscle trigger points

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. This study aimed to determine the difference between the standard dry needling technique versus the rapid dry needling technique with regards to which technique would provide quicker relief of symptoms, as measured by an increase in participant’s pressure tolerance and range of motion and a decrease in subjective pain. Subjectively it was seen that both groups had a statistical decrease in the participants perceived pain with the Oswestry Disability Index, the McGill’s Pain Questio...

  9. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  10. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  11. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  12. EFFECT OF RICE HULL IN THE DRIED HOTEL FOOD WASTE BASED-DIET ON LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BARROWS

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Purnamartha; S. Setiyono; P. Panjono

    2014-01-01

    The study was constructed to observe the effect of rice hull as a fiber sources in the dried hotelfood waste based-diet on fat and cholesterol level of pork. Twenty four heads of two months old ofLandrace x Yorkshire cross barrows were randomly divided into four treatment groups, i.e. without ricehull (R0), 10% rice hull (R1), 20% rice hull (R2), and 30% rice hull (R3). They placed in individualconcrete pen with 1.9 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Feed and water were given as ad libitum.Obser...

  13. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: an innovative approach for the characterization of the gaseous emissions from residual MSW bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C; Antolini, D

    2011-01-01

    In the sector of residual municipal solid waste management an increasing attention is put towards the role of biological treatments like bio-drying and bio-stabilization in order to decrease the need of landfilling volumes. The literature shows a lack of information concerning the emission factor of pollutants released from these processes. The available data are generally spot characterizations of concentration and air flow-rate that are used together in order to assess the emission factors. This approach caused significant differences among the available data as the release of pollutants is not steady. This paper belongs to a group of six papers concerning a research on material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems, developed by a network of five universities. The contribution of the University of Trento, focuses on the bio-drying process with the following targets: (a) developing an innovative low cost method of sampling/measurement able to take into account the dynamics of release of pollutants; (b) checking the efficiency of a bio-filter; (c) verifying the variability of generation of some pollutants; (d) generating emission factors. The research was developed using a bio-drying pilot plant. As a treatment of the process air, the bio-reactor was coupled with a bio-filter. The emissions were characterized using an original approach based on the adoption of two measurement chambers suitable for hosting passive samplers. The passive samplers allowed the characterization of VOCs, N(2)O, NH(3) and H(2)S. A bio-chemical model, useful for energy and mass balances, supported the interpretation of the presented bio-drying run.

  14. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sansone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  15. Active Elastic Support/Dry Friction Damper with Piezoelectric Ceramic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation principle of elastic support/dry friction damper in rotor system was introduced and the unbalance response of the rotor with elastic support/dry friction damper was analyzed theoretically. Based on the previous structure using an electromagnet as actuator, an active elastic support/dry friction damper using piezoelectric ceramic actuator was designed and its effectiveness of reducing rotor vibration when rotor traverses its critical speed and blade-out event happened was experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the active elastic support/dry friction damper with piezoelectric ceramic actuator can significantly reduce vibration in rotor system; the vibration amplitude of the rotor in critical speed region decreased more than 2 times, and the active damper can protect the rotor when a blade-out event happened, so the rotor can traverse the critical speed and shut down smoothly. In addition, the structure is much simpler than the previous, the weight was reduced by half and the power consumption was only 5 W.

  16. A process for treatment of residues from dry/semidry APC systems at municipal solid waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelmar, O. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark)] Holland, D. [FLS miljoe a/s, Valby (Denmark)] Poulsen, B. [KARA, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The main objective of the project has been to establish and test a process for treatment of residues from the semidry (and dry) lime injection based APC processes at MSWIs, which will ensure that the residues can be managed in an environmentally safe manner. In pursuit of this goal, the following activities have been carried out: Performance of pilot scale extractions (approximately 50 kg of residue per batch) at the KARA MSWI in Roskilde of semidry APC system residues in order to establish and optimize process conditions. The optimization includes consideration of the possibilities for subsequent treatment/stabilization of the extracted solid phase as well as the possibility of treatment and safe discharge/utilization of the extract; Performance of chemical characterization, hydrogeochemical model calculations and experimental work in order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and factors which for several contaminants control the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases, both in the short and the long germ, and to use this information to obtain an environmentally acceptable method for stabilization/treatment of the extracted residues while at the same time minimizing the necessary amount of additives; production of treated residues and performance of leaching tests on these to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the entire process (extraction + stabilization/treatment); Evaluation of the technical, economical and environmental consequences of full scale implementation of the process. (EG) EFP-94. 19 refs.

  17. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application.

  18. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000.

  19. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  20. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  1. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  2. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important

  3. The very-low activity waste storage facility. A new waste management system; Le centre de stockage des dechets de tres faible activite. Une nouvelle filiere de gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Very-low activity wastes have a radioactivity level close to the natural one. This category of waste is taken into consideration by the French legislation and their storage is one of their point of achievement. This document gives a complete overview of the principles of storage implemented at the storage center for very-low activity wastes (CSTFA) sited in the Aube departement in the vicinity of the storage center for low- and intermediate activity wastes: storage concept, wastes confinement, center organization, environmental monitoring. (J.S.)

  4. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  5. Correlation of wood-based components and dewatering properties of waste activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllönen, H; Lehto, J; Pirkonen, P; Grönroos, A; Pakkanen, H; Alén, R

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux.

  6. Chemical and cellular antioxidant activity of phytochemicals purified from olive mill waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Blasa, Manuela; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Ninfali, Paolino

    2011-03-09

    The isolation and identification of a phytocomplex from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) was achieved. The isolated phytocomplex is made up of the following three phenolic compounds: hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), tyrosol (p-HPEA) and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, linked with (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA). The purification of this phytocomplex was reached by partial dehydration of the OMWW, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The phytocomplex accounted for 6% of the total phenolic content of the OMWW. The phytocomplex and individual compounds were tested for antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC phytocomplex produced 10,000 ORAC units/g dry weight, whereas the cellular antioxidant activity, measured by the cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cell (CAA-RBC) method, demonstrated that the phytocomplex and all of the components are able to permeate the cell membrane thus exhibiting antioxidant activity inside the red blood cells. Our phytocomplex could be employed in the formulation of fortified foods and nutraceuticals, with the goal to obtain substantial health protective effects due to the suitable combination of the component molecules.

  7. Impact of different drying parameters on color, β-carotene, antioxidant activity and minerals of apricot (Prunus armeniacaL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bige İNCEDAYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apricot is one of the fruits dried by using different methods, such as sun, convective or microwave drying. The effects of drying methods on the components of this fruit differ depending upon the temperature or time parameters. In this research, the impacts of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying techniques on color, β-carotene, minerals and antioxidant activity of apricots were investigated. The color values (L*, b*,ΔEab, h° and C*ab of dried fruit were decreased, while the a* values increased. Compared with a fresh sample, the dried apricots showed a 1.4-3.9-fold proportional increase in β-carotene based on the increment of dry matter. The samples dried at high temperature and microwave levels, at 75 °C+90 watt and 75 °C+160 watt, showed lower antioxidant activity. Of the different drying treatments, the microwave-convective method (50 °C+160 watt obtained a higher β-carotene content while maintaining antioxidant activity with a short drying time.

  8. Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjongharn, Pimol; Meevasana, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2008-01-01

    Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100-1,800 mg/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1-0.84 mm), M (0.84-2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger than 2.0 mm). For all conditions examined in this work (at 25 degrees C in batch systems), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second order kinetic model where the rate constant, k2, decreased as the sorbent size increased for all dyes. The adsorption isotherms followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Among three sorbent sizes, S size gave the highest adsorption capacity followed by M and L sizes. A reduction of sorbent size increased the specific surface area for mass transfer, and also increased the total pore volume, thus providing more active sites for adsorption. The adsorption of AB was adversely influenced by the protonation of algal surface at low pH. On the other hand, the adsorption of AR and AY could be due to weak electrostatic interaction, which was not significantly affected by pH. Increasing salinity of the system caused a decrease in adsorption capacity possibly due to the competition between Na+ and the dye cations for the binding sites on algal surface. Moreover, an increase in salinity generated a compressed electrical double layer on the algal surface which exerted repulsive force, retarding the adsorption of positive charged molecules such as the basic dyes.

  9. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  11. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  12. Production of monodisperse epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) microparticles by spray drying for high antioxidant activity retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Nan; Zhou, Zihao; Jones, Tyson Byrne; Tan, Timothy T Y; Wu, Winston Duo; Lin, Sean Xuqi; Chen, Xiao Dong; Chan, Peggy P Y

    2011-07-15

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) originated from green tea is well-known for its pharmaceutical potential and antiproliferating effect on carcinoma cells. For drug delivery, EGCG in a micro-/nanoparticle form is desirable for their optimized chemopreventive effect. In this study, first time reports that EGCG microparticles produced by low temperature spray drying can maintain high antioxidant activity. A monodisperse droplet generation system was used to realize the production of EGCG microparticles. EGCG microparticles were obtained with narrow size distribution and diameter of 30.24 ± 1.88 μM and 43.39 ± 0.69 μM for pure EGCG and lactose-added EGCG, respectively. The EC50 value (the amount of EGCG necessary to scavenge 50% of free radical in the medium) of spray dried pure EGCG particles obtained from different temperature is in the range of 3.029-3.075 μM compared to untreated EGCG with EC50 value of 3.028 μM. Varying the drying temperatures from 70°C and 130°C showed little detrimental effect on EGCG antioxidant activity. NMR spectrum demonstrated the EGCG did not undergo chemical structural change after spray drying. The major protective mechanism was considered to be: (1) the use of low temperature and (2) the heat loss from water evaporation that kept the particle temperature at low level. With further drier optimization, this monodisperse spray drying technique can be used as an efficient and economic approach to produce EGCG micro-/nanoparticles.

  13. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  14. A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Yeop, Jeong Seong; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m(3)day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m(3)day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m(3) biogas/kg VSremoved, and 0.65 (65% CH4) and 0.73 (60.02% CH4) m(3) biogas/kg VSfed, under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass.

  16. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols) and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of...

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  18. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  19. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  20. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE FROM INSTALLATION OF SEMI-DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANT IN JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Plaskacz-Dziuba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of waste from semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation installation called Integrated Novel Desulphurisation (NID. A comprehensive analysis of the physicochemical properties was conducted, including analyzes of the content of ions SO32- and SO42- (relating to 2CaSO3·H2O i CaSO4·2H2O, moisture, SiO2 and R2O3 and SEM-EDX analysis. The original method for the determination of sulphates (IV using a potentiometric titrator was designed. Determined that the main component of both studied wastes was 2CaSO3·H2O, and its content is for NID 1 – 41,24±0,63%, for NID 2 – 45,53±0,33%. The content of CaSO4·2H2O, which was determined by gravimetric method amounted for the NID 1 – 8,92±0,12%, for the NID 2 – 8,27±0,08%. The moisture content for both tested materials was about 4%, the content of SiO2 was in the range of 8–10%, and R2O3 content was about 1%. It was also shown that the test material is not homogenous. Images from scanning electron microscope showed that in the waste occured irregularly agglomerates with a diameter between 30 and 100 microns. EDX analysis revealed that elements constituted NID wastes are oxygen, sulfur, calcium, chlorine, silicon, aluminum, copper and carbon.

  1. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems with Organic Rankine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Fang; Hong Yue; Yeli Zhou; Jiancun Feng; Jianhua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a linear active disturbance rejection controller is proposed for a waste heat recovery system using an organic Rankine cycle process, whose model is obtained by applying the system identification technique. The disturbances imposed on the waste heat recovery system are estimated through an extended linear state observer and then compensated by a linear feedback control strategy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 100 kW waste heat recovery system to handle the power ...

  2. Effect of nonylphenol on volatile fatty acids accumulation during anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Xie, Jing; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-11-15

    Most of the reported studies on anaerobic fermentation of sludge focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods, and its characteristics, and little attention was paid to those of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which widespreadly appeared in sludge. In this study, the effect of nonylphenol, a typical POPs in waste activated sludge (WAS), on anaerobic fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was investigated. The concentration of VFAs during WAS anaerobic fermentation was found to be affected positively from 2856 mg COD/L in the control (without NP) to 5620 mg COD/L with NP of 200 mg/kg dry sludge. Mechanism exploration exhibited that the main reason for the enhanced VFAs accumulation in the presence of NP was that more acetic acid was generated during the acidification of WAS, which was increased by almost three times (3790 versus 1310 mg COD/L). In WAS fermentation systems, the abundance of anaerobic functional microorganisms was advantageous to the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation by the pure acetogen revealed that both the viability and activity of Proteiniphilum acetatigenes were improved by NP during anaerobic fermentation, resulting in more production of acetic acid and showing good agreement with that in the real WAS fermentation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  4. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  5. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  6. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal.

  7. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  8. Antifungal activity evaluation of Aloe arborescens dry extract against trichosporon genus yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Bueno de Morais Borba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of Aloe arborescens dry extract against Trichosporon genus yeast species. Extraction was carried out by means of a longitudinal incision in fresh leaves, which were collected on a vat, and the total volume was frozen and subsequently lyophilized. Then, 40 mg of the dry extract was dissolved in DMSO by gentle inversion in order to obtain a solution whose concentration was 4000 µg mL-1. This solution became limpid and slightly yellowish because the pigment of the latex was attenuated. It was performed serial dilutions from 2,000 to 15.625 µg mL-1 with RPMI-1640 broth. There was already no pigment in the first dilution of 2000 μg mL-1. It was analyzed fifteen strains of Trichosporon spp., and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was used as control strain. We carried out the reading of microplates in the ELISA reader device at a wavelength of 530 nm, after incubation for 24 and 48 hours, and it was determinated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The MIC50 value obtained for all Trichosporon species and for C. albicans was 500 µg mL-1. As a result, we concluded that Aloe arborescens dry extract has antifungal activity against Trichosporon yeasts.

  9. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  10. Waste characterization activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Haskins, J.J. [and others

    1995-06-28

    Radioactive and hazardous wastes are generated at many national laboratories, military sites, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, and many other facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, categorized, possibly treated, and packed into containers for shipment to waste-storage or disposal sites. Prior to treatment, storage or, shipment, the containers must be characterized to determine the ultimate disposition of the contained waste. Comprehensive and accurate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA) methods can be used to characterize most waste containers in a safe and cost-effective manner without opening them. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is investigating and developing the application of x-ray and {gamma}-ray methods to nonintrusively characterize waste containers and/or items. X-ray NDE methods are being investigated to determine whether they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. A {gamma}-ray NDA method is used to identify the radioactive sources within a container and to accurately quantify their strength. In this paper we describe five waste characterization projects being conducted at LLNL that apply both the NDE and NDA methods and present results.

  11. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Rezende Queiroz

    Full Text Available Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of the compounds are responsible for this activity. Principal component analysis explained 82.90% of the variance of the antioxidant profile of the lychee. The peel displayed higher levels of phenols, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant activity, while the seeds stood out due to their levels of lycopene. With drying, there was a decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and in antioxidant activity, with an increase in the levels of phenols and lycopene. The antioxidant activity found in the peel and seeds of the lychee is high, and is mainly due to ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, allowing the use of these fractions as sources of natural antioxidants.

  12. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  13. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  18. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  19. Studies on bacterial activities in aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, A D; Deinema, M H; Zehnder, A J

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of the bacteriology of aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification are discussed in view of current opinions and recent developments in the technology of waste water treatment. Various contributions of scientific workers attached to the Department of Microbiology of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, during the past 65 years are summarized. Besides, present investigations are described and research activities in future indicated.

  20. International fuel cycle and waste management technology exchange activities sponsored by the United States Department of Energy: FY 1982 evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1983-02-01

    In FY 1982, DOE and DOE contractor personnel attended 40 international symposia and conferences on fuel reprocessing and waste management subjects. The treatment of high-level waste was the topic most often covered in the visits, with geologic disposal and general waste management also being covered in numerous visits. Topics discussed less frequently inlcude TRU/LLW treatment, airborne waste treatment, D and D, spent fuel handling, and transportation. The benefits accuring to the US from technology exchange activities with other countries are both tangible, e.g., design of equipment, and intangible, e.g., improved foreign relations. New concepts initiated in other countries, particularly those with sizable nuclear programs, are beginning to appear in US efforts in growing numbers. The spent fuel dry storage concept originating in the FRG is being considered at numerous sites. Similarly, the German handling and draining concepts for the joule-heated ceramic melter used to vitrify wastes are being incorporated in US designs. Other foreigh technologies applicable in the US include the slagging incinerator (Belgium), the SYNROC waste form (Australia), the decontamination experience gained in decommissioning the Eurochemic reprocessing plant (Belgium), the engineered surface storage of low- and intermediate-level waste (Belgium, FRG, France), the air-cooled storage of vitrified high-level waste (France, UK), waste packaging (Canada, FRG, Sweden), disposal in salt (FRG), disposal in granite (Canada, Sweden), and sea dumping (UK, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland). These technologies did not necessarily originated or have been tried in the US but for various reasons are now being applied and extended in other countries. This growing nuclear technological base in other countires reduces the number of technology avenues the US need follow to develop a solid nuclear power program.

  1. PHENOLIC PROFILE, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES FROM THE Apiaceae FAMILY (DRY SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lubomirova Christova-Bagdassarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, a comparative evaluation of the phenolic compounds antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity to several kinds of seeds from the Apiacea family, to which belong: Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, Anethum graveolens (Dill, Pimpinella anisum (Anise, Carum carvi (Caraway and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander were carried out. Methods: The total phenolic content of seeds was measured spectrophotometrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the total flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminum chloride colorimetric. Antioxidant capacity was analysed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the seeds and was determined also spectrophotometrically. Antibacterial activity was analysed by ISO standards. Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel varied between 115.96 mg GAE/100g and 68.10 mg CE/100g .The Coriandrum sativum (Coriander content is lower (from 17.04 mg GAE/100g to 11.10 mg CE/100g, respecively. The highest radical scavanging effect was observed in the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel with IC50 of 113.19 ml/L. In our study, the methanol extract of seeds didn’t have any antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: An original data for total phenolic and total flavonoid contents are present in this study. They are a basis for assessment of the role of Apiaceae family dry seeds against free radicals effect and antibacterial activity. The results show that methanolic extract has the highest of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, high potential of antioxidant activity of dry seeds from Apiaceae family, to which belong: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Dill (Anethum graveolens, Anise (Pimpinella anisum, Caraway (Carum carvi and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum. From all results, the solvent extracts of dry seeds are rich in phytochemical contents, which possessed high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore the data found in

  2. EFFECT OF RICE HULL IN THE DRIED HOTEL FOOD WASTE BASED-DIET ON LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BARROWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Purnamartha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was constructed to observe the effect of rice hull as a fiber sources in the dried hotelfood waste based-diet on fat and cholesterol level of pork. Twenty four heads of two months old ofLandrace x Yorkshire cross barrows were randomly divided into four treatment groups, i.e. without ricehull (R0, 10% rice hull (R1, 20% rice hull (R2, and 30% rice hull (R3. They placed in individualconcrete pen with 1.9 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Feed and water were given as ad libitum.Observation was done for 10 weeks prior to slaughter. Completely Randomized Design was used in thisstudy. Data obtained was analyzev by anova and mean comparison of Duncan's new Multiple RangeTest. Fat content of R0, R1, R2, dan R3 pork were 14.09±0.31, 13.30±0.44, 12.9±20.30 and11.95±0.56%, respectively. Fat content of pork of R0 was higher (P<0.05 than that of others groups.Cholesterol content of pork of R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 256.47±30.23, 252.34±26.56, 217.63±21.93 and199.21±25.94 mg/100 g, respectively. Cholesterol content of pork of R3 were lower (P<0.05 than thoseof R0. It is concluded that the use of rice hull up to 30% in the dried hotel food waste based-diet candecreases fat and cholesterol levels of pork.

  3. Improved green coffee oil antioxidant activity for cosmetical purpose by spray drying microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B.F.L. Nosari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe oil extracted by cold pressing unroasted coffee beans, known as green coffee oil, has been widely used for cosmetic purposes. The objective of this work was to prepare and characterize microcapsules containing green coffee oil and to verify its antioxidant activity under the effect of light, heat and oxygen. The encapsulating material was arabic gum and the microcapsules were obtained by spray drying an oil-in-water emulsion containing green coffee oil. The characterization of the microcapsules was performed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by a modified active oxygen method with light irradiation, heating and oxygen flux. The microparticles were effectively produced by the proposed spray drying method, which resulted in green coffee oil loads of 10 and 30%. The morphological evaluation of microcapsules showed spherical shape with smooth and non-porous surfaces, demonstrating the adequacy of arabic gum as encapsulating material. Calorimetric analysis of individual components and microcapsules with 10 and 30% green coffee oil showed diminished degradation temperatures and enthalpy, suggesting a possible interaction between arabic gum and green coffee oil. The antioxidant activities for pure green coffee oil and its microcapsules with loads of 10 and 30% showed high activity when compared to the reference antioxidant alfa-tocopherol. Microcapsules containing 10 and 30% of oil showed 7-fold and 3-fold increase in antioxidant activity when compared to pure green coffee oil. The new method for antioxidant activity determination proposed here, which applies heat, light and oxygen simultaneously, suggests a high improvement in encapsulated green coffee oil when compared to this active alone. The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of this microencapsulated green coffee oil.

  4. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  5. Comparison between conventional biofilters and biotrickling filters applied to waste bio-drying in terms of atmospheric dispersion and air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Biofiltration has been widely applied to remove odours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from industrial off-gas and mechanical-biological waste treatments. However, conventional open biofilters cannot guarantee an efficient dispersion of air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. The aim of this paper is to compare conventional open biofilters with biotrickling filters (BTFs) in terms of VOC dispersion in the atmosphere and air quality in the vicinity of a hypothetical municipal solid waste bio-drying plant. Simulations of dispersion were carried out regarding two VOCs of interest due to their impact in terms of odours and cancer risk: dimethyl disulphide and benzene, respectively. The use of BTFs, instead of conventional biofilters, led to significant improvements in the odour impact and the cancer risk: when adopting BTFs instead of an open biofilter, the area with an odour concentration > 1 OU m(-3) and a cancer risk > 10(-6) was reduced by 91.6% and 95.2%, respectively. When replacing the biofilter with BTFs, the annual mean concentrations of odorants and benzene decreased by more than 90% in the vicinity of the plant. These improvements are achieved above all because of the higher release height of BTFs and the higher velocity of the outgoing air flow.

  6. Preparation of creating active carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave-induced KOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Yanuar; Umar, Lazuardi

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, cigarette filter waste, which is an environmental hazardous material, is used as basic material prepared for creating activated carbon (AC) via KOH chemical activation using a microwave input power of 630 W and irradiation time of 20 minutes. Active carbon was characterized by TGA, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and absorption of methylene blue (MB). The results of x-ray diffraction showed that active carbon has a semi-crystalline structure with peaks of 2θ of 22.87° and 43.70°. Active carbon microstructure analysis showed that the layer height (Lc ) is inversely proportional to the width of the layer (La ), and the distance between the two layers is d002 and d100 , which depends significantly on the ratio of AC: KOH. It was found that the optimum BET surface area and adsorption capacity for MB were 328.13 m2 / g and 88.76 m2 / g, respectively. The results revealed the potential to prepare activated carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave irradiation.

  7. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of losartan and its active metabolite on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Nageswara; Raju, S Satyanarayana; Vali, R Mastan; Sankar, G Girija

    2012-08-01

    A simple and rapid quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of losartan and its active metabolite, losartan carboxylic acid on rat dried blood spots was developed and validated as per regulatory guidelines. Losartan and its metabolite were extracted from dried blood spots using 50% aqueous methanol and separated on Waters XTerra(®) RP18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using mobile phase composed of 40% acetonitrile and 60% aqueous ammonium acetate (10mM). The eluents were monitored using ESI tandem mass spectrometric detection with negative polarity in MRM mode using ion transitions m/z 421.2→179.0, m/z 435.3→157.0 and m/z 427.3→193.0 for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and Irbesartan (internal standard), respectively. The method was validated over the linear range of 1-200 ng/mL and 5-1000 ng/mL with lower limits of quantification of 1.0 ng/mL and 5.0 ng/mL for losartan and losartan carboxylic acid, respectively. Inter and intra-day precision and accuracy (Bias) were below 5.96% and between -2.8 and 1.5%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the analytes from dried blood spots were between 89% and 97%. No significant carry over and matrix effects were observed. The stability of stock solution, whole blood, dried blood spot and processed samples were tested under different conditions and the results were found to be well within the acceptable limits. Additional validation parameters such as influence of hematocrit and spot volume were also evaluated and found to be well within the acceptable limits.

  8. Effect of pineapple waste powder on probiotic growth, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2016-03-01

    Although many fruit by-products are good sources of nutrients, little is known about their prebiotic potential. This research was aimed at establishing the prebiotic effect of pineapple wastes on probiotics including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), L. casei (ATCC® 393™) and L. paracasei spp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) and the subsequent release of antioxidant and antimutagenic peptides in yogurt during their growth. Oven- and freeze- dried peel and pomace were milled separately into powders and tested for prebiotic activities. The net probiotic growth (1.28-2.14 log cfu/g) in customized MRS broth containing the pineapple powders as a direct carbohydrate source was comparable to MRS broth containing glucose. The powders were also separately added to milk during the manufacturing of yogurt with or without probiotics. An increase (by 0.3-1.4 log cycle) in probiotic populations was observed in the yogurts as a consequence of pineapple powder supplementation. Crude water-soluble peptide extracts, prepared by high-speed centrifugation of the yogurts, displayed remarkable antioxidant activities assessed through in vitro assays, namely scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC50 = 0.37-0.19 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (58.52-73.55 %). The peptide extracts also exhibited antimutagenic activities (18.60-32.72 %) as sodium azide inhibitor in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Together, these results suggest that pineapple by-products exhibited prebiotic properties and could possibly be commercially applied in new functional food formulations.

  9. Biosorption of copper (II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions by drying bed activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaissa, H., E-mail: ho_benaissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Sorbent Materials and Water Treatment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Elouchdi, M.A. [Laboratory of Sorbent Materials and Water Treatment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Dried activated sludge has been investigated for the removal of copper ions from aqueous synthetic solutions, in batch conditions. {yields} Copper uptake was time contact, initial copper concentration, initial pH solution and copper salt type dependent. {yields} Maximum copper uptake obtained was q{sub m} = 62.50 mg/g (0.556 mmol/g) under the investigated experimental conditions. - Abstract: In the present work, the usefulness of dried activated sludge has been investigated for the removal of copper ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Kinetic data and equilibrium sorption isotherm were measured in batch conditions. The influence of some parameters such as: contact time, initial copper concentration, initial pH of solution and copper salt nature on copper biosorption kinetics has been studied. Copper uptake was time contact, initial copper concentration, initial pH solution and copper salt type dependent. Maximum copper sorption was found to occur at initial pH 5. Two simplified kinetic models including a first-order rate equation and a pseudo second-order rate equation were selected to describe the biosorption kinetics. The process followed a pseudo second-order rate kinetics. The process mechanism was found to be complex, consisting of external mass transfer and intraparticle mass transfer diffusion. Copper biosorption process was particle-diffusion-controlled, with some predominance of some external mass transfer at the initial stages for the different experimental parameters studied. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe sorption equilibrium data at natural pH of solution. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. Maximum copper uptake obtained was q{sub m} = 62.50 mg/g (0.556 mmol/g) under the investigated experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray energy dispersed analysis for copper-equilibrated dried activated sludge

  10. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, G. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  11. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  12. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia(Hemsl)A.Gray dry flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robson; Miranda; da; Gama; Marcelo; Guimares; Luiz; Carlos; de; Abreu; José; Armando-Junior

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried flowers of Tithonia diversifolia(Hemsl) A.Gray(T.diversifolia) dry flower-a slirubby plant belonging to the Asteraceac family and very common in Brazil,providing data to help prevent premature aging skin.Methods:The tests of phytochemical screening included total phenols,tannins,flavonoids,alkaloids and saponins.The active antioxidant was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method.Results:The phytoehemical screening of T.diversifolia dry flowers revealed the presence of phenolic compounds(tannins,flavonoids and total phenolsi,while alkaloids and saponins were not detected.The IC50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the plant extracts.Conclusions:Therefore,this study suggests the possibility of using dry flowers extracts of T.diversifolia for the prevention of cell aging,as was shown to have significant antioxidant activity.

  13. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  14. Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, X.

    1996-12-01

    The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

  15. EXPLORATION ON TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN SPRAY DRYING OF PULPING WASTE LIQUOR%造纸废液喷雾干燥工艺参数影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立新; 韩磊; 唐金鑫; 王宗濂

    2001-01-01

    通过对目前造纸工业中6种主要造纸废液的成分对喷雾干燥工艺参数造成影响的研究,得出了不同造纸废液的喷雾干燥有不同的工艺条件,分析了废液的浓度、温度和粘度之间的相应关系,最后针对喷雾干燥出口温度高、热效率较低的特点,提出了用干燥后的热尾气浓缩稀废液的节能新工艺。%In this paper, the effect of chemical composition of pulpingwaste liquor toward the spray drying technological parameters were explored. The results showed that different technological conditions of spray drying should be adopted for different pulping waste liquor. The relations between solid content, temperature and viscosity of waste liquor were analyzed. Considering the high outlet temperature and low heat efficiency of spray drying, a new energy-saving technological process was suggested, in which thin waste liquor is concentrated by using the discharged waste gas from spray drying.

  16. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  17. Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saleh, Tawfik A; Siddiqui, M N; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2013-03-01

    Because of the continuous production of large amount of waste tires, the disposal of waste tires represents a major environmental issue throughout the world. This paper reports the utilization of waste tires (hard-to-dispose waste) as a precursor in the production of activated carbons (pollution-cleaning adsorbent). In the preparation of activated carbon (AC), waste rubber tire (WRT) was thermally treated and activated. The tire-derived activated carbon was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray diffraction. In the IR spectrum, a number of bands centred at about 3409, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000 cm(-1) prove the present of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of AC in addition to C═C double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as potential adsorbent removal of chromium (III). Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized. A rapid uptake of chromium ions was observed and the equilibrium is achieved in 1 h. It was also found that the adsorption process is pH dependent. This work adds to the global discussion of the cost-effective utilization of waste rubber tires for waste water treatment.

  18. Characterization of cationic starch flocculants synthesized by dry process with ball milling activating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuting; Du, Hongying; Huo, Yinqiang; Xu, Yongliang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liying; Zhao, Siming; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-06-01

    The cationic starch flocculants were synthesized by the reaction of maize starch which was activated by a ball-milling treatment with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chlorides (ETMAC) using the dry method. The cationic starches were characterized by several approaches including scanning electron microscope (SEM), degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectrum (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), flocculating activity, electron spin resonance (ESR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effect of mechanical activation on starch etherifying modification was investigated. The mechanical activation cracked starch granules and destructed their crystal structures. This resulted in enhancements to the reaction activity and reaction efficiency, which was approved by ESR and solid state NMR. The starch flocculants, synthesized by the reaction of mechanically activated starches at 90°C for 2.5h with ETMAC at molar ratio of 0.40:1.00, showed good flocculation activity. The substitution degree (0.300) and reaction efficiency (75.06%) of starch flocculants synthesized with mechanically activated starches were significantly greater than those of starch flocculants with native starches (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  1. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  2. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  3. Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Mittal, Alok; Jain, Rajeev; Mathur, Megha; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2006-11-01

    Textile effluents are major industrial polluters because of high color content, about 15% unfixed dyes and salts. The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste materials activated carbon and activated rice husk-as adsorbents. The method was employed for the removal of Safranin-T and the influence of various factors such as adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, particle size, temperature, contact time, and pH was studied. The adsorption of the dye over both the adsorbents was found to follow Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Based on these models, different useful thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for both the adsorption processes. The adsorption of Safranin-T over activated carbon and activated rice husks follows first-order kinetics and the rate constants for the adsorption processes decrease with increase in temperature.

  4. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  5. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha longifolia L. Hudson, Dryed by Three Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanisavljević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of drying the fresh herbal material influences the chemical content and the biological activities of their essential oils. The influence of the different drying methods of the herb Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracted essential oils has been analyzed in this study. Drying has been carried out in three ways: in the natural way, in the laboratory oven (45°C and in the absorptional low-temperature condensational drier (35°C. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has been estimated by FRAP and DPPH assays, while the antimicrobial activity has been estimated by the diffusible and micro-delusional method, testing on the nine types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The essential oil obtained from the herb dried in the natural way has shown the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest from the herb dried in the laboratory oven. Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis have shown the highest sensitivity on the three samples. The oil obtained from the herb dried in the absorptional low-temperature drier has shown the strongest antimicrobial effect.

  6. Bacterial community composition and extracellular enzyme activity in temperate streambed sediment during drying and rewetting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Pohlon

    Full Text Available Droughts are among the most important disturbance events for stream ecosystems; they not only affect stream hydrology but also the stream biota. Although desiccation of streams is common in Mediterranean regions, phases of dryness in headwaters have been observed more often and for longer periods in extended temperate regions, including Central Europe, reflecting global climate change and enhanced water withdrawal. The effects of desiccation and rewetting on the bacterial community composition and extracellular enzyme activity, a key process in the carbon flow of streams and rivers, were investigated in a typical Central European stream, the Breitenbach (Hesse, Germany. Wet streambed sediment is an important habitat in streams. It was sampled and exposed in the laboratory to different drying scenarios (fast, intermediate, slow for 13 weeks, followed by rewetting of the sediment from the fast drying scenario via a sediment core perfusion technique for 2 weeks. Bacterial community structure was analyzed using CARD-FISH and TGGE, and extracellular enzyme activity was assessed using fluorogenic model substrates. During desiccation the bacterial community composition shifted toward composition in soil, exhibiting increasing proportions of Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria and decreasing proportions of Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria. Simultaneously the activities of extracellular enzymes decreased, most pronounced with aminopeptidases and less pronounced with enzymes involved in the degradation of polymeric carbohydrates. After rewetting, the general ecosystem functioning, with respect to extracellular enzyme activity, recovered after 10 to 14 days. However, the bacterial community composition had not yet achieved its original composition as in unaffected sediments within this time. Thus, whether the bacterial community eventually recovers completely after these events remains unknown. Perhaps this community undergoes permanent changes

  7. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  8. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  9. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  10. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  11. PPARβ/δ regulates glucocorticoid- and sepsis-induced FOXO1 activation and muscle wasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibaliz Castillero

    Full Text Available FOXO1 is involved in glucocorticoid- and sepsis-induced muscle wasting, in part reflecting regulation of atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Mechanisms influencing FOXO1 expression in muscle wasting are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ upregulates muscle FOXO1 expression and activity with a downstream upregulation of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression during sepsis and glucocorticoid treatment and that inhibition of PPARβ/δ activity can prevent muscle wasting. We found that activation of PPARβ/δ in cultured myotubes increased FOXO1 activity, atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression, protein degradation and myotube atrophy. Treatment of myotubes with dexamethasone increased PPARβ/δ expression and activity. Dexamethasone-induced FOXO1 activation and atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression, protein degradation, and myotube atrophy were inhibited by PPARβ/δ blocker or siRNA. Importantly, muscle wasting induced in rats by dexamethasone or sepsis was prevented by treatment with a PPARβ/δ inhibitor. The present results suggest that PPARβ/δ regulates FOXO1 activation in glucocorticoid- and sepsis-induced muscle wasting and that treatment with a PPARβ/δ inhibitor may ameliorate loss of muscle mass in these conditions.

  12. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  13. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  14. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan on Fusarium sulphureum in Relation to Dry Rot of Potato Tuber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-cai; SUN Xiao-juan; BI Yang; GE Yong-hong; WANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activity of chitosan on Fusarium sulphureum in relation to the inhibitory effect on dry rot of potato tuber was investigated.The results showed spore germination and mycelial growth of F.sulphureura were inhibited by ehitosan treatment and the inhibitory effect was highly correlated with ehitosan concentration used in this study.Morphological changes such as intertwisting hyphal,distortion,and swelling with excessive branching were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation further indicated the ultrastructural alterations of hyphae.These changes included abnormal distribution of eytoplasma,non-membraneous inclusion bodies assembling in cytoplasm,considerable thickening of the hyphal cellular walls,and very frequent septation with malformed septa.Application of chitosan at higher concentration caused serious damage to fungal hyphae,including cellular membrane disorganisation,cell wall disruption,and breaking of inner cytoplast.New hyphae (daughter hyphae) inside the collapsed hyphal cells was often detected in the cytoplasm of ehitosan-treated hyphae.In vivo tests showed that chitosan treatment at 0.5 or 1% effectively controlled the dry rot of potato tuber inoculated with a spore suspension ofF.sulphureum.However,the chitosan treatment at 1% caused phytotoxicity to potato tuber.This study suggests that the use of ehitosan could be a promising handling as a natural fungicide to partially substitute for the synthetic fungicides in potato tuber.

  16. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  17. Construction of Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Bioethanol Active Dry Yeast (ADY) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes. PMID:24376860

  18. 激发剂对砖粉泡沫混凝土性能的影响%Effect caused by activator on waste brick dust foam concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香; 张伟; 丁铸; 董素芬

    2014-01-01

    废砖的主要化学成分为二氧化硅,通过化学手段可以激发其活性。以石灰、石膏、氢氧化钠作为活性激发剂,通过对砖粉泡沫混凝土抗压强度、表干密度、吸水率性能的测试和研究,分析了3种激发剂对泡沫混凝土性能的影响,试验结果表明:掺入25%左右的石灰可在保证泡沫混凝土表干密度的基础上提高其抗压强度;掺入20%的石膏可使砖粉泡沫混凝土的强度及表干密度比较稳定;NaOH 的掺入使泡沫混凝土出现速凝,不宜单独作为激发剂使用。%The main component of waste brick is silicon dioxide,chemical means can make brick active.It used ground quick lime,gyp-sum powder and sodium hydroxide as the activator,through the study of compressive strength dry density and water absorption on waste brick dust,analyzing the effect caused by these activator on waste brick dust foam concrete.The results indicated that mixing 25% quick lime could improve the compressive strength and ensure the dry density meet the requirement;the dry density and compressive strength could be ensured when 20% gypsum powder was mixed;mixing sodium hydroxide was going to lead foam concrete quick hydration reac-tion,it was unfit for using as activator alone.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF TEA WASTES ON SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITY AND NITRIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç ARCAK

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on tea wastes supplied from factories of General Directorate of Tea Enterprises. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of composted, enriched composted tea wastes along with coarse and fine tea wastes released by tea factories processing raw tea leaves into black tea, on soil enzyme activity and nitrification. Tea wastes were applied to pots of 200 g-soil capacity, at the rate of 0 %, 2.5 % and 5.0 % of the pot capacity in addition, 200 µg/g N, in the form of ammonia sulphate, was given to each pot. Soils were analysed for enzyme activities at the end of 1., 7., 14., and 28. day of incubation. Amount of NH+4 N and NO-3 N were determined for nitrification at the end of 1., 7., 14. and 28. day of incubation. Urease enzyme activity increased, depending on coarse and fine tea waste doses at the incubation periods of 1., 2. and 3. weeks, but decrease was monitored at 4.. week of the incubation. Whereas, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity increased throughout the incubation period. The amount of NH+4 N in the soil diminished depending on different tea wastes and doses, yet NO -3 N in the soil showed no significant augmentation.

  20. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2007-08-08

    The x-ray fluorescence laboratory (XRF) in the Analytical Development Directorate (ADD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop an XRF analytical method that provides rapid turnaround time (<8 hours), while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine variations in waste.

  1. TWRS retrieval and storage mission, immobilized low-activity waste disposal plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.

    1998-01-07

    The TWRS mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the encapsulated cesium and strontium) in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner (TWRS JMN Justification for mission need). The mission includes retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, interim storage and disposal, and tank closure. As part of this mission, DOE has established the TWRS Office to manage all Hanford Site tank waste activities. The TWRS program has identified the need to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the highly radioactive Hanford Site tank waste and encapsulated cesium and strontium materials in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. To support environmental remediation and restoration at the Hanford Site a two-phase approach to using private contractors to treat and immobilize the low-activity and high-level waste currently stored in underground tanks is planned. The request for proposals (RFP) for the first phase of waste treatment and immobilization was issued in February 1996 (Wagoner 1996) and initial contracts for two private contractor teams led by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. and Lockheed-Martin Advanced Environmental Services were signed in September 1996. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept and commercial demonstration effort to demonstrate the technical and business feasibility of using private facilities to treat Hanford Site waste, maintain radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; and maintain environmental protection and compliance while reducing lifecycle costs and waste treatment times. Phase 1 production of ILAW is planned to begin in June 2002 and could treat up to about 13 percent of the waste. Phase 1 production is expected to be completed in 2007 for minimum order quantities or 2011 for maximum order quantities. Phase 2 is a full-scale production effort that will begin after Phase 1 and treat and immobilize most of the waste. Phase 2 production is

  2. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  3. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  4. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  5. Adsorption of phenol and reactive dye from aqueous solution on activated carbons derived from solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Namba, Akio; Mukai, Shin R; Tamon, Hajime; Ariyadejwanich, Pisit; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2004-04-01

    Activated carbons were produced from several solid wastes, namely, waste PET, waste tires, refuse derived fuel and wastes generated during lactic acid fermentation from garbage. Activated carbons having various pore size distributions were obtained by the conventional steam-activation method and via the pre-treatment method (i.e., mixture of raw materials with a metal salt, carbonization and acid treatment prior to steam-activation) that was proposed by the authors. The liquid-phase adsorption characteristics of organic compounds from aqueous solution on the activated carbons were determined to confirm the applicability of these carbons, where phenol and a reactive dye, Black5, were employed as representative adsorbates. The hydrophobic surface of the carbons prepared was also confirmed by water vapor adsorption. The characteristics of a typical commercial activated carbon were also measured and compared. It was found that the activated carbons with plentiful mesopores prepared from PET and waste tires had quite high adsorption capacity for large molecules. Therefore they are useful for wastewater treatment, especially, for removal of bulky adsorbates.

  6. Activated carbons from African oil palm waste shells and fibre for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a series of activated carbons by chemical activation with two strong bases in-group that few use, and I with waste from shell and fibers and oil-palm African. Activated carbons are obtained with relatively high surface areas (1605 m2/g. We study the textural and chemical properties and its effect on hydrogen storage. The activated carbons obtained from fibrous wastes exhibit a high hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 wt % at 77 K and 12 bar.

  7. New Technology of Drying Sludge with Flue Gas Waste Heat and Solar%烟气废热/太阳能预干化污泥新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉桥; 原宏梅; 王兵帅; 耿贵强; 徐仙; 杨伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption of sewage sludge drying, the new drying technology with flue gas waste heat and solar was presented by combining the drying technologies of solar greenhouse and flue gas waste heat from power plants. The process flow was constructed and the process units were determined. The energy balance calculation was carried out on the basis of the pilot result for drying sludge with flue gas waste heat and solar.%为降低污水厂污泥干燥能耗,结合太阳能温室干燥技术和电厂烟气废热干燥技术,提出了烟气废热/太阳能预干化新工艺,构建了工艺流程并对工艺单元进行了确定,并通过烟气余热/太阳能预干化污泥中试试验结果进行了能量衡算。

  8. Variation of Coenzyme F420 Activity and Methane Yield in Landfill Simulation of Organic Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-huan; SANG Shu-xun; HUANG Hua-zhou; LIU Xiao-juan; OUYANG Jin-bao

    2007-01-01

    A simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactor was used to characterize the anaerobic biodegradation and biogas generation of organic waste which was mainly composed of residuals of vegetables and foods. We investigated the dynamics of the coenzyme F420 activity and determined correlations between biogas yields, methane yields, methane concentration and coenzyme F420 activity. The experiment was carried out under different conditions from control without any treatment, addition of Fe3+, microorganism inoculation to a combination of Fe3+ addition and inoculation at a temperature of 36±2 ℃. The experiment was lasted 120 d and coenzyme F420 activity was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicated that activity of the coenzyme F420 treated by Fe3+ and microorganism inoculation increased substantially. The waste treated by inoculation had the greatest increase. When the waste was treated by Fe3+, inoculation and the combination of Fe3+ and inoculation, biogas yields increased by 46.9%, 132.6% and 153.1%, respectively; while the methane yields increased 4, 97 and 98 times. Methane concentration varied between 0 and 6% in the control reactor, from 0 to 14% for waste treated by the addition of Fe3+, from 0 to 59% for waste treated by inoculation and from 0 to 63% for waste treated by Fe3+ addition and inoculation. Correlations between coenzyme F420 activity and biogas production, methane production and methane concentration proved to be positively significant (p<0.05), except for the control. Consequently, coenzyme F420 activity could be used as an index for monitoring the ac-tivity of methanogens during anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  9. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  10. A bullet fired in dry water: an investigative activity to learn hydrodynamics concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Leitão, Ulisses; dos Anjos Pinheiro da Silva, Antonio; Trindade do Nascimento, Natália Cristina; Mara Benedita da Cruz Gervásio, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report an investigative activity on hydrodynamics, in the context of an inquiry-based learning project. The aim is to analyse the experiment of a bullet shot underwater. Using Tracker, a video analysing and modelling software, the displacement of the bullet was measured as function of time, processing a slow motion video from YouTube. It was found that the displacement of the bullet is well described in the first 20 ms by the inviscid flow regime, where the Newtonian drag force overcomes the viscous drag. This behaviour is discussed in the context of what Richard Feynman’s famous Lectures on Physics describes as ‘The Flow of Dry Water’.

  11. A portable device for real time drowsiness detection using novel active dry electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pai-Yuan; Hu, Weichih; Kuo, Terry B J; Shyu, Liang-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals give important information about the vigilance states of a subject. Therefore, this study constructs a real-time EEG-based system for detecting a drowsy driver. The proposed system uses a novel six channels active dry electrode system to acquire EEG non-invasively. In addition, it uses a TMS320VC5510 DSP chip as the algorithm processor, and a MSP430F149 chip as a controller to achieve a real-time portable system. This study implements stationary wavelet transform to extract two features of EEG signal: integral of EEG and zero crossings as the input to a back propagation neural network for vigilance states classification. This system can discriminate alertness and drowsiness in real-time. The accuracy of the system is 79.1% for alertness and 90.91% for drowsiness states. When the system detects drowsiness, it will warn drivers by using a vibrator and a beeper.

  12. Generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourist activities of the Porto de Galinhas - P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant solid waste generation, coupled with the lack of proper management of the waste generated, has been one of the issues of concern and conducting research on the part of scholars in the field. Tourism as an activity that positively impacts and negativity a given location, has emerged as an activity that can generate a lot of waste, especially in periods of high season, considering the increase of people moving to the tourist destinations. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze the generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourism in Porto de Galinhas, PE. We performed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in the form of a case study in Porto de Galinhas, PE. The data collection was done interviews together social actors, as well as non-participant observation during data collection. The results showed that tourism activities in Porto de Galinhas result in a high amount of solid waste, and these are directed to inappropriate places. Although fate presents a combination of recyclable materials, RECYCLE, reuses this not a significant amount, given the proportion of waste generated.

  13. Hydrogen and methane production by co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste in the two-stage fermentation process: substrate conversion and energy yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Han, Li

    2013-10-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen and methane from waste activated sludge and food waste by two-stage mesophilic fermentation. Hydrogen and methane production, energy yield, soluble organic matters, volatile solid removal efficiency and carbon footprint were investigated during two-stage digestion at various food waste proportions. The highest energy yield reached 14.0 kJ/g-VS at the food waste proportion of 85%, with hydrogen and methane yields of 106.4 ml-H2/g-VS and 353.5 ml-CH4/g-VS respectively. The dominant VFA composition was butyrate for co-digestion and sole food waste fermentation, whereas acetate was dominate in VFA for sole waste activated sludge fermentation. The VS removal efficiencies of co-digestion were 10-77% higher than that of waste activated sludge fermentation. Only 0.1-3.2% of the COD in feedstock was converted into hydrogen, and 14.1-40.9% to methane, with the highest value of 40.9% in methane achieved at food waste proportion of 85%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  15. Modeling moisture diffusivity, activation energy and specific energy consumption of squash seeds in a semi fluidized and fluidized bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Salari, Kamran; Abedi, Qasem; Sabziparvar, Ali Akbar

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated thin layer drying of squash seeds under semi fluidized and fluidized bed conditions with initial moisture content about 83.99% (d.b.). An experimental fluidized bed dryer was also used in this study. Air temperature levels of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C were applied in drying samples. To estimate the drying kinetic of squash seed, seven mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data of thin layer drying. Among the applied models, Two-term model has the best performance to estimate the thin layer drying behavior of the squash seeds. Fick's second law in diffusion was used to determine the effective moisture diffusivity of squash seeds. The range of calculated values of effective moisture diffusivity for drying experiments were between 0.160 × 10(-9) and 0.551 × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Moisture diffusivity values decreased as the input air temperature decreased. Activation energy values were found to be between 31.94 and 34.49 kJ/mol for 50 °C to 80 °C, respectively. The specific energy consumption for squash seeds was calculated at the boundary of 0.783 × 10(6) and 2.303 × 10(6) kJ/kg. Increasing in drying air temperature in different bed conditions led to decrease in specific energy value. Results showed that applying the semi fluidized bed condition is more effective for convective drying of squash seeds. The aforesaid drying characteristics are useful to select the best operational point of fluidized bed dryer and to precise design of system.

  16. Active and passive CT for waste assay using LaBr3(Ce) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tushar; More, M. R.; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2017-01-01

    An active and passive computed tomography system has been developed that localizes and quantifies 239Pu in a waste drum. The active (transmission) measurement uses an external gamma source and LaBr3(Ce) detector to determine the attenuation map of waste drum contents at different selected energies. The passive (emission) measurement uses multiple LaBr3(Ce) detectors to record the spectra of gamma-rays emitted from within the drum. The active and passive data sets are then coupled to quantitatively assay drum contents for 239Pu.

  17. Experimental study on drying of typical MSW under incinerator-like conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; YanGuo; CHEN; MeiQian; MENG; AiHong; LI; QingHai; CHEN; YunXuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the drying of typical municipal solid wastes (MSW) in a muffle incinerator. From the experimental drying characteristic curves, the effects of temperature on drying process were observed to be more obvious in the low temperature region than in the high temperature region in muffle incinerator. At a specified drying temperature, drying time was highly dependent upon the packed waste thickness, having an exponent relation with the thickness. When the drying temperature increased or the thickness of potato bulks was diminished, the maximum drying rate reduced. Based on the first-order reaction, activation energy (Ea), and factor A of potato and cabbage were determined.

  18. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH inflammation within the rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had a 2.3-fold increase in Streptococcus bovis and a 12-fold reduction in Megasphaera elsdenii. The reduction in M. elsdenii may reflect lower concentration of lactic acid within the rumen for ADSC cows. In conclusion, ADSC supplementation to dairy cows was demonstrated to alleviate the condition of SARA caused by abrupt dietary changes from HF to HG, and can potentially improve rumen function, as indicated by greater numbers of cellulolytic microorganisms within the rumen.

  19. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC50 = 3.2–5.2 μg/mL, TEAC (2.8–4.0 mmol Trolox®/g, and FRAP (9.8–13.7 mmol Fe2+/g tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6–58.2% of gallic acid equivalents. The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC50 = 36.9–228.3 μg/mL depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products.

  20. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  1. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  2. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, Bernd

    2008-12-12

    When disposing nuclear waste in clay formations it is expected that the most radiotoxic elements like Pu, Np or Am move only a few centimetres to meters before they decay. Only a few radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere and contribute to their long-term exposure risks, mainly anionic species like I129, Cl36, Se79 and in some cases C14 and Tc99, whatever the scenario considered. The recent OECD/NEA cosponsored international MOFAP workshop focussed on transport and chemical behaviour of these less toxic radionuclides. New research themes have been addressed, such as how to make use of molecular level information for the understanding of the problem of migration at large distances. Diffusion studies need to face mineralogical heterogeneities over tens to hundreds of meters. Diffusion rates are very low since the clay rock pores are so small (few nm) that electrostatic repulsion limits the space available for anion diffusion (anion exclusion). The large volume of traversed rock will provide so many retention sites that despite weak retention, even certain of these "mobile" nuclides may show significant retardation. However, the question how to measure reliably very low retention parameters has been posed. An important issue is whether redox states or organic/inorganic speciation change from their initial state at the moment of release from the waste during long term contact with surfaces, hydrogen saturated environments, etc.

  3. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred......The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results...... and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced....

  4. Kinetic study of solid waste pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanam, Anjireddy; Sastry, R C

    2015-02-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of municipal solid waste, agricultural residues such as ground nut shell, cotton husk and their blends are investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with in a temperature range of 30-900 °C at different heating rates of 10 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C/min in inert atmosphere. From the thermograms obtained from TGA, it is observed that the maximum rate of degradation occurred in the second stage of the pyrolysis process for all the solid wastes. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) is used to study the pyrolysis kinetics of the solid wastes. The kinetic parameters E (activation energy), k0 (frequency factor) are calculated from this model. It is found that the range of activation energies for agricultural residues are lower than the municipal solid waste. The activation energies for the municipal solid waste pyrolysis process drastically decreased with addition of agricultural residues. The proposed DAEM is successfully validated with TGA experimental data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  6. Biosorption of cadmium(Ⅱ) and lead(Ⅱ) ions from aqueous solutions onto dried activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-jiang; XIA Si-qing; CHEN Ling; ZHAO Jian-fu; CHOVELON Jean-marc; NICOLE Jaffrezic-renault

    2006-01-01

    The removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous solutions by using dried activated sludge has been investigated in batch systems. Effect of solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were determined. The results of the kinetic studies showed that the uptake processes of the two metal ions(Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ)) followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The equilibrium data fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The FT-IR analysis showed that the main mechanism of Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) biosorption onto dried activated sludge was their binding with amide I group.

  7. Enhanced Stability of Blood Matrices Using a Dried Sample Spot Assay to Measure Human Butyrylcholinesterase Activity and Nerve Agent Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jonas W.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Dried matrix spots are safer to handle and easier to store than wet blood products, but factors such as intra-spot variability and unknown sample volumes have limited their appeal as a sampling format for quantitative analyses. In this work, we introduce a dried spot activity assay for quantifying butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) specific activity which is BChE activity normalized to the total protein content in a sample spot. The method was demonstrated with blood, serum, and plasma spotted on specimen collection devices (cards) which were extracted to measure total protein and BChE activity using a modified Ellman assay. Activity recovered from dried spots was ∼80% of the initial spotted activity for blood and >90% for plasma and serum. Measuring total protein in the sample and calculating specific activity substantially improved quantification and reduced intra-spot variability. Analyte stability of nerve agent adducts was also evaluated, and the results obtained via BChE-specific activity measurements were confirmed by quantification of BChE adducts using a previously established LC-MS/MS method. The spotted samples were up to 10-times more resistant to degradation compared to unspotted control samples when measuring BChE inhibition by the nerve agents sarin and VX. Using this method, both BChE activity and adducts can be accurately measured from a dried sample spot. This use of a dried sample spot with normalization to total protein is robust, demonstrates decreased intra-spot variability without the need to control for initial sample volume, and enhances analyte stability. PMID:25955132

  8. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Danny C K; Mui, Edward L K; Lau, Ken S T; McKay, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire--pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal--pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main process factors; these are product price, production capacity, total production cost, capital investment and the tipping fee. Net present values for the two plants at various discount factors have been determined and the internal rates of return have been determined as 27.4% and 18.9% for the waste tire plant and the coal plant, respectively.

  9. New insights into co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste: Biogas versus biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    This study explored two holistic approaches for co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste. In Approach 1, mixed activated sludge and food waste were first hydrolyzed with fungal mash, and produced hydrolysate without separation was directly subject to anaerobic digestion. In Approach 2, solid generated after hydrolysis of food waste by fungal mash was directly converted to biofertilizer, while separated liquid with high soluble COD concentration was further co-digested with activated sludge for biomethane production. Although the potential energy produced from Approach 1 was about 1.8-time higher than that from Approach 2, the total economic revenue generated from Approach 2 was about 1.9-fold of that from Approach 1 due to high market value of biofertilizer. It is expected that this study may lead to a paradigm shift in biosolid management towards environmental and economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitation of selected odor-active constituents in dry fermented sausages prepared with different curing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Aurora; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2007-04-18

    The odor-active compounds of dry-fermented sausages with added nitrite or nitrate as curing agents were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applying the detection frequency (DF) method. The quantification of these compounds in the sausage was determined by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (multiple HS-SPME). There were no specific odor-active compounds related to the use of nitrite or nitrate although there were differences in the DF value of several compounds. The nitrite-added sausages presented higher DF values for ethanol, 1-hexanol, propanoic acid, 2-heptenal, and nonanal while the nitrate-added sausages had higher DF values for phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methyl-butanal. Eighteen compounds were quantified by multiple HS-SPME. Most of them were above their air detection thresholds, but only hexanal, heptanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were in a concentration higher than their oil threshold values. These compounds would probably be the main contributors to the aroma of fermented sausages.

  11. Reference values for lysosomal enzymes activities using dried blood spots samples - a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Ana M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD are inherited disorders caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzymes in which early diagnosis is essential to provide timely treatment. This study reports interval values for the activity of lysosomal enzymes that are deficient in Mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Fabry, Gaucher and Pompe disease, using dried blood spots on filter paper (DBS samples in a Brazilian population. Results Reference activity values were obtained from healthy volunteers samples for alpha-galactosidase A (4.57 ± 1.37 umol/L/h, beta-glucosidase (3.06 ± 0.99 umol/L/h, alpha-glucosidase (ratio: 13.19 ± 4.26; % inhibition: 70.66 ± 7.60, alpha-iduronidase (3.45 ± 1.21 umol/L/h and beta-galactosidase (14.09 ± 4.36 umol/L/h. Conclusion Reference values of five lysosomal enzymes were determined for a Brazilian population sample. However, as our results differ from other laboratories, it highlights the importance of establishing specific reference values for each center.

  12. Dry etching techniques for active devices based on hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenadier, Samuel; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as a fundamentally and technologically important material system owing to its unique physical properties including layered structure, wide energy bandgap, large optical absorption, and neutron capture cross section. As for any materials under development, it is necessary to establish device processing techniques to realize active devices based on hBN. The authors report on the advancements in dry etching techniques for active devices based on hBN epilayers via inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The effect of ICP radio frequency (RF) power on the etch rate and vertical side wall profile was studied. The etching depth and angle with respect to the surface were measured using atomic force microscopy showing that an etching rate ∼1.25 μm/min and etching angles >80° were obtained. Profilometer data and scanning electron microscope images confirmed these results. This work demonstrates that SF{sub 6} is very suitable for etching hBN epilayers in RF plasma environments and can serve as a guide for future hBN device processing.

  13. Optimization of microwave vacuum drying parameters for germinated lentils based on starch digestibility, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbarts Nongmaithem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the processing parameters of pulse mode microwave-vacuum drying of germinated green and red lentils (CDC Greenland and CDC Maxim and investigate the changes in their total phenolic content (TPC, total antioxidant activity (TAA and in-vitro starch digestibility (SD. The lentils were germinated for 5 days and dried by a pulse mode microwave-vacuum method, using 2 s to 8 s out of 10 s pulsed mode at 2000W microwave power and varying the vacuum pressure level between 15 and 45 kPa. In-vitro starch digestibility increased significantly with increased microwave power level. The TPC and TAA appeared to vary distinctively in the two varieties of selected lentils. Vacuum pressure levels did not significantly (p>0.05 affect any responses. Green lentils could be dried at 8 s microwave power and 45 kPa vacuum pressure and red lentils could be dried at 5.5 s microwave power and 42.19 kPa vacuum pressure. The microwave-vacuum drying showed great potential for the drying of germinated lentils.

  14. Adsorption of direct dye onto activated carbon prepared from areca nut pod--an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswami, P; Sivakumar, N; Ponnuswamy, S; Venkateswaren, V; Kavitha, G

    2010-10-01

    Activated carbons are made from various agricultural wastes by physical and chemical activation. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and also provides an excellent method for the solid waste disposal thereby reduce pollution. Areca nut pod, which is an agricultural waste, has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon (AAC) by four different methods. The adsorption of Direct blue dye used in textile industry on the porous areca nut pod activated carbon was investigated. The activated carbon AAC has an average surface area of 502 m2/g. CAC, the commercial reference was mainly micro porous with a surface area of 1026 m2/g .The study investigated the removal of direct dye from simulated water. The effects of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The results indicate that AAC could be employed as low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of acid dyes.

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  16. The lightning activity associated with the dry and moist convections in the Himalayan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penki, R. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2013-06-01

    Lightning activity in the dry environment of northwest India and Pakistan (NW) and in the moist environment of northeast India (NE) has been examined from the Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor data obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite during 1995-2010. In the NW region, seasonal variation of flash rate is annual with a maximum in July but is semi-annual with a primary maximum in April and a secondary maximum in September, in the NE region. On diurnal scale, flash rate is the maximum in the afternoons, in both the NE and NW regions. The correlation of flash rate with convective parameters, viz. surface temperature, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and outgoing long-wave radiation is better with convective activity in the NW than in the NE region. Mean value of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm is ~ 26% higher and is highly correlated with flash rate in NW as compared to that in NE. Results indicate that CAPE is ~ 120 times more efficient in NW than in the NE region for production of lightning. The empirical orthogonal function analysis of flash rate, surface temperature, and CAPE shows that variance of lightning activity in these regions cannot be fully explained by the variance in the surface temperature and CAPE alone, and that some other factors, such as orographic lifting, precipitation, topography, etc., may also contribute to this variance in these mountainous regions. Further, the increase in CAPE due to orographic lifting in the Himalayan foothills in the NE region may contribute to ~ 7.5% increase in lightning activity. Relative roles of the thermally induced and moisture-induced changes in CAPE are examined in these regions. This study merely raises the questions, and that additional research is required for explaining the fundamental reasons for the reported observations here.

  17. Vitrification and Testing of Hanford Pretreated Low Activity Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary Lynn L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Harry D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, Michael J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Piepel, Gregory F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gary L. Smith, S.K. Sundaram, and Dane R. Spearing

    2002-04-01

    Actual pretreated LAW samples were vitrified to demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the LAW product ORP Phase B-1 contract requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. Chemical compositions of two LAW glasses (i.e. elements (excluding oxygen) present in concentrations greater than 0.5 percent by weight) were measured using KOH and Na2O2 fusion preparation procedures. The measured wt% sodium oxide content for the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are 17.7 and 18.3 respectively; however, it is argued herein that process knowledge, i.e. the target sodium oxide content, is better than the analytical measurement. Therefore for both LAW glasses the target oxide loading for sodium of 20 wt% is accepted. At these levels the glass meets or exceeds both the RPP-WTP glass specification and the DOE ORG contract requirement for waste sodium loading. The concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides for AW-101 and AN-107 are: (1) 0.231 and 0.292 Ci/m3, 0.435 and 0.005 Ci/m3, 0.019 and 0.129 Ci/m3, and< 0.16 and< 2.6 nCi/g, respectively. The ORP contract criteria for 137Cs, 90Sr and TRU (shall be less than 3 Ci/m3, 20 Ci/m3, and 100 nCi/g, respectively) are met in both glasses. The ORP contract criteria for 99Tc (shall be less than 0.1 Ci/m3) is met explicitly by AW-101 and will be met for the AN-107 glass by averaging its 99Tc content over the previous LAW glasses produced to meet the contract. After canister centerline cooling, no crystals were observed in the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses by XRD, optical examination and SEM analysis. The normalized PCT release rates of sodium, silicon, and boron at both 40 and 90 C from the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are less than 2.0 g/m2 the ORP contract criteria.

  18. The Pilot Study on Microwave Drying Technology for Waste Resin from Nuclear Power Plant%核电站废离子交换树脂微波干燥可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 安鸿翔; 梁栋; 贾梅兰; 杨卫兵; 闫小俊; 柳兆峰

    2012-01-01

    目前,核电站产生的废树脂,大多数采用暂存或水泥固化方法,但水泥固化增容比达4.8~5.2。桶内干燥工艺以其工艺简单,减容比大等优点,已在国外核电站得到应用。微波干燥具有由内向外的干燥特点。据报道,微波干燥废树脂的减容比可达5。用微波作为热源,在桶内干燥条件下对核电厂产生的废树脂开展了可行性研究。研究表明,在试验条件下,初始含水率50%左右的树脂,干燥后的含水率均小于10%,减容比为1.5~2。试验结果表明微波干燥废树脂是可行的。%At present, the waste resin produced by nuclear power plants are temporary stored or making into concretes, but the cement compatible ratio is 4.8 to 5.2. Barrel drying process has the advantages of simple process and reduces the capacity. It has been applied in foreign nuclear power plants. Microwave drying dries from the inside. According to reports, the microwave drying of waste resin can achieve a volume reduction ratio of up to 5. With microwave as the heat source, this paper studied the feasibihty of drying the waste resin generated from nuclear power plants in the barrel. The results show that under the experimental conditions, the water content of resin with initial moisture content of about 50% dropped to less than 10% after the drying, achieving volume reduction ratio of 1.5 to 2. The results showed that the microwave drying of waste resin is feasible.

  19. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (organisms such as fungi may develop as well in such conditions. It also needs to be evaluated how conditions change with time and how this affects microbial ecology. The following is known

  20. Effect of drying temperatures on structural performance and photocatalytic activity of BiOCl synthesized by a soft chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Lu; Hui, Wang; Xuejun, Zou

    2016-07-01

    A group of BiOCl photocatalysts with different drying temperatures were prepared by a soft chemical method. The effects of drying temperatures on the crystalline phase, morphology, surface area and optical property of as-prepared samples were investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, N2 absorption-desorption and DRS. Moreover, their photocatalytic activities on the degradation of rhodamine B were evaluated under visible light irradiation. It was found that the sample dried at 120 °C had the best photocatalytic activity, which was mainly attributed to the highest exposing proportion of {001} facets correspond to BiOCl, largest BET and minimum bandgap. The degradation mechanism was explored that superoxide radicals were mainly contributed to the degradation of chromophore, however, holes and hydroxyl were mainly contributed to the photo degradation. Moreover, holes and hydroxyl dominated the degradation of RhB.

  1. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Turgay; Ucar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-06-15

    Lignocellulosic materials are good and cheap precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from the pyrolysis of soybean oil cake at 600 and 800 degrees C by chemical activation with K(2)CO(3) and KOH. The influence of temperature and type of chemical reagents on the porosity development was investigated and discussed. K(2)CO(3) was found more effective than KOH as a chemical reagent under identical conditions in terms of both porosity development and yields of the activated carbons. The maximum surface area (1352.86 m(2)g(-1)) was obtained at 800 degrees C with K(2)CO(3) activation which lies in the range of commercial activated carbons. Elemental analyses of the activated carbons indicate insignificant sulphur content for all activated carbons. The ash and sulphur contents of the activated carbons obtained with chemical activation by K(2)CO(3) were lower than those by chemical activation with KOH.

  2. A Strategy for Maintenance of the Long-Term Performance Assessment of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Approximately 50 million gallons of high-level radioactive mixed waste has accumulated in 177 buried single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as a result of the past production of nuclear materials, primarily for defense uses. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proceeding with plans to permanently dispose of this waste. Plans call for separating the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which will be vitrified at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Principal radionuclides of concern in LAW are 99Tc, 129I, and U, while non-radioactive contaminants of concern are Cr and nitrate/nitrite. HLW glass will be sent off-site to an undetermined federal site for deep geological disposal while the much larger volume of immobilized low-activity waste will be placed in the on-site, near-surface Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

  3. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  4. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpeng Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C for a long time by electric oven drying and vacuum oven drying. In microwave drying, treatments at lower microwave power and longer time benefit the quality of saffron. In addition, the influence of the drying method on antioxidants in saffron is discussed. The correlation between individual saffron profiles and the antioxidant value was estimated by spectrum-effect relationships analysis.

  5. Annual Summary of Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F M

    2000-05-01

    As required by the Department of Energy (DOE) order on radioactive waste management (DOE 1999a) as implemented by the Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (Mann 2000a), an annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) must be submitted to DOE headquarters each year that a performance assessment is not submitted. Considering the results of data collection and analysis, the conclusions of the 1998 version of the ILAW PA (Mann 1998) as conditionally approved (DOE 1999b) remain valid, but new information indicates more conservatism in the results than previously estimated. A white paper (Mann 2000b) is attached as Appendix A to justify this statement. Recent ILAW performance estimates used on the waste form and geochemical data have resulted in increased confidence that the disposal of ILAW will meet performance objectives. The ILAW performance assessment program will continue to interact with science and technology activities, disposal facility design staff, and operations, as well as to continue to collect new waste form and disposal system data to further increase the understanding of the impacts of the disposal of ILAW. The next full performance assessment should be issued in the spring of 2001.

  6. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango.

  7. Antioxidant activity and physical-chemical properties of spray and spouted bed dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Fernandes Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct drying methods (spouted bed and spray drying were used for production of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae. High-quality powder products in terms of physical and chemical properties were obtained. HPLC fingerprints revealed that the chromatographic profiles of flavonoid compounds present in the dried extract did not change significantly, due to drying. In general, the spouted bed drying caused a degradation of total flavonoids than was lower than that of the spray drying. Antioxidant properties of the dried extract, examined by their radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH• and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe+2 assays (LPO, confirmed their antioxidant potential. The slight reduction in scavenging activity of the dried extracts may be associated with the occurrence of oxidative reactions, decomposition or losses of thermolabile compounds, induced by the heat.Neste trabalho foram utilizados dois distintos secadores (leito de jorro e spray dryer para a produção de extratos secos de Bauhinia forficata Link (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae obtendo-se um produto seco com elevada qualidade em termos de suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Análises qualitativas obtidas por CLAE revelam que os perfis cromatográficos dos compostos flavonóides presentes nos extratos secos não apresentaram significativas mudanças durante a secagem quando comparados aos perfis obtidos para os extratos concentrados. Em geral, a secagem por leito de jorro acarreta menores perdas dos flavonóides totais do que a secagem em spray drying. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos secos foi examinada pelos métodos de (DPPH• e peroxidação lipídica induzida por Fe+2 (LPO. Uma pequena redução na atividade sequestradora de radicais livres observada para os extratos secos pode ser associada com a ocorrência de reações oxidativas, decomposição e/ou perdas de

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  9. Vibro-fluidized bed heat pump drying of mint leaves with respect to phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and color indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei Ardestani Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of high porosity and stickiness of mint leaves, they could not be fluidized well during fluidization. In this study, a vibro-fluidized bed dryer assisted heat pump system was designed and fabricated to overcome this problem. The drying experiments were carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The quality of the dehydrated samples was assessed based on color indices, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content. Drying process primarily occurred in falling rate period. The effective coefficient of moisture transfer of the samples was increased with air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for heat pump drying (HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for none-heat pump drying (NHPD method. The color indices for temperatures of 40 and 50 °C were very close to each other, whereas by increasing temperature to 60 °C, a remarkable loss of green color was observed. The highest phenolic content was found in methanolic extract for HPD at 60 °C, and NHPD at 50 °C contained the lowest amount of phenolic compounds. NHPD treatments showed lower antioxidant activity compared to HPD treatments at the same temperature due to the longer drying times.

  10. Activity-based costing on the example of prune-drying company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nikola P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of application of the activity-based costing in a company engaged in drying fruit. Activity Based Costing (ABC was developed due to the shortcomings of traditional cost accounting systems, which was shown to have serious limitations, on one hand, and due to the need for more accurate cost price, on the other. This is of great importance for business decision making, which requires quality data and information, because the intense technical and technological progress has significantly altered the environment companies operate in. Along with this fact, major changes in cost structure occurred, which reflected through the increase of the indirect cost portion, and decrease of direct labor and material costs. Traditional cost accounting methods allocate indirect production costs using keys which are no longer appropriate for the new circumstances, and therefore typically allocate unreasonably high amount of indirect costs to those products which are produced in larger series. ABC cost accounting system firstly allocates indirect costs to pre-defined activities, and afterwards carries them to cost and profit drivers. The application of ABC costing in Serbia is at the very beginning. Having in mind that the privatization and the restructuring phase in the economy is followed by the establishment of a new management with fresh ideas, this can be a good timing for companies to introduce modern approach and modern methods of cost accounting. ABC method is very convenient for application in service companies, food processing industry, confectionery companies, driers, sugar refineries, breweries, dairies, mills etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46001, Razvoj i primena novih i tradicionalnih tehnologija u proizvodnji konkurentnih prehrambenih proizvoda sa dodatom vrednošću na evropsko i svetsko tržište - Stvorimo bogatstvo iz bogatstva Srbije

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  15. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Augmented Formulation Matrix Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in Washington State. The HLW will be vitrified in the HLW facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. A portion (~35%) of the LAW will be vitrified in the LAW vitrification facility for disposal onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize all of the wastes destined for those facilities. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. Cast Stone, a cementitious waste form, is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW. A statistically designed test matrix was used to evaluate the effects of key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. For the processing properties, the water-to-dry-blend mix ratio was the most significant parameter in affecting the range of values observed for each property. The single shell tank (SST) Blend simulant also showed differences in measured properties compared to the other three simulants tested. A review of the testing matrix and results indicated that an additional set of tests would be beneficial to improve the understanding of the impacts noted in the Screening

  16. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  17. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  18. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  19. The effect of changing the moisture levels of dry extruded and wet canned diets on physical activity in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, D.G.; Post, M.; Bosch, G.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity levels in cats are increasing and the main causative factor is higher energy intake v. energy expenditure over time. Therefore, altering energy expenditure by enhancing physical activity of the cat could be a strategy to reduce obesity. Hydrating commercial dry diets with water increased

  20. Effect of Air-dried Aged Waste on Removal of PAHs in River Sediment%风干陈化垃圾对河流沉积物中多环芳烃去除的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱华; 苏良湖

    2013-01-01

    考察了风干陈化垃圾对河流沉积物中多环芳烃(菲和蒽)去除的影响.研究发现,添加20%风干陈化垃圾使沉积物在40d内菲和蒽的非生物迁移率分别从47.2%下降至35.6%和从23.0%下降至7.0%,菲和蒽的非生物迁移与时间呈现较好的线性关系.添加陈化垃圾可以降低沉积物中菲和蒽向大气迁移的风险.同时,风干陈化垃圾没有促进沉积物中多环芳烃的降解,即添加20%风干陈化垃圾前后,沉积物中菲40 d内的生物降解率分别为32.8%和32.2%,蒽40 d内的生物降解率分别为35.3%和23.6%.%The effects of air-dried aged waste on the removal of PAHs in river sediment were investigated. The results showed that abiological removal rates of phenanthrene and anthracene decreased from 47. 2% and 23. 0% to 35. 6% and 7. 0%, respectively, in the presence of 20% air-dried aged waste in sediment in 40 days. The abiological removal rate of phenanthrene and anthracene was linearly related to time. The amount of phenanthrene and anthracene transfered from polluted sediment to atmosphere was reduced in the presence of air-dried aged waste. Meanwhile, no beneficial effect on PAHs degradation was observed in the presence of air-dried aged waste, that is to say, the biodegradation rate of phenanthrene in sediment was 32. 8% and 32. 2% before and after adding 20% air-dried aged waste in 40 days, and the biodegradation rate of anthracene was 35. 3% and 23. 6%.

  1. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  3. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  4. Evaluation of methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry on ossein factory wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi, P; Uma, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ossein factory wastes, which include primary clarified bone waste (PCBW) and sinews for methane production, by monitoring methanogenic activity of predigested biogas plant slurry. A specific methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry (anaerobic seed) was measured at 38 degrees C using different proportions of ossein factory wastes in an assay medium. The pH of slurry was intensively maintained until course of digestion. A moderate proportion of both substrates showed a maximum methane production at 20 days of incubation in batch mode. However, a maximum cumulative methane yield achieved by biogas plant slurry on PCBW was low as compared to sinews. The best organic matter degradation was achieved even at a high proportion of ossein factory wastes used in digesters. These substitutes would be useful, without seriously reducing total gas production, for methane production if they partially mixed with cattle dung. As a result of this preliminary study, we suggest that ossein factory wastes are potential alternative sources for biogas production in ossein factory.

  5. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. III. Ultrastructure of dry embryo axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature dry winter rape (Brassica napus L., var. oleifera, cv. Górczański embryos were studied in the light and the electron microscope. Considerable modifications and regression of the cell ultrastructure were noted in the resting embryo as compared with the metabolically active cells. The degree of regression of the ultrastructure differed in the particular organs and tissues of the embryo. Of most regressed character are the cells of the storage organs - the hypocotyl and cotyledones. They are almost completely filled with protein and lipid bodies. The small spaces between them are filled with dense cytoplasm with a lobular nucleus and not numerous, difficult to identify, plastids and mitochondria. The cells of the shoot primordium and radicle, particularly of the protoderm at the boundary of the hypocotyl and root and columella of root cap have a less regressed ultrastructure. They contain less storage material, a less dense cytoplasm and nearly all cell organelles with a normal appearance. The mitochondria are quite numerous with rather large cristae. Plastids are large with characteristic infolds filled with cytoplasm and some lamellae and a few agglomerations of plastoglobules. The nucleus is lobular with distinctly double and porous nuclear envelope and uniformly dense nucleolus. These cells do not contain dictyosomes and the ER is reduced to short, mostly rough cisternae and vesicles. Cells within the columella itself are also differentiated. The least regression of ultrastructure is seen in the cells of external layers containing the most numerous and most active looking mitochondria and more ER structures. The promeristem cells are similar to those of the deeper columella layers but their mitochondria are more regressed. The cells of the lateral parts of the cap and radicle cells, distant from the promeristem are more similar to the hypocotyl cells.

  6. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  7. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-Marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-04-19

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude "waste" plant materials for specific practical applications, especially-but not exclusively-in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  8. Behaviour of the clay cover of a site for storing nuclear waste of verylow activity submitted to differential settlement of underlying waste:laboratory and field bending tests

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Sophie; Gourc, Jean-Pierre; Ple, Olivier; Marchiol, Albert; Round, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The behaviour of the cover barrier of a site for storing nuclear waste of very low activity isstudied. The risk of a bending of the clay layer in case of differential settlements within underlying waste isparticularly studied. Laboratory and field bending tests are performed. Influence of the water content on themechanical behaviour of the clay is examined. Initialization and propagation of cracks are studied. The limitvalue of the extension strain of the clay layer wi...

  9. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  10. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.” (Matsumura et al., 2016 [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  11. Municipal waste stabilization in a reactor with an integrated active and passive aeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, Slawomir; Slota, Monika; Markowski, Michal; Kaminska, Anna

    2016-04-01

    To test whether an integrated passive and active aeration system could be an effective solution for aerobic decomposition of municipal waste in technical conditions, a full-scale composting reactor was designed. The waste was actively aerated for 5d, passively aerated for 35 d, and then actively aerated for 5d, and the entire composting process was monitored. During the 45-day observation period, changes in the fractional, morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of the waste at the top of the reactor differed from those in the center of the reactor. The fractional and morphological analysis made during the entire process of stabilization, showed the total reduction of organic matter measured of 82 wt% and 86 wt% at the respective depths. The reduction of organic matter calculated using the results of Lost of Ignition (LOI) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) showed, respectively, 40.51-46.62% organic matter loss at the top and 45.33-53.39% in the center of the reactor. At the end of the process, moisture content, LOI and TOC at the top were 3.29%, 6.10% and 4.13% higher, respectively, than in the center. The results showed that application of passive aeration in larger scale simultaneously allows the thermophilic levels to be maintained during municipal solid waste composting process while not inhibiting microbial activity in the reactor.

  12. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  13. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  14. Annual Summary of Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment for 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F. M.

    2002-08-01

    As required by the Department of Energy ( DOE), an annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is necessary in each year in which a full performance assessment is not issued.

  15. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng;

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  16. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  17. Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip

    2013-06-01

    Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 °C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents.

  18. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  19. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, F.; Santos, R.; Alonso M. M.; Del Rio M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS) and fly ash (AAFA) mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with groun...

  20. Adsorption of heavy metals by agroforestry waste derived activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Activated carbons prepared from macadamia nut shells, baobab shells, pigeon pea husks, rice husks,. Moringa ... residues as adsorbents for the removal of dyes and metal ions from ..... dye from aqueous solutions onto apricot stone activated. Bioresour ... solution using natural and modified rice husk.

  1. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract.

  2. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems with Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear active disturbance rejection controller is proposed for a waste heat recovery system using an organic Rankine cycle process, whose model is obtained by applying the system identification technique. The disturbances imposed on the waste heat recovery system are estimated through an extended linear state observer and then compensated by a linear feedback control strategy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 100 kW waste heat recovery system to handle the power demand variations of grid and process disturbances. The effectiveness of this controller is verified via a simulation study, and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can provide satisfactory tracking performance and disturbance rejection.

  3. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  5. Evaluation of differential antitermitic activities of Lantana camara oven-dried tissues against Reticufitermes virginicus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglin Yuan; Xingl Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Chemical-treated soil or physical barriers have been the most commonly used approach for termite management.We hypothesized that a barrier of soil incorporated with oven-dried Lantana camara L.tissues could prevent termite infestation.We first examined the antitermitic effects of the dried tissues from two cultivars (‘Mozelle’ and ‘New Gold’)on the subterranean termite,Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae).Results show that all of the tissues of Mozelle had greater antitermic activity than corresponding tissues of New Gold,and leaves had greater termiticidal effects than flowers and stems.When termites were exposed to the test materials in a no-choice bioassay,the 24-day test resulted in a significant reduction of survival (52.5%-88.6%),running speed (18.2%-37.3%),live weight (21.8%-53.5%) and body water content (33.2%-56.2%) compared to the control.The consumption of leaves and flowers was exiguous.When used as 25% tissue mulch-barrier,the oven-dried lantana tissues decreased termite tunneling and wood consumption and increased termite mortality.The decreased survival,vigor,and low consumption indicate a toxic and anti-feeding property of the materials tested.The results therefore support our hypothesis that the dried lantana tissues possess antitermitic activities.

  6. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P  0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  7. Comprehensive Assessment of Hormones, Phytoestrogens, and Estrogenic Activity in an Anaerobic Swine Waste Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C. Michael; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were ...

  8. Effects of three days of dry immersion on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, S; Sugiyama, Y; Miwa, C; Kamiya, A; Mano, T; Ohira, Y; Shenkman, B; Egorov, A I; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2000-03-15

    The present study was performed to determine how sympathetic function is altered by simulated microgravity, dry immersion for 3 days, and to elucidate the mechanism of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance in humans. Six healthy men aged 21-36 years old participated in the study. Before and after the dry immersion, subjects performed head-up tilt (HUT) test to 30 degrees and 60 degrees (5 min each) with recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure (Finapres). Resting MSNA was increased after dry immersion from 23.7+/-3.2 to 40.9+/-3.0 bursts/min (p<0.005) without significant changes in resting heart rate (HR). MSNA responsiveness to orthostasis showed no significant difference but HR response was significantly augmented after dry immersion (p<0. 005). A significant diastolic blood pressure fall at 5th min of 60 degrees HUT was observed in five orthostatic tolerant subjects despite enough MSNA discharge after dry immersion. A subject suffered from presyncope at 2 min after 60 degrees HUT. He showed gradual blood pressure fall 10 s after 60 degrees HUT with initially well-maintained MSNA response and then with a gradually attenuated MSNA, followed by a sudden MSNA withdrawal and abrupt blood pressure drop. In conclusion, dry immersion increased MSNA without changing MSNA response to orthostasis, and resting HR, while increasing the HR response to orthostasis. Analyses of MSNA and blood pressure changes in orthostatic tolerant subjects and a subject with presyncope suggested that not only insufficient vasoconstriction to sympathetic stimuli, but also a central mechanism to induce a sympathetic withdrawal might play a role in the development of orthostatic intolerance after microgravity exposure.

  9. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes.

  10. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  11. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  12. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.

  13. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  14. Activated carbons prepared from wood particleboard wastes: characterisation and phenol adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A

    2009-07-15

    The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.

  15. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  16. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  17. Antifungal activity of sodium silicate on Fusarium sulphureum and its effect on dry rot of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y C; Bi, Y; Ge, Y H; Sun, X J; Wang, Y

    2009-06-01

    The antifungal activity of sodium silicate on Fusarium sulphureum and its inhibitory effect on dry rot of potato tubers were investigated. Sodium silicate strongly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth. Morphological changes in sodium silicate-treated hyphae such as mycelium sparsity and asymmetry, hyphal swelling, curling, and cupped shape were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Ultrastructural alterations were also observed using transmission electron microscopy, including thickening of the hyphal cell walls, cell distortion, cavity, or electron-dense material in hyphal cells. Daughter hyphae and new daughter hyphae inside of the collapsed hyphal cells were often detected in the cytoplasm of sodium silicate-treated hyphae, although the septa of treated hyphae remained uniform. In vivo testing showed that sodium silicate at 100 and 200 mM effectively controlled dry rot of tubers that were challenged by inoculation with a F. sulphureum spore suspension. These findings suggest that sodium silicate has direct fungitoxic activity against the pathogen.

  18. Activity of Spray-dried Microparticles Containing Pomegranate Peel Extract against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models.

  19. A novel method for production of activated carbon from waste tea by chemical activation with microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emine Yagmur; Meryem Ozmak; Zeki Aktas [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This study presents the production of activated carbon from waste tea. Activated carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation with and without microwave treatment and carbonisation of the waste tea under nitrogen atmosphere at various temperatures and different phosphoric acid/precursor impregnation ratios. The surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated by elemental analysis, BET surface area, SEM, FTIR. Prior to heat treatment conducted in a furnace, the mixture of the waste tea and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was treated with microwave heating. The maximum BET surface area was 1157 m{sup 2}/g for the sample treated with microwave energy and then carbonised at 350{sup o}C. In case of application of conventional method, the BET surface area of the resultant material was 928.8 m{sup 2}/g using the same precursor and conditions. According to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) method the micropore surface area for the sample treated with microwave energy was higher than the sample obtained from the conventional method. Results show that microwave heating reasonably influenced the micropore surface area of the samples as well as the BET surface area. The samples activated were also characterised in terms of the cumulative pore and micropore volumes according to the BJH, DR and t-methods, respectively. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Estimating the opportunity costs of activities that cause degradation in tropical dry forest: Implications for REDD +

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrego, Armonia; Skutsch, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The viability of national REDD + programs will depend in part on whether funds generated from sales of carbon credits are sufficient to cover the opportunity costs (OC) of forgone uses of the forest. We present the results of a study in which OC were estimated in dry tropical forest, in western Mexi

  1. Improved photocatalytic activity of nano CuO-incorporated TiO2 granules prepared by spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongjie Liu; Chungen Zhoun

    2015-01-01

    4 wt%CuO–96 wt%TiO2 granules were prepared by a spray drying process. The microstructure and optical property of CuO–TiO2 granules were studied. The results indicate that copper existed in the form of CuO. The spray dried granules possess spherical geometry and smooth surface with grain size in the range of 40–80μm. CuO–TiO2 has a relatively smaller Eg value (2.85 eV) than TiO2 (3.17 eV). The photocatalytic property of CuO–TiO2 granules was investigated by degradation of a model pollutant (the azo dye methyl orange) under the irradiation of the xenon lamp equipped with a band pass filter of 365 nm. The CuO–TiO2 spray-dried granules degrade about 10%more MO than TiO2 spray-dried granules under UV irradiation within the same time. The XPS spectra suggested that Cu2 þ and reduced copper species were coexistent in reacted CuO–TiO2 photocatalyst. The improvement of photocatalytic activity for CuO–TiO2 was mainly attributed to effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs in the presence of CuO.

  2. Improved photocatalytic activity of nano CuO-incorporated TiO2 granules prepared by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongjie Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 4 wt% CuO–96 wt% TiO2 granules were prepared by a spray drying process. The microstructure and optical property of CuO–TiO2 granules were studied. The results indicate that copper existed in the form of CuO. The spray dried granules possess spherical geometry and smooth surface with grain size in the range of 40–80 μm. CuO–TiO2 has a relatively smaller Eg value (2.85 eV than TiO2 (3.17 eV. The photocatalytic property of CuO–TiO2 granules was investigated by degradation of a model pollutant (the azo dye methyl orange under the irradiation of the xenon lamp equipped with a band pass filter of 365 nm. The CuO–TiO2 spray-dried granules degrade about 10% more MO than TiO2 spray-dried granules under UV irradiation within the same time. The XPS spectra suggested that Cu2+ and reduced copper species were coexistent in reacted CuO–TiO2 photocatalyst. The improvement of photocatalytic activity for CuO–TiO2 was mainly attributed to effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs in the presence of CuO.

  3. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  4. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto Kashiwagi [JGC, Yokohama, 220-6001 (Japan); Garamszeghy, Mike [NWMO, Toronto, Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien [EDF UTO, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Pillette-Cousin, Lucien [AREVA TA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Leganes, Jose Luis [ENRESA, 28043 Madrid (Spain); Volmert, Ben [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); James, David W. [DW James Consulting, North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and

  5. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    OpenAIRE

    S. Garimella; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, J. S.; D. J. Cziczo

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, illite and sodium-rich montmorillonite, and an industrially derived sample, Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the cla...

  6. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes. ... alternative to wood charcoal using agricultural wastes (dry leaves, coffee husk, sugarcane trash, ... produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no ...

  7. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  8. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  9. Evolution of enzymatic activities and carbon fractions throughout composting of plant waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, M M; Suárez-Estrella, F; Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; López-González, J A; Moreno, J

    2014-01-15

    Many alternatives for the proper disposal of horticultural plant wastes have been studied, and composting is one of the most attractive due to its insignificant environmental impact and low cost. The quality of compost for agronomical use is related to the degree of organic matter maturation and stabilization. Traditional parameters as well as temperature, ratio C/N, cationic exchange capacity, extractable carbon, or evolution of humificated substances have been successfully used to assess compost maturity and stability. However, microorganisms frequently isolated during composting release a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes, whose activity could apparently give interesting information on the rate of decomposition of organic matter and, therefore, on the product stability. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of some important enzymatic activities during composting of agricultural wastes and their comparison with other chemical parameters commonly employed as quality and maturity indexes, to establish a relationship between the degradation intensity of specific organic carbon fractions throughout the process. In this work, the chemical and biochemical parameters of plant wastes were studied along a composting process of 189 days to evaluate their importance as tools for compost characterization. Results showed an intense enzymatic activity during the first 2-3 weeks of composting (bio-oxidative phase), because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds. From a biological point of view, a less intense phase was observed between second and third month of composting (mesophilic or cooling phase). Finally, chemical humification parameters were more closely associated with the period between 119 and 189 days (maturation phase). Significant correlations between the enzymatic activities as well as between enzyme activities and other more traditional parameters were also highlighted, indicating that both kind of indexes can be a reliable tool to

  10. Survival of bacteria in nuclear waste buffer materials. The influence of nutrients, temperature and water activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Motamedi, M. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The concept of deep geological disposal of spent fuel is common to many national nuclear waste programs. Long-lived radioactive waste will be encapsulated in canisters made of corrosion resistant materials e.g. copper and buried several hundred meters below ground in a geological formation. Different types of compacted bentonite clay, or mixtures with sand, will be placed as a buffer around the waste canisters. A major concern for the performance of the canisters is that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be present in the clay and induce corrosion by production of hydrogen sulphide. This report presents data on viable counts of SRB in the bedrock of Aespoe hard rock laboratory. A theoretical background on the concept water activity is given, together with basic information about SRB. Some results on microbial populations from a full scale buffer test in Canada is presented. These results suggested water activity to be a strong limiting factor for survival of bacteria in compacted bentonite. As a consequence, experiments were set up to investigate the effect from water activity on survival of SRB in bentonite. Here we show that survival of SRB in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to a density of 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a water activity (a{sub w}) of 0.96, prevented SRB from surviving in the clay. 24 refs.

  11. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  12. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-10-16

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site).

  13. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  14. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-05

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid.

  16. Production of building elements based on alkali-activated red clay brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Robayo-Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the feasibility of reusing a red clay brick waste (RCBW in order to produce building elements such as blocks, pavers and tiles, by using the technique of alkaline activation. The production of these building elements was based on the design of a hybrid mortar with 48.61 MPa of compressive strength, at 28 curing days at room temperature (25 °C. The hybrid mortar was synthesized by adding 10% by weight of Portland cement (OPC to the RCBW, Red Clay Brick Waste. As alkaline activators were used commercial industrial grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. Building elements were physically and mechanically characterized, according to Colombian Technical Standards (NTC. This technology process is presented as an alternative for the reuse of RCBW and its contribution to the environmental sustainability.

  17. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Waste polyvinylchloride derived pitch as a precursor to develop carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W M; Yoon, S H; Mochida, I; Yang, J H

    2007-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was successfully recycled through the solvent extraction from waste pipe with an extraction yield of ca. 86%. The extracted PVC was pyrolyzed by a two-stage process (260 and 410 degrees C) to obtain free-chlorine PVC based pitch through an effective removal of chlorine from PVC during the heat-treatment. As-prepared pitch (softening point: 220 degrees C) was spun, stabilized, carbonized into carbon fibers (CFs), and further activated into activated carbon fibers (ACFs) in a flow of CO2. As-prepared CFs show comparable mechanical properties to commercial CFs, whose maximum tensile strength and modulus are 862 MPa and 62 GPa, respectively. The resultant ACFs exhibit a high surface area of 1200 m2/g, narrow pore size distribution and a low oxygen content of 3%. The study provides an effective insight to recycle PVC from waste PVC and develop a carbon precursor for high performance carbon materials such as CFs and ACFs.

  19. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  20. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of the biodegradable fraction of used disposable diapers by co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Rouez, M; Lemunier, M; Lessard, Y; Galtier, L; Simao, A; Steyer, J P

    2014-03-01

    The results presented in this paper are part of a project aimed at designing an original solution for the treatment of used disposable diapers permitting the recycling of materials and the recovery of energy. Diapers must be collected separately at source and transported to an industrial facility to undergo special treatment which makes it possible to separate plastics and to recover a biodegradable fraction (BFD) made up mainly of cellulose. The methane yield of BFD was measured and found to be 280 ml CH4/g VSfed on average. 150 kg of dry BFD can be retrieved from the treatment of one ton of used disposable diapers, representing an energy potential of about 400 kW h of total energy or 130 kW h of electricity. As the treatment process for used diapers requires very high volumes of water, the setting up of the diaper treatment facility at a wastewater treatment plant already equipped with an anaerobic digester offers the advantages of optimizing water use as well as its further treatment and, also, the anaerobic digestion of BFD. The lab-scale experiments in a SBR showed that BFD co-digestion with sewage sludge (38% BFD and 62% waste activated sludge on volatile solids basis) was feasible. However, special attention should be paid to problems that might arise from the addition of BFD to a digester treating WAS such as insufficient mixing or floating particles leading to the accumulation of untreated solids in the digester.

  2. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  3. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (drying adjuvants. The residual enzyme activity after drying ranged from 10.7% to 60.4%, with SB and CM standing out as stabilizing agents. Water concentration and residual enzyme activity were determined in obtained powders as a function of the drying condition. When exposed to different pH values, the SB and CM products were stable, with residual activity above 50% in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 for 60 min. The use of CM as drying adjuvant promoted the best retention of enzymatic activity compared with SB. Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets.

  4. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China

    OpenAIRE

    Yingpeng Tong; Xingyi Zhu; Yongqiu Yan; Ruoxi Liu; Feng Gong; Ling Zhang; Jiangning Hu; Ling Fang; Ruwei Wang; Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C) for a long ti...

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  6. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  7. Effects of Low-Load Exercise on Post-needling Induced Pain After Dry Needling of Active Trigger Point in Individuals with Subacromial Pain Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Salom Moreno, Jaime; Jiménez Gómez, Laura; Gómez Ahufinger, Victoria; Palacios Ceña, María; Arias Buría, José Luis; Koppenhaver, Shane L.; Fernández de las Peñas, César

    2017-01-01

    Background: Application of dry needling is usually associated to post-needling induced pain. Development of post-needling intervention targeting to reduce this adverse event is needed. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of low-load exercise on reducing post-needling induced-pain after dry needling of active trigger points (TrPs) in the infraspinatus muscle in subacromial pain syndrome.

  8. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  9. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  10. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  11. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  12. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  13. Annual summary of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment for 2003 Incorporating the Integrated Disposal Facility Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F M

    2003-09-01

    To Erik Olds 09/30/03 - An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is necessary in each year in which a full performance assessment is not issued.

  14. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  15. Systematic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Activation of Waste Tire by Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.M. Fung; W.H-Cheung; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire was used as raw material for the production of activated carbons through pyrolysis. 'Fire char was first produced by carbomzation at 550℃ under nitrogen. A two tactortal design was used to optimize the production of activated carbon from tire char. The effects of several factors controlling the activation process, such as temperature (.830-930℃), time (2-6h) and percentage ot carbon dioxide (70%-100%) were investigated. The production was described mathematically as a function of these three factors. First order modeling equations were developed for surface area, yield and mesopore volume. It was concluded that the yield, BET surface area and mesopore volume of activated carbon were most sensitive to activation temperature and time while percentage of carbon dioxide in the activation gas was a less significant factor.

  16. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated... Plans (RAPs) Obtaining A Rap for An Off-Site Location § 270.230 May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated...

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jieying Zheng,; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Cotton woven waste can be recycled as precursor to produce activated carbon fiber. • The optimum carbonization and activation temperature are 700 °C and 800 °C. • The prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. • The prepared ACF can be used to remove over 80% of COD from oilfield wastewater. - Abstract: In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  18. Model of municipal solid waste source separation activity: a case study of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhen-Shan; Fu, Hui-Zhen

    2011-02-01

    One major challenge faced by Beijing is dealing with the enormous amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, which contains a high percentage of food waste. Source separation is considered an effective means of reducing waste and enhancing recycling. However, few studies have focused on quantification of the mechanism of source separation activity. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish a mathematical model of source separation activity (MSSA) that correlates the source separation ratio with the following parameters: separation facilities, awareness, separation transportation, participation atmosphere, environmental profit, sense of honor, and economic profit. The MSSA consisted of two equations, one related to the behavior generation stage and one related to the behavior stability stage. The source separation ratios of the residential community, office building, and primary and middle school were calculated using the MSSA. Data for analysis were obtained from a 1-yr investigation and a questionnaire conducted at 128 MSW clusters around Beijing. The results revealed that office buildings had an initial separation ratio of 80% and a stable separation ratio of 65.86%, whereas residential communities and primary and middle schools did not have a stable separation ratio. The MSSA curve took on two shapes. In addition, internal motivations and the separation transportation ratio were found to be key parameters of the MSSA. This model can be utilized for other cities and countries.

  19. Adsorption of valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes using biopolymers and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazycki, Maria A; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2017-03-01

    In this work, chitin (CTN), chitosan (CTS) and activated carbon (AC) were used as adsorbents to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes. The mobile phone wastes (contactors) were collected and characterized. The valuable metals were extracted by thiourea leaching. The adsorption of valuable metals from leachates was studied according to the kinetic and equilibrium viewpoints. It was found that the contactors were composed by Au, Ni, Cu and Sn. The thiourea leaching provided extraction percentages of 68.6% for Au, 22.1% for Ni and 2.8% for Cu. Sn was not extracted. The leachate presented 17.5 mg L(-1) of Au, 324.9 mg L(-1) of Ni and 573.1 mg L(-1) of Cu. The adsorption was fast, being the equilibrium attained within 120 min. The adsorption of Au, Ni and Cu onto CTN and AC followed the Langmuir model, while, the adsorption of these metals onto CTS, followed the Freundlich model. Removal percentages higher than 95% were obtained for all metals, depending of the type and amount of adsorbent. It was demonstrated that the adsorption onto chitin, chitosan and activated carbon can be an alternative to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes.

  20. Molecular hydrogen: An abundant energy source for bacterial activity in nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, M.; Bildstein, O.; Esnault, L.; Jullien, M.; Sellier, R.

    A thorough understanding of the energy sources used by microbial systems in the deep terrestrial subsurface is essential since the extreme conditions for life in deep biospheres may serve as a model for possible life in a nuclear waste repository. In this respect, H 2 is known as one of the most energetic substrates for deep terrestrial subsurface environments. This hydrogen is produced from abiotic and biotic processes but its concentration in natural systems is usually maintained at very low levels due to hydrogen-consuming bacteria. A significant amount of H 2 gas will be produced within deep nuclear waste repositories, essentially from the corrosion of metallic components. This will consequently improve the conditions for microbial activity in this specific environment. This paper discusses different study cases with experimental results to illustrate the fact that microorganisms are able to use hydrogen for redox processes (reduction of O 2, NO3-, Fe III) in several waste disposal conditions. Consequences of microbial activity include: alteration of groundwater chemistry and shift in geochemical equilibria, gas production or consumption, biocorrosion, and potential modifications of confinement properties. In order to quantify the impact of hydrogen bacteria, the next step will be to determine the kinetic rate of the reactions in realistic conditions.

  1. Enhanced mercuric chloride adsorption onto sulfur-modified activated carbons derived from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Wang, Guangzhi; Xue, Sheng-Han; Ie, Iau-Ren; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chen, Wei-Jin

    2012-07-01

    A number of activated carbons derived from waste tires were further impregnated by gaseous elemental sulfur at temperatures of 400 and 650 degrees C, with a carbon and sulfur mass ratio of 1:3. The capabilities of sulfur diffusing into the micropores of the activated carbons were significantly different between 400 and 650 degrees C, resulting in obvious dissimilarities in the sulfur content of the activated carbons. The sulfur-impregnated activated carbons were examined for the adsorptive capacity of gas-phase mercuric chloride (HgC1) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analytical precision of TGA was up to 10(-6) g at the inlet HgCl2 concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 microg/m3, for an adsorption time of 3 hr and an adsorption temperature of 150 degrees C, simulating the flue gas emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Experimental results showed that sulfur modification can slightly reduce the specific surface area of activated carbons. High-surface-area activated carbons after sulfur modification had abundant mesopores and micropores, whereas low-surface-area activated carbons had abundant macropores and mesopores. Sulfur molecules were evenly distributed on the surface of the inner pores after sulfur modification, and the sulfur content of the activated carbons increased from 2-2.5% to 5-11%. After sulfur modification, the adsorptive capacity of HgCl2 for high-surface-area sulfurized activated carbons reached 1.557 mg/g (22 times higher than the virgin activated carbons). The injection of activated carbons was followed by fabric filtration, which is commonly used to remove HgCl2 from MSW incinerators. The residence time of activated carbons collected in the fabric filter is commonly about 1 hr, but the time required to achieve equilibrium is less than 10 min. Consequently, it is worthwhile to compare the adsorption rates of HgCl2 in the time intervals of < 10 and 10-60 min.

  2. Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, A C; Sardella, M F; Silva, H; Amaya, A; Tancredi, N

    2009-12-15

    Grape stalk is an organic waste produced in great amounts in the industrialization processes of grape. This work presents the results of studies carried out to use this waste as raw material to prepare activated carbon through the physical and chemical route. The physicochemical characterization of this material suggests the presence of unusually high levels of ashes. Metal content was determined and high levels of potassium, sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium in carbonized and raw grape stalk were exhibited. This characteristic made difficult physical activation at high temperatures. A leaching step was included before the activation with steam, and adsorbents with surface areas between 700 and 900 m(2)/g were obtained. Physical activation was also performed at lower temperatures using carbonized grape stalk without leaching, leading to the development of some grade of porosity, with an area of 412 m(2)/g. These results would indicate the catalytic effect of the minerals present in this raw material. Chemical activation using phosphoric acid as activating agent seemed to be a very efficient method as final products with BET areas between 1000 and 1500 m(2)/g were obtained.

  3. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  4. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  6. Evaluation of Fenton's Reagent and Activated Persulfate for Treatment of a Pharmaceutical Waste Mixture in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Kakarla, Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Soil and groundwater beneath the Kærgård Plantage megasite in Denmark are contaminated with a complex mixture of pharmaceutical wastes, including sulfonamides, barbiturates, aniline, pyridine chlorinated solvents (DNAPL), benzene, toluene, mercury, and cyanide. Regulatory agencies in Denmark...... techniques. This paper describes the results from the bench tests evaluating treatment of site groundwater and soil using modified Fenton's reagent (MFR) and activated sodium persulfate (ASP). These results have been used to design pilot tests that will form the basis for selecting an optimal remediation...... of the bench scale results for MFR and ASP for treating a complex pharmaceutical waste mixture in the soil and groundwater beneath the Kærgård Plantage megasite....

  7. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  8. Improving the Concentrations of the Active Components in the Herbal Tea Ingredient, Uraria crinita: The Effect of Post-harvest Oven-drying Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Li, Ke; Peng, Wen-Huang; Pao, Li-Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Qin, Xue-Mei; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Uraria crinita is widely used as a popular folk drink; however, little is known about how the post-harvest operations affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of UC. We assessed three drying methods (Oven-drying, Air-drying, Sun-drying), as well as the Oven-drying temperature using metabolomics approaches and bioactivity assays. The samples processed at 40 degree show a greater effect on the levels of estrogen receptor-alpha activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 activity, anti-oxidative activity, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition compared with the other samples. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the 40 degree Oven-dried samples and the other samples, which is consistent with the results of bioactivity assay. These results are ascribed to at least two-fold increase in the concentrations of flavonoids, spatholosineside A and triterpenoids in the oven-dried samples compared with the other groups. The proposed Oven-drying method at 40 degree results in an improved quality of UC. PMID:28079108

  9. 模拟浓缩液桶内干燥200 L规模全流程试验研究%Study on In-drum Drying Test of Simulated Waste Concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁栋; 柳兆峰; 高超; 闫晓俊; 安鸿翔; 李洪辉; 刘伟; 赵帅维; 杨卫兵

    2016-01-01

    Performances of in-drum drying of simulated waste concentrates is studied by the in-drum drying equipment that developed ourselves, in which boron concentration is around 44000 ppm and 30000ppm. The performances are evaporated veloc-ity of moisture, humidity and character of drying product, volume reduction ratio and efficiency of decontamination ability. The experiments results show that average evaporated velocity of moisture can be attained 6. 0 kg/h under the higher temperature, hu-midity of drying product is under 15% that meet anticipated target, character of drying product is contented demand in the main, and the volume reduction ratio is around 4. 0~6. 0, but the condensate water can not let out must be treatment or returned to e-vaporator because efficiency of decontamination ability is insufficient.%利用自行研制的浓缩液桶内干燥装置进行了含硼44000 ppm和30000 ppm的模拟浓缩液桶内干燥试验研究.考察了水分蒸发速率、干燥产物含水率和性状、减容比以及去污能力.结果表明:在较高加热温度条件下,干燥过程平均水分蒸发速率可以达到6.0 kg/h,干燥产物含水率≯15%,整体减容比达到了4.0~6.0;但是去污能力较差,干燥过程产生的冷凝水不能直接排放,需要增加处理设备进行处理或返回蒸发器二次浓缩.

  10. Garage-type dry anaerobic fermentation technology for organic fraction of municipal solid waste%城市有机垃圾车库式干发酵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 卢向阳; 田云; 刘志丹; 盛利伟; 李剑

    2012-01-01

    Municipal organic waste treatment and resource recycling have become the urgent issues for China's construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly society. Among European countries, garage type dry fermentation technologies represented by Germany has already matured. And the technology development mode for recycling economy and large-scale biogas production are promoted. This paper mainly focuses on the garage type dry fermentation biogas project technical points. And taking Germany Loock TNS process and Heilongjiang Bin County garage type dry fermentation project as examples, it introduces the key technologies used for garage type dry fermentation, such as percolation system, nozzle system and sealing system, in order to provide reference for the relevant projects in China.%城市有机垃圾处理和资源再生利用已成为我国建设资源节约型和环境友好型社会中迫切需要解决的问题.欧洲国家中以德国为代表的车库式干发酵技术(Garage-type dry anaerobic digestion)已经成熟,可进行规模化的沼气生产.文章着重介绍了车库式干发酵沼气工程的技术要点,并以德国Loock TNS工艺和黑龙江宾县车库式干发酵项目为例,介绍了有机垃圾车库式干发酵喷淋回流、系统密封等关键技术,以期为我国车库式干发酵工程的工艺设计提供参考.

  11. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste.

  12. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, illite and sodium-rich montmorillonite, and an industrially derived sample, Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used in order to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. It is also used in order to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory (κ-KT) and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-KT is the suitable framework to describe clay mineral nucleation activity. Apparent differences in κ with respect to size arise from an artifact introduced by improper size-selection methodology. For dust particles with mobility sizes larger than ~300 nm, i.e., ones that are within an atmospherically relevant size range, both κ-KT and FHH theory yield similar critical supersaturations. However, the former requires a single hygroscopicity parameter instead of the two adjustable parameters required by the latter. For dry-generated particles, the size dependence of κ is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much

  13. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  14. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.SARRETTE; O.EICHWALD; F.MARCHAL; O.DUCASSE; M.YOUSFI

    2016-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply.The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz.The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air).The simulation involves the electro-dynamics,chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation.Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond.The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO.After 5 ms,the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases,a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air.This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  15. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-09-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m2 g-1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm3 g-1 and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ˜4.2 mmol g-1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  17. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  18. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  19. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  20. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage; Les colis de dechets radioactifs stockes au centre de stockage FMA de l'Aube. Une stockage selectif et maitrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  1. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  2. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system.

  3. Potential manure in organic production use: management of municipal organic waste with activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tiquipaya Municipality produces 22 t day-1 of solid, 63% of it is organic and 37% is inorganic. This waste is disposed of in the Municipal Landfill, rendering it into an environmental and health threat. In order to diminish the negative effects of poor management of municipal solid waste in Tiquipaya, we have carried out the present study in the Tiquipaya municipal composting site, the municipal nursery and the facilities of the PROINPA foundation. At the beginning, the waste composting was done using two treatments: one with organic activator and the other without it. Later the same two methods were used in worm composting, this second process in turn yielded other four treatments two of which included organic activator. After 64 days, within the compost, the activator achieved to reduce 60.02% of the initial volume, leaving a remaining 39.99% of thick material. After the compost had been processed by the worms it was evaluated on the 47th day, we found that the organic activator treatment used from the beginning of the composting phase, yielded a 90.67% decrease from the initial volume of fine matter, compared to the other treatments; it left only 9.33% of thick material. Bio-tests were conducted on barley plants to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the worm compost, these studies showed that treatments with a 50% worm compost concentration had lower germination values (40 to 50%. Whereas treatments that contained 100% of worm compost stood out for their higher yield that ranged from 60 to 70% in their germination values.

  4. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  5. Research for waste water treatment technology with low production of excessive active sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the possibility to create a technological scheme of waste water treatment of domestic and similar type of sewage within minimal amount of excessive active sludge by means of bioreactors with immobilized feed. There are various aspects to be considered: technical, economic, social and ecological. According to the above it is strongly needed to provide a combination of proper waste water treatment, minimal sludge formation and the possibility for a further use of the sludge. One of the ways to achieve the goal above is to use an immobilized feed in the aeration tank. The necessary experiments were carried out in the department of waste water treatment and water ecology. The article includes the scheme of the facility and other parameters of the experiments, which has been carried. The combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps to provide proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor were also equipped with the polymer feed of various structures. The sludge treatment that was also strongly needed was made by means of aerobic stabilization with the use of ejecting aeration. The results of experiment showed a good effect in both components – sewage and sludge treatment. Afterwards there was also an industrial model launched which confirmed the results of the previous stage.

  6. TWRS Retrieval and Storage Mission and Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    1999-09-01

    This project plan has a twofold purpose. First, it provides a waste stream project plan specific to the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System [TWRS] Project) Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Disposal Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1994) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan (Ecology et al. 1998). Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line-item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 [DOE 1992] and 430.1 [DOE 1995a]). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the requirements mentioned by the Tri-Party Agreement and the DOE orders. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  7. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Rofiee, M. S.; Somchit, M. N.; Zuraini, A.; Sulaiman, M. R.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study. PMID:21318140

  9. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  10. METHANE DRY REFORMING OVER Ni SUPPORTED ON PINE SAWDUST ACTIVATED CARBON: EFFECTS OF SUPPORT SURFACE PROPERTIES AND METAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of metal loading and support surface functional groups (SFG on methane dry reforming (MDR over Ni catalysts supported on pine-sawdust derived activated carbon were studied. Using pine sawdust as the catalyst support precursor, the smallest variety and lowest concentration of SFG led to best Ni dispersion and highest catalytic activity, which increased with Ni loading up to 3 Ni atoms nm-2. At higher Ni loading, the formation of large metal aggregates was observed, consistent with a lower "apparen" surface area and a decrease in catalytic activity. The H2/CO ratio rose with increasing reaction temperature, indicating that increasingly important side reactions were taking place in addition to MDR.

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (pbacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  12. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Adsorption of paraquat on the physically activated bleaching earth waste from soybean oil processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W T; Chen, C H; Yang, J M

    2002-09-01

    A series of regeneration experiments with physical activation were carried out on bleaching earth waste from the soybean refining process in a rotary reactor. The influence of activation parameters on the spent clay by varying the holding time of 1 to approximately 4 hours and temperature of 700 to approximately 900 degrees C was determined. The variations of pore properties as well as the change of chemical characteristics in the resulting solids were also studied. Results showed that the resulting samples were type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3 from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, indicating slit-shaped mesoporous characteristics. However, the regenerated clays had smaller surface areas (70 to approximately 117 m2/g) than that (245 m2/g) of fresh bleaching earth. Under the physical activation conditions investigated, the holding time of 1 hour and temperature of 700 degrees C were found to be optimal conditions for producing mesoporous clay with physical activation. The adsorption of paraquat on regenerated sample was also evaluated. The isotherm showed that the regenerated sample still had a high affinity for this herbicide. Thus, the regeneration of this agro-industrial waste is one option for utilizing the clay resource, and it may be used for water treatment applications to remove organic contaminants.

  14. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  15. Production of activated carbon by waste tire thermochemical degradation with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Mariluz; Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón

    2009-09-15

    The thermochemical degradation of waste tires in a CO(2) atmosphere without previous treatment of devolatilization (pyrolysis) in order to obtain activated carbons with good textural properties such as surface area and porosity was studied. The operating variables studied were CO(2) flow rate (50 and 150 mL/min), temperature (800 and 900 degrees C) and reaction time (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3h). Results show a considerable effect of the temperature and the reaction time in the porosity development. Kinetic measurements showed that the reactions involved in the thermochemical degradation of waste tire with CO(2), are similar to those developed in the pyrolysis process carried out under N(2) atmosphere and temperatures below 760 degrees C, for particles sizes of 500 microm and heating rate of 5 degrees C/min. For temperatures higher than 760 degrees C the CO(2) starts to oxidize the remaining carbon black. Activated carbon with a 414-m(2)/g surface area at 900 degrees C of temperature, 150 mL/min of CO(2) volumetric flow and 180 min of reaction time was obtained. In this work it is considering the no reactivity of CO(2) for devolatilization of the tires (up to 760 degrees C), and also the partial oxidation of residual char at high temperature for activation (>760 degrees C). It is confirmed that there are two consecutive stages (devolatilization and activation) developed from the same process.

  16. Radioactive wastes conditioning; Le conditionnement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Moisy, P.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Advocat, T.; Andrieux, C.; Bardez, I.; Bart, F.; Boen, R.; Bourniol, P.; Brunel, G.; Chartier, D.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Delaye, J.M.; Deschanels, X.; Faure, S.; Ferry, C.; Fillet, C.; Fournel, B.; Frizon, F.; Galle, C.; Gin, S.; Girold, C.; Grandjean, A.; Hudry, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C.; Lambertin, D.; Ledieu, A.; Lemont, F.; Moulin, N.; Peuget, S.; Pinet, O.; Piron, J.P.; Ranc, G.; Ribet, I.; Sarrade, S.; Tribet, M.; Pradel, P.; Bonnin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Forestier, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P

    2008-07-01

    Very early in its history, nuclear industry has taken care of the future of its wastes. Cementation processes for medium-level activity wastes, vitrification processes for minor actinide solutions and fission products are now proven technologies. The conditioning of wastes is just one ink in the full chain of the waste management process. However, this link is of prime importance because the future of the waste depends on the way it is conditioned. Reciprocally, the storage and disposal largely rely on the confidence given to the behaviour of waste packages with time. The leading role of France in the domain of radioactive wastes conditioning is a strong and valorisable asset at the international industrial plan, but also in terms of social acceptance by showing to the public that technical solutions exist. This monograph takes stock of the conditioning of nuclear wastes and describes the researches in progress, the stakes and the recent results obtained by the CEA (French atomic energy commission). Content: 1 - introduction: waste volumes and fluxes, management strategy, conditioning; 2 - decontamination processes and treatment processes for effluents and technological wastes; 3 - glasses, a long-lasting conditioning of wastes: glass package making, vitrification, glass formulation, structure and properties, long-term behaviour of glasses, cold crucible vitrification; 4 - present day conditioning of low- and medium-activity wastes: cements, bitumens, conditioning of metal structure wastes; 5 - search for alternate matrices and processes for the processing-conditioning of wastes: plasma-based processes for the incineration/vitrification of wastes, the Shiva process, alternate confinement materials, confinement of wastes from pyro-chemical processes; 6 - can the spent fuel be considered as a confinement matrix?: initial characteristics of spent fuels, evolution in dry storage environment, modeling of the spent fuel long-term behaviour, spent fuel containers in long

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metal Ions from Tanneries Wastes: An Approach For Chromium Removal Using Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The environment is under increasing pressure from solid and liquid wastes emanating from the leather industry. These are inevitable by-products of the leather manufacturing process and causes significant pollution unless treated in some way prior to discharge. The tanneries wastes samples were collected from Lahore Pakistan. The samples were digested by wet oxidation method and the concentrations of metals: Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, Ni and Pb were estimated in sediments and liquid waste samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values given by the national environmental quality standards. Selective separation of Cr ion from other metals was investigated in sediment sample TS2 by adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbent activated charcoal. The adsorption studies were carried out under the optimized conditions of adsorption like pH, shaking time and amount of adsorbent. The concentration of Cr after removal was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in adsorption isotherm equations like: Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations at temperatures ranges from 303 to 318 K. Thermodynamic parameters ∆H, ∆S and ∆G were also calculated. The values of sorption free energy were estimated by employing D-R equation. The percent removal data show that about 99% removal was achieved by employing low cost adsorbent. This method can be employed on industrial scale for the treatment of solid and liquid waste before discharge into the main streams.

  18. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies.

  19. Utilization of Activated Carbon for the Removal of Ni Metal from Industrial Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1H. Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by toxic metals seems to occur globally. Metal intoxicated wastewater can be challenging to health safety. The high concentration of pollutants is required to be removed before the discharge of wastewater into open waste streams. The present study relates the monitoring of heavy metals in the industrial waste coming from Shairshah, Lyari SITE industrial area and control sites selected from Clifton beach of Karachi (Pakistan. Concentrations of selected trace metals, Cr, Fe, Hg, Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mo, Mn and Cu were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Flame Photometer and 200 Multi parameter Ion Specific Meter under standard analytical conditions. Statistical methods of relevance were applied to check the accuracy of the system. Selective removal of Ni metal from waste water was carried out by adsorption process using activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste. The effectiveness of the adsorption process has been tested under the optimized conditions of temperature, concentration, stay time and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption isotherm models like Freundlich and Langmuir were applied to determine the feasibility of process by finding the values oftheir respective constants. The R2 values show that Langmuir model was the best fitted adsorption model. The feasibility of adsorption process was determined by RL factor. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG˚, enthalpy (ΔH˚ and entropy (ΔS˚ of the system were calculated. The sorption free energy (Es was also estimated. The pHpzc of adsorbent was also estimated by adopting pH drift method. The percentage removal and distribution coefficient (KD values for Ni removal were also determined. The present system represents that Ni and other metals can be effectively removed by employing adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbents.

  20. Sustainable waste management by production of activated carbon from agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ntuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry waste presents a problem for disposal and negatively impacts on the environment if left to rot or burn. The aim of this study was to reduce environmental problems associated with agroforestry waste by promoting the innovative use of such waste in the production of activated carbons (ACs using a low-cost production technique, and ultimately delivering more affordable water and effluent treatment adsorbents. Four varieties of ACs from four different agroforestry materials – pine (Pinus contorta cones (PC, Abies (Abies cilicica seeds (AS, maple (Acer ginnala seeds (MS and peach (Prunus persica stones (PS – were prepared by single-step steam pyrolysis and characterised. The raw materials were evaluated for AC yield while the respective ACs were evaluated on the basis of iodine number, phenol specific area, ash content, pH, moisture content and removal of metal ions, nitrates and sulphates from aqueous solution. The AC yields for PS, PC, AS and MS were found to be 23.0%, 18.0%, 17.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The yield for PS (23% is within the specified commercial limits of 20% to 40%. The phenol specific areas of the ACs ranged between 381 m2/g and 415 m2/g higher than the commercial lower limit (300 m2/g generally specified. The ACs also showed the capacity to remove heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Removal of both nitrates and sulphates in raw water was greater than 50%. Although no quantitative analysis has been performed to date, it is envisaged that the production of AC from agroforestry wastes can contribute to the sustainable management of environmental pollution by these residues and the concomitant delivery of cheaper adsorbents.

  1. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  2. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  3. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  4. Activation of waste MDF sawdust charcoal and its reactive dye adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Q; Allen, S J; Matthews, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of converting waste medium density fibreboard (MDF) sawdust into chars and activated carbon using chemical activation and thermal carbonisation processes. The MDF sawdust generated during the production of architectural mouldings was characterised and found to have unique properties in terms of fine particle size and high particle density. It also has a high content of urea formaldehyde resin used as a binder in the manufacturing of MDF board. Direct thermal carbonisation and chemical activation of the sawdust by metal impregnation and acid (phosphoric acid) treatment prior to pyrolysis treatment were carried out. The surface morphology of the raw dust, its chars and activated carbon were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorptive properties and total pore volume of the materials were also analysed using the BET nitrogen adsorption method. Liquid adsorption of a reactive dye (Levafix Brilliant red E-4BA) by the derived sawdust carbon was investigated in batch isothermal adsorption process and the results compared to adsorption on to a commercial activated carbon (Filtrasorb F400). The MDF sawdust carbon exhibited in general a very low adsorption capacity towards the reactive dye, and physical characterisation of the carbon revealed that the conventional chemical activation and thermal carbonisation process were ineffective in developing a microporous structure in the dust particles. The small size of the powdery dust, the high particle density, and the presence of the urea formaldehyde resin all contributed to the difficulty of developing a proper porous structure during the thermal and chemical activation process. Finally, activation of the dust material in a consolidated form (cylindrical pellet) only achieved very limited improvement in the dye adsorption capacity. This original study, reporting some unexpected outcomes, may serve as a stepping-stone for future investigations of recycle and

  5. Round-robin testing of a reference glass for low-activity waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L.; Wolf, S. F.

    1999-12-06

    A round robin test program was conducted with a glass that was developed for use as a standard test material for acceptance testing of low-activity waste glasses made with Hanford tank wastes. The glass is referred to as the low-activity test reference material (LRM). The program was conducted to measure the interlaboratory reproducibility of composition analysis and durability test results. Participants were allowed to select the methods used to analyze the glass composition. The durability tests closely followed the Product Consistency Test (PCT) Method A, except that tests were conducted at both 40 and 90 C and that parallel tests with a reference glass were not required. Samples of LRM glass that had been crushed, sieved, and washed to remove fines were provided to participants for tests and analyses. The reproducibility of both the composition and PCT results compare favorably with the results of interlaboratory studies conducted with other glasses. From the perspective of reproducibility of analysis results, this glass is acceptable for use as a composition standard for nonradioactive components of low-activity waste forms present at >0.1 elemental mass % and as a test standard for PCTS at 40 and 90 C. For PCT with LRM glass, the expected test results at the 95% confidence level are as follows: (1) at 40 C: pH = 9.86 {+-} 0.96; [B] = 2.30 {+-} 1.25 mg/L; [Na] = 19.7 {+-} 7.3 mg/L; [Si] = 13.7 {+-} 4.2 mg/L; and (2) at 90 C: pH = 10.92 {+-} 0.43; [B] = 26.7 {+-} 7.2 mg/L; [Na] = 160 {+-} 13 mg/L; [Si] = 82.0 {+-} 12.7 mg/L. These ranges can be used to evaluate the accuracy of PCTS conducted at other laboratories.

  6. Towards effective waste management. Knowledge centre Waste Refinery Activity Report 2007-2009; Mot effektivare avfallshantering. Kunskapscentrum Waste Refinery Verksamhetsrapport 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This report aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the areas that have been discussed and developed during the knowledge centre Waste Refinery first three years. Details and depth analyzes of each area are contained in project reports, which can be downloaded free of charge through our website www.wasterefinery.se

  7. Short-term effects of dry needling of active myofascial trigger points in the masseter muscle in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Galan-del-Rio, Fernando; Pesquera, Jorge; Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dry needling over active trigger points (TrPs) in the masseter muscle in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Twelve females, aged 20 to 41 years old (mean = 25, standard deviation +/- 6 years) diagnosed with myofascial TMD were recruited. Each patient attended two treatment sessions on two separate days and received one intervention assigned in a random fashion, at each visit: deep dry needling (experimental) or sham dry needling (placebo) at the most painful point on the masseter muscle TrP. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the masseter muscle TrP and the mandibular condyle and pain-free active jaw opening were assessed pre- and 5 minutes postintervention by an examiner blinded to the treatment allocation of the subject. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with intervention as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable was used to examine the effects of the intervention. The ANOVA detected a significant interaction between intervention and time for PPT levels in the masseter muscle (F = 62.5; P dry needling compared to the sham dry needling (P dry needling into active TrPs in the masseter muscle induced significant increases in PPT levels and maximal jaw opening when compared to the sham dry needling in patients with myofascial TMD.

  8. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  9. Water addition regulates the metabolic activity of ammonia oxidizers responding to environmental perturbations in dry subhumid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Macdonald, Catriona A; Trivedi, Pankaj; Holmes, Bronwyn; Bodrossy, Levente; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial arid and semi-arid ecosystems (drylands) constitute about 41% of the Earth's land surface and are predicted to experience increasing fluctuations in water and nitrogen availability. Mounting evidence has confirmed the significant importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in nitrification, plant nitrogen availability and atmospheric N2 O emissions, but their responses to environmental perturbations in drylands remain largely unknown. Here we evaluate how the factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization in forests and land-use change from grassland to forest affects the dynamics of AOA and AOB following a 6-year dryland field study. Potential nitrification rates and AOA and AOB abundances were significantly higher in the irrigated plots, accompanied by considerable changes in community compositions, but their responses to fertilization alone were not significant. DNA-stable isotope probing results showed increased (13) CO2 incorporation into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in plots receiving water addition, coupled with significantly higher net mineralization and nitrification rates. High-throughput microarray analysis revealed that active AOA assemblages belonging to Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosotalea were increasingly labelled by (13) CO2 following irrigation. However, no obvious effects of land-use changes on nitrification rates or metabolic activity of AOA and AOB could be observed under dry conditions. We provide evidence that water addition had more important roles than nitrogen fertilization in influencing the autotrophic nitrification in dryland ecosystems, and AOA are increasingly involved in ammonia oxidation when dry soils become wetted.

  10. Thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge at Hengelo Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Mathijs; Ringoot, Davy; Hendriks, Alexander; Roeleveld, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is a sludge treatment technique which affects anaerobic biodegradability, viscosity and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS). In 2011 a THP-pilot plant was operated, connected to laboratory-scale digesters, at the water board Regge en Dinkel and in cooperation with Cambi A.S. and MWH Global. Thermal hydrolysis of WAS resulted in a 62% greater volatile solids (VS) reduction compared to non-hydrolysed sludge. Furthermore, the pilot digesters could be operated at a 2.3 times higher solids loading rate compared to conventional sludge digesters. By application of thermal sludge hydrolysis, the overall efficiency of the sludge treatment process can be improved.

  11. Microbial electrolysis contribution to anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, leading to accelerated methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Guo, Zechong

    2016-01-01

    Methane production rate (MPR) in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion processes is typically limitedby the initial steps of complex organic matter degradation, leading to a limited MPR due to sludgefermentation speed of solid particles. In this study, a novel microbial electrolysis AD reactor (ME......-AD) wasused to accelerate methane production for energy recovery from WAS. Carbon bioconversion wasaccelerated by ME producing H2 at the cathode. MPR was enhanced to 91.8 gCH4/m3 reactor/d in themicrobial electrolysis ME-AD reactor, thus improving the rate by 3 times compared to control conditions (30.6 gCH4...

  12. Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Roy, Kamalika; Krenning, Eric P; Breeman, Wouter A P

    PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

  13. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  14. Biosorption behaviors of Cu2+,Zn2+, Cd2+ and mixture by waste activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sheng-lian; YUAN Lin; CHAI Li-yuan; MIN Xiao-bo; WANG Yun-yan; FANG Yan; WANG Pu

    2006-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, was carried out using waste activated sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant as adsorption material, and the effects of parameters, such as pH value, temperature, reaction time and sorption duration, were studied in detail. The results indicate that the removal rates of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with low concentration are 96.47%, 80% and 90%, respectively, adsorbed by waste activated sludge. Little effect of dosage of activated sludge on the adsorption of Cu2+ and more effects on the adsorption of Zn2+ and Cd2+ are observed. Little effect oftemperature is observed, while pH value and adsorption time exert important influence on the sorption process. The adsorption behaviors of heavy metal ions all have parabolic relationships with pH value. The optimum pH value is between 6 and 10, and the optimum adsorption time is 1 h. In single heavy metal ion system, the sorption processes of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ are in accordance with Freundlich model, which indicates that it is suitable for the treatment of these three heavy metal ions using intermittent operation. In addition, the sorption capacity of the sludge for Cu2+ is preferential to the other two ions.

  15. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  16. The leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons produced from waste tyre rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, G; Fowler, G D; Sollars, C J

    2002-04-01

    Waste tyre rubber can be used as a precursor for the production of high quality activated carbons. However, there is concern that inorganic impurities present in the rubber feed may restrict their use in liquid phase applications with high purity requirements. This paper presents an investigation of the presence and the leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons derived from waste tyre rubber. For the purpose of this work, a number of carbons were produced, characterised for their BET surface area and analysed for their inorganic composition. Subsequently, a number of tests were performed to evaluate the leaching of different inorganic species into solution at various pH values and carbon doses. Results showed that rubber-derived carbons contained elevated concentrations of sulphur and zinc, as well as traces of other metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and molybdenum. Inorganic levels were significantly affected by production conditions, particularly degree of carbon activation and the nature of the gasification agent. However, leaching tests showed that the availability of these species in neutral pH conditions was very limited. Results demonstrated that, when using carbons doses comparable to those employed in water treatment works, only sulphur levels exceeded, in some occasions, health based quality standards proposed for drinking water.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Anzano; Alessandra Tosti; Marina Lasagni; Alfredo Campiglio; Demetrio Pitea; Elena Collina*

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company.The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes.The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied.The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model.The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity,so they were activated with two different processes:thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation,obtaining,respectively,reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF).The flakes,activated with either treatment,showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli.The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes.The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes.The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF,1.0 ± 0.2min-1,was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF,0.069 + 0.004 min-1.This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values.It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium.Furthermore,the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time.Finally,the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND DRY RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumathi*, G.T. Iswariya, B. Sivaprabha, B. Dharani, P. Radha, and P.R. Padma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Oxygen is an element obligatory for life. Biological combustion produces harmful intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals are continuously produced by the body’s aerobic life and our metabolism. Antioxidants are the substances, which act against oxidative compounds. Under normal conditions the body’s antioxidants convert ROS to prevent the over production of free radicals. Recently, natural foods and food derived antioxidants such as vitamins and phenolic phytochemicals, have received growing attention, because they are known to function as chemo preventive agents against oxidative damage and are considered beneficial for human health. The present study was conducted to compare the antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria. The methanol extract of both the rhizomes showed good radical scavenging activity.

  19. A Short Review on the Catalytic Activity of Hydrotalcite-Derived Materials for Dry Reforming of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Dębek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-containing hydrotalcite-derived materials have been recently proposed as promising materials for methane dry reforming (DRM. Based on a literature review and on the experience of the authors, this review focuses on presenting past and recent achievements on increasing activity and stability of hydrotalcite-based materials for DRM. The use of different NiMgAl and NiAl hydrotalcite (HT precursors, various methods for nickel introduction into HT structure, calcination conditions and promoters are discussed. HT-derived materials containing nickel generally exhibit high activity in DRM; however, the problem of preventing catalyst deactivation by coking, especially below 700 °C, is still an open question. The proposed solutions in the literature include: catalyst regeneration either in oxygen atmosphere or via hydrogasification; or application of various promoters, such as Zr, Ce or La, which was proven to enhance catalytic stability.

  20. Removal of Lead (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto Activated Carbon Derived from Waste Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead (II ions from aqueous solutions was carried out using an activated carbon prepared from a waste biomass. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of lead (II ions, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis after adsorption reveals the accumulation of lead (II ions onto activated carbon. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of activated carbon was found to be 476.2 mg g−1. The kinetic data were evaluated and the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous.

  1. [The active search for occupational diseases in the engineering industries. Diseases associated with exposure to welding activities in optical radiation: dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, A; Leone, M; Sanna, S; Arrigoni, E; Teodori, C; Pecorella, I; Imperatore, A; Villarini, S; Macchiaroli, S

    2011-01-01

    In the project of active research of occupational diseases was conducted a study on 45 welders in the engineering companies, with particular attention to the hazards of exposure to the optical radiation. The protocol used involved the execution of Breack Up test, Schirmer test, corneal staining and scraping cytology. It revealed that more than half of the welders had ocular lesions referable to their work activity as well as some permanent functional damages with the characters of dry eye syndrome. None of these diseases, which could alert for medical-legal and insurance, was highlighted by the occupational health physician.

  2. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  3. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion.

  4. Dynamics in the dry bulk market : Economic activity, trade flows, and safety in shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecent dynamics in iron ore markets are driven by rapid changes in economic activities that affect commodity markets, trade flows, and shipping activities. Time series models for the relation between these variables in Southeast Asia and the Australasian region are supplemented with

  5. Dynamics in the dry bulk market : Economic activity, trade flows, and safety in shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecent dynamics in iron ore markets are driven by rapid changes in economic activities that affect commodity markets, trade flows, and shipping activities. Time series models for the relation between these variables in Southeast Asia and the Australasian region are supplemented with mode

  6. Influence of cyanobacteria on water activity and dry matter of muscles in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Lukas; Vlasek, Vaclav; Langova, Jitka; Palikova, Miroslava; Brabec, Tomas; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Klima, Zdenek; Navratil, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are studied from the viewpoint of the issue of risks to water supply, agriculture and recreational activities for a long time. Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of substances which can be toxic and can influence the safety and quality of fish products. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diet with the content of cyanobacteria can affect the water activity and the dry matter of fish muscle and whether this diet can contribute significantly to the shelf life of fish muscles. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used in this study. Both fish species were divided into two groups. The first group of fish was fed with feed with cyanobacteria (3% of dry matter), the second group with feed without cyanobacteria. The water activity and the dry matter were monitored immediately after sampling of the fish muscle on day 7, 14 and 21 (carp) or on day 10, 20 and 30 (rainbow trout) and seven days after every sampling and cold storage (6-8 °C). Feed with the content of cyanobacteria significantly decreased the water activity in muscles of both fish species on day 21 (in carp) and on day 30 (in rainbow trout). The dry matter of fish muscle significantly increased on day 7 and 21 (in carp) and on day 10 and 30, but decreased on day 20 (in rainbow trout). The cold storage significantly influenced the dry matter only. While the dry matter was increased in the common carp (7 days of cold storage after sampling on days 14 and 21), the dry matter decreased in the rainbow trout (7 days of cold storage after sampling on day 10). The decrease of water activity was found only after longer exposure in the both exposed fish species. The dry matter was influenced far greater and was mostly increased in the both exposed fish species.

  7. Methane Potential and Kinetics of Kitchen Waste via Dry Anaerobic Fermentation%餐厨垃圾厌氧干发酵处理产甲烷潜力及动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义; 王黎; 胡宁; 郎显明

    2016-01-01

    The dry anaerobic fermentator is used to treat kitchen waste at temperature 35 ℃ .The variations of pH ,VFA , COD and biogas production are investigated during the process of the dry anaerobic fermentation .The underlying kinetics and mechanism are analyzed in the dry anaerobic fermentation process via the modified Gompertz equation .Considering sys-tem loading and the initial conditions ,the dry anaerobic fermentation methane model is established ,the model is verified by the experimental data and the errors are analyzed during the process of the dry anaerobic fermentation .The results show that pH raises firstly and then goes down ,the concentration of VFA goes firstly up and then down and after the dry anaerobic fer-mentation ,the removal rate of COD maintains at 76 .02 ~ 90 .28% .The modified model is appropriately fitted about the cu-mulative methane yield with R2 > 0 .99 .The methane production potential of kitchen waste treated is approached .These fit-ting parameters at this stage are met to the experimental results .ANOVA P value is 0 .938 and the level of test is the signifi-cance over 0 .05 .The predicted results are consistent with the experimental data ,and the model indicates that it can predict the methane cumulative amount of dry anaerobic fermentation well .%研究采用中温厌氧干发酵反应器,针对餐厨垃圾厌氧干发酵过程中pH ,VFA ,COD和产气量的变化,结合修正 Gompertz 方程分析厌氧干发酵产甲烷的动力学过程。在中温厌氧干发酵系统负荷和初始条件下,分析厌氧干发酵产甲烷过程变化,建立厌氧干发酵产甲烷模型,对其预测和试验验证及误差进行分析。结果表明,在中温厌氧干发酵过程中 pH 先下降后上升,VFA 浓度先增加后减少,COD 去除率保持在76.02%~90.28%之间;修正 Gompertz 动力学模型,可以较好地分析餐厨垃圾厌氧干发酵产甲烷过程(决定系数 R2>0.99),经拟合,

  8. Statement of Work (SOW) for FY 2001 to FY 2006 for the Hanford Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PUIGH, R.J.

    2000-07-25

    This document describes the tasks included in the Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment activity though the close of the project in 2028. Near-term (2001-2006) tasks are described in detail, while tasks further in the future are simply grouped by year. The major tasks are displayed in the table provided. The major goals of the performance assessment activity are to provide the technical basis for the Department of Energy to continue to authorize the construction of disposal facilities, the onsite disposal of immobilized low-activity Hanford tank waste in those facilities, and the closure of the disposal facilities. Other significant goals are to provide the technical basis for the setting of the specifications of the immobilized waste and to support permitting of the disposal facilities.

  9. Comparison of different treatment methods for protein solubilisation from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Keke; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Xie; Seow, Wan Yi; He, Chao; Yin, Yao; Zhou, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Biomaterials recovery from wasted activated sludge has become an increasing interesting research topic. The purpose of this study was to systemically evaluate different sludge disintegration methods (ultrasonic, alkaline, and thermal treatments) for protein solubilisation from waste activated sludge (WAS). Compared to control without treatment, the soluble protein concentration increased by 11, 23 and 12 times under the optimal treatment conditions (ultrasonic treatment of 1 W mL(-1), alkaline treatment of pH 12 and thermal treatment at 80 °C). The increased soluble protein were significantly correlated with the release of total organic carbon (TOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and total organic nitrogen (TON) in soluble EPS, and the degradation of above parameters in tightly bound EPS. For all sludge samples treated by various methods, tyrosine-like protein with molecular weight less than 20 kDa predominated, and alkaline treatment at pH 12 showed the highest protein dominance. Further surface analysis of sludge by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated this might be related with the significant protein-N conversion occurred at pH 12. The economic analysis indicated alkaline treatment at pH 12 was economically feasible with a net saving of 25.57 USD per ton wet sludge compared to conventional sludge treatment and disposal method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of 120 minutes. The oil is found to possess favorable flash point and reasonable density and viscosity. The higher calorific value is found to be 28.636 MJ/kg which is significantly higher than other biomass derived. Decolonization of 85–97% is recorded for the textile effluent and 75–90% for the tannery effluent, in all cases decreasing with temperature increase. Good adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon in case of diluted textile and tannery effluent was found.

  11. Nanomaterial transformation and association with fresh and freeze-dried wastewater activated sludge: implications for testing protocol and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Mehlika A; Ladner, David A; Hristovski, Kiril D; Westerhoff, Paul K

    2012-07-03

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are an emerging class of contaminants entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and standardized testing protocols are needed by industry and regulators to assess the potential removal of ENMs during wastewater treatment. A United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard method (OPPTS 835.1110) for estimating soluble pollutant removal during wastewater treatment using freeze-dried, heat-treated (FDH) activated sludge (AS) has been recently proposed for predicting ENM fate in WWTPs. This study is the first to evaluate the use of FDH AS in batch experiments for quantifying ENM removal from wastewater. While soluble pollutants sorbed equally to fresh and FDH AS, fullerene, silver, gold, and polystyrene nanoparticles' removals with FDH AS were approximately 60-100% less than their removals with fresh AS. Unlike fresh AS, FDH AS had a high concentration of proteins and other soluble organics in the liquid phase, an indication of bacterial membrane disintegration due to freeze-drying and heat exposure. This cellular matter stabilized ENMs such that they were poorly removed by FDH AS. Therefore, FDH AS is not a suitable sorbent for estimating nanoparticle removal in WWTPs, whereas fresh AS has been shown to reasonably predict full-scale performance for titanium removal. This study indicates that natural or engineered processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion, biosolids decomposition in soils) that result in cellular degradation and matrices rich in surfactant-like materials (natural organic matter, proteins, phospholipids, etc.) may transform nanoparticle surfaces and significantly alter their fate in the environment.

  12. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF DRIED Lactarius quetus AND Lactarius volemus BASIDIOMES MUSHROOMS: IDENTIFICATION AND POTENTIAL FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tsivinska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study chemical composition and biological effects of substances present in methanol extract of dried basidiocarps of Lactarius quetus and L. volemus and the action of substances of milky juice isolated from these fungi on the mammalian cells and invertebrate organisms. It was found that fresh juice of Lactarius quetus mushrooms reduced the viability of transformed mouse fibroblasts of L929 line and caused the death of the crustaceans (Cyclops plankton. The extract from dried basidiocarps was fractionated by various organic solvents under the scheme described above for Lactarius pergamenus mushrooms. Obtained fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The largest range of compounds was present in the first (hexane fraction containing substances whose analysis required additional separation on a silica gel column. The obtained fractions contained large amount of saturated and unsaturated higher fatty acids and their esters, phthalates and sesquiterpene compounds. Their composition and content in studied mushroom species differed significantly. The results of chemical analysis of mushroom basidiocarps allowed one to conclude that primary protective function in L. quetus, probably, was dependent on several sesquiterpene compounds of the azulene series - lactarorufin A and B. Since in L. volemus fungus the content of azulene and its derivatives is rather low, the biological activity of its milky juice towards the mammalian cells and small crustaceans is poorly studied.

  13. Immobilization of simulated low and intermediate level waste in alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin, E-mail: wjin761026@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Wang, Jun-xia; Zhang, Qin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Li, Yu-xiang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the suitability of ASFMH for solidifying simulated S-LILW. • The introduction of S-LILW avails forming zeolitic phases of ASFMH waste forms. • The ASFMH waste forms have low leachability and high compressive strength. - Abstract: In the current study, the alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramic (ASFMH) waste forms for immobilizing simulated low and intermediate level waste (S-LILW) were prepared by hydrothermal process. The crystalline phase compositions, morphology, compressive strength and aqueous stability of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were investigated. The results showed that the main crystalline phases of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were analcime and zeolite NaP1. The changes of Si/Al molar ratio (from 1.7 to 2.2) and Ca/Al molar ratio (from 0.15 to 0.35) had little effect on the phase compositions of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms. However, the hydrothermal temperature, time as well as the content of S-LILW (from 12.5 to 37.5 wt%) had a major impact on the phase compositions. The compressive strength of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms was not less than 20 MPa when the content of S-LILW reached 37.5 wt%. In addition, the aqueous stability testing was carried out using the standard MCC-1 static leach test method; the normalized elemental leach rates of Sr and Cs were fairly constant in a low value below 5 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 3 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 28 days, respectively. It is indicated that ASFMH waste form could be a potential host for safely immobilizing LILW.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurćubić, Vladimir S; Mašković, Pavle Z; Vujić, Jelena M; Vranić, Danijela V; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica M; Okanović, Đorđe G; Lilić, Slobodan V

    2014-08-01

    Fermented dry sausages (FDS) without nitrite added, fortified with bioactive phenol and flavonoid compounds originating from the ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia were food matrix for investigation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency. These activities were researched in order to improve the sausages' shelf-life, safety, and provide health benefits to consumers as well. The oxidative stability of the FDS, containing two different levels of natural preservative, was evaluated using five different contemporary methods for antioxidative activity. The activity was tested on the 20th day of the refrigerated storage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sausage extract were determined against six microorganisms, using a micro dilution method. Determined optimal effective concentration of dissolved K. vitifolia extract (12.5 g/kg of meat dough) revealed strong antioxidant activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations=15.625 μg/mL). The modified sausages had typical chemical-physical characteristics of FDS, controlled on 0, 13, 26 d of ripening and 20, 40 and 60 d of storage.

  15. Analysis of methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor: use of fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, B; García-Morales, J L; Sales, D; Solera, R

    2009-03-01

    Methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor was determined by comparing the amount of methane generated for each of the organic loading rates with the size of the total and specific methanogenic population, as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. A high correlation was evident between the total methanogenic activity and retention time [-0.6988Ln(x)+2.667] (R(2) 0.8866). The total methanogenic activity increased from 0.04x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) to 0.38x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) while the retention time decreased, augmenting the organic loading rates. The specific methanogenic activities of H(2)-utilizing methanogens and acetate-utilizing methanogens increased until they stabilised at 0.64x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) and 0.33x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1), respectively. The methanogenic activity of H(2)-utilizing methanogens was higher than acetate-utilizing methanogens, indicating that maintaining a low partial pressure of hydrogen does not inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenesis or the anaerobic process.

  16. Composting system for waste treatment coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators in the Experimental Center Kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting process waste coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators (yogurt, whey and yeast. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The values in N are classified medium and high levels the quantities of P, K are classified as middle levels. The value obtained 7.9 pH, EC 12950 µS/cm and 61% organic matter belong to treatment T1. The decomposition time was a period of 105 days corresponds to treatment T3.

  17. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) extract as obtained by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berté, Kleber A S; Beux, Marcia R; Spada, Patricia K W D S; Salvador, Mirian; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    2011-05-25

    Yerba-mate or maté (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) leaves are typically used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. In this study, the objective was to develop a yerba-mate dry extract by using spray drying technology and to evaluate the dry extract antioxidant activity and chemical composition. The results obtained by means of the DPPH assay show that the extract presents an IC(50) of 2.52 mg/mL. The yerba-mate spray-dried extract presents high catalase-like activity, suggesting that it is a strong free-radical scavenger. The antioxidant activity as expressed as catalase-like activity was related to total polyphenol content. In addition, the results show that the spray-dried extract presents high polyphenol content, namely, high concentrations of caffeic acid (1.54 mg/g), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (91.40 mg/g), rutin (5.38 mg/g), and total phenolics (178.32 mg/g), which justifies its high antioxidant activity.

  19. Graphene wrapped Copper Phthalocyanine nanotube: Enhanced photocatalytic activity for industrial waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Moumita; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Samanta, Madhupriya; Santra, Angshuman; Das, Gour P.; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K.

    2017-10-01

    To improve the photocatalytic performance of metal phthalocyanine based catalyst, Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite has been synthesized through a simple chemical approach. The obtained product was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photocatalytic activity of the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite was performed by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite exhibits much stronger catalytic behavior than the pristine CuPc nanotube. A pl