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Sample records for drugs sex money

  1. Correlates of exchanging sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the correlates of trading sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine. Using baseline data (n = 669) from a woman-focused HIV intervention study among African American women who use crack cocaine, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine the odds of trading sex associated with distal and proximal factors. The results indicate that heavier crack use, homelessness, and unemployment are associated with trading sex. In addition, childhood abuse is associated with trading sex and this relationship is, in part, mediated by psychological distress. This suggests that distal factors may underlie the relationship between current variables and sex trading. These findings underscore the importance for public health interventions to address both distal and proximal factors that contribute to and/or co-occur with women's drug use which, in turn, may affect their HIV risk and overall well-being.

  2. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p young adults, particularly as it relates to community context. Longitudinal studies to describe the trajectory of social, health, and physical risks and consequences are needed for development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  3. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  4. Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money What is a generic drug? A generic is a copy of a brand-name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When ... benefit to your health, and you will save money. 7KH IHGHUDO )RRG DQG 'UXJ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )'$ UHJXODWHV ERWK ...

  5. Dinheiro, poder e sexo Money, power, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana A. Zelizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A crença generalizada de que o dinheiro corrompe a intimidade bloqueia nossa capacidade de descrever e explicar como dinheiro, poder, e sexo, de fato, interagem. A crença oposta - de que o sexo funciona como uma mercadoria como qualquer outra - não é melhor para ajudar descrições e explicações. A intersecção de sexo, dinheiro e poder, de fato, gera confusão e conflito, mas isso ocorre precisamente porque os participantes estão simultaneamente negociando relações interpessoais delicadas e responsáveis e marcando diferenças entre essas relações e outras com as quais elas poderiam ser fácil e perigosamente confundidas. Na vida cotidiana, as pessoas lidam com essas dificuldades com um conjunto de práticas que poderíamos chamar de "Boas Combinações".Widespread beliefs that money corrupts intimacy block our ability to describe and explain how money, power, and sex actually interact. The opposite belief - that sex operates like an ordinary market commodity - serves description and explanation no better. The intersection of sex, money, and power, does indeed generate confusion and conflict, but that is precisely because participants are simultaneously negotiating delicate, consequential, interpersonal relations and marking differences between those relations and others with which they could easily and dangerously be confused. In everyday social life, people deal with these difficulties by relying on a set of practices we can call good matches.

  6. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  7. Discounting of money and sex: effects of commodity and temporal position in stimulant-dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Landes, Reid D; Christensen, Darren R; Jones, Bryan A; Jackson, Lisa; Yi, Richard; Bickel, Warren K

    2014-11-01

    Research on delay discounting has contributed to the understanding of numerous addiction-related phenomena. For example, studies have shown that substance dependent individuals discount their addictive substances (e.g., cocaine) more rapidly than they do other commodities (e.g., money). Recent research has shown that substance dependent individuals discount delayed sex more rapidly than delayed money, and their discounting rates for delayed sex were higher than those of non-addicted individuals. The particular reason that delay discounting rates for sex are higher than those for money, however, are unclear. Do individuals discount delayed sex rapidly because immediate sex is particularly appealing or because delayed sex does not retain its value? Moreover, do the same factors influence men and women's choices? The current study examined delay discounting in four conditions (money now versus money later; sex now versus sex later; money now, versus sex later; sex now versus money later) in cocaine dependent men and women. The procedures used isolated the role of the immediate versus delayed commodity. For men, the higher rates of delay discounting for sex were because delayed sex did not retain its value, whereas both the immediate and delayed commodity influenced the female participants' decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  9. Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Jiang, Lizhu

    2015-02-01

    Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.

  10. Sex, love and money along the Namibian-Angolan border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Adriana de Araujo; Sampaio, Camila Alves Machado; Monteiro, Simone Souza; Murray, Laura Rebecca; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, young women engaged in relationships with multiple partners in order to gain material benefits play a key role in local HIV dynamics. This paper is based upon field observations and interviews with 38 young women who live along the Angolan-Namibian border. In the last 10 years, rapid urbanisation has attracted migrants in search of opportunities to do business in the region. Our findings show that sexual-affective economic networks reflect these socioeconomic changes. Women, particularly those from particular ethnic groups and/or from Namibia, with low levels of formal education and social support are often excluded from the labour market and turn to emotional-sexual male-centred networks for material and financial benefits. Men in these networks tend to be older, have higher socioeconomic status and greater geographic mobility. This 'capitalisation' of intimate relationships is material and symbolic; it enables women to acquire goods and access to services identified with an urban and globalised lifestyle. It is also emotional because relationships include affection and pleasure. Engaging in these relationships involves some social risks (bad reputation, family rejection, discrimination and violence), but maintaining ties often takes priority over safer sex and social sanctions.

  11. Condom use with various types of sex partners by money boys in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Chen, Lin; Li, Li; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Wende; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of "mommies" (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies.

  12. Illicit Drug Trade, Black Money and Society in Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sharifi

    2003-11-01

    Well-known families which have relations not only with criminal organizations but also with police forces, control cocaine market and obtain huge wealth which spreads their power and influence over this state. In this article, the author reviews the effects of cocaine trade on emerging black money as well as the influnce of criminal groups over society.

  13. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women are

  14. Sex bias in psychoactive drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E

    1980-05-01

    A recent concern has been the possible effect of sex-role stereotypes upon physicians' prescription patterns. In an attempt to examine the part played by drug advertisements, this paper will present a content analysis of psychoactive (mood-modifying) drug ads appearing in the American Journal of Psychiatry over a 17-year period; and a study of subjects' perceptions of the patients depicted in these drug ads across eight dimensions emerging from the content analysis. An initial perusal of psychoactive drug ads in professional medical journals suggested the existence of a sex bias: Females appeared to be presented as patients more often than males, and in a much more demeaning manner. The present analyses were done in an attempt to discover if a sex bias does exist in drug advertisements, which may influence the physician's perception of his or her patients, and subsequently, his or her prescription patterns.

  15. Drugs, sex, money and power: An HPV vaccine case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Marion; Ashton, Toni; Blum, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

      In this paper we compare the experiences of seven industrialized countries in considering approval and introduction of the world's first cervical cancer-preventing vaccine. Based on case studies, articles from public agencies, professional journals and newspapers we analyse the public debate ab...... and potentially negative effects on access and equity....

  16. Psychological correlates of trading sex for money among African American crack cocaine smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Timpson, Sandra C; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    This article compares demographic characteristics, sexual practices, and psychosocial status among 193 African American female crack cocaine users who currently, previously, or never traded sex for money. Current traders were less likely to have a main sexual partner, more likely to have a casual sexual partner, and more likely to smoke larger quantities of crack. There was a significant trend towards current traders reporting lower self-esteem, greater depression and anxiety, poorer decision-making confidence, more hostility, less social conformity, greater risk taking behaviors, and more problems growing up, compared to previous and never traders. These differences suggest that interventions should address self-esteem, risk-taking practices, depression and anxiety as well as other psychosocial factors.

  17. Drug use and risk behaviours among injecting drug users: a comparison between sex workers and non-sex workers in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Courtney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the differences in demographics, drug use patterns and self reported risk behaviours between regular injecting drug users (IDU who report engaging in sex work for money or drugs and regular injecting drug users who do not. Methods Cross sectional data collected from regular IDU interviewed as part of the New South Wales (NSW Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS in 2003 were analysed. Results IDU who reported engaging in sex work were more likely to be female, and identify as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent. They initiated injecting drug use at a significantly younger age and were more likely to report injection related problems than IDU who had not engaged in sex work. There were no differences in the drug classes used, but findings suggested that the sex workers tended to be more frequent users of crystalline methamphetamine (ice and benzodiazepines. Conclusion The similarities between these groups were more striking than the differences. Further research, examining a larger sample is needed to clarify whether injecting drug users who are sex workers have heavier use patterns.

  18. Sex, Drugs, and Cognition: Effects of Marijuana†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana i...

  19. Drug use and its associated factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G L; Zhang, A D; Yu, Y; Liu, H; Long, F Y; Yan, J

    2016-11-01

    To describe drug use, types of drugs and related factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2012 and January 2013. Based on respondent-driven sampling, researchers located seven 'seeds' via a gay-dating website: http://www.ixxqy.org. After three waves of recruitment, 234 money boys were enrolled. They were asked to complete a 23-item questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics, drug use, a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection and family environment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20.0. In total, 205 valid questionnaires were collected. Based on the data collected, 80 (39.0%) money boys had used drugs within the last 3 months. Rush popper (36.6%) and methamphetamine (12.7%) were used most commonly, and other drugs used were ecstasy (7.8%), ketamine (5.9%), marijuana (2.4%), morphine (1.5%), heroin (1.0%) and cocaine (0.5%). Factors included in the logistic regression were length of service (odds ratio [OR] 0.395, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.175-0.896), being an only child (OR 2.272, 95% CI 1.108-4.659), relationship between parents (OR 0.428, 95% CI 0.213-0.858) and social network (OR 2.387, 95% CI 1.144-4.970). A shorter length of service and a good relationship between parents were protective factors against drug use, while being an only child and having a wide social network were risk factors. Drug use is common among money boys. This study found that length of service, being an only child, relationship between parents and social network are associated with drug use. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Michael J; Lohrenz, Terry; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; McClure, Samuel M; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Newton, Thomas F; Bickel, Warren K; Montague, P Read

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

  1. Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth M; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I; Pearlson, Godfrey D; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2010-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n=35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men, likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted.

  2. Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Kocur, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Money laundering is marginalized phenomenon with high social impact which comes from necessary connection of this activity with illegal activities, especially organized crime. Since the goal of almost every illegal activity is to create profit (and since the biggest profit comes from the activities which are highly dangerous for the society, such as drug trafficking) it is vital for the society to fight money laundering effectively. It is in the best interest of the whole society to fight thi...

  3. The Power of Money and the Power of Sex. Anthropology of Sexual Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lagunas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, the flow of people, ideas and goods, generates a situation in which the sex industry has been globalized through increasingly sophisticated channels and networks of prostitution and human traffic. These are, adapting themselves to the changing meanings and practices of sex. The North domination of the South and East is manifested in multiple ways, including sex tourism. The text analyzes some aspects of sex tourism in different national and international contexts, and postulates the advisability and opportunity to explore both the individual and the subjective, as well as related socio–political dimensions.

  4. The Great Sexologists: John Money on Sin, Science, and the Sex Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, John

    This paper discusses the role of sex police in society from the 14th century to the present and their affect on sex education in the schools. Jean Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris and Dean of the Cathedral School of Notre Dame, was one of the first to publish information concerning nocturnal wet dreams and boyhood masturbation. His…

  5. Correlates of Sex Trading among Drug-Involved Women in Committed Intimate Relationships: A Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Despite a slight decline in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in New York, marked increases and concentrated epidemics continue among subsets of the population, including women engaged in sex trading. We examined the prevalence and correlates of sex trading among 346 low-income, HIV-negative women in HIV-concordant intimate relationships. Women and their long-term main partners were recruited to participate in an HIV prevention intervention. Baseline data were used in this article. Of the 346 women in the study, 28% reported sex trading during the prior 90 days. Multivariate analyses showed increased relative risk of sex trading by lifetime experience of severe intimate partner violence (IPV), drug, and alcohol use, and marginal significance for mental health hospitalization, partner drug dependency, and homelessness. These findings suggest an urgent need for HIV prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward women in intimate relationships who trade sex for money or drugs, with an emphasis on IPV, mental health, history of incarceration, and substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails.

  7. Money boys, HIV risks, and the associations between norms and safer sex: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Rhodes, Anne G; Hong, Fuchang

    2009-08-01

    Money boys (MBs) are male sex workers who sell sex to men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates the proportion of MBs in the Chinese MSM, compares HIV risks between MBs and non-MB MSM, and examines the associations between practicing safer sex and peer norms of condom use. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to sample 351 MSM in the city of Shenzhen in 2007. The RDS-adjusted proportion of MBs among MSM was 9%. Compared to non-MB MSM, more MBs reported having had multiple male and female sexual partners. Half of MBs and non-MB MSM had consistently used condoms. Both descriptive and subjective norms were positively associated with condom use. The MB proportion of 9% in MSM implies a relatively large population of MBs in China. The association between peer norms and consistent condom use can assist with the development of culturally competent HIV interventions that promote safer sex.

  8. Sex, gender, and pharmaceutical politics: From drug development to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Ronald, Lorna M

    2010-08-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms affect the provision of health care products and services, but there has been little explicit analysis of the impact of sex differences and gender norms on the regulation of pharmaceutical development and marketing. This article provides an overview of the regulation of pharmaceuticals and examines the ways that regulatory agencies account for sex and gender in their review of scientific data and marketing materials. The primary focus is on the US context, but information is also included about regulatory models in Europe, Canada, and Japan for comparative purposes. Specific examples show how sex differences and gender norms influence scientific and policy decisions about pharmaceuticals. The United States and Canada were found to be the only countries that have explicit requirements to include women in clinical trials and to perform sex-based subgroup analysis on study results. The potential influence of politics on regulatory decisions may have led to an uneven application of standards, as seen through the examples of mifepristone (for abortion) and sildenafil citrate (for erectile dysfunction). Three detailed case studies illustrate the importance of considering sex and gender in pharmaceutical development and marketing: Phase I clinical trials; human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine; and tegaserod, a drug for irritable bowel syndrome. Sex and gender play important roles in pharmaceutical regulation, from the design of clinical trials and the approval of new drugs to advertising and postmarketing surveillance. However, regulatory agencies pay insufficient attention to both biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms. This disregard perpetuates inequalities by ignoring drug safety problems that predominate in women and by allowing misleading drug marketing that reinforces gender stereotypes. Recommendations have been made to improve the regulation of pharmaceuticals in regard to sex and

  9. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex Stereotyping in Drug Advertisements: Evaluation of the Informal Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Mary L.; And Others

    A study to determine sex stereotyping in drug advertisements in five professional journals is reported. The first four studies examined advertisements from general medical journals; the fifth study obtained its data from a psychiatric journal. The journals are "Medical Economics,""American Family Physician,""Modern Medicine,""Journal of the…

  11. Money, power and HIV: economic influences and HIV among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrew; Kanyemba, Brian; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Adebajo, Sylvia; Baral, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Despite consistent evidence, effective interventions and political declarations to reduce HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), coverage of MSM programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low. Punitive legal frameworks and hostile social circumstances and inadequate health systems further contribute to the high HIV burden among MSM in SSA. The authors use the Modified Social Ecological Model to discuss economic influences in relation to HIV and MSM in SSA. Nigerian, South African and Ugandan case studies are used to highlight economic factors and considerations related to HIV among MSM. The authors argue that criminalisation of consensual sexual practices among adults increases the frequency of human rights violations contributing to the incidence of HIV infections. Furthermore, marginalisation and disempowerment of MSM limits their livelihood opportunities, increases the prevalence of sex work and drug use and limits financial access to HIV services. Sexual and social networks are complex and ignoring the needs of MSM results in increased risks for HIV acquisition and transmission to all sexual partners with cumulative economic and health implications. The authors recommend a public health and human rights approach that employs effective interventions at multiple levels to reduce the HIV burden among MSM and the general population in SSA.

  12. Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants’ sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR=−0.653, 95%CI=-1.192 to −0.115, perceived HIV risk (OR=−1.047, 95%CI=-2.076 to −0.019, and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR=−1.104, 95%CI=-1.957 to −0.251 were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran.

  13. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population.

  14. HIV risk among drug-using men who have sex with men, men selling sex, and transgender individuals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bao Ngoc; Mulvey, Kevin P; Baldwin, Simon; Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about drug use and its association with HIV risk among men who have sex with men is limited. Although the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam is increasingly acknowledged, understanding the impact of drug use on the spread of HIV is largely lacking. Using qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 93 drug users, 15 non-drug users and 9 community stakeholders, this analysis explores emerging patterns of drug use and risk factors for engaging in risk behaviours among drug-using men having sex with men, men selling sex and transgender individuals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Findings revealed that drug use is shifting from heroin to ecstasy and ice. Drug users reported unsafe sex associated with drug use and men selling sex were particularly at elevated risk because of using drugs as a tool for sex work and trading sex for drugs. These findings are guiding development of programmes addressing unmet HIV-prevention needs in Vietnam.

  15. Pocket Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰莹; 赵惠; 李世芹; 袁琳

    2007-01-01

    Do you get any poch’et money from your parents? What do you do with it?刘杰莹Pocket Money (1st Floor) I get some pocket money from Mom every day.But I never spend it casually.Except the money for breakfast,

  16. Topiramate's effects on cocaine-induced subjective mood, craving and preference for money over drug taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Wang, Xin-Qun; Liu, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Topiramate, presumably through antagonism of excitatory glutaminergic pathways and facilitation of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons in the cortico-mesolimbic system, might reduce cocaine's abuse liability. We tested whether topiramate (100 mg twice daily) would reduce the euphoria, subjective mood, craving and preference for cocaine over money induced by low and high doses (0.325 and 0.65 mg/kg i.v., respectively) of experimentally administered cocaine in 24 male and female, cocaine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking research volunteers in a university in-patient laboratory. We utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, Latin-square cross-over design in which three experimental challenge doses of low-dose cocaine, high-dose cocaine and placebo were administered in counterbalanced order after 5 days of topiramate or matching placebo pre-treatments separated by a 1-week washout period (2006-2009). After placebo pre-treatments, cocaine produced dose-related increases in euphoria, stimulant effects, craving for more cocaine and monetary value of cocaine in a behavioral preference test of cocaine versus money choice. Topiramate pre-treatment reduced the cocaine-related craving and monetary value of high-dose cocaine while increasing the monetary value, euphoria and stimulant effects of low-dose cocaine. Validated and standardized human experimental methods evaluating the potential for topiramate to alter cocaine's abuse liability suggest that topiramate may reduce the reinforcing effects and craving induced by higher cocaine doses. Low-dose cocaine might appear to have some enhancement of its stimulant properties in the presence of topiramate's prominent sedative effects. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  18. Recreational drug use: an emerging concern among venue-based male sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 survey of 418 venue-based male commercial sex workers in Shenzhen, China revealed that 19.9% used recreational drugs. Consistent condom use by drug users was lower than that by nonusers. HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus 2 prevalences were higher among drug users. Prevention programs need to address drug use among male commercial sex workers in China.

  19. Money, Sex, and Drugs: A Case Study to Teach the Genetics of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud-Hansen, Karen A.; Kuehner, Jason N.; Tong, Lillian; Miller, Sarah; Handelsman, Jo

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the work reported here was to help students expand their understanding of antibiotic resistance, the Central Dogma, and evolution. We developed a unit entitled "Ciprofloxacin Resistance in "Neisseria gonorrhoeae,"" which was constructed according to the principles of scientific teaching by a team of graduate students, science faculty,…

  20. Money, Sex, and Drugs: A Case Study to Teach the Genetics of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud-Hansen, Karen A.; Kuehner, Jason N.; Tong, Lillian; Miller, Sarah; Handelsman, Jo

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the work reported here was to help students expand their understanding of antibiotic resistance, the Central Dogma, and evolution. We developed a unit entitled "Ciprofloxacin Resistance in "Neisseria gonorrhoeae,"" which was constructed according to the principles of scientific teaching by a team of graduate students, science faculty,…

  1. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Staff; Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco Retailers: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Civil Money... responses to questions FDA has received regarding the issuance of civil money penalties for violations of...

  2. Money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvosheieva, Ganna

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with evaluation of ant-money laundering effectiveness. In theoretical part money laundering, FATF (Financial Ask Task Force) and AML(anti-money laundering) are defined. Practical part concentrates on the biggest scandals of the latest years and assessment of AML effectiveness. Based on this evaluation, weak places in AML mechanisms were identified. Additionally, tools of AML improvement were determined.

  3. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehui Zhou; Chenglin Zhou; Rena Li

    2014-01-01

    Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug ...

  4. Getting the message: HIV information sources of women who have sex with injecting drug users -- a two-site study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, B J; Wolitski, R J; Tross, S; Corby, N H; Fishbein, M

    1999-04-01

    A field interview was conducted among 325 female sex partners (FSPs) of male injecting drug users (IDUs) in New York City and Long Beach, California, to assess FSPs¿ source of HIV information; attitudes and beliefs regarding the disease and condom use; and risk behaviors. Findings revealed that the subjects, whose only current risk was sexual contact with a drug-injecting partner, were mostly Latino women (62%) or African American women (29%) in their early to mid 30s. One-third had a history with injecting drug use and one in six had previously traded sex for money or drugs. Most of them were presently at-risk for HIV infection; and reported little or no condom use during sexual contact with a male IDU partner. In comparison with FSPs in Long Beach, FSPs in New York: were more knowledgeable about HIV transmission; perceived themselves as being at-risk for exposure to HIV from having unprotected vaginal intercourse with their main partners; have positive attitudes toward condom use; perceived social pressure in using condoms with their main partners; and were more exposed to HIV information from mass media, small media and interpersonal resources. The study generally indicated that FSPs in Long Beach and New York are reachable and reported attitudes and knowledge that support the use of condoms with their main partners.

  5. Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.

  6. "Money talks, bullshit walks" interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2013-07-18

    Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing

  7. 75 FR 53316 - Draft Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...'' that were published by FDA in the Federal Register of March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13225) (21 CFR part 1140... Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and...

  8. Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of the European Union in the emergence, consolidation and development of the governance of money laundering. In particular, it identifies three sets of factors that explain the role of the European Union in the global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regime...

  9. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  10. Smart Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    From using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online, school districts are seeking money-saving methods. In this article, the author discusses some methods used by school districts that allow them to save money from using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online.

  11. Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of the European Union in the emergence, consolidation and development of the governance of money laundering. In particular, it identifies three sets of factors that explain the role of the European Union in the global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regime...

  12. Smart Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    From using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online, school districts are seeking money-saving methods. In this article, the author discusses some methods used by school districts that allow them to save money from using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online.

  13. Making Money from Making Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole

    Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits...

  14. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Money and quasi-money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CESARANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the definition of monetary aggregates has had a leading role in the debate on money in the sixties and the first half of the seventies. The problems associated with the relationship between money and quasi-money has important implications for various fundamental aspects of monetary theory and monetary policy. In Italy, for reasons related to the peculiar institutional framework, the issue in question has not received much attention. Only recently, as a result of the diffusion of money market instruments, have many parties raised the question regarding the inclusion of these instruments in the definition of the stock of money. After explaining the nature of the problem, the present work provides an empirical analysis of the issue.

  16. How to save money on medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000863.htm How to save money on medicines To use the sharing features on ... can look out for you, recommend ways to save money, and make sure all the drugs you take ...

  17. Money Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine; Addis; 张庆森

    2000-01-01

    Money makes the world go round is anold saying. However, some people are better atmanaging their finances than others. Unfortu-nately, especially these days, there seem to bemany people in Britain who are up to theireyes (or ears) in debt-they owe so muchmoney that, figuratively, their debts, piled up,would come up to their heads. People who owe money are sometimesdescribed as being down on their uppers-being in reduced, poor circumstances(this is a

  18. Making Money from Making Money

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCann, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after prov...

  19. Making Money from Making Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole

    Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits...... that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after provisions and taxes....

  20. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p<0.001. Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  1. 76 FR 22905 - Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 13225) (21 CFR part 1140). The Tobacco Control Act also authorizes FDA to impose a no... Register of August 31, 2010 (75 FR 53316), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same... Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers; Availability...

  2. Rethinking risk: gender and injection drug-related HIV risk among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners along the Mexico-U.S. border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Wagner, Karla D

    2014-09-01

    Studies of injection drug-using couples suggest a gendered performance of risk in which men exert greater control over drug use and render their female partners vulnerable to HIV infection and other negative health outcomes. This study assesses gender roles in injection drug use as practiced among female sex workers and their intimate male partners within a risk environment marked by rapid socioeconomic changes. We draw on quantitative surveys, semi-structured interviews, and ethnographic fieldwork conducted as part of cohort study of HIV/STI risk among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial partners along the Mexico-U.S. border. This study employed descriptive statistics and inductive analyses of transcripts and field notes to examine practices related to drug procurement, syringe sharing, and injection assistance among couples in which both partners reported injecting drugs in the past 6 months. Among 156 couples in which both partners injected drugs (n=312), our analyses revealed that women's roles in drug use were active and multidimensional, and both partners' injection risk practices represented embodied forms of cooperation and compassion. Women often earned money to purchase drugs and procured drugs to protect their partners from the police. Sharing drugs and syringes and seeking injection assistance were common among couples due to drug market characteristics (e.g., the use of "black tar" heroin that clogs syringes and damages veins). Both women and men provided and received injection assistance, which was typically framed as caring for the partner in need of help. Our mixed methods study suggests that in certain risk environments, women are more active participants in injection-related practices than has often been revealed. This participation is shaped by dynamic relationship and structural factors. Our suggestion to consider gendered injection risk as a nuanced and relational process has direct implications for future research and

  3. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  4. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  5. Free Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    School library budgets are about as miserably low or nonexistent as many librarians have ever seen. The population of school librarians who have not just one, but "many" school libraries to manage is growing. Time and funds are short, and needs for books, programming, and technology are high. Grant money is out there for librarians, and the author…

  6. Free Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    School library budgets are about as miserably low or nonexistent as many librarians have ever seen. The population of school librarians who have not just one, but "many" school libraries to manage is growing. Time and funds are short, and needs for books, programming, and technology are high. Grant money is out there for librarians, and the author…

  7. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehui Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug addiction. The studies we consider span various animal models and use multiple types of exercise to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise rehabilitation. We believe that exercise as an adjuvant intervention strategy can be applied better in drug addiction prevention and recovery.

  8. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  9. TOPIRAMATE’S EFFECTS ON COCAINE-INDUCED SUBJECTIVE MOOD, CRAVING, AND PREFERENCE FOR MONEY OVER DRUG TAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D.; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Gunderson, Erik W.; Haughey, Heather M.; Wang, Xin-Qun; Liu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Topiramate, presumably through antagonism of excitatory glutaminergic pathways and facilitation of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons in the cortico-mesolimbic system, might reduce cocaine’s abuse liability. We tested whether topiramate (100 mg twice daily) would reduce the euphoria, subjective mood, craving, and preference for cocaine over money induced by low and high doses (0.325 and 0.650 mg/kg i.v., respectively) of experimentally administered cocaine in 24 male and female, cocai...

  10. 'Synthetic Pot' Tied to Risky Sex, Violence and Drug Abuse in Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164060.html 'Synthetic Pot' Tied to Risky Sex, Violence and Drug Abuse in Teens Product has ...

  11. 中越边境地区涉毒洗钱犯罪研究%Research on the Drug-related Crime of Money Laundering at China and Vietnam Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 袁朝霞; 周海燕; 谢露

    2012-01-01

    本文以广西边境地区毒品犯罪严峻形势为背景,系统总结了当前涉毒洗钱犯罪的主要手法,并对打击涉毒洗钱犯罪面临的困难进行了深入分析,在借鉴域外经验基础上提出一些具体、可行的防治对策和建议。%Under the grim situation of Guangxi border drug crimes, the paper sums up the main measures of the drug-related crime of money laundering, analyzes difficulties by attacking drug-related crime of money laundering. Based on the reference to foreign experience, the paper gives some advice on the drug-related crime of money laundering.

  12. Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Aline Dayrell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the profile of male injecting drug users who have sex with other men (MSM IDUs recruited through a cross-sectional multi-city survey (AjUDE-Brasil II Project in six Brazilian cities, in 2000-2001. MSM IDUs were compared to other male IDUs using bivariate and multivariate procedures (logistic regression and answer tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm. Among the 709 male IDUs, 187 (26.4% reported ever having had sex with other men, while only 37 reported sex with other men in the previous six months. MSM IDUs were more likely to be unemployed (OR = 2.3, to have injected tranquilizers (OR = 3.6, and to be HIV-seropositive (OR = 2.1, compared to other male IDUs. Male same-sex relations in this subgroup appear to be associated with strategies to finance drug consuming habits, including sex for drugs with occasional female partners or obtaining injection paraphernalia from occasional sex partners. Further studies should focus on this especially vulnerable subgroup of IDUs, due to the bidirectional and complex interrelationships between their drug injecting habits and sexual risk behaviors.

  13. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the occurrence of multiple drug use (polypharmacy, PP) in the population and to identify individuals particularly prone to PP. METHODS: Data were derived from the Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) and covered all subsidised prescriptions during 1994 presented...

  14. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (<18 years of age) in sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth.

  15. Event-Level Analysis of Anal Sex Roles and Sex Drug Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed event-level partnership data from a computer-assisted survey of 719 gay and bisexual men (GBM) enrolled in the Momentum Health Study to delineate potential linkages between anal sex roles and the so-called "sex drugs," i.e., erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), poppers, and crystal methamphetamine. Univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized linear mixed models with logit link function with sexual encounters (n = 2514) as the unit of analysis tested four hypotheses: (1) EDD are significantly associated with insertive anal sex roles, (2) poppers are significantly associated with receptive anal sex, (3) both poppers and EDD are significantly associated with anal sexual versatility, and (4) crystal methamphetamine is significantly associated with all anal sex roles. Data for survey respondents and their sexual partners allowed testing these hypotheses for both anal sex partners in the same encounter. Multivariable results supported the first three hypotheses. Crystal methamphetamine was significantly associated with all anal sex roles in the univariable models, but not significant in any multivariable ones. Other multivariable significant variables included attending group sex events, venue where first met, and self-described sexual orientation. Results indicate that GBM sex-drug use behavior features rational decision-making strategies linked to anal sex roles. They also suggest that more research on anal sex roles, particularly versatility, is needed, and that sexual behavior research can benefit from partnership analysis.

  16. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. An Apology for Money

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Svozil

    2008-01-01

    This review is about the convenience, the benefits, as well as the destructive capacities of money. It deals with various aspects of money creation, with its value, and its appropriation. All sorts of money tend to get corrupted by eventually creating too much of them. In the long run, this renders money worthless and deprives people holding it. This misuse of money creation is inevitable and should come as no surprise. Abusive money creation comes in various forms. In the present fiat money ...

  18. An Apology for Money

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Svozil

    2008-01-01

    This review is about the convenience, the benefits, as well as the destructive capacities of money. It deals with various aspects of money creation, with its value, and its appropriation. All sorts of money tend to get corrupted by eventually creating too much of them. In the long run, this renders money worthless and deprives people holding it. This misuse of money creation is inevitable and should come as no surprise. Abusive money creation comes in various forms. In the present fiat money ...

  19. Correlates of unprotected sex in a sample of young club drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysa Remy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic characteristics, psychiatric symptoms, substance use patterns, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of club drug users to identify factors associated with unprotected sex during the 12 months prior to the interview. METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed the targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approaches via face-to-face interviews conducted at bars and electronic music festivals using an adapted, semi-structured version of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs questionnaire. The sample comprised 240 male and female young adults who had used ecstasy and/or LSD in the 90 days prior to the interview and who were not receiving treatment for alcohol or drug abuse. RESULTS: Of the 240 subjects selected (mean age: 22.9±4.5 years, 57.9% were men; of the male subjects, 52.5% reported having had unprotected sex in the previous 12 months. Of the total sample, 63.33% reported having had unprotected sex. Multivariate regression analysis showed that anal sex (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.044-1.543; p = 0.017 and the use of alcohol/drugs to make sex last longer (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.181-1.732; p<0.001 are associated with unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of intervention strategies aimed at reducing sexually risky behaviors should take into consideration the specific characteristics of drug users and should include the development of safer sex negotiation skills.

  20. The ecology of sex work and drug use in Saratov Oblast, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Sevgi O; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2002-12-01

    The Russian Federation is experiencing epidemics of drug-injection-associated HIV infection and high rates of syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The goal of the study was to present the results of a rapid assessment focusing on sex workers (SWs) and drug users that was conducted in the Saratov Oblast in May 2000. We used four data-collection techniques during this rapid assessment: review of available literature; in-depth interviews; naturalistic observations; and focus group discussions. Sex work in Saratov/Engels is more differentiated, with more categories of SWs, pimps with well-defined functions, and clearly formed escort services. In Balakovo, sex work is confined to individual women who are working as freelancers, most of whom are drug users. In the past 2 years, the drug of choice has shifted to heroin. The potential epidemiologic impact of sex work on the general population is defined in terms of the number of SW contacts per 100,000 population per year, which ranges from 32,800 to 730,000. Further elaboration of this simple measure is discussed. Our understanding of core group structure and characteristics, core-periphery contacts, and the impact of these on the spread of STI needs to be enhanced; comparative empirical data on such parameters need to be collected across societies.

  1. Redefining the money market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: money market, monetary policy, money, financial markets. 1. Introduction ..... system is that cash reserves are available in unlimited quantities from the .... money market is to finance the working capital needs of corporations and to.

  2. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  3. Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly

  4. The future of drugs: recreational drug use and sexual health among gay and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane; Lea, Toby; Murphy, Dean; Pienaar, Kiran

    2016-10-07

    There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain. Sexualised drug use is associated with a range of other problems, including dependence, mental health issues, accident and overdose. A growing body of work in the Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) field demonstrates the action of drugs and their purported effects to be a product of their relations with various other actors, contexts and practices. Given these contingencies, it is impossible to predict the future of drugs or their effect on the sexual health of gay and MSM with any degree of certainty. This article outlines some of the conditions most likely to mediate such futures in the medium term. Public funding for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer drug issues should not remain restricted to questions of HIV prevention and sexual health. It should be expanded to equip sexual health and AOD service providers with the cultural and sexual literacy to mitigate stigma and allow them to respond constructively to drug problems among sexual and gender minorities as a matter of priority.

  5. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  6. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheerder Gert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64 and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69 and intentional self-injury (X70-84. Methods Data for 2000-04/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000 or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland was wide. 'Other and unspecified drugs' (X64 were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61 ranked second. The X63 category ('other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system' was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 ('narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified' for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  7. From gold money to fictitious money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEUTÉRIO F. S. PRADO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the nineteenth century, money appear primarily as gold. In the twenty-first century, it appears as strictly fiduciary money. It is known that Marx said very clearly that the golden money was the effective basis of the monetary and credit system. Had the historical development finally shown that his theory of value and money would be false? Marxists have struggled continually with this problem. This paper tries to show that exist a simple and good answer to this crucial question. It comes just developing a little the dialectics of commodities and money found on Marx's Capital.

  8. Sex-related differences in cadmium-induced alteration of drug action in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, R.C.; Pence, D.H.; Prosser, T.D.; Miya, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    Three days after pretreatment of rats of both sexes with cadmium (2 mg/kg, i.p.), the duration of hypnosis induced by hexobarbital (75 mg/kg, i.p.) was potentiated in males but not females. Likewise, similar treatment with cadmium leads to significant inhibition of the metabolism of hexobarbital by hepatic microsomal enzymes obtained from male but not female animals. These data suggest that there is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to alter drug action in rats.

  9. Sex differences in self-report of physical health by injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B K; Koman, J J; Williams, J S; Catan, V M; Souply, K L

    1994-01-01

    Through heterosexual contact, injection drug users (IDUs) put others at risk of contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease. Self-report of health was compared among IDUs in Laredo, Texas, San Diego, California, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in a subsample which contained HIV positive subjects from these cities. These data were compared with similar National Opinion Research Center data and indicated that IDUs do not report their health to be different from that of the general public. Previous research has reported sex differences in morbidity and mortality in the non-IDU population. This study found sex differences in perception of health by IDUs in Laredo and San Diego.

  10. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; He, Jianmei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Tang, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using “snowball” techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants. Results Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4%) reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users. Conclusion Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM. PMID:25950912

  11. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Albert, Jan; Guardado, María Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    Transmitted drug resistance has important implications for the successful use and management of therapy among persons infected with HIV. We estimated the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in 145 samples from female sex workers (n = 47) and men who have sex with men (n = 98) in El Salvador. Samples were collected during March to September 2008, using a respondent driven sampling. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug resistance mutations and transmitted drug resistance was scored as recommended by World Health Organization. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the Immunoglobulin G-Capture BED-Enzyme Immunoassay. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 9.4% (95% CI: 4.7-16.1%), and was 5.9% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 4.2% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 0.8% for protease inhibitors. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 10.3% (95% CI: 2.8-24.2%) among female sex workers, and 9.0% (95% CI: 3.6-17.6%) among men who have sex with men. Nineteen patients were classified as having recent infection (16.2%, 95% CI: 10.1-24.2%), while 98 patients (83.8%, 95% CI: 75.8-89.9%) were classified as having established infections. Transmitted drug resistance among recent and established infections was similar at 10.5% and 9.2%, respectively. This study shows that the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance is moderate among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador. These results highlight the importance of transmitted drug resistance surveillance in a representative sample of recently infected patients following the World Health Organization guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  14. Sex-dependent antipsychotic capacity of 17β-estradiol in the latent inhibition model: a typical antipsychotic drug in both sexes, atypical antipsychotic drug in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2010-10-01

    The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that estrogen is a natural neuroprotector in women and that exogenous estrogen may have antipsychotic potential, but results of clinical studies have been inconsistent. We have recently shown using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia that 17β-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present study sought to extend the characterization of the antipsychotic action of 17β-estradiol (10, 50 and 150 μg/kg) by testing its capacity to reverse amphetamine- and MK-801-induced LI aberrations in gonadally intact female and male rats. No-drug controls of both sexes showed LI, ie, reduced efficacy of a previously non-reinforced stimulus to gain behavioral control when paired with reinforcement, if conditioned with two but not five tone-shock pairings. In both sexes, amphetamine (1 mg/kg) and MK-801 (50 μg/kg) produced disruption (under weak conditioning) and persistence (under strong conditioning) of LI, modeling positive and negative/cognitive symptoms, respectively. 17β-estradiol at 50 and 150 μg/kg potentiated LI under strong conditioning and reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in both males and females, mimicking the action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the LI model. 17β-estradiol also reversed MK-induced persistent LI, an effect mimicking atypical APDs and NMDA receptor enhancers, but this effect was observed in males and OVX females but not in intact females. These findings indicate that in the LI model, 17β-estradiol exerts a clear-cut antipsychotic activity in both sexes and, remarkably, is more efficacious in males and OVX females where it also exerts activity considered predictive of anti-negative/cognitive symptoms.

  15. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  16. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers in two cities in the Republic of Moldova: the role of injection drug use and sexual risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabyan, Lev; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Iovita, Alexandrina; Todirascu, Lilia; Costin, Tatiana; Plesca, Valeriu; Cotelnic-Harea, Tatiana; Ionascu, Gabriela

    2013-10-01

    In 2009-2010, females who reported having vaginal, anal or oral sex in exchange for money in the previous year, ≥16 years, and living in either Chisinau (n = 299) or Balti (n = 359), Moldova, were recruited into a respondent driven sampling survey. One fifth reported ever injecting drugs and over 30 % ever had sexual intercourse with men who inject drugs. In both cities, condom use with permanent and casual partners was much lower than condom use with commercial partners. In Chisinau, 6.9 % and in Balti, 24.7 % tested positive for HIV; 18 and 23.7 % had antibodies to hepatitis C; 9.1 and 8.9 % had antibodies to HBV; and, 8.4 and 6.1 % tested positive for syphilis. HIV seropositive FSW in either city were more likely to have ever injected drugs and to be infected with HCV. Limited government initiative and drastic reductions in international funding will likely impact urgently needed HIV prevention and harm reduction services targeting FSW in Moldova.

  18. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Marijuana Use as a Sex-Drug is Associated with HIV Risk Among Black MSM and Their Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Skaathun, Britt; Michaels, Stuart; Young, Lindsay; Khanna, Aditya; Friedman, Samuel R; Davis, Billy; Pitrak, David; Schneider, John

    2016-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are highest risk for HIV seroconversion in the United States. Little attention has been paid to marijuana use among BMSM and potential for HIV risk. A sample of 202 BMSM was generated through respondent driven sampling. The relationship between differential marijuana use and both HIV risk behavior and social network factors were examined using weighted logistic regression. Of the BMSM in this sample 60.4 % use marijuana in general and 20.8 % use marijuana as sex-drug. General marijuana use was significantly associated with participation in group sex (AOR 3.50; 95 % CI 1.10-11.10) while marijuana use as a sex drug was significantly associated with both participation in condomless sex (AOR 2.86; 95% CI 1.07-7.67) and group sex (AOR 3.39; 95% CI 1.03-11.22). Respondents with a moderate or high perception of network members who use marijuana were more likely to use marijuana both in general and as a sex-drug. Network member marijuana use, while not associated with risk behaviors, is associated with individual marijuana use and individual marijuana use in the context of sex is associated with risk practices. Targeting interventions towards individuals and their respective networks that use marijuana as a sex drug may reduce HIV risk.

  20. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-11-17

    Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of

  1. Effects of Alcohol Cues and Alcohol Intoxication on Drug Use Expectancies Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol and drug use have been identified as HIV-risk factors for men who have sex with men (MSM), little is known about how they interact. An alcohol administration paradigm was used to examine alcohol’s cue and pharmacological effects on perceived drug use benefits and consequences in 117 MSM. Planned contrasts indicated that those in the alcohol cue (i.e., placebo) condition reported lower perceived drug consequences compared to controls. No cue effects were found for drug benefit...

  2. Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Philbin, Morgan M.; Semple, Shirley J.; Pu, Minya; Orozovich, Prisci; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Fraga, Miguel; de la Torre, Adela; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the overlap between injection drug use and sex work by women in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez, situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. Methods: FSWs aged ≥18 years who were not knowingly HIV-positive and reported having unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the prior two months underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with injecting drugs within the last month. Results: Of 924 FSWs, 18.0% had ever injected drugs. Among FSW-IDUs (N=114), prevalence of HIV, syphilis titers >1:8, gonorrhea and Chlamydia was significantly higher at 12.3%, 22.7%, 15.2% and 21.2% compared to 4.8%, 13.1%, 5.2% and 11.9% among other FSWs (N=810). FSW-IDUs also had more clients in the past six months (median: 300 vs. 240, p=0.02). Factors independently associated with injecting drugs in the past month included living in Tijuana, being younger, being married/common-law, longer duration in the sex trade, speaking English, earning less for sex without condoms, often using drugs before sex, and knowing other FSWs who injected drugs. Conclusions: FSW-IDUs had higher STI levels, engaged in riskier behaviors and were more vulnerable to having unsafe sex with clients compared to other FSWs, indicating that this subgroup is an important bridge population requiring focused prevention. PMID:17714888

  3. Philosophy of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.

  4. HIV Disclosure and Unprotected Sex Among Vietnamese Men with a History of Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Luo, Sitong; Rogers, Benjamin; Lee, Sung-Jae; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2016-12-19

    Additional barriers to self-disclosure of HIV status exist for people living with HIV (PLH) with a history of drug use. The objectives of this study were to explore the extent of HIV disclosure, sexual practice patterns and the relationships between HIV disclosure and unprotected sex among Vietnamese male PLH with a history of drug use. We used cross-sectional data of a sample of 133 PLH collected from a randomized controlled intervention trial in Vietnam. More than one-quarter of the participants reported not disclosing their HIV status to any sexual partners. Self-reported rates of condom use were 67.8, 51.1 and 32.6% with regular, casual, and commercial partners, respectively. Unprotected sex, testing positive for heroin, and fewer years since HIV diagnosis were significantly associated with lower level of HIV disclosure. Future intervention programs should focus on the complex interplay among HIV disclosure, drug use, and unprotected sexual practices in this vulnerable population.

  5. Relationship between heterosexual anal sex, injection drug use and HIV infection among black men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, J M H; Padgett, P; Wolverton, M; Risser, W L

    2009-05-01

    US blacks carry a disproportionate risk of heterosexually transmitted HIV. This study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited and interviewed 909 blacks from areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in Houston, Texas, and who reported heterosexual sex in the last year. All individuals were tested for HIV. Weighted prevalence values were calculated to account for non-random recruitment associated with RDS. The weighted population prevalence of HIV infection was 2.4% and 2.5% among men and women, respectively. Education, employment status, income and crack cocaine use were not associated with HIV infection. Lifetime injection drug use (odds ratio [OR] 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-8.33%) and heterosexual anal intercourse (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.73%) were associated with HIV infection. Individuals who reported both injection drug use and heterosexual anal intercourse had 6.21 increased odds of HIV (95% CI 2.47-15.61%). Our results suggest that heterosexual anal sex may be a vector for HIV transmission, especially in the context of injection drug use. Prevention strategies directed at curbing the HIV epidemic among black heterosexuals require that we correctly identify the risks so that appropriate interventions can be developed.

  6. Ethnic identity, neighborhood risk, and adolescent drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy: the urban African American girls' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Maya A; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as part of a larger drug education program and analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression. The analyses controlled for household structure and menarche. Results indicated a direct relationship of higher ethnic identity and higher sexual refusal efficacy, higher disapproval of drug use, and lowered intentions to use drugs. Neighborhood risk was directly related to lower disapproval of drug use. There was a small moderating effect of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for intention to use drugs. Findings provide support for prevention programs for African American youth that seek to reduce risk behaviors by increasing ethnic identity, particularly in low resource communities.

  7. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Steven G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA in all health related research. Methods In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1 use of sex and gender related language, 2 application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3 level of SGBA employed. Results Two thirds of the articles (67% in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86% were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Conclusions Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for

  8. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Devon L; Becu, Annelies Re; Morgan, Steven G

    2010-11-19

    Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA) in all health related research. In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1) use of sex and gender related language, 2) application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3) level of SGBA employed. Two thirds of the articles (67%) in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86%) were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for the topics under investigation, but well within the reach of

  9. Designing New Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole

    The prospect of central banks issuing digital currency (CBDC) immediately raises the question of how this new form of money should co-exist and interact with exist-ing forms of money. This paper evaluates three different scenarios for the imple-mentation of CBDC in terms of their monetary policy...... implications. In the ‘money user scenario’ CBDC co-exists with both cash and commercial bank deposits. In the ‘money manager scenario’ cash is abolished and CBDC co-exists only with commer-cial bank deposits. And in the ‘money maker scenario’ commercial bank deposits are abolished and CBDC co-exist only...... with cash. The evaluation is based on an adaption of the classical international monetary policy trilemma to a domestic monetary sys-tem with multiple forms of money. Our proposition is that a monetary system with two competing money creators, the central bank and the commercial banking sec-tor, can...

  10. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse.

  11. Narratives About Necessity--Constructions of Motherhood Among Drug Using Sex-Sellers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjønness, Jeanett

    2015-05-01

    This ethnographic study explores norms and practices concerning motherhood among 37 drug-using female sex-sellers in Denmark. It is based on extended fieldwork in a drop-in center and narrative interviews with clients and staff in this center from 2001-2005. A strong norm guiding the staff's relation to the users is that drug-use, prostitution, and motherhood are incompatible. The women meet such institutional expectations and norms about motherhood either by constructing norm-conforming narratives or by opposing the institutional view. As the institution offers no 'backstage', the women's self-representations often appear chaotic and inconsistent. Either way their strategies often become contributions to the reproduction of the structures they resist.

  12. Exchanging the liquidity hypothesis: Delay discounting of money and self-relevant non-money rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Yi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evidence that primary rewards (e.g., food and drugs of abuse) are discounted more than money is frequently attributed to money's high degree of liquidity, or exchangeability for many commodities. The present study provides some evidence against this liquidity hypothesis by contrasting delay discounting of monetary rewards (liquid) and non-monetary commodities (non-liquid) that are self-relevant and utility-matched. Ninety-seven (97) undergraduate students initially completed a conventional binary-choice delay discounting of money task. Participants returned one week later and completed a self-relevant commodity delay discounting task. Both conventional hypothesis testing and more-conservative tests of statistical equivalence revealed correspondence in rate of delay discounting of money and self-relevant commodities, and in one magnitude condition, less discounting for the latter. The present results indicate that liquidity of money cannot fully account for the lower rate of delay discounting compared to non-money rewards.

  13. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K.-S.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater “behavioral approach tendency” toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships. PMID:27047415

  14. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater "behavioral approach tendency" toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.

  15. Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  16. Correlates of sex trading among male non-injecting drug users in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Wai, Kyi Mar; Poudel, Krishna C; Win, Hla Hla

    2016-12-05

    Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information on participants' sexual and drug use behaviors. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to analyze the resulting data. Of 210 NIDUs, 84 (40%) reported involvement in the sex trade during the last 3 months. In the adjusted model, factors associated with sex trade involvement included homosexual preference (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-14.95), having more than two partners (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.55-9.72), had a regular job (AOR = 5.10; 95% CI 1.65-15.72), use of stimulant drugs rather than opiate (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.10-5.15), and who used drugs more than twice per day. More than one third of NIDUs were involved in sex trading. This study suggested that further comprehensive intervention programs that aim to reduce risk factors of trading sex among NIDUs may consider including NIDUs who used stimulant drugs, had regular/full-time jobs, used drugs more than twice per day, and had homosexual preferences.

  17. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  18. Hepatotrophic activity of benzodiazepine drugs in adult rats of either sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershbein, L L

    1994-07-01

    Adult rats with two-thirds of the liver removed were administered diets supplemented with benzodiazepine drugs over a period of 10 days and the mass of organ regenerated or the liver increment ascertained. For a number of the drugs, liver regeneration was stimulated; the effect was more consistent and reproducible in the adult female. On the basis of the lower sensitivity of the male, such animals provided an approach toward rating the hepatotrophic efficacy of the agents and in relation to structure. According to the current classification, hepatotrophic activity was higher with lorazepam, loprazolam, oxazepam and chlordiazepoxide; intermediate with nitrazepam, temazepam, quazepam, halazepam and triazepam and lower with diazepam, clorazepate dipotassium, clobazam and alprazolam. More reproducible responses in terms of g wet and dry liver per 100 g body weight were obtained with sham-operated or intact males. The antagonist, flumazenil, fed at 0.080% was not effective as such nor modified the responses in admixture with several drugs in partially hepatectomized or intact males. In vivo hepatic microsomal changes in protein, cytochrome P-450 or the enzymes, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase with the various series were not remarkable or sporadic. Among other factors, the liver incremental changes noted currently are dependent on the metabolic intermediate benzodiazepines of varying elimination half-lives which may be distinct from that of the parent drug coupled with the alterations induced by partial ablation of the organ in rats of either sex.

  19. Sex, drugs and smart phone applications: findings from semistructured interviews with men who have sex with men diagnosed with Shigella flexneri 3a in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbart, V L; Simms, I; Jenkins, C; Furegato, M; Gobin, M; Oliver, I; Hart, G; Gill, O N; Hughes, G

    2015-12-01

    To inform control strategies undertaken as part of an outbreak of Shigella flexneri 3a among men who have sex with men (MSM). All men aged ≥18 years diagnosed with S flexneri 3a between October 2012 and May 2013 were invited to participate. Semistructured in-depth quantitative interviews were conducted to explore lifestyle and sexual behaviour factors. Of 53 men diagnosed, 42 were interviewed of whom 34 were sexually active MSM. High numbers of sexual partners were reported (median=22) within the previous year; most were casual encounters met through social media networking sites (21/34). 63% (20/32) were HIV-positive and actively sought positive partners for condomless sex. 62% (21/34) of men had used chemsex drugs (mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine and γ-butyrolactone/γ-hydroxybutrate), which facilitate sexually disinhibiting behaviour during sexual encounters. 38% (8/21) reported injecting chemsex drugs. Where reported almost half (12/23) had attended or hosted sex parties. All reported oral-anal contact and fisting was common (16/34). Many had had gonorrhoea (23/34) and chlamydia (17/34). HIV-positive serostatus was associated with both insertive anal intercourse with a casual partner and receptive fisting (adjusted OR=15.0, p=0.01; adjusted OR=18.3, p=0.03) as was the use of web applications that promote and facilitate unprotected sex (adjusted OR=19.8, p=0.02). HIV-positive MSM infected with S flexneri 3a used social media to meet sexual partners for unprotected sex mainly at sex parties. The potential for the transmission of S flexneri, HIV and other infections is clear. MSM need to be aware of the effect that chemsex drugs have on their health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Money creation and destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Salomon; Gersbach, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We study money creation and destruction in today’s monetary architecture and examine the impact of monetary policy and capital regulation in a general equilibrium setting. There are two types of money created and destructed: bank deposits, when banks grant loans to firms or to other banks and central bank money, when the central bank grants loans to private banks. We show that equilibria yield the first-best level of money creation and lending when prices are flexible, regardless of the monet...

  2. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ming eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants’ feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners’ physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men’s preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater behavioral approach tendency toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.

  3. Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Allinott, Shari; Chettiar, Jill; Shoveller, Jean; Tyndall, Mark W

    2008-02-01

    High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research aimed to explore the role of social and structural violence and power relations in shaping the HIV risk environment and prevention practices of women in survival sex work. Through a participatory-action research project, a series of focus group discussions were conceptualized and co-facilitated by sex workers, community and research partners with a total of 46 women in early 2006. Based on thematic, content and theoretical analysis, the following key factors were seen to both directly and indirectly mediate women's agency and access to resources, and ability to practice HIV prevention and harm reduction: at the micro-level, boyfriends as pimps and the 'everyday violence' of bad dates; at the meso-level, a lack of safe places to take dates, and adverse impacts of local policing; and at the macro-level, dopesickness and the need to sell sex for drugs. Analysis of the narratives and daily lived experiences of women sex workers highlight the urgent need for a renewed HIV prevention strategy that moves beyond a solely individual-level focus to structural and environmental interventions, including legal reforms, that facilitate 'enabling environments' for HIV prevention.

  4. Sex, drugs and prisons: HIV prevention strategies for over 190 000 clients in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnov, P.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Achanta, S.; Boyko, K.; Khogali, M.; Naik, B.; Zachariah, R.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: One hundred and forty non-governmental organisations implementing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programmes among clients, including people who inject drugs, prisoners, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and street children in Ukraine, 2010–2011. Objective: Among enrolled clients, to assess factors associated with HIV testing, HIV retesting within a year of initial testing and HIV seroconversion. Design: Retrospective cohort study involving record reviews. Results: Of 192 487 clients, 42 109 (22%) underwent an initial HIV test (22% were positive). Among HIV-negative clients at baseline, 10 858 (27%) were retested within a year: 317 (3%) of these were HIV-positive. HIV testing and retesting rates were lower among prisoners (0.3%) and others (street children and partners of those in risk groups, 6%), and those who did not receive counselling or services such as condom and needle distribution. Individuals who were not counselled were more likely to seroconvert. Conclusions: In this large cohort of high-risk groups from Eastern Europe, HIV testing was low and HIV sero-conversion was high. This is of public health concern, bringing into question the overall quality of counselling and how well it is tailored to the specific needs of various risk groups. Qualitative studies to understand the reasons for non-testing are urgently required for designing client-specific interventions. PMID:26399206

  5. Sexual risk reduction among HIV-positive drug-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L; Semple, Shirley J

    2003-12-01

    According to the US Centers for Disease Control, the majority of new HIV infections are the direct result of unprotected sexual relations between serodiscordant individuals. Thus, the development of behavioral interventions to increase the safer sex practices of HIV-positive individuals has the potential to reduce the number of new infections. Currently, less than 1% of the total US population is infected with HIV. Targeting behavioral interventions to this smaller group of HIV-positive individuals has the potential for making cost-effective reductions in the number of new infections. Despite reports that some HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in high-risk behaviors, interventions designed to prevent secondary transmission of HIV are rare. In this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), interventions for HIV-positive individuals are more critical than ever to address the unique challenges and issues they face regarding disclosure and partner notification, use of HAART and sexual risk behavior, and HIV-related stigma. Although a growing number of reports document the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions for HIV-positive individuals, to date none of these studies have focused on drug-using populations. This article focuses on sexual risk reduction interventions for HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), the largest group of HIV-positive individuals in the United States. It reviews factors associated with high-risk behaviors and discusses some findings from research with HIV-positive methamphetamine users, including (1) data from a small qualitative study and its implications for the development of new interventions, and (2) baseline data from an ongoing large-scale study of the efficacy of a theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive methamphetamine-using MSM. The article concludes with a discussion of future research issues, including, for example: Can sexual risks be reduced in the context of active

  6. 对男男性行为者中"买"性者艾滋病高危行为状况调查%Study on the AIDS-related high risk behaviors of men who have sex with men under the experience of exchanging money for the same sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史同新; 于增照; 李秀芳; 徐敬星; 王燕飞; 张北川

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the AIDS-related high risk behaviors of men who havesex with men (MSM) who ever exchanged money for the same sex. Methods Target sampling forcross-sectional study and valid anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare the differences ofAIDS-related high risk behaviors between MSM with the experience of exchanging money for thesame sex and those without that experience. 1959 rstadied samples were recruited in nine cities. SPSS13.0 was used and t, x 2 and Mann-Whitney tests were taken for statistical analysis. ResultsCompared to corresponding ones without "buying" the same sex experience, MSM who ever engagedin "buying" sex had the characteristics of being prone to in marriage and living in larger cities witholder age and higher income (P<0.01). They also had a significant larger number in the followingevents: total sexual panners, anal sex and oral sex episodes with same sex, number of sexualpartners, anal sex and oral sex in the previous six months, with the figure of median 50.0, 20.0,20.0, 5.0,4.0,5.0 respectively. 31.5% had ever participated in 'group sex', 48.0% had sex with malepartners away from his own region in the previous year, 70.5% had sexual intercourse withstrangers at MSM avenues in the last six months. The OR (95% CI) values were 2.288( 1.702-3.077), 3.231 (2.462-4.241 ), 2.840 (2.140-3.770). All the above mentioned figures werehigher than those without the experience, with significant differences. They had a significant lower rate of 45.7% of condom use while having sex with female partners (P<0.05). Conclusion MSM with the experience of exchanging money for the same sex would have more AIDS-related high risk behaviors, AIDS preventative measures should be taken to target different subgroups.%目的 探讨男男性行为者(MSM)中曾向同性"买"性的亚人群艾滋病高危行为状况.方法 采用定向抽样法进行横断面调查.对全国9城市1959名MSM的有效匿名问卷用SPSS 13.0统计软件包建

  7. "Money" is the Reserves not the Money

    OpenAIRE

    James Woods

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that the institutional implementations that we commonly include in our monetary aggregates are actually more similar to the concept of ``monetary base''. I will also argue that the institutional implementation of accounts payable operates as money. This slightly translated definition implies that a new monetary aggregate that includes accounts payable may be useful for conducting and informing monetary policy.

  8. "Money" is the Reserves not the Money

    OpenAIRE

    James Woods

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that the institutional implementations that we commonly include in our monetary aggregates are actually more similar to the concept of ``monetary base''. I will also argue that the institutional implementation of accounts payable operates as money. This slightly translated definition implies that a new monetary aggregate that includes accounts payable may be useful for conducting and informing monetary policy.

  9. UPAYA MEMERANGI TINDAKAN PENCUCIAN UANG (MONEY LAUNDRING) DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Waluyo

    2009-01-01

    The problems of prevention of money loundry is not easy and simple problem, world power Problems of prevention of wash of money is not easy and simple problem, even for international. At this millennium, the phenomenon fight money laundry is improving which in international scale by various states, and in domestic level. The international effort is not only emphasizing to the making of law and regulation that instructed to fight crimes organized especially trafficking, drug organized but also...

  10. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  11. Hot Money, Hot Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International hot money flowing into Chinese capital markets has caught the attention of Chinese watchdogs The Chinese are not the only ones feasting on the thriving property and stock markets. Apparently, these markets are the targets of international h

  12. Time, money, and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Mogilner, Cassie

    2014-02-01

    Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed.

  13. Gender and Sex Trading Among Active Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Meade, Christina S

    2017-05-12

    South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women. In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug use severity was correlated with sex trading. Women with experiences of violence and trauma were also more likely to trade sex. Conclusions/importance: The results stress a need for linkage to drug treatment, as addiction may be fueling sex trading. Targeted interventions geared towards safe sex practices may reduce risky sexual behaviors. Women need interventions that are attuned to their specific vulnerabilities. More research is needed to explore the experiences of men who have sex with men given their particularly high rates of sex trading behavior.

  14. Social norms and money

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Luís

    2000-01-01

    In an economy where there is no double coincidence of wants and without recordkeeping of past transactions, money is usually seen as the only mechanism that can support exchange. In this paper, we show that, as long as the population is finite and agents are sufficiently patient, a social norm establishing gift-exchange can substitute for money. Notwithstanding, for a given discount factor, the growth of the population size eventually leads to the breakdown of the social norm, ...

  15. A meme for money

    OpenAIRE

    Wray , L. Randall

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the usual framing of discussions of money, monetary policy, and fiscal policy plays into the hands of conservatives. That framing is also largely consistent with the conventional view of the economy and of society more generally. To put it the way that economists usually do, money "lubricates" the market mechanism-a good thing, because the conventional view of the market itself is overwhelmingly positive. Acknowledging the work of George Lakoff, this paper takes the pos...

  16. Eroticism of money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Faulstich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Money, which is a phenomenon of the economic system, can be perceived from the perspective of eroticism, which is a phenomenon that is embedded in the interpersonal system. Eroticism is based on a drive and it means some particular attraction or inclination to someone. The following questions arise then: What kind of attraction is it? How should this inclination be understood? Eroticism entails the convergence of desire and a promise, which can only be captured from the perspective of cultural studies, i.e. by situating money in a cultural system. The eroticism of money is an attractive topic as its meaning goes beyond the boundaries of a system and society, which is why also those who are not competent in the field of economics can take a stance with regard to this matter. The cultural aspect of money has been discussed occasionally so far. As for cultural studies, the analysis of money mostly entails two approaches: historical and critical. This is because one should analyze the issue of money from the historical perspective while keeping a critical distance and not being afraid of making evaluations.

  17. Sex, drugs and rock and roll: tales from preterm fetal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Laura

    2017-01-17

    Premature fetuses and babies are at greater risk of mortality and morbidity than their term counterparts. The underlying causes are multifactorial, but include exposure to hypoxia. Immaturity of organs and their functional control may impair the physiological defence responses to hypoxia and the preterm fetal responses, or lack thereof, to moderate hypoxia appear to support this concept. However, as this review demonstrates, despite immaturity, the preterm fetus responds to asphyxia in a qualitatively similar manner to that seen at term. This highlights the importance in understanding metabolism versus homeostatic threat when assessing fetal responses to adverse challenges such as hypoxia. Data are presented to show that the preterm fetal adaptation to asphyxia is triphasic in nature. Phase one represents the rapid institution of maximal defences, designed to maintain blood pressure and central perfusion at the expense of peripheral organs. Phase two is one of adaptive compensation. Controlled reperfusion partially offsets peripheral tissue oxygen debt, while maintaining sufficient vasoconstriction to limit the fall in perfusion. Phase three is about decompensation. Strikingly, the preterm fetus generally performs better during phases two and three, and can survive for longer without injury. Paradoxically, however, the ability to survive can lead to longer exposure to hypotension and hypoperfusion and thus potentially greater injury. The effects of fetal sex, inflammation and drugs on the triphasic adaptations are reviewed. Finally, the review highlights the need for more comprehensive studies to understand the complexity of perinatal physiology if we are to develop effective strategies to improve preterm outcomes.

  18. Correlates of the sex trade among African-American youth living in urban public housing: assessing the role of parental incarceration and parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby

    2014-04-01

    African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.

  19. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  20. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulescu, Adrian; Yakovenko, Victor

    2000-03-01

    We study a network of agents exchanging money between themselves. We find that the stationary probability distribution of money M is the Gibbs distribution exp(-M/T), where T is an effective ``temperature'' equal to the average amount of money per agent. This is in agreement with the general laws of statistical mechanics, because money is conserved during each transaction and the number of agents is held constant. We have verified the emergence of the Gibbs distribution in computer simulations of various trading rules and models. When the time-reversal symmetry of the trading rules is explicitly broken, deviations from the Gibbs distribution may occur, as follows from the Boltzmann-equation approach to the problem. Money distribution characterizes the purchasing power of a system. A seller would maximize his/her income by setting the price of a product equal to the temperature T of the system. Buying products from a system of temperature T1 and selling it to a system of temperature T2 would generate profit T_2-T_1>0, as in a thermal machine.

  2. High prevalence of illicit drug use in men who have sex with men with HIV-1 infection in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of illicit drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM with HIV-1 infection in Japan, where the life-time prevalence of illicit drug use in the general population is only 2.9%. DESIGN: A single-center cross-sectional study at a large HIV clinic in Tokyo, which treats approximately 15% of HIV-1 infected patients in Japan. METHODS: The prevalence of illicit drug use and the association of characteristics and social demographics of the patients with illicit drug use were examined. Patients who visited the clinic for the first time from 2005 to 2010 were enrolled. Relevant variables were collected using a structured interview and from the medical records. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate the odds of association of MSM over non-MSM HIV-infected patients with illicit drug use. RESULTS: 1,196 patients were enrolled. They were mostly Japanese men of relatively young age. Illicit drug use (including injection drugs was reported by 35% of the patients (by 40% of MSM, and 4% were IDU while 5% were on methamphetamine. 2% of the population was arrested due to illicit drugs. MSM was significantly associated with illicit drug use (adjusted OR = 4.60; 95% CI, 2.88-7.36; p40 showed that the odds of association of MSM with illicit drug use was the strongest in the youngest age group (≤ 30 years: adjusted OR = 7.56; 95% CI, 2.86-20.0; p40 years: adjusted OR = 6.15; 95% CI, 2.40-15.8; p<0.01, and the weakest in the group aged 31 to 40 (adjusted OR = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.73-6.63; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of illicit drug use is high among MSM patients with HIV-1 infection in Japan. Effective intervention for illicit drug use in this population is warranted.

  3. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development.

  4. Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol: common for men in substance abuse treatment and associated with high-risk sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A; Cousins, Sarah J; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n = 505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer-administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-9).

  5. Sex Under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383

  6. Comparison of sexual and drug use behaviors between female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga, Miguel; Bucardo, Jesus; de la Torre, Adela; Salazar, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been documented to have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in many parts of the world. However, little work has been done to characterize the prevalence of these infections along the U.S.-Mexican border, where sexual tourism and culturally sanctioned sex work among nationals is widespread. The objective of this study was to compare differences in background characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, drug use, and sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevalence between FSWs who participated in a behavioral risk intervention in two U.S.-Mexican border cities. Baseline data were collected from March 2004 through September 2005. Data from 295 FSWs were compared between Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez. Among 155 FSWs in Tijuana and 140 in Cd. Juarez, HIV seroprevalence was 4.8% and 4.9%, respectively. FSWs in Cd. Juarez were more likely to test positive for active syphilis (31.3%) compared with Tijuana (11.8%) but did not differ in terms of the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia. FSWs in both sites reported high levels of unprotected sex and use of drugs; however, FSWs in Cd. Juarez were more likely than those in Tijuana to ever have injected drugs (75% vs. 25%, p Mexico-U.S. border cities differ, suggesting a need to tailor interventions to the specific needs in each city.

  7. Is it really crystal clear that using methamphetamine (or other recreational drugs) causes people to engage in unsafe sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiusto, Erol; Rawstorne, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have found associations between unsafe sexual behaviour and use of crystal methamphetamine (and many other recreational drugs). Researchers and authors of relevant articles in popular media have often interpreted these associations as meaning that using 'crystal' directly causes people to engage in unsafe sex, and that interventions should aim to reduce crystal use in order to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmissible infections such as HIV. There is consistent evidence that crystal users are a high-risk group in terms of sexual behaviour. However, most relevant studies have provided only circumstantial evidence regarding a causal relationship. Promoting the idea that a particular recreational drug is a major direct cause of unsafe sex may have the unintended adverse effect of creating an excuse for engaging in unsafe sex, thereby increasing its use, and may incur opportunity costs by preventing limited available health promotion resources from being directed more usefully. This paper examines the limitations, in terms of demonstrating causality, of various types of study that have been published on this topic in relation to crystal use in particular. Researchers who investigate relationships between recreational drug use and behaviour, including sexual behaviour, should be careful about the wording of their conclusions and recommendations, and should consider the possibly counterproductive ways in which their findings might be represented in the media.

  8. Over the counter (OTC sell of sex enhancer drugs: an emerging public health issue in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadhan Prakashrao Debaje

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: This study therefor confirms that there is significant association between self-diagnosed ED and OTC sell of sex enhancer medicine in India. TV & newspapers, poster/banners are significantly important in providing information of sex enhancer medicines to self-diagnosed patients of ED. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 198-201

  9. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Pamina M; Javanbakht, Marjan; Bornfleth, Lorelei; Bolan, Robert K; Lewis Blum, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154) with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04), while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07). In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43); and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38). This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  10. Sex, Drugs & Dual Control : a personalized sexual medicine drug development program based on the dual control model of sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Low sexual desire, with or without sexual arousal problems, is the most common sex-related complaint reported by women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction, which often negatively interferes with their psychological wellbeing. Unfortunately, the therapeutic arsenal for these c

  11. Sex, Drugs & Dual Control : a personalized sexual medicine drug development program based on the dual control model of sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Low sexual desire, with or without sexual arousal problems, is the most common sex-related complaint reported by women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction, which often negatively interferes with their psychological wellbeing. Unfortunately, the therapeutic arsenal for these c

  12. Money on Your Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In today's economic climate, Americans must find creative ways to do more with less. School and university administrators are challenged with stretching budgets to compensate for the increased costs of construction, maintenance and operations. Furniture is a tempting place to save money. It is one of the last things put in place in a construction…

  13. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  14. Introduction: Money and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gomez (Georgina)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue of the International Journal of Community Currency Research (IJCCR) includes 15 papers that their authors presented in their earlier versions at the 2nd International Conference on Complementary and Community Currency Systems, ‘Multiple moneys and development: making p

  15. Money or Education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    of the Danish labour market during the late 1970s and 1980s pushed them into two different long-term strategies of money or education respectively. This created a split in the Pakistani community between educated and non-educated families and shaped the second generation’s way of life in terms of, for example...

  16. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  17. Fending Off Hot Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amid uncertainties about the amount of hot money,the government strives to curb the harmful capital The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index was plagued by dips, climbs and dives as the stock market slumped from 3,186 to 2,838 points

  18. Use and dependence on opioid drugs in the Spanish population with chronic pain: Prevalence and differences according to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma-Carmona, A; Carballo, J L; Rodríguez-Marín, J; Pérez-Carbonell, A

    To analyse the prevalence in the use and dependence on opioid drugs in the Spanish population with chronic pain and evaluate the differences according to sex. The demographic variables, opioid treatment characteristics and use of other substances were assessed in 229 users of opioid drugs. A descriptive bivariate analysis of the data was performed. Forty-six percent of the patients met the criteria of dependence on opioid drugs (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition [DSM-IV-TR]). Alcohol and cannabis consumption was greater in the men. The rates of dependence on the use of opioid drugs were significantly higher in the extended treatments. Planning for treatments with opioids and strategies for preventing inappropriate use should not depend on the patient's sex. We need further studies on the medical and psychological variables related to the use of and dependence on opioids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. A Facile Synthetic Method for (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-Epoxy-3, 6- heneicosadiene, Sex Pheromone Component of Hyphantria Cunea (Drug)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Total synthesis of (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-epoxy-3, 6-heneicosadiene, sex pheromone component of Hyphantria cunea (Drug), was achieved using Sharpless AE kinetic resolution and alkylative epoxide rearrangement as key steps.

  20. Sex difference in chest pain after implantation of newer generation coronary drug-eluting stents: a patient-level pooled analysis from the TWENTE and DUTCH PEERS trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Marlies M.; Heijden, van der Liefke C.; Sen, Hanim; Danse, Peter W.; Löwik, Marije M.; Anthonio, Rutger L.; Louwerenburg, J. (Hans) W.; Man, de Frits H.A.F.; Linssen, Gerard C.M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Maas, Angela H.E.M.; Mehran, Roxana; Birgelen, von Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to assess sex differences in chest pain after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with newer generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Background Sex-based data on chest pain after PCI with DES are scarce. Methods The authors performed a patient-level pooled analysis

  1. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Xi, N; Wang, Yougui; Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides explaining income and wealth distributions, money transfer models can also be applied to other disciplines. In this paper we summarize these areas as statistical distribution, economic mobility, transfer rate and money creation. First, money distribution (or income distribution) can be exhibited by recording the money stock (flow). Second, the economic mobility can be shown by tracing the change in wealth or income over time for each agent. Third, the transfer rate of money and its determinants can be analyzed by tracing t...

  2. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  3. Men Get 70% of Money Available for Athletic Scholarships at Colleges That Play Big-Time Sports, New Study Finds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    A study on sex equity by the National Collegiate Athletic Association found men's college athletic teams receive 70 percent of athletic scholarship money, 77 percent of operating money, and 83 percent of recruiting money spent by colleges playing big-time sports, despite virtually equal enrollment of men and women. Interpretations of the data…

  4. Sex, Drugs, and Rock ‘N’ Roll: Hypothesizing Common Mesolimbic Activation as a Function of Reward Gene Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Werner, Tonia; Carnes, Stefanie; Carnes, Patrick; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Marlene-Oscar-Berman; Gold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. PMID:22641964

  5. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  6. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  7. Circular Migration by Mexican Female Sex Workers Who are Injection Drug Users: Implications for HIV in Mexican Sending Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Artamonova, Irina; Rodriguez, Carlos Magis

    2013-01-01

    Background Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Methods Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants. HIV prevalence was 3.3% in circular migrants and 6.1% in non-circular migrants; 50% of circular and 82% of non-circular migrants were unaware of their HIV infection. Among circular migrants, 44% (n=27) consumed illicit drugs in their birthplace; 70% of these (n=20) injected drugs and one-half of injectors shared injection equipment in their birthplace. Women reporting active social relationships were significantly more likely to return home. Discussion Circular migrant FSW-IDUs exhibit multiple HIV risks and opportunities for bridging populations. Regular HIV testing and treatment and access to substance use services is critical for FSW-IDUs and their sexual/drug-using contacts. PMID:21833727

  8. Money illusion and coordination failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Economists long considered money illusion to be largely irrelevant. Here we show, however, that money illusion has powerful effects on equilibrium selection. If we represent payoffs in nominal terms, choices converge to the Pareto inferior equilibrium; however, if we lift the veil of money by rep...

  9. Drug-Related Behaviors Independently Associated with Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, O.; Patterson, T.L.; Rusch, M.; Martínez, G.A.; Lozada, R.; Staines-Orozco, H.; Magis-Rodríguez, C.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To identify correlates of active syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez. DESIGN Cross-sectional analyses of baseline interview data. Correlates of active syphilis (antibody titers >1:8) were identified by logistic regression. SETTING Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two Mexican cities on the U.S. border that are situated on major drug trafficking routes and where prostitution is quasi-legal. PARTICIPANTS 914 FSWs aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection who had recent unprotected sex with clients. MEASUREMENTS Baseline interviews and testing for syphilis antibody using Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. FINDINGS Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years, respectively. Overall, 18.0% had ever injected drugs, 14.2% often or always used illegal drugs before or during sex in the past month, 37.7% had clients who injected drugs in the last 6 months, and 68.6% reported having clients from the U.S. Prevalence of HIV and active syphilis were 5.9% and 10.3%, respectively. Factors independently associated with active syphilis included injecting drugs (AOR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.40, 4.80), using illegal drugs before or during sex (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.65), and having any U.S. clients (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.70). CONCLUSIONS Among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, drug-using behaviors were more closely associated with active syphilis than were sexual behaviors, suggesting the possibility of parenteral transmission of T. pallidum. Syphilis eradication programs should consider distributing sterile syringes to drug injectors and assisting FSWs with safer-sex negotiation in the context of drug use. PMID:20456292

  10. Does Parents' Money Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper asks whether parental income per se has a positive impact on children's human capital accumulation. Previous research has established that income is positively correlated across generations. This does not prove that parents' money matters, however, since income is presumably correlated with unobserved abilities transmitted across generations. This paper estimates the impact of parental income by focusing on variation due to parental factors -- union, industry, and job loss experien...

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  12. Prevalence and correlates of 'agua celeste' use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-09-01

    Agua celeste, or "heavenly water", is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of agua celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs≥18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14-23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8h per day, and younger age. We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Banned -- Select: "a drug to alter the sex of the foetus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, P V

    1993-04-01

    In 1991, the Government of Gujarat State, India, banned the manufacture and sale of an Ayurvedic drug called Select. This was the first time an Ayurvedic product had ever been banned. The manufacturer claimed that if a pregnant woman took Select for 45 days after her last menstrual period, she would have a male fetus. Further, the manufacturer marketed the drug as a tool which would change the dowry system (i.e., it would reduce the number of girls in the population). Select's high cost did not deter the naive and trusting public in Gujarat and other states. Drug activists and consumer groups called for the ban and noted that the marketing claims were typical of the unethical behavior of the Ayurvedic market. These consumer groups brought the existence of Select to the attention of the government which admittedly cannot adequately monitor and control the drug market. Groups ranging from illegal smugglers to multinational giants use loopholes in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Excise Laws to license their drugs as Ayurvedic/Herbal, but most drugs are hazardous. Policy makers, physicians, nongovernmental and consumer groups, the media, and others should join together to rid India of this unethical practice. They should help the government to implement a rational policy for traditional systems of medicine and, once the policy has been developed to select an essential drug list of Ayurvedic drugs needed for national health programs; monitor and minimize misleading advertisements; screen all existing Ayurvedic drugs and drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs. The government should declare any products with more than 12% alcohol to be liquor.

  14. Finding what works: Predicting health or social service linkage in drug using, African American, female sex workers in Miami, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) encounter numerous challenges in accessing health and social services. In this study of drug using, African American FSWs, the authors examine specific factors associated with health or social service linkage among participants in a randomized intervention trial. Respondent linkage was significantly associated with individual factors (living alone, severe internal mental distress, and traumatic victimization) and project-related variables (attending five case management sessions and client engagement rating). In the multivariate model, higher client engagement and session attendance remained significant. The researchers conclude by discussing the importance of intervention attendance and engagement as key contributors to health and social service linkage among FSWs.

  15. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  16. UPAYA MEMERANGI TINDAKAN PENCUCIAN UANG (MONEY LAUNDRING DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Waluyo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of prevention of money loundry is not easy and simple problem, world power Problems of prevention of wash of money is not easy and simple problem, even for international. At this millennium, the phenomenon fight money laundry is improving which in international scale by various states, and in domestic level. The international effort is not only emphasizing to the making of law and regulation that instructed to fight crimes organized especially trafficking, drug organized but also other various crime. Indonesia effort to fight in money laundry by gradual through two policy of law, that is with prevention approach in banking law such as Knowing Your Customer Principle and policy of Criminal law as repressive approach in money laundry as arranged in Law No. 15 Year 2002 jo Law No. 25 Year 2003.

  17. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  18. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  19. Changes in HIV Seroprevalence and Related Behaviors Among Male Injection Drug Users Who Do and Do Not Have Sex With Men: New York City, 1990–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315

  20. Effects of two novel sugar drug candidates on CYP450 isoforms in different sexed Chinese human liver microsome in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jie; ZHANG Xin-hui; SU Jia-ru

    2008-01-01

    The sex-based differences between the effects of two novel sugar-based drug candidates, a sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG-911) and an acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain compound (AOSC-971), on the enzymes CYP 1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 of Chinese human liver microsome were investigated. The results showed that neither SPMG-911 nor AOSC-971 have any effect on CYP3A4, AOSC-971 induced the CYP 2E1 in men but have no effect on CYP1A2, SPMG-911 inhibit the CYP1A2 also in men but have no effect on CYP2E1. The results are useful for their safety evaluation, as well as for the prediction of interdrug interactions associated with the two drugs.

  1. Men and Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Past studies suggested that sex ratio influences individuals’ economic behaviors; however, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In the current work, we examined how sex ratio influenced women’s preference for relative gain over greater absolute gain in the context of games involving resource allocation between oneself and another woman; the role of intrasexual competition in this process was also explored. By experimentally manipulating women’s perceptions of local sex ratio, the present study found that women primed with a female-biased sex ratio (i.e., an excess of women showed higher levels of intrasexual competition. Exposure to the cue of a scarcity of men also led women to care more about their relative gain compared with absolute gain. The effect of sex ratio on shifts of women’s preference between relative gain and absolute gain was mediated by the strength of women’s competitive attitude toward same-sex others. These findings suggest that, by altering the intensity of female–female competition, sex ratio may have a pronounced effect on women’ economic-related decisions.

  2. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wangari Walter, PhD, MPH, MSW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574 identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574 reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505 reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65–2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54–2.36. Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81–7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85–7.30. In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them.

  3. The use of generic drugs in prevention of chronic disease is far more cost-effective than thought, and may save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Liberman, Joshua N; Brennan, Troyen A

    2011-07-01

    In this article we highlight the important role that medication therapy can play in preventing disease and controlling costs. Focusing on coronary artery disease, we demonstrate that prevention, with the appropriate use of generic medications, appears far more cost-effective than previously documented, and it may even save on costs. For example, an earlier study estimated that reducing blood pressure to widely established clinical guidelines in nondiabetic patients cost an estimated $52,983 per quality-adjusted life-year if a brand-name drug was used. However, we estimate that the cost is just $7,753 per quality-adjusted life-year at generic medication prices. As the nation attempts to find strategies to improve population health without adding to the unsustainably high cost of care, policy makers should focus on ensuring that patients have access to essential generic medications.

  4. Time, money, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, David

    2012-06-01

    This essay argues that taking the economy seriously in histories of science could not only extend the range of activities studied but also change--often quite radically--our understanding of well-known cases and instances in twentieth-century science. It shows how scientific intellectuals and historians of science have followed the money as a means of critique of particular forms of science and of particular conceptions of science. It suggests the need to go further, to a much broader implicit definition of what constitutes science--one that implies a criticism of much history of twentieth-century science for defining it implicitly and inappropriately in very restrictive ways.

  5. Fending Off Hot Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index was plagued by dips, climbs and dives as the stock market slumped from 3,186 to 2,838 points in four days, beginning November 12.Sharp fluctuations occurred on the index in the following days. Figures from Wind Information Co. Ltd.said 250 billion yuan ($37.61 billion) vacated the Chinese stock market in November,while a substantial amount of money invested in the market under the qualified foreign institutional investor (QFII) scheme also pulled out.

  6. 31 CFR 103.125 - Anti-money laundering programs for money services businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.125 Anti-money laundering programs for money..., and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program. An effective anti-money laundering program is...

  7. Complex drug use patterns and associated HIV transmission risk behaviors in an Internet sample of U.S. men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gary; Wall, Melanie M; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2015-02-01

    Although the relationship between drug use and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well described, relatively few studies have employed empirical methods to assess underlying classes of drug use that may better predict the risk of HIV or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis (LCA) would identify underlying drug classes reported prior to sex, as well as predict unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the last sexual encounter among MSM. From 2004 to 2005, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 8,717 sexually active MSM recruited from gay-affiliated U.S. websites. LCA clustered participants into six distinct drug use classes based on the specific types and number of drugs used: (1) low/no drug use, (2) recreational drug use, (3) poppers with prescription erectile dysfunction (ED) drug use, (4) poppers with both prescription and non-prescription ED drug use, (5) recreational, club, and ED drug use, and (6) high polydrug use. Compared with men in Class 1, men in the highest drug use class were 4.84 times more likely to report UAI in their last sexual encounter and 3.78 times more likely to report an STI in the past year (both ps drugs used among MSM and how polydrug use impacts sexual negotiation over time.

  8. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  9. Identifying the HIV Transmission Bridge: Which Men Are Having Unsafe Sex with Female Sex Workers and with Their Own Wives or Steady Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L.; Volkmann, Tyson; Gallardo, Manuel; Goldenberg, Shira; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Anderson, Christy M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To gain insights into bridging behaviors and their correlates among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Men aged ≥18 years who recently paid or traded for sex with FSWs were recruited in Tijuana in 2008–2009. Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. Logistic regression compared “bridgers” (clients who had unprotected sex with FSWs and with a wife or steady partner) with men who did not. Results Of 383 men, 134 (35%) had a steady partner. Half (n = 70) of those had unprotected sex with both FSWs and the steady partner. Prevalence of any STI or HIV was 16.5% among bridgers and 2.3% among non-bridgers. Compared to other clients, bridgers were more likely to use drugs during sex with FSWs (81.4% versus 46.9%, p misogyny scores (p = 0.05), and were more likely to offer FSWs extra money for unprotected sex (34.4% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Factors independently associated with bridging were: using drugs during sex with FSWs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.4, p = 0.007), sensation-seeking (AOR: 4.3 per unit increase, p = 0.05), and offering FSWs more money for unprotected sex (AOR: 24.5, p = 0.003). Conclusion Sensation-seeking clients who use drugs during sex and coerce FSWs into unprotected sex may be less responsive to standard risk reduction interventions. Interventions are needed that target clients rather than rely on FSWs to change behaviors that may not be under their control. PMID:22481603

  10. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khaled A Alasmari

    2014-01-01

    .... Saudi Arabia, like many countries around the world is affected by money laundering. This is because money laundering washes money collected from different sources to finance criminal activities...

  11. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ferwerda

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about money laundering: Why should we fight money laundering? How is money laundered? In which sectors is money laundered? And how can we fight money laundering? The literature mentions 25 effects of money ...

  12. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ferwerda

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about money laundering: Why should we fight money laundering? How is money laundered? In which sectors is money laundered? And how can we fight money laundering? The literature mentions 25 effects of money ...

  13. Sex trading and psychological distress in a street-based sample of low-income urban men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, N; Schilling, R F; Gilbert, L; Faruque, S; Irwin, K L; Edlin, B R

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between sex trading and psychological distress and assesses sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and HIV seroprevalence in a sample of young men recruited from the streets of Harlem. The authors interviewed 477 men, aged 18 to 29 years, of whom 43 (9.0%) had received money or drugs in exchange for sex in the preceding 30 days and were categorized as sex traders. Psychological distress was measured by using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Sex traders scored significantly higher than non-sex traders on the General Severity Index and on all nine subscales of the BSI. According to multivariate analysis after adjusting for perceived HIV risk, current regular crack cocaine use and homelessness, sex traders scored 0.173 units higher on the General Severity Index than non-sex traders (p intervention designs.

  14. Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Papworth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The West and Central Africa (WCA sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, people who inject drugs (PWID and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods: We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results: The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270, among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986, among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714 and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459. Conclusions: The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key

  15. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. College Students Discount Money "Won" More than Money "Owed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would…

  17. Behind the money market: clearing and settling money market instruments

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Mengle

    1992-01-01

    When a money market instrument is traded, the clearing and settlement process establishes the change in ownership. Because the process involves both costs and risks, money market participants have developed means of making clearing and settlement more efficient and less risky.

  18. College Students Discount Money "Won" More than Money "Owed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would accept…

  19. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants' attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient's quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less likely to pay more for therapeutic

  20. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana Dilla,1 Luís Lizan,2 Silvia Paz,2 Pilar Garrido,3 Cristina Avendaño,4 Juan J Cruz-Hernández,5 Javier Espinosa,6 José A Sacristán1 1Medical Department, Lilly, Madrid, 2Outcomes’10, Jaime I University, Castellón, 3Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 4Clinical Pharmacology Department, Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda Hospital, Madrid, 5Salamanca Institute for Biomedical Research, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, 6Medical Oncology Department, General Hospital Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Spain Background: In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. Methods: An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants’ attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS. Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient’s quality of life (QoL by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs. Results: The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY], patients (€73,520/QALY, the general population (€66,074/QALY, and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY, respectively

  1. The Digital Money Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G.W. Birch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tenth annual Digital Money Forum, held in London at the end of March, was a good opportunity to see how the world of retail electronic payments has evolved in last decade. It looks as if the technology platforms of smart cards, wireless communications, mobile phones and cryptography are coming together within a regulatory framework to make the often discussed “war on cash” something more than just talk. The prospect of simple, inexpensive payments across all retail channels — with the attendant benefits in trade and market growth — is real and it is already clear that a technology nexus around, in particular, the mobile handset and contactless payments is going to make real difference in the way that the average person pays.

  2. "Sex, drugs and the brain": the interaction between drugs of abuse and sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A

    2010-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical research investigating female sexual motivation has lagged behind research on male sexual function. The present review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the specific roles of various brain areas, as well as our understanding of the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in sexual motivation of the female rat. A number of behavioral paradigms that can be used to thoroughly evaluate sexual behavior in the female rat are first discussed. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture has been useful in understanding the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms described in this review have helped us expand our understanding of appetitive and consumatory behavioral patterns that better assess sexual motivation - the equivalent of "desire" in humans. A summary of numerous lesion studies indicates that different areas of the brain, including forebrain and midbrain structures, work together to produce the complex repertoire of female sexual behavior. In addition, by investigating the effects of commonly addictive drugs, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in female sexual motivation. Consequently, research in this area may contribute to meaningful advances in the treatment of human female sexual dysfunction.

  3. A psychological perspective on money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Aarts, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’

  4. On the Hot Money Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The huge influx of international hot money is threatening inflation and affecting the country’s monetary policy In the last three months, the country’s financial supervisory departments have conducted frequent but atypical investi-gations of hot money.

  5. In "the Know" about Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quashie, Valerie; Golamgouse-Toraub, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors document their experiences with a new resource called "My Money." The resource consists of units for teaching financial capability at key stages 3 and 4, and is broken into six main sections: (1) "Money--What is it?"; (2) "Earning it"; (3) "Spending it"; (4) "Investing it"; (5) "Risking it"; and (6) "Being Enterprising…

  6. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  7. Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Puighermanal, Emma; Burokas, Aurelijus; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Marco, Eva M; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd) 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46), MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB), whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs.

  8. ACUTE NARCOTIC DRUG INTOXICATIONS: ETIOLOGY, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.

  9. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  10. Money market operations and volatility of UK money market rates

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Vila Wetherilt

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the question of whether in the United Kingdom the choice of the operational framework for monetary policy has been systematically related to patterns in money market rates is examined. Attention is first focused on the Bank of England's policy target, the two-week repo rate. The tests indicate that tighter spreads between the two-week market rate and the official repo rate result in lower money market volatility at the very short end of the money market curve. The effects at th...

  11. Pathways to sex-work in Nagaland, India: implications for HIV prevention and community mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Alexandra; Bowen, Kathryn; Dzuvichu, Bernice; Rungsung, Rachel; Kermode, Michelle

    2010-02-01

    There are an estimated 1800-3500 sex-workers in Dimapur, the commercial capital of Nagaland, which is the second-highest HIV prevalence state in India. The HIV prevalence among these sex-workers has increased from 4.4% in 2004 to 16.4% in 2006, highlighting their vulnerability. The aim of this study was to contribute to understanding of the pathways to sex-work for women in Nagaland in order to inform the development of effective HIV prevention strategies. A convenient sample of 220 female sex-workers completed a cross-sectional survey, and 30 female sex-workers participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews during mid 2007. Participants were asked about their life situation at the time of initial engagement in sex-work and circumstances of the first occasion of sex-work. The four main pathways into sex-work were identified as: (1) to obtain money to meet basic needs for self and family (45% of survey and 43% of interview participants); (2) to obtain money to purchase drugs or alcohol (15% of survey and 27% of interview participants); (3) being coerced, tricked or forced into sex-work (13% of survey and 30% of interview participants); and (4) for pleasure (12% of survey and no interview participants). Women from each of these pathways were significantly different from each other in relation to a range of socio-cultural variables (e.g., ethnicity, marital status and education), and HIV risk factors (e.g., drug and alcohol use, age of sexual debut and HIV awareness). This diversity has implications for HIV prevention strategies, including the willingness and capacity of sex-workers to mobilise as a community and NGO capacity to ensure that the interests of all sex-workers are adequately captured and represented.

  12. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to Save Money on Infant Formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...

  13. The intersection between sex and drugs: a cross-sectional study among the spouses of injection drug users in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Santhanam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. Methods A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A convenience sample of 400 spouses of the male IDUs in this cohort was recruited in 2009. A risk assessment questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with prevalent HIV. Results Median age was 31 years; thirteen percent were widowed and 7% were not currently living with their spouse. Only 4 (1% reported ever injecting drugs; Twenty-two percent and 25% reported ever using non-injection drugs and alcohol, respectively. The majority had one lifetime sexual partner and 37 (9% reporting exchanging sex. Only 7% always used condoms with their regular partner. HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence were 2.5%, 3.8% and 0.5%, respectively; among spouses of HIV+ IDUs (n = 78, HIV prevalence was 10.3%. The strongest predictor of HIV was spousal HIV status (OR: 17.9; p Conclusions Our finding of a 10-fold higher HIV prevalence among spouses of IDUs compared with general population women indicates their vulnerability; prevalence is likely to increase given the context of low condom use and frequent sexual violence. Prevention efforts directed at IDUs should also include programs for spouses.

  14. Sex and drug risk behavior pre- and post-emigration among Latino migrant men in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer; Burton, Nicole; Schmidt, Norine; Salinas, Oscar; Hembling, John; Aran, Alberto; Shedlin, Michele; Kissinger, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    High rates of sex and drug risk behaviors have been documented among Latino migrant men in the US. Whether these behaviors were established in the migrants' home countries or were adopted in the US has not been described and has implications for prevention strategies. Quarterly surveys were conducted to gather information on selected sex and drug risk practices of Latino migrant men who arrived in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina seeking work. Both kappa scores and McNemar's tests were performed to determine if practice of these behaviors in home country was similar to practice post-emigration to the US. Female sex worker (FSW) patronage, same sex encounters (MSM), and crack cocaine use was more likely to occur post- rather than pre-emigration. Of those who ever engaged in these selected behaviors, most adopted the behavior in the US (i.e., 75.8% of FSW patrons, 72.7% of MSM participants, and 85.7% of crack cocaine users), with the exception of binge drinking (26.8%). Men who were living with a family member were less likely to adopt FSW patronage OR = 0.27, CI = 0.10-0.76, whereas men who earned >$465 per week were more likely to adopt crack cocaine use OR = 6.29 CI = 1.29, 30.57. Interventions that facilitate the maintenance of family cohesion and provide strategies for financial management may be useful for reducing sex and drug risk among newly arrived migrants.

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate condom use behaviors among female injecting drug users who are also sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Hongyao; Wang, Renfan; Lei, Zhangquan; Li, Zhenglin

    2009-08-01

    Female injecting drug users who are sex workers (IDUFSWs) is a strategic "bridge population" for HIV transmission. Goals of the study were to investigate condom use behaviors during commercial sex among IDUFSWs using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and to investigate moderating effects that modify the strength of associations between the TPB-related variables and inconsistent condom use during commercial sex. A total of 281 non-institutionalized IDUFSWs were recruited using snowball sampling method. Anonymous face-to-face interviews were administered by trained doctors. The results showed that the prevalence of inconsistent condom use during commercial sex in the last six months was 64%. After adjusting for some significant background variables (e.g. main venue of sex work), all associations between the five TPB-related variables and the studied condom use variable were statistically significant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.43-0.68, pBehavioral Control Scale and the Behavioral Intention Scale were selected by the second step (OR = 0.67 - 0.72, pBehavioral Intention Scale) and duration of sex work and duration of drug use were also reported. The results highlighted the potential of using the TPB to better understand condom use behaviors in IDUFSWs in China. Theory-based research and intervention work should be developed in China in the future.

  16. Changes in Female Sex Hormones in Patients with Intentional Drug and Chemical Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Afzali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal changes as a factor influencing the emotional state of women have an important role in the incidence of suicide. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in FSH-LH, Estrogen, and Progesterone hormones in women attempting suicide by drugs and chemicals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women of reproductive diagnosed with drug and chemical poisoning who were hospitalized in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were assessed regarding LH, FSH estrogen and progesterone hormones over a period of six months in 2011. Overall, 80 patients were studied with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The highest rate of suicide was in the age range of 14-25 years (47 patients, 60.1%. A significant relationship was observed among the blood levels of hormones FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen. The association of hormone levels and LMP and attempted suicide was significant. The LH level was significantly lower in patients with substance abuse. The estrogen level was significantly lower in patients with the history of self-injury. Most patients (67.5% were in the follicular phase which was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, there was a significant relationship between the levels of different hormones. The significant relationship was positive in some cases but negative in other.

  17. Men (and women) as "sellers" of sex in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men.

  18. Follow the money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Many years ago there was a Federal whistleblower, Deep Throat, who leaked confidential Government information about the Nixon White House to reporters from the Washington Post. Fans of the book and movie will remember that his famous line was, “Follow the money.” That line came to mind when an article appeared in Health Affairs summarizing the US health care expenditures for 2010 (1. The main gist of the article is that the rate of growth in health care expenditures had slowed to only 3.9% and approximated the slowed growth from 2009 which was 3.8%. Previously the growth had been much larger averaging 7.2% from 2000-8 (2. The article points out that during recession expenditures usually slow but the expected decline in healthcare expenditures usually occurs far after the beginning of the recession. The authors state that the “lagged slowdown in health spending growth from the recent recession occurred more quickly …

  19. Money, Debt, People and Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob von Uexkull

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread failure to understand money creation plays a key role in the current policy impasse. In a world ruled by money, this failure disempowers and prevents serious consideration of alternatives. The key reasons why we are not moving faster in tackling the global crises are, we are told, because it is too expensive, there is not enough money, it is not (yet profitable enough to do etc. Within the current global monetary framework, this is largely true. Therefore, any realistic plan to change course before we are overwhelmed by the inter-linked environmental, social and security threats facing us, is to change this framework to ensure that money becomes our servant again. The current debt crisis offers an opportunity to replace discredited debt-based money created by private banks in their interest with government-created debt-free money benefitting all, which can be used to fund a global emergency programme.“We know now that government by organised money is just as dangerous as government by organised mob.” — President F.D. Roosevelt, 31.10.36“The essence of the contemporary monetary system is creation of money, out of nothing, by private banks’ often foolish lending. Why is such privatisation of a public function right and proper, but action by the central bank to meet pressing public need, a road to catastrophe?” — Martin Wolf, ‘Financial Times’, 9.11.10“The obvious way to reduce our public and private debts is to stop having all our money created as debt.” — James Robertson, ‘Future Money’

  20. Psychological consequences of money and money attitudes in dictator game

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gąsiorowska, Agata; Hełka, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, we wanted to establish if this tendency would be present in the dictator game, and if so, whether money activation would just change behaviour, or whether it would also change people's...

  1. Sociodemographic Factors, Sexual Behaviors, and Alcohol and Recreational Drug Use Associated with HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Van Khuu, Nghia; Nguyen, Phuc Duy; Tran, Hau Phuc; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Phan, Lan Trong; Detels, Roger

    2016-10-01

    A total of 2768 MSM participated in a survey in southern Vietnam. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV among MSM was 2.6 %. HIV infection was more likely in MSM who were older, had a religion, had engaged in anal sex with a foreigner in the past 12 months, previously or currently used recreational drugs, perceived themselves as likely or very likely to be infected with HIV, and/or were syphilis seropositive. MSM who had ever married, were exclusively or frequently receptive, sometimes consumed alcohol before sex, and/or frequently used condoms during anal sex in the past 3 months were less likely to be infected with HIV. Recreational drug use is strongly associated with HIV infection among MSM in southern Vietnam. HIV interventions among MSM should incorporate health promotion, condom promotion, harm reduction, sexually transmitted infection treatment, and address risk behaviors.

  2. Sociodemographic Factors, Sexual Behaviors, and Alcohol and Recreational Drug Use Associated with HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Khuu, Nghia; Nguyen, Phuc Duy; Tran, Hau Phuc; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Phan, Lan Trong; Detels, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A total of 2768 MSM participated in a survey in southern Vietnam. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV among MSM was 2.6 %. HIV infection was more likely in MSM who were older, had a religion, had engaged in anal sex with a foreigner in the past 12 months, previously or currently used recreational drugs, perceived themselves as likely or very likely to be infected with HIV, and/or were syphilis seropositive. MSM who had ever married, were exclusively or frequently receptive, sometimes consumed alcohol before sex, and/or frequently used condoms during anal sex in the past 3 months were less likely to be infected with HIV. Recreational drug use is strongly associated with HIV infection among MSM in southern Vietnam. HIV interventions among MSM should incorporate health promotion, condom promotion, harm reduction, sexually transmitted infection treatment, and address risk behaviors. PMID:26767537

  3. The Governance of Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    , moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...

  4. Hope Amidst Horror: Documenting the Effects of the "War On Drugs" Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Mittal, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war. Drawing on a critical phenomenology framework, which links political economy with phenomenological concern for subjective experience, we explore the ways in which couples try to find hope amidst the horrors of the drug war. Critical visual scholarship may provide a powerful alternative to dominant media depictions of violence, and ultimately clarify why this drug war must end.

  5. Sex, drugs and prisons: HIV prevention strategies for over 190 000 clients in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisiuk, O; Smyrnov, P; Kumar, A M V; Achanta, S; Boyko, K; Khogali, M; Naik, B; Zachariah, R

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Cent quarante organisations non gouvernementales impliquées dans la mise en œuvre de programmes de prévention du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) pour des clients comprenant des utilisateurs de drogues injectables, des détenus, des travailleuses du sexe, des homosexuels masculins et des enfants des rues en Ukraine de 2010 à 2011.Objectif : Evaluer les facteurs associés au dépistage du VIH, à un second dépistage dans l'année qui suit et à une séroconversion parmi les clients enrôlés.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte par revue de dossiers.Résultats : Sur 192 487 clients, 42 109 (22%) ont eu un test VIH initial (22% étaient positifs). Parmi les clients négatifs au départ, 10 858 (27%) ont eu un deuxième test dans l'année, dont 317 (3%) se sont révélés VIH positifs. Les taux de dépistage initial et subséquent étaient plus faibles parmi les prisonniers (0,3%) et d'autres groupes comme les enfants des rues et les partenaires de groupes à risque (6%), ainsi que ceux qui n'avaient pas bénéficié de conseil ni de services comme la distribution de préservatifs et d'aiguilles. Les sujets qui n'avaient pas bénéficié de conseil étaient plus enclins à la séroconversion.Conclusions: Dans cette vaste cohorte de groupes à risque élevé d'Europe de l'Est, le taux de dépistage était faible et le taux de séroconversion élevé. Cette situation est préoccupante en termes de santé publique et met en doute la qualité d'ensemble du conseil et la manière dont il est adapté aux besoins spécifiques de divers groupes à risque. Il est urgent de réaliser des études qualitatives afin de comprendre les raisons du non dépistage et d'élaborer des interventions spécifiques des clients.

  6. High Lifetime Pregnancy and Low Contraceptive Usage Among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs- An Unmet Reproductive Health Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson Debbie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008 of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody, and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4 were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5. The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR: 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3, apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4 and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2 among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45], and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59] were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver.

  7. Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ≤24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required.

  8. More Money,More Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. quantitative easing policy could have a negative impact on the world economy and repercussions for China By revving up its money-printing machines, the United States will try to shock its economy

  9. "Endogenous Money: Structuralist and Horizontalist"

    OpenAIRE

    Wray , L. Randall

    2007-01-01

    While the mainstream long argued that the central bank could use quantitative constraints as a means to controlling the private creation of money, most economists now recognize that the central bank can only set the overnight interest rate-which has only an indirect impact on the quantity of reserves and the quantity of privately created money. Indeed, in order to hit the overnight rate target, the central bank must accommodate the demand for reserves, draining the excess or supplying reserve...

  10. Endogenous money and effective demand

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Keen

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous money is a core component of post-Keynesian economics, but it has not been fully integrated into its macroeconomics. To do so requires replacing the accounting truism that ex post expenditure equals ex post income with the endogenous money insight that ex post expenditure equals ex ante income plus the ex post turnover of new debt. This paper derives this result after exploring precedents to this concept in the work of Schumpeter, Minsky, Keynes and Pigou.

  11. 76 FR 78670 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Evaluation of Sex Differences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Staff; Evaluation of Sex Differences in Medical Device Clinical Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Evaluation of Sex Differences in Medical Device Clinical Studies.'' This document provides guidance on the study and evaluation of sex differences...

  12. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  13. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  14. Intelligent Anti-Money Laundering System for Money Service Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Vijay Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The criminal individuals and organizations in today's world including terrorists have taken advantage of the available financial systems, to launder money from illegal proceeds and for their illegal activities. India is particularly under threat from terrorists and it also has been difficult to track down the finance of criminal elements. Developing effective suspicious activity detection models has drawn more and more interests for supervision agencies and financial institutions in their efforts to combat money laundering. This paper proposes a suspicious activity recognition method basing on scan statistics; it aims to identify suspicious sequences on transaction level for financial institutions. In order for a more adaptive, intelligent and flexible solution for anti-money laundering, the intelligent agent technology is applied in this research. Several types of agents are proposed and multi-agent architecture is presented for anti-money laundering. A prototype system for money laundering detection is also developed to demonstrate the advances of the proposed system architecture and business value.

  15. Intelligent Anti-Money Laundering System for Money Service Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Vijay Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The criminal individuals and organizations in today's world including terrorists have taken advantage of the available financial systems, to launder money from illegal proceeds and for their illegal activities. India is particularly under threat from terrorists and it also has been difficult to track down the finance of criminal elements. Developing effective suspicious activity detection models has drawn more and more interests for supervision agencies and financial institutions in their efforts to combat money laundering. This paper proposes a suspicious activity recognition method basing on scan statistics; it aims to identify suspicious sequences on transaction level for financial institutions. In order for a more adaptive, intelligent and flexible solution for anti-money laundering, the intelligent agent technology is applied in this research. Several types of agents are proposed and multi-agent architecture is presented for anti-money laundering. A prototype system for money laundering detection is also developed to demonstrate the advances of the proposed system architecture and business value.

  16. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Risky Combination with Unprotected Sex for Acquiring HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Jie Xu; Han-Zhu Qian; Zhen-Xing Chu; Jing Zhang; Qing-Hai Hu; Yong-Jun Jiang; Wen-Qing Geng; Christiana Meng Zhang; Hong Shang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625) of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl ni...

  17. ELECTRONIC MONEY: THE ERA TO PERFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyovush Yu. Allakhanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the significance of the transition to the implementation of new types of money, such as electronic money, and predictors of its uprise. And also there are given the various terms of Russian and foreign scholars on the concept of electronic money. It also discusses the approaches to the definition of electronic money and credit cards as an option for payment of electronic money.

  18. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  19. Understanding the mobile money ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem, p...... for the players in the system. We argue that to ensure sustained robustness and productivity, Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) must adopt a keystone strategy in the system. And can refrain from being dominators by encouraging new niches in the area of the m-commerce application.......This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem......, providing a foundation for future strategic analysis of the system. We adopt a theoretical insight from Moore's business ecosystem theory to explain the key roles of the actors in the mobile money ecosystem. And also draw extensively from the work of Iansiti and Levien to explain the best strategies...

  20. HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among female sex workers before and after implementation of harm reduction programs in a high drug-using area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China. DESIGN: Before and after harm reduction program study. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs before and after harm reduction programs were launched in Xichang city, Sichuan province. The first and second cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Temporal changes in odds of HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression while controlling for socio-demographics. RESULTS: The 2004 and 2010 cross-sectional surveys recruited 343 and 404 FSWs, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, the odds of syphilis infection decreased by 35% and was of borderline statistical significance (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41-1.03, while odds of HIV infection rose, but not significantly (AOR: 4.12, 95% CI: 0.76-22.45. Although odds of unprotected sex with primary sex partners did not significantly change over time (AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61-1.50, odds of unprotected sex with clients declined significantly and remarkably (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09-0.21. Notably, the odds of reporting ≥10 new sex partners in the previous month increased by 37% (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.98-1.90. CONCLUSIONS: Harm reduction strategies may be an effective means of reducing unprotected sex with clients among FSWs. Future research is needed to better target both FSWs and IDUs and interrupt bridging networks for HIV transmission in high drug-using areas of China.

  1. HIV, Syphilis, and Behavioral Risk Factors among Female Sex Workers before and after Implementation of Harm Reduction Programs in a High Drug-Using Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W.; Song, Benli; Liu, Qianping; Xu, Yunan; Dong, Hui; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China. Design Before and after harm reduction program study. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs before and after harm reduction programs were launched in Xichang city, Sichuan province. The first and second cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Temporal changes in odds of HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression while controlling for socio-demographics. Results The 2004 and 2010 cross-sectional surveys recruited 343 and 404 FSWs, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, the odds of syphilis infection decreased by 35% and was of borderline statistical significance (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41–1.03), while odds of HIV infection rose, but not significantly (AOR: 4.12, 95% CI: 0.76–22.45). Although odds of unprotected sex with primary sex partners did not significantly change over time (AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61–1.50), odds of unprotected sex with clients declined significantly and remarkably (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09–0.21). Notably, the odds of reporting ≥10 new sex partners in the previous month increased by 37% (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.98–1.90). Conclusions Harm reduction strategies may be an effective means of reducing unprotected sex with clients among FSWs. Future research is needed to better target both FSWs and IDUs and interrupt bridging networks for HIV transmission in high drug-using areas of China. PMID:24416319

  2. Correlation between HIV and sexual behavior, drug use, trichomoniasis and candidiasis among female sex workers in a Mekong Delta province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Khuu, Nghia Van; Truong, Phong Hoai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Truong, Lien Xuan Thi; Detels, Roger

    2009-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associated with ever using illicit drugs, direct sex work, early sexual debut, age of FSWs, and infection with candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Reduced likelihood of HIV was only associated with withdrawal as a contraceptive method. A strong association of HIV with drug use and candidiasis and trichomoniasis infection among FSWs was found. Needle/syringe exchange, STI treatment, and methadone programs targeting FSWs should be implemented, and should include 100% condom use promotion.

  3. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  4. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Risky Combination with Unprotected Sex for Acquiring HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625 of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers was the most frequently used drug (19.2%, followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%, methamphetamine (4.0%, and ketamine (0.8%. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.9, single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2–3.6, and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8–2.8. Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0–6.2. Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population.

  5. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  6. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  7. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  8. Money Attitude, Self-esteem, and Compulsive Buying in a Population of Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    LEJOYEUX, MICHEL; Richoux-Benhaim, Charlotte; Betizeau, Annabelle; Lequen, Valérie; Lohnhardt, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This study tried to determine the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) and to identify among compulsive buyers a specific relation to money, a different buying style, and a lowered level of self-esteem. We included 203 medical students and diagnosed CB with the Mc Elroy criteria and a specific questionnaire. The money attitude was characterized by the Yamauchi and Templer's scale and self-esteem with the Rosenberg scale. 11% of the medical students presented compulsive buying (CB+). Sex ratio...

  9. A profile of high school students in rural Canada who exchange sex for substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Nicholson, Dean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    The exchange of sexual activities for money, drugs, or other compensation is considered a form of sexual exploitation when it occurs among underage youth. Such practices have been associated with sexual behaviours that increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Much of the research on this issue has been conducted on homeless or street-involved youth while adolescents in regular schools have received less attention in this area. The present study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with the exchange of sex for drugs among substance-using students in rural western Canada. Our data source was the 2009 East Kootenay Adolescent Drug Use Survey, a census of students in grades 7-12, who had ever used alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. In the sample of 2,360 youth, 2% of boys and 3% of girls reported that they had ever exchanged sex for alcohol or drugs, i.e., "exploited" youth, the majority of whom (83% - 98%) were living with family members. The most frequent patterns of past-year substance use were "using alcohol only" for "non-exploited" youth, and using alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs for exploited youth. The exchange of sex was associated with the use of drugs other than alcohol in the past year and with a higher level of impulsivity. The odds of exchanging sex were lower among youth who reported positive family relationships. The findings suggest a need for in-school education about healthy relationships, sexual exploitation, substance use, and impulse control.

  10. Is Ethical Money Financially Smart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how investors select socially responsible investment (SRI) funds. Investors in SRI funds may care more about social or ethical issues in their investment decisions than about fund performance. This paper studies the money-flows into and out of the SRI funds around the

  11. Is Ethical Money Financially Smart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about how investors select socially responsible investment (SRI) funds.Investors in SRI funds may care more about social or ethical issues in their investment decisions than about fund performance.This paper studies the money-flows into and out of the SRI funds around the world.We fi

  12. Money and transmission of bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  13. Eleven Ways To Make Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Many school districts are becoming aggressively entrepreneurial in their efforts to raise money. One district serves as the Internet service provider for their area, another rents buses and drivers to community groups. A sidebar describes a controversial deal between Coca-Cola and the Colorado Springs School District. (MLF)

  14. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  15. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  16. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  17. Is Ethical Money Financially Smart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how investors select socially responsible investment (SRI) funds. Investors in SRI funds may care more about social or ethical issues in their investment decisions than about fund performance. This paper studies the money-flows into and out of the SRI funds around the

  18. Risky sexual behaviors associated with recreational drug use among men who have sex with men in an international resort area: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, William W; Biersteker, Susan; Geiss, Trina; Chevalier, Kelly; Clark, Jodi; Marrero, Yamile; Mills, Vanessa; Obiaja, Kenneth

    2005-12-01

    South Florida is home to a highly transient population of approximately 145,000 men who have sex with men (MSM) and annually hosts over 1.8 million gay and bisexual visitors. To develop more effective interventions for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention in this setting, we conducted a cross-sectional study of recreational drug use and risky sexual behaviors among MSM. A standardized, self-administered questionnaire, reviewed and approved by a university Institutional Review Board, was offered to men 18 years of age and older who reported ever having sex with a man. Men were approached on weekends in five diverse locations in Miami-Dade County and five in Broward County in winter 2004. An honorarium of $10 was offered to those who completed and returned a questionnaire. Of 407 participants, 115 men (28%) lived in Miami-Dade, 147 (36%) lived in Broward, 46 (11%) lived in another county in south Florida, and 99 (24%) lived elsewhere. Overall, 32% reported using one or more "club drugs" in the past year. Club drug use was highly associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (P recreational drugs. Interventions must be developed, implemented, and evaluated that take into account the unique characteristics of international resort areas.

  19. Does Money Buy Economic Value Or Happiness?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly Kiyeon Lee; Min Zhao; Ying Zhao

    2015-01-01

      We find that when money is highlighted (vs. not), consumers tend to choose more consumption units than what they are actually able to consume because money prompts consumers to think about the economic value of consumption...

  20. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money.......This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes...

  1. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p intervention for youth who experience sexual abuse or running away. Elements of school connectedness have a protective effect on selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  2. The endogeneity of money and the eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...

  3. Enhanced latent inhibition in dopamine receptor-deficient mice is sex-specific for the D1 but not D2 receptor subtype: implications for antipsychotic drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Richter, Cecilie; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Sullivan, Gerard; Heery, David M; Waddington, John L; Moran, Paula M

    2009-04-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) is reduced learning to a stimulus that has previously been experienced without consequence. It is an important model of abnormal allocation of salience to irrelevant information in patients with schizophrenia. In rodents LI is abolished by psychotomimetic drugs and in experimental conditions where LI is low in controls, its expression is enhanced by antipsychotic drugs with activity at dopamine (DA) receptors. It is however unclear what the independent contributions of DA receptor subtypes are to these effects. This study therefore examined LI in congenic DA D1 and D2 receptor knockout (D1 KO and D2 KO) mice. Conditioned suppression of drinking was used as the measure of learning in the LI procedure. Both male and female DA D2 KO mice showed clear enhancement of LI reproducing antipsychotic drug effects in the model. Unexpectedly, enhancement was also seen in D1 KO female mice but not in D1 KO male mice. This sex-specific pattern was not replicated in locomotor or motor coordination tasks nor in the effect of DA KOs on baseline learning in control groups indicating some specificity of the effect to LI. These data suggest that the dopaminergic mechanism underlying LI potentiation and possibly antipsychotic action may differ between the sexes, being mediated by D2 receptors in males but by both D1 and D2 receptors in females. These data suggest that the DA D1 receptor may prove an important target for understanding sex differences in the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs and in the aetiology of aberrant salience allocation in schizophrenia.

  4. The contributions of John Money: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L

    2003-08-01

    John Money has been a dominant voice in sexology in the last part of the 20th century, breaking new ground in a wide variety of areas. In the process, he has been cantankerous, outspoken, and ever willing to do battle, but also original and thought provoking. This paper begins with an examination of science in general, moves on to psychology and sexology, and then examines Money s contributions to sexology in some detail. The latter are many and varied, including the development of the concept of gender, his theory of gender identity based on his work with intersex individuals, the John-Joan case, and his importance in establishing transsexualism as a diagnostic category and an academic discipline. Also important are his contributions to the development of the nomenclature of sexology, his importance to the sexology movement as a teacher, his significant research on a large variety of sexual topics, his ability to convince government agencies that sex was deserving of funding, and his association with the Erickson Educational Foundation. He also was a significant figure in the development of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) and in raising the standard of its journal (The Journal of Sex Research), and therefore it is only fitting that an award be named after him. Though Money remains controversial, he has contributed significantly to the development of sexology as a discipline.

  5. 75 FR 10059 - Money Market Fund Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Commission issued a release proposing new rules and rule amendments governing the operation of money market funds.\\2\\ Money market funds are open-end management investment companies that are registered under the... and Computation of Current Price Per Share by Certain Open-End Investment Companies (Money...

  6. THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research the origin of money and their functionality on the market.The aim of this paper is to analyse the origin of money as a social institution. The appearance and use of money has prehistoric roots. People have turned to the usage of money out of need to facilitate trade. During thousands of years money has known different forms going from money as merchandise, to coins and later to paper money and electronic currency. In this study I have analysed the role of natural money, as well as their production and functionality on the market. The main questionto be answered is whether the production and functionality of paper money nowadays is the consequence of the free market, having the Austrian’s School liberal perspective as a starting point. This methodological approach demonstrates that money is and will remain a social institution and the implication of the authorities in the currency issuing, even from ancient times, has caused distortions in the economic activity.

  7. Young Person's Guide to Managing Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Harriet

    This booklet gives young people who are just starting out on their own with a small income the information they need to manage their money. The following topics are discussed: how individuals can determine how much money they will have to live on; how to read a pay stub; Social Security and the future; the importance of putting money in the bank…

  8. Time Is More Valuable Than Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正People often say,"Time is money,"But in fact time is more valuable than money.Why?Because when money is spent,we can earn it back.However,when time is lost,it will never return.This is the reason why we must value time.

  9. Neural Correlates of Stress-Induced and Cue-Induced Drug Craving: Influences of Sex and Cocaine Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potenza, Marc N; Hong, Kwang-ik Adam; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Fulbright, Robert K; Tuit, Keri L; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-01-01

    .... Objective:Although stress and drug cue exposure each increase drug craving and contribute to relapse in cocaine dependence, no previous research has directly examined the neural correlates of stress-induced...

  10. Hot Money,Hot Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After emerging from the economic doldrums, developing economies are now confronted with a new danger-a flood of international hot money. But how has the speculative capital circumvented regulatory controls and what are the consequences concerning the stability of the developing world? Zhao Zhongwei, a senior researcher with the Institute of World Politics and Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed these issues in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow

  11. 2007 National Money Laundering Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-16

    teenagers, the unbanked , adults unable to qualify for a credit card, and immigrants sending cash to family outside the country. The unbanked in the...payments, and even payroll. Issuers see the greatest fee potential, however, among the unbanked , who, by using the cards in place of cash and money...Cards can be used at ATM & PO S 0 Unbanked w orkers w ho are beng pad by cash or check Fee ncom e (low er cost to em ployer) Fraudulent bus

  12. Money and trust among strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-09-10

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable.

  13. Money creation in a random matching model

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei Deviatov

    2004-01-01

    I study money creation in versions of the Trejos-Wright (1995) and Shi (1995) models with indivisible money and individual holdings bounded at two units. I work with the same class of policies as in Deviatov and Wallace (2001), who study money creation in that model. However, I consider an alternative notion of implementability–the ex ante pairwise core. I compute a set of numerical examples to determine whether money creation is beneficial. I find beneficial e?ects of money creation if indiv...

  14. MONEY LAUNDERING TYPOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Alina Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a process by which some people render or try to render a legal appearance to some profits obtained illegally by criminals who, without being compromised, will afterwards benefit from the respective incomes. In this context, the issue of money laundering, comprising a wide spectrum of directions, namely: the main landmarks regarding the appearance of “dirty” money and its laundering; the money laundering mechanism which mainly involves its A the placement the initial movement of money, in order to change its form or place and to place it outside the authorities’ coverage area of applying the law. For the incomes in cash which are permanently cashed, there are valid the first techniques used by the mafia groups in 1920 in the USA. Illegal money is mixed with money legally obtained from businesses which involve cash receipts. B Stratification (or investment represents the second stage of money laundering in which the money circulates within different companies, corporations and financial institutions, physically, by deposit or electronic transfer. One aims to physically move the money to other entities in order to separate it from its illegal source in an attempt to disguise its origin. In most of the cases, the first concern after committing the basic infraction is to transfer money abroad. The basic rule is that the person whose funds have to be transferred should not assume this risk. At the international level there are networks of professional couriers who take over the transfer action and provide the delivery of money abroad, at the established place and then its integration, respectively the return of clean money to the offender in order to be used as legally obtained money; regulations regarding money laundering, at international level (Convention from Vienna, Recommendations of the International Financial Group - GAFI 40 + 8 Special Recommendations regarding Terrorism Financing, European Union

  15. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-01-01

    Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...

  16. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  17. Sex bias in experimental immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice: suggested roles for Tregs, estrogen, and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury (DILI triggered by drug haptens is more prevalent in women than in men. However, mechanisms responsible for this sex bias are not clear. Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs and 17β-estradiol is crucial in the pathogenesis of sex bias in cancer and autoimmunity. Therefore, we investigated their role in a mouse model of immune-mediated DILI. METHODS: To model DILI, we immunized BALB/c, BALB/cBy, IL-6-deficient, and castrated BALB/c mice with trifluoroacetyl chloride-haptenated liver proteins. We then measured degree of hepatitis, cytokines, antibodies, and Treg and splenocyte function. RESULTS: BALB/c females developed more severe hepatitis (p<0.01 and produced more pro-inflammatory hepatic cytokines and antibodies (p<0.05 than did males. Castrated males developed more severe hepatitis than did intact males (p<0.001 and females (p<0.05. Splenocytes cultured from female mice exhibited fewer Tregs (p<0.01 and higher IL-1β (p<0.01 and IL-6 (p<0.05 than did those from males. However, Treg function did not differ by sex, as evidenced by absence of sex bias in programmed death receptor-1 and responses to IL-6, anti-IL-10, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28. Diminished hepatitis in IL-6-deficient, anti-IL-6 receptor α-treated, ovariectomized, or male mice; undetectable IL-6 levels in splenocyte supernatants from ovariectomized and male mice; elevated splenic IL-6 and serum estrogen levels in castrated male mice, and IL-6 induction by 17β-estradiol in splenocytes from naïve female mice (p<0.05 suggested that 17β-estradiol may enhance sex bias through IL-6 induction, which subsequently discourages Treg survival. Treg transfer from naïve female mice to those with DILI reduced hepatitis severity and hepatic IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: 17β-estradiol and IL-6 may act synergistically to promote sex bias in experimental DILI by reducing Tregs. Modulating Treg numbers may provide a

  18. Sex and Drugs and Nuclear War: Secular, Developmental and Type A Influences upon Adolescents' Fears of the Nuclear Threat, AIDS and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Robert; Lewis, Charlie

    1993-01-01

    Examined fear of nuclear war among 3,556 secondary school students. Results suggest that such concern is expressed differently according to age and sex and that subjects who expressed concern about nuclear war and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were more likely to show significantly higher Type A identification. (Author/NB)

  19. Sex and Drugs and Nuclear War: Secular, Developmental and Type A Influences upon Adolescents' Fears of the Nuclear Threat, AIDS and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Robert; Lewis, Charlie

    1993-01-01

    Examined fear of nuclear war among 3,556 secondary school students. Results suggest that such concern is expressed differently according to age and sex and that subjects who expressed concern about nuclear war and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were more likely to show significantly higher Type A identification. (Author/NB)

  20. Big Money: The Effect of Money Size on Value Perceptions and Saving Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz, Johanna; Soliman, Monica

    2016-01-28

    Motivated perception has been shown to affect people's estimates of money (e.g., perceiving coins as larger than real size). In the present research, we examine whether simply varying the size of a picture of money can affect its perceived value and subsequent decisions. Participants presented with a picture of money enlarged by 15% perceived the depicted money as more valuable compared with those seeing a real-size picture (Study 1). When told to imagine their own cash and banked money in the depicted form, participants presented with a picture enlarged by 15% felt more subjectively wealthy and reported fewer intentions to conserve their money compared with those seeing a real-size picture of the same money (Study 2). Together, these studies suggest that judgments about money and even attitudes toward personal spending can be influenced by manipulating the size of a picture of money. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffanie A Strathdee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. METHODS: FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. RESULTS: Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, p<0.001, often/always inject drugs with clients (55% vs. 32%, p = 0.01, and experience confiscation of syringes by police (49% vs. 28%, p = 0.02. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were syphilis titers ≥1:8, often/always injecting with clients and police confiscation of syringes. Women who obtained syringes from NEPs (needle exchange programs within the last month had lower odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis, but among non-NEP attenders, the odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis was significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Factors operating in both the micro-social environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  2. MONEY LAUNDERING OR LAUNDERING OF THE PROCEEDS OF CRIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyses which of the phrases money laundering or laundering the proceeds of crime is more appropriate to describe the crime provided by art. 23 of Law no. 656/2002 on prevention and sanctioning money laundering, as well as for setting up some measures for prevention and combating terrorism financing. In this respect, the article includes a survey of the important international documents in this matters ratified by Romania - United Nations Vienna Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the Vienna Convention, the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime, The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism. To remove any ambiguities arising from the approach of the money laundering concept and to reach a conclusion, there are also presented the controversial views regarding the use of the expression money laundering in both Title and content of Law, views expressed in specialized literature.

  3. Risky Trade: Individual and Neighborhood-Level Socio-Demographics Associated with Transactional Sex among Urban African American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Icard, Larry; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Rutledge, Scott; Hsu, Janet; Stephens-Shields, Alisa

    2017-08-01

    There is a clear, persistent association between poverty and HIV risk and HIV infection. Low educational attainment, neighborhood disadvantage, and residential instability are ways in which poverty is instrumentally experienced in urban America. We investigated the role of lived poverty at both the individual and neighborhood levels in transactional sex behavior among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in urban neighborhoods. Using population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, we identified individual-level and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with exchanging sex for drugs and/or money. We tested the association between neighborhood and individual-level socioeconomic status and HIV risk behavior by combining area-based measures of neighborhood quality from the US Census with individual survey data from 542 low-income African American MSM. The primary outcome measure was self-reported transactional sex defined as exchanging sex for drugs or money. Individual-level covariates included high school non-completion, income, and problem drug use. Neighborhood-level covariates were high school non-completion and poverty rates. The findings suggested that educational attainment is associated with both the individual level and neighborhood level. Participants were more likely to engage in transactional sex if they did not complete high school (OR = 1.78), and similarly if their neighbors did not complete high school (OR = 7.70). These findings suggest potential leverage points for both community-level interventions and advocacy for this population, particularly related to transactional sex and education, and will aid HIV prevention efforts that seek to address the contextual constraints on individual risk behavior.

  4. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  5. Screening for drug and alcohol use disorders and their association with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaysia T Ludford

    Full Text Available Peru's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM. The contribution of alcohol use disorders (AUDs to known high-risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission in this context has not been well characterized.Between June and October 2011, 5,148 sexually active MSM were recruited using convenience sampling in five cities to participate in a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey. Five high-risk sexual criteria previously associated with incident HIV infection in this setting were selected a priori as the dependent outcomes. Screening for AUDs used the validated Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and AUDS were stratified by severity. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR were computed to establish the independent correlates of the five dependent outcomes.The majority (62.8% of participants met screening criteria for having an AUD, which were independently correlated with each of the following high-risk sexual risk behaviors in the previous 6 months: 1 >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.76; (1.54-2.02]; 2 sex with an HIV-infected partner [AOR = 1.29; (1.03-1.62]; 3 having a sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 1.38; (1.13-1.68]; 4 being a sex worker [AOR = 1.61; (1.40-1.87]; and 5 unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.22; (1.09-1.38]. Recent drug use was also correlated with having >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.42 (1.19-1.71], sex work [AOR = 1.97 (1.63-2.39] and unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.31 (1.11-1.54]. For each dependent variable, the association with AUDs significantly increased with increasing AUD severity.AUDs are highly prevalent among MSM in Peru and are associated with increased HIV risk-taking behaviors that are associated with HIV transmission. Strategies that target problematic drinking such as medication-assisted therapy, behavioral counseling and structural interventions could potentially reduce risky behaviors and ultimately reduce HIV transmission among MSM in Peru.

  6. Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, S; Collumbien, M; Qureshi, A; Platt, L; Rafiq, N; Faisel, A; Lalji, N; Hawkes, S

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the nature and extent of human rights abuses against three vulnerable groups (injecting drug users (IDUs) and male and female sex workers), to understand the social and sexual linkages between them and to examine how protecting their rights could enhance the impact of HIV prevention policies. In-depth interviews were carried out with 38 high-risk respondents (IDUs and female, male and transgender sex workers) and a bio-behavioural survey was performed of 813 IDU/sex worker respondents in Rawalpindi. People in all vulnerable groups interacted both sexually and socially. All groups experienced human rights abuses by state and non-state actors which increased their HIV risk. Non-state actors, including relations and sex worker clients, are responsible for verbal, physical and sexual violence. State actors (particularly police) perpetrate harassment, exploitation and abuse of all vulnerable groups with impunity. Health service providers fail to provide adequate services for vulnerable groups. High levels of discrimination and abuse of human dignity of all groups studied were revealed. This violates their physical and mental integrity and also leads to an increased risk of HIV. The sexual and social interactions between groups mean that human rights abuses experienced by one high-risk group can increase the risk of HIV both for them and other groups. The protection of human rights needs to become an integral part of a multisector response to the risk of HIV/AIDS by state and non-state agencies. The Government of Pakistan should work at both legal and programme levels to protect the rights of, and minimise discrimination against, groups vulnerable to HIV in order to reduce the potential for the spread of HIV before the epidemic takes hold.

  7. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  8. The Determinants of Money Arguments between Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy B. Durband

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A commonly held view is that arguments about money are associated with marital problems, but relatively little is known about the nature of arguing about money within marriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, this study uses a collective bargaining approach to examine the role of money arguments in marriage. The sample (N = 1,371 consists of married women. A collective bargaining framework provides a context for understanding money arguments within the marital relationship. Results indicate that costly communication is the dominant predictor of money arguments, followed by level and proportion of wife’s income, and household net worth. Because results suggest that both communication and financial resources are important components to understanding money arguments within marriage, a combination of professionals trained in marital therapy and/or financial planning is required for couples interested in seeking assistance to increase their satisfaction and/or avoid divorce.

  9. Diverging Influences of Money Priming on Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin

    2017-01-01

    Prior research on money priming has suggested two seemingly contradicting findings. On the one hand, money has been shown to highlight the importance of cost saving, leading to the choice of a low-quality/low-price option. On the other hand, individuals primed with money as a symbol of social status, and capabilities may focus on social value of money, e.g., higher spending symbolizes higher status and prefer an option with high quality/high price. Current research proposes and demonstrates that whether money priming will lead different choices depends on the nature of the consumption context. Specifically, when the product is to be consumed privately, money priming will highlight the importance of cost, thus increasing the preference for lower price at a lower quality. However, when the product is to be consumed publicly, reversed pattern of consumer preference will be found.

  10. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  11. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  12. Money Market Operations in Fiscal 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Markets Department

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal 2003, the Bank of Japan changed the target level for current account balances held at the Bank five times, raising it by 15 trillion yen in total. To achieve the target and maintain stability in the money market, the Bank conducted money market operations appropriately by carefully monitoring money market conditions and market participants' bidding in response to the Bank's operations. Autonomous factors such as the flow of treasury funds and banknotes contributed to the increase in...

  13. Why Hot Money Is Sizzling in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hot money can cause serious problems for a country’s financial stability.Though analysts have controversial opinions about how hot money winds its way into China,most of them acknowledge that fast inflows and outflows of hot money have become an issue to be reckoned with.Their influences have been felt in capital and property markets as well as the overall macro-economic perfor- mance.Earlier this month,Economic Information Daily published an article about how the government tracks hot money flows and supervises them.Excerpts follow.

  14. Money creation in the modern economy

    OpenAIRE

    McLeay, Michael; Radia, Amar; Thomas, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    This article explains how the majority of money in the modern economy is created by commercial banks making loans. Money creation in practice differs from some popular misconceptions — banks do not act simply as intermediaries, lending out deposits that savers place with them, and nor do they ‘multiply up’ central bank money to create new loans and deposits. The amount of money created in the economy ultimately depends on the monetary policy of the central bank. In normal times, this is carri...

  15. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  16. Money Laundering – an Economic Offence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia ŞERBAN MORĂREANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Preventing and combating money laundering, the product of the transnational organized crime, in general, is one of the most efficient means of stopping this activity, which is a threat for the national or international economic operations.The penal incrimination and sanction of money laundering is a useful instrument for the accountability of all categories of offenders, but also with the purpose of imposing more severe sanctions for those who commit offences generating dirty money, behind so called legal commercial activities.Eventually, we shall review the internal regulations on money laundering, and also of the international judicial instruments incriminating this offence, analysing the offence by its constitutive elements.

  17. Review of Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, edited by Peter Andreas and Kelly M. Greenhill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas, Peter, and Greenhill, Kelly M. (Eds.. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010. 287 pp. ISBN 978-0-8014-4861-4 (cloth; ISBN 978-0-8014-7618-1 (pbk.The ten scholarly papers in Sex, Drugs and Body Counts explore the generation and propagation of numbers that drive policy decisions in the U.S. government regarding human trafficking, drug trade, and armed conflict (including the war on terror. Each of these papers, written by different authors, provides an illuminating insight into how some of the numbers we hear or read in the news are derived. While the general message of the papers tends to be depressing, namely that the numbers driving U.S. policy vary from being slightly suspect to clearly fabricated, the book does provide positive examples of how accurate numbers can be obtained and how the numbers that are being used can be interpreted. As a teaching resource, the book provides instructors an opportunity to deepen their understanding of how quantitative data are used in U.S. policy, allowing them to explore these issues in class. Individual papers from the book could be used in a general education course (either in mathematics or in a field related to the topics as a way to introduce students to reading quantitatively dense material. In a course more focused on the topics of the book and with a more quantitatively literate audience, the entire book could probably be assigned as reading.

  18. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allinott Shari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.

  19. Reductions in HIV/STI incidence and sharing of injection equipment among female sex workers who inject drugs: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffanie A Strathdee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008-2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. METHODS: FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. FINDINGS: Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ≥90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16-0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19-0.99. In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p = 0.04; in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. INTERPRETATION: After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust

  20. A brief, trauma-informed intervention increases safety behavior and reduces HIV risk for drug-involved women who trade sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Tomko, Catherine; Wingo, Erin; Sawyer, Anne; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Glass, Nancy; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs. A quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest study evaluated intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy among FSWs in Baltimore, MD, most of whom were drug-involved (baseline n = 60; follow-up n = 39 [65%]; non-differential by demographics or outcomes). Qualitative data collected at follow-up contextualizes findings. Based on community partnership and FSW input, emergent goals included violence-related support, connection with services, and buffering against structural forces that blame FSWs for violence. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate feasibility and acceptability. At follow-up, improvements were seen in avoidance of client condom negotiation (p = 0.04), and frequency of sex trade under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p = 0.04). Women's safety behavior increased (p < 0.001). Participants improved knowledge and use of sexual violence support (p < 0.01) and use of intimate partner violence support (p < 0.01). By follow-up, most respondents (68.4%) knew at least one program to obtain assistance reporting violence to police. Over the short follow-up period, client violence increased. In reflecting on intervention acceptability, participants emphasized the value of a safe and supportive space to discuss violence. This brief, trauma-informed intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to FSWs. It prompted safety behavior, mitigated sex trade under the influence, and bolstered confidence in

  1. The Meaning of Money: The Measurement and Dimensionality of the Money Ethic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Kim, Jwa K.

    Money has been recognized as an important factor to attract, retain, and motivate employees and has significant impacts on people's behavior, performance, and effectiveness in organizations. Created to evaluate the validity of the Money Ethic Scale, this study investigates the measurement and dimensionality of money attitudes through…

  2. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is

  3. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is mo

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Patterson, Thomas L; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S; Kahn, James G; Rangel, M Gudelia; Lozada, M Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008-2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310-$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310-$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of interactive safer sex

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Burgos

    Full Text Available We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana (TJ and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008-2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP in TJ, but not in CJ.A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER, defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300.For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of US$4,360 ($310-$7,200 per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310-$7,200 compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of interactive safer sex

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S.; Kahn, James G.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Lozada, M. Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008–2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. Methods A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). Findings For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310–$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310–$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of

  7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena EVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawyers are not immune to committing offences and the provisions of criminal law apply to them accordingly. The criminal liability of lawyers represents a natural aspect in the rule of law. Lawyers involved as defendants in criminal cases do not benefit from any special status or privileges compared to other defendants. In the international context of the fight against money laundering, the community law has submitted the profession of lawyer to two obligations concerning vigilance and denouncement. The assimilation of lawyer’s profession to financial or non-regulated professions entails the deformation of rules and principles specific to lawyers, as well as discussing the bases of any democratic society: the professional secrecy of lawyers and their independence.

  8. Work for Passion or Money?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Løyland, Knut; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    on the supply of arts hours. This finding supports arts policy and shows the impact of art grants on artists’ motivation to work on their arts. The causality of wages on supply is demonstrated by estimating the effects of wage shocks (grants) on arts labor supply using fixed-effect and difference......This paper assesses the relative impact of work for money or work for passion on Norwegian artists by examining artists’ labor supply. Our contribution is twofold. The first is to test the work-preference model and the second is to investigate the impact of arts grants on artists’ labor supply...... adds to the literature by estimating the significance of these various income sources on the time allocated to arts work, non-arts work, and leisure. The results provide convincing evidence for the work-preference model, and ad hoc evidence shows that art grants have a significant positive effect...

  9. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena EVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawyers are not immune to committing offences and the provisions of criminal law apply to them accordingly. The criminal liability of lawyers represents a natural aspect in the rule of law. Lawyers involved as defendants in criminal cases do not benefit from any special status or privileges compared to other defendants. In the international context of the fight against money laundering, the community law has submitted the profession of lawyer to two obligations concerning vigilance and denouncement. The assimilation of lawyer’s profession to financial or non-regulated professions entails the deformation of rules and principles specific to lawyers, as well as discussing the bases of any democratic society: the professional secrecy of lawyers and their independence.

  10. Money, Markets and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The future science of Economics must be human-centered, value-based, inclusive, global in scope and evolutionary in perspective. It needs to be fundamentally interdisciplinary to reflect the increasingly complex sectoral interconnections that characterize modern society. It must also be founded on transdisciplinary principles of social existence and human development that constitute the theoretical foundation for all the human sciences. This paper examines three fundamental aspects of modern economy to illustrate the types of issues and perspectives relevant to a reformulation of Economics framed within a broader political, social, cultural, psychological and ecological context. It examines the social forces responsible for the present functioning of economies, which can be effectively addressed and controlled only when they are made conscious and explicit. Whatever the powers that have shaped its development in the past, the rightful aim of economic science is a system of knowledge that promotes the welfare and well-being of all humanity. Markets and money are instruments for the conversion of social potential into social power. They harness the power of organization to transform human energies into the capacity for social accomplishment. The distribution of rights and privileges in society determines how these social institutions function and who benefits. Freedom means access to social power and is only possible in the measure all forms of that power—political, economic and social—are equitably distributed. The current system is inherently biased in favor of privileged elites reinforcing domination by the more powerful. The emergence of the individual is the vanguard of social evolution and the widest manifestation of creative individuality is its pinnacle. This emergence can only be fully achieved in conditions of freedom and equality. Economic theory needs to make explicit the underlying forces determining the distribution of power and

  11. Risk and vulnerability of key populations to HIV infection in Iran; knowledge, attitude and practises of female sex workers, prison inmates and people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Sajadi, Leily; Osooli, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Background In this study data of three national surveys conducted among female sex workers (FSW), prison inmates and people who inject drugs (PWID) were presented and compared in relation to knowledge, attitude, and practises. The surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 and included 2546 PWID, 872 FSW and 5530 prison inmates. Knowledge, attitude and practises towards HIV were measured through similar questions for each category. Over 90% of all participants had ever heard of HIV/AIDS, although only approximately half of them perceived themselves at risk of contracting HIV. More than 80% were able to correctly identify the ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV; while more than two-thirds did not use condom in their last sexual contact. Approximately 20% of prisoners and FSW had a history of injecting drugs. Among all participants who have injected drugs, prisoners had the highest unsafe injecting behaviour at the last injection (61%), followed by FSW (11%) and PWID (3%). Despite major efforts to control the HIV epidemic in Iran, the level of risk and vulnerability among prisoners, FSW and PWID is still high. The level of comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS is relatively good; however, their risk perception of contracting HIV is low and high-risk behaviours are prevalent. Therefore, HIV prevention programs should be redesigned in a more comprehensive way to identify the best venues to reach the largest number of people at a higher risk of contracting HIV and decrease their risk overlaps and vulnerability factors.

  12. A Goldsmith Exercise for Learning Money Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…

  13. 7 CFR 3560.462 - Money laundering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money laundering. 3560.462 Section 3560.462 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Other Actions § 3560.462 Money laundering. The Agency will act in accordance with U.S. Code Title 18...

  14. A Goldsmith Exercise for Learning Money Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…

  15. The Topology of Danish Interbank Money Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Kirsten Bonde; Bech, Morten Linnemann

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of Danish money market flows. We analyze the structure of two networks with different types of transactions. The first network is the money market network, which is driven by banks' behavior on the interbank market, the second is the network of c...

  16. John Hull and the Money Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  17. Time and Money - Are they Substitutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    In this paper, we analyse the distribution of time and money for Danish wage earner couples, where time is defined as leisure time and money as extended income, i.e. the sum of disposable income and the value of housework. The hypothesis is that individuals being rich in one dimension are more...

  18. John Hull and the Money Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  19. Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…

  20. The Topology of Danish Interbank Money Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Kirsten Bonde; Bech, Morten Linnemann

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of Danish money market flows. We analyze the structure of two networks with different types of transactions. The first network is the money market network, which is driven by banks' behavior on the interbank market, the second is the network...

  1. 'Strange money': risk, finance and socialized debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Nigel

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores an essential but neglected aspect of recent discussions of the banking and financial system, namely money itself. Specifically, I take up a distinction drawn by Susan Strange which has never been fully elaborated: between a financial system that is global, and an international monetary system that remains largely territorial. I propose a sociological elaboration of this distinction by examining each category, 'finance' and 'money', in terms of its distinctive orientation to risk and debt. Money is distinguished by its high degree of liquidity and low degree of risk, corresponding to expectations that derive from its status as a 'claim upon society'- a form of socialized debt. But as Strange argued, these features of money are being undermined by the proliferation of sophisticated instruments of financial risk management -'strange money'- that, as monetary substitutes, both weaken states' capacity to manage money, and more broadly, contribute to 'overbanking'. The ultimate danger, according to Strange, is the 'death of money'. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the distinction for sociological arguments about the changing nature of money.

  2. Correlates of current transactional sex among a sample of female exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-04-01

    Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers' sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2) to examine the role of the club environment in these behaviors, and (3) to examine correlates of currently exchanging sex. From June 2008 to February 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study among women who were aged 18 years or older and reported exotic dancing within the past 3 months (n = 98). The survey ascertained socio-demographic characteristics, personal health, medical history, sexual practices, drug use, and employment at clubs on the block. Bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify correlates of current sex exchange. Participants were a median of 24 years old, and were 58% white; 43% had not completed high school. Seventy-four percent reported ever having been arrested. Twenty-six percent reported having injected heroin and 29% reported having smoked crack in the past 3 months. Fifty-seven percent reported using drugs in the club in the past 3 months. Sixty-one percent had ever engaged in transactional sex, and 67% of those did so for the first time after beginning to dance. Forty-three percent reported selling any sex in the club in the past 3 months. In multiple Poisson regression, factors associated with current sex exchange included: race, ever having been arrested, and using drugs in the club. High levels of both drug use and transactional sex among this sample of exotic dancers were reported. These findings indicate that there are a number of drug- and sex-related harms faced by exotic dancers in strip clubs

  3. Clustered drug and sexual HIV risk among a sample of middle-aged injection drug users, Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Syed W B; Ross, Michael W; Lai, Dejian; Risser, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a clustered pattern of high-risk drug using and sexual behaviors among younger injection drug users (IDUs), however, no studies have looked at this clustering pattern in relatively older IDUs. This analysis examines the interplay and overlap of drug and sexual HIV risk among a sample of middle-aged, long-term IDUs in Houston, Texas. Our study includes 452 eligible IDUs, recruited into the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project. Four separate multiple logistic regression models were built to examine the odds of reporting a given risk behavior. We constructed the most parsimonious multiple logistic regression model using a manual backward stepwise process. Participants were mostly male, older (mean age: 49.5±6.63), and nonHispanic Black. Prevalence of receptive needle sharing as well as having multiple sex partners and having unprotected sex with a partner in exchange for money, drugs, or other things at last sex were high. Unsafe injecting practices were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors. IDUs, who used a needle after someone else had injected with it had higher odds of having more than three sex partners (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.12) in last year and who shared drug preparation equipment had higher odds of having unprotected sex with an exchange partner (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.66-9.09) at last sex. Additionally, homelessness was associated with unsafe injecting practices but not with high-risk sexual behaviors. Our results show that a majority of the sample IDUs are practicing sexual as well as drug-using HIV risk behaviors. The observed clustering pattern of drug and sexual risk behavior among this middle-aged population is alarming and deserve attention of HIV policy-makers and planners.

  4. Availability and Quality of Size Estimations of Female Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and Transgender Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sabin

    Full Text Available To assess the availability and quality of population size estimations of female sex workers (FSW, men who have sex with men (MSM, people who inject drug (PWID and transgender women.Size estimation data since 2010 were retrieved from global reporting databases, Global Fund grant application documents, and the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Overall quality and availability were assessed against a defined set of criteria, including estimation methods, geographic coverage, and extrapolation approaches. Estimates were compositely categorized into 'nationally adequate', 'nationally inadequate but locally adequate', 'documented but inadequate methods', 'undocumented or untimely' and 'no data.'Of 140 countries assessed, 41 did not report any estimates since 2010. Among 99 countries with at least one estimate, 38 were categorized as having nationally adequate estimates and 30 as having nationally inadequate but locally adequate estimates. Multiplier, capture-recapture, census and enumeration, and programmatic mapping were the most commonly used methods. Most countries relied on only one estimate for a given population while about half of all reports included national estimates. A variety of approaches were applied to extrapolate from sites-level numbers to national estimates in two-thirds of countries.Size estimates for FSW, MSM, PWID and transgender women are increasingly available but quality varies widely. The different approaches present challenges for data use in design, implementation and evaluation of programs for these populations in half of the countries assessed. Guidance should be further developed to recommend: a applying multiple estimation methods; b estimating size for a minimum number of sites; and, c documenting extrapolation approaches.

  5. Disequilibrium Analysis of Money Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengzhang; Jia Zhiyong; Zhao Xinghai

    1996-01-01

    By the disequilibrium economic theory, this paper first investigates the disequilibrium mathematical-economic model of the money market in China.Then, we study the disequilibrium transition of Chinese money market from 1954 to 1993 using a non-parametric local fitting technique. Without assuming explicit functional forms,the method of locally weighted maximum likelihood is applied to estimate and test the variations in demand and supply during the period between 1954 to 1993. Furthermore, the disequilibrium state and mechanism of Chinese money market are inspected and the direction, the strength and the fluctuation of the disequilibrium are discussed respectively.Finally the policy suggestions are given about adjusting effectively money demand and supply under the condition of co-existing of plan and market economy. In this paper, a brief review on the disequilibrium researches on money market in foreign countries is also given.

  6. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  7. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  8. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  9. 31 CFR 28.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.550 Sex as...

  10. Camp life: Are northern work camps safe havens for a migrant workforce, or dens of iniquity rampant with sex, drugs and alcohol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty, K.

    2004-02-01

    Two studies, dealing with life in work camps in northern Alberta and yielding contradictory results, are discussed. One study by a graduate student in sociology found that many of the men and women housed in work camps in remote locations of the northeastern oilsands belt use drugs, alcohol and casual sex to relieve boredom and loneliness. The other study, commissioned by the Athabasca Regional Issues Working Group (RWIG) found that camp workers visit Fort McMurray on the average of just over once a week, and use that time to take care of normal business, such as visiting health care professionals, buying gasoline, clothing, etc. It found no evidence of widespread sex, or drug or alcohol abuse among work camp residents. The RWIG study surveyed 25 per cent of the 6,272 worker population living in three camps in the Wood Buffalo region during June 2003. The study prepared by V. Taylor for a M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Calgary was severely criticized, primarily for its conclusions being based on a sample size of only nine men and one woman. Despite the criticism, the Taylor study made headlines across the country and has been instrumental in raising awareness of the special needs of a mobile workforce. A more broadly-based study is in progress at the University of Alberta, supported by the RCMP and a number of workplace stakeholders. Its objectives are to examine the situation more thoroughly, identify gaps in services and to explore long term solutions to what is undeniably a serious problem, indicated, if not proven, by the Taylor study.

  11. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women: a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alicia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4% were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return; 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez. All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9% were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8% had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study

  12. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  13. VIRTUES AND VICES ABOUT MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kessler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the New Testament ‘the love of money’ is a root of all evil and a no-go for church elders. After the financial crises this warning and old virtues are re-discovered. The articles analyse virtues and vices dealing with money. Consulting insights from old texts such as Aristotle, the New Testament, Thomas Aquinas and modern authors like Comte-Sponville and Sofsky we develop a classification with two virtues, generosity and frugality, and two corresponding vices, meanness and greed. Due to the different facets of the topic we discuss these virtues and vices by combining explanations from philosophy, theology, psychology, sociology, and economy. These discussions are led by the question “how can we live these virtues in our modern society?”. Especially, we discuss the challenge of living frugal in a market economy, which regards greed as a ‘virtue in disguise’. doi: 10.7833/111-1-34

  14. Self-stimulation of the brain; its use to study local effects of hunger, sex, and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLDS, J

    1958-02-14

    My conclusions are these: (i) The cells which mediate primary rewarding effects are located in a midline system running from the midbrain through the hypothalamus and midline thalamus and into the subcortical and cortical groups of the rhinencephalon. (ii) The cell groups which mediate primary rewarding effects are different from those which mediate primary punishing effects. (iii) Despite this relative independence, there are, undoubtedly, relationships of mutual inhibition existing between these two systems. Rewards do, among other things, tend to reduce sensitivity to pain, and punishments do tend to reduce rewarding effects. (iv) These primary reward systems of the brain are subdivided into specific drive-reward subsystems mediating the specific drives such as hunger and sex. (v) Because there are also subsystems of this set of rewarding structures sensitive to different chemical effects, it is reasonable to hope that eventually it will be possible to control the reward systems pharmacologically in cases where behavior disorders seem to result from deficits or surfeits of positive motivation.

  15. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a framework to determine correlates of illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Kipke, Michele D

    2012-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. The final model possessed very good fit statistics (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.936, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.925, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multitargeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use.

  16. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ(2)= 14.879, P=0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly (OR=1.676, 95%CI: 1.201-2.339, P=0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged drugs were the risk factors associated with rush poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  17. HIV-related risk behaviors among kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past six months. Almost all participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32 and 36%, respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in the job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.

  18. Money and sociality: Measuring the unmeasurable money as justice, time and usury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Levinas confirms: a reflection about a money as a social and economical reality is not possible without a serious analysis of empirical data. On the other hand, this reflection always involves something else, so a money is never a merely economical category. In that sense, Levinas proposes an intriguing meditation about some “dimensions” of a money in the western tradition. Contrary to the traditional moral condemnation of a money - which however remains unquestionable because of the fact that a man always carries a risk of becoming a merchandise - Levinas suggests that money never simply means a reification, but always implies some positive dimensions. Levinas suggests that a money is not something morally bad or simply neutral covering human relationships, but rather a condition of human community. Furthermore, he claims that a money is a fundament of the justice. A money makes possible a community, he explains, because it opens up the dimension of the future, and implies the existence of human beings who give themselves a credit; a credit understood as a time and a confidence. We shall try to address some problems implied by this thesis, particularly the problem of the relationship between time, money and credit. Finally, we are going to ask whether this cred­it - inseparable from the very essence of the money - is not always already a sort of usury.

  19. Money as a Global Public Good

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Liliana; POPESCU Alexandra-Codruta

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss a complex and yet not taken in consideration global public good: money. Money is a social convention created and accepted by people in order to facilitate economic transactions, being a symbol, without an intrinsic value (fiduciary money). It is universally used and it has value only in connection with the products and services that can be acquired, based on people’s consent and their psychological acceptance. In other words, its value lies in th...

  20. BITCOIN – THE NEW KIND OF MONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela SUDACEVSCHI

    2013-01-01

    Bitcoin is a new kind of money, which means a digital currency which can be used for commercial purposes. Over time, the trade has evolved from barter to the use of the precious metals as money, then to the coins with intrinsic value and to the symbol coins and later to the use of the electronic money, reaching at present to a virtual currency, created and used through the internet network. Bitcoin promises to its users getting high returns under conditions of low risk arising from transactio...

  1. An elementary model of money circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskii, Vladimir N.; Schinckus, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates money circulation for a system, consisting of a production system, the government, a central bank, commercial banks and many customers of the commercial banks. A set of equations for the system is written; the theory determines the main features of interaction between production and money circulation. Investigation of the equations in a steady-state situation reveals some relationship among output of the production system and monetary variables. The relation of quantity theory of money is confirmed, whereas a new concept of the efficiency of the system is introduced.

  2. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  3. Two simultaneous hepatitis B virus epidemics among injecting drug users and men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: characterization of the first D/A recombinant from the American continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, J; Cuestas, M L; Tanaka, Y; Mathet, V L; Minassian, M L; Rivero, C W; Benetucci, J A; Gímenez, E D; Segura, M; Bobillo, M C; Corach, D; Ghiringhelli, P D; Sánchez, D O; Avila, M M; Peralta, L A M; Kurbanov, F; Weissenbacher, M C; Simmonds, P; Mizokami, M; Oubiña, J R

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed that hepatitis B virus (HBV)/D and HBV/F predominate among blood donors from Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the present study, blood samples from two high-risk groups were analysed: 160 corresponding to street- and hospital-recruited injecting drug users [81.2% showing the 'anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) only' serological pattern] and 20 to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)(+)/anti-HBc(+) men who have sex with men. HBV genotypes were assigned by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of two different coding regions. HBV DNA was detected in 27 injecting drug users (16.9%, occult infection prevalence: 7.7%), and 14 men who have sex with men (70%). HBV/A prevailed among injecting drug users (81.8%) while HBV/F was predominant among men who have sex with men (57.1%). The high predominance of HBV/A among injecting drug users is in sharp contrast to its low prevalence among blood donors (P = 0.0006) and men who have sex with men (P = 0.0137). Interestingly, all HBV/A S gene sequences obtained from street-recruited injecting drug users encoded the rare serotype ayw1 and failed to cluster within any of the known A subgenotypes. Moreover, one of the HBV strains from a hospital-recruited injecting drug user was fully sequenced and found to be the first completely characterized D/A recombinant genome from the American continent. Data suggest that two simultaneous and independent HBV epidemics took place in Buenos Aires: one spreading among injecting drug users and another one sexually transmitted among the homosexual and heterosexual population.

  4. Impact of money supply on stock bubbles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Širůček, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the effect and implications of changes in money supply in the US on stock bubble rise on the US capital market, which is represented by the Dow Jones Industrial Average index...

  5. Public Controversies About the Meanings of Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hornes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the social and moral meanings of money transferred through social policies. Over the past decade a set of social policies that transfer cash to the poorest households emerged. These interventions activated debates among different expert understandings involved in the design and implementation of social policies, focusing on the conditions accompanying monetary transfers. Through ethnographic analysis, we show that debates over the meaning of the money transferred to the poorest transcend expert knowledge, enabling a set of perceptions and appreciations that connect judgments and moral evaluations about the poor and poverty. We aim at presenting how the money transferred through social policy acquires the quality of becoming public money, becoming a cultural device of interpretation.

  6. Money Market Operations in Fiscal 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Markets Department

    2007-01-01

    Throughout fiscal 2006, the Bank of Japan conducted money market operations with the uncollateralized overnight call rate as the operating target. Between March 2001 and March 2006, the Bank adopted the so-called "quantitative easing policy" whereby it conducted money market operations with the main target being the outstanding balance of current accounts at the Bank. Thus, this marked the first time in five years that the Bank used uncollateralized overnight call rates as its operating target.

  7. Superneutrality of Money under Open Market Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Monetary policy is superneutral in an overlapping generations model. Previous authors have argued that superneutrality does not hold in such a setting. However, the standard results rely on the counter-factual premise of helicopter money and are overturned if money creation through open market operations is taken into account. This result suggests that a more realistic representation of monetary policy may generally be helpful.

  8. Commodity Money and the Valuation of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Smith; Martin Shubik

    2005-01-01

    In a previous essay we modeled the enforcement of contract, and through it the provision of money and markets, as a production function within the society, the scale of which is optimized endogenously by labor allocation away from primary production of goods. Government and a central bank provided fiat money and enforced repayment of loans, giving fiat a predictable value in trade, and also rationalizing the allocation of labor to government service, in return for a fiat salary. Here, for com...

  9. Superneutrality of Money under Open Market Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Monetary policy is superneutral in an overlapping generations model. Previous authors have argued that superneutrality does not hold in such a setting. However, the standard results rely on the counter-factual premise of helicopter money and are overturned if money creation through open market operations is taken into account. This result suggests that a more realistic representation of monetary policy may generally be helpful.

  10. Money and Credit Under Currency Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on the supply of money and credit of a repatriation of foreign assets in an economy subject to currency substitution. In the absence of 100 percent reserve requirements, such a change in the location of deposits, which is not compensated by an increase in money demand, induces a credit boom that works itself out through a transitory current account deficit and real currency appreciation. These results are illustrated with data from the recent experience in Arge...

  11. Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...

  12. Paper Money and Inflation in Colonial America

    OpenAIRE

    Owen F. Humpage

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is often thought to be the result of excessive money creation—too many dollars chasing too few goods. While in principle this is true, in practice there can be a lot of leeway, so long as trust in the monetary authority’s ability to keep things under control remains high. The American colonists’ experience with paper money illustrates how and why this is so and offers lessons for the modern day.

  13. Should We Donate Money To Cyber Beggars?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beware, beggars are going hi-tech. Now it's no longer just on the streets that you can be stopped by a beggar, rattling a rusty tin in your face followed by the wail for "money." Websites begging for money are up and running in China, and by all accounts proving rather profitable. On the homepage of one of these websites, the instruction reads, "We are eager

  14. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...

  15. Money laundering in the norwegian securities market: on the conditions of money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based upon the assumption that all proceeds are laundered, an assumption which makes the black economy virtually equal to mo...

  16. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.

  17. The love of money results in objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijing; Krumhuber, Eva G

    2017-06-01

    Objectification, which refers to the treatment of others as objectlike things, has long been observed in capitalism. While the negative impact of money on interpersonal harmony has been well documented, the social cognitive processes that underlie them are relatively unknown. Across four studies, we explored whether the love of money leads to objectification, while controlling for social power and status. In Study 1, the love and importance attached to money positively predicted the tendency to construe social relationships based on instrumentality. In Study 2, the likelihood to favour a target of instrumental use was increased by momentarily activating an affective state of being rich. Temporarily heightening the motivation for money further resulted in deprivation of mental capacities of irrelevant others, including humans (Study 3) and animals (Study 4). This lack of perceived mental states partially mediated the effects of money on subsequent immoral behaviour (Study 4). The findings are the first to reveal the role of objectification as a potential social cognitive mechanism for explaining why money often harms interpersonal harmony. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Alcohol Use among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Epidemiological Survey and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM has become a significant public health concern. Knowledge of alcohol consumption in this population is limited. In this study, 1,155 Chinese MSM were surveyed to assess alcohol use and its correlates. A meta-analysis was also performed to aggregate pooled prevalence of current alcohol use. MSM who were unmarried (aOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.29–2.71 or unemployed/retired (aOR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.73–4.45 were more likely to drink alcohol more than once per week. MSM who consumed alcohol more than once per week were more likely to use drug (P<0.01, have sex with women (P<0.01, have unprotected insertive (P=0.04 or receptive (P=0.03 anal sex with men, have more than 10 lifetime male sex partners (P<0.01, predominantly practice insertive anal sex (P<0.01, and trade sex for money (P<0.01. Pooled overall alcohol use prevalence was 32%. Pooled prevalence for MSM who drank alcohol more than once per week and who drank alcohol before sex with male partners was 23%. Our findings provide the basis for further exploring the alcohol-HIV association and developing risk reduction interventions.

  19. 24 CFR 81.83 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...

  20. 24 CFR 291.535 - Earnest money deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnest money deposit. 291.535... Next Door Sales Program § 291.535 Earnest money deposit. (a) General. The earnest money deposit is the sum of money that must be paid by the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency...

  1. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...

  2. A rapid situation and response assessment of the female regular sex partners of male drug users in South Asia: factors associated with condom use during the last sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Suresh; Virk, Harsheth Kaur; Chaudhuri, Anand; Mittal, Ashita; Lewis, Gary

    2008-04-01

    We carried out a rapid assessment among the female regular sex partners of drug users/injecting drug users recruited from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka with the objective of designing appropriate responses targeting them. We examined the correlates of condom use among them. Data was collected from 4612 female regular sex partners recruited by different NGO partners spread across the five countries in the region. We carried out univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine variables associated with condom use during their last sexual intercourse. Of the total sample, 22% admitted to using drugs ever in their life and 21% reported condom use during the last sexual act. A fourth of the participants have not heard of HIV/AIDS and only 17% have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate model, women engaged in sex work, from Nepal, used drugs before last sexual intercourse, heard of HIV/AIDS, ever used drugs and approached by someone with information on HIV were likely to have used condoms during the last sexual intercourse about twice or more: (AOR=4, 95% CI: 3, 5.3; AOR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.4, 4.9; AOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.3; AOR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 3; AOR=2, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.6; AOR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.4, 2 respectively). Condom use was negatively associated with women with a single sex partner (AOR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.7). Condom use is low among the female regular sex partners and is primarily associated with women exhibiting risky practices. Apart from sustaining and expanding HIV prevention programmes that aim to increase the HIV/AIDS related knowledge and scale-up HIV testing among the drug users and their regular sex partners, there is an urgent need to reach out to the women in stable marital relationship with drug users. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible to access this population and the priority is to design and implement individual, couple and group level interventions that ensure consistent condom use with their primary

  3. Money creation process in a random redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyan; Wang, Yougui; Li, Keqiang; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamical process of money creation in a random exchange model with debt is investigated. The money creation kinetics are analyzed by both the money-transfer matrix method and the diffusion method. From both approaches, we attain the same conclusion: the source of money creation in the case of random exchange is the agents with neither money nor debt. These analytical results are demonstrated by computer simulations.

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Money Supply Process in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the money supply process in Nepal empirically on the basis of mainstream and Post-Keynesian theoretical perspectives for both pre and post-liberalization period covering the sample period of 1965/66-2009/10. The relative contribution of different components of money supply has been computed and the money supply as well as money multiplier function has been estimated. Empirical results show that disposable high powered money is found to be a major contributor to the change ...

  5. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  6. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  7. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used. Theoretically, many equilibria exist side by side, in which senders use either costless messages, money, or both. We find that senders prefer to communicate through costless

  8. HIV and sexually transmissible infections among money boys in China: a data synthesis and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P F Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commercial sex workers within the population of men who have sex with men (MSM in China, known as 'money boys' (MBs, are perceived to be at higher risk for HIV and other sexually-transmissible infections (STIs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses from peer-reviewed literature accessed in two English (PubMed and Embase and three Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP, Wanfang data. A data synthesis exercise was carried out to determine the extent and patterns of behaviours and HIV/STI epidemics. Pooled estimates, with 95% confidence intervals, for each study variable were calculated. RESULTS: Thirty-two eligible articles (9 in English and 23 in Chinese were identified. Our analysis indicated that Chinese MBs are generally young, currently employed, at low literacy levels and highly mobile. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis and co-infection among MBs were estimated to be 6.0% (4.2-8.5%, 12.4% (9.9-15.3% and 2.2% (1.1-4.1% over the period of 2004-2011. Level of condom use among MBs is generally higher than the broader MSM population (69.2% at last act, and 48.5% consistently over the past 6 months. One-third of the Chinese MBs identified themselves as bisexual and 8.7% (5.6-13.5% are currently married to a female. Further, 40.9% (34.5-47.7% of MBs participated in group sex in the past 12 months and 14.8% (10.6-20.3% concurrently use illicit drugs. CONCLUSIONS: HIV/STI epidemics have affected Chinese MBs but the evidence suggests that the extent of infections is not greater than among other MSM in China.

  9. The topology of card transaction money flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Papo, David; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Moral, Santiago

    2016-11-01

    Money flow models are essential tools to understand different economical phenomena, like saving propensities and wealth distributions. In spite of their importance, most of them are based on synthetic transaction networks with simple topologies, e.g. random or scale-free ones, as the characterisation of real networks is made difficult by the confidentiality and sensitivity of money transaction data. Here, we present an analysis of the topology created by real credit card transactions from one of the biggest world banks, and show how different distributions, e.g. number of transactions per card or amount, have nontrivial characteristics. We further describe a stochastic model to create transactions data sets, feeding from the obtained distributions, which will allow researchers to create more realistic money flow models.

  10. Experimental quantum forgery of quantum optical money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Unknown quantum information cannot be perfectly copied (cloned). This statement is the bedrock of quantum technologies and quantum cryptography, including the seminal scheme of Wiesner's quantum money, which was the first quantum-cryptographic proposal. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, quantum money has not been tested experimentally yet. Here, we experimentally revisit the Wiesner idea, assuming a banknote to be an image encoded in the polarization states of single photons. We demonstrate that it is possible to use quantum states to prepare a banknote that cannot be ideally copied without making the owner aware of only unauthorized actions. We provide the security conditions for quantum money by investigating the physically-achievable limits on the fidelity of 1-to-2 copying of arbitrary sequences of qubits. These results can be applied as a security measure in quantum digital right management.

  11. Money Matters. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Cuestiones de Dinero. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to keep track of one's money is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to prepare a personal…

  12. Scientific community. Soft money's hard realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinaga, M

    2000-09-22

    "Second-class citizen" is how researchers on soft money, who have to raise their salaries from grants, describe their position--even those who like their jobs. It can be fraught with financial insecurity, disrespect, and poor facilities--as well as some advantages, such as freedom from administrative duties. Those who have done it say that success requires a strong will, an accommodating department, friends in high places, and money in the bank as a cushion--not to mention emotional security and a tough skin.

  13. Money and Taxes: the Chartalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. Randall Wray

    1998-01-01

    "[T]he money of a State is not what is of compulsory general acceptance, but what is accepted at the public pay offices..." (Georg Friedrich Knapp 1924) "In an economy where government debt is a major asset on the books of the deposit-issuing banks, the fact that taxes need to be paid gives value to the money of the economy.... [T]he need to pay taxes means that people work and produce in order to get that in which taxes can be paid." (Hyman P. Minsky 1986) This paper examines the Chartalist ...

  14. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because

  15. Is money laundering a true problem in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, He

    2006-02-01

    Money laundering was stipulated as an offense by Chinese criminal law more than 10 years ago. However, the judicial situation is such that no one has yet been prosecuted for it. This article describes the phenomena that are closely related to money laundering, namely the current situation of the predicate offences and other factors conducive to money laundering such as corruption, underground bank shops, and shell companies. Based on these facts, the article infers that money laundering is a real problem in China. Then it explores the reasons why case examples of money laundering are not available. Finally, this article presents some of the factors necessary in the investigation of money laundering.

  16. E-money: Efficiency, stability and optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Jonathan; Wong, Tsz-Nga

    2014-01-01

    What makes e-money more special than cash? Is the introduction of e-money necessarily welfare enhancing? Is an e-money system necessarily stable? What is the optimal way to design an efficient and stable e-money scheme? This paper provides a first attempt to develop a micro-founded, dynamic, general-equilibrium model of e-money for investigating these policy issues. We first identify some superior features of e-money which help mitigate informational frictions and enhance social welfare in a ...

  17. A Theory of Money and Financial Institutions. Part 23. Fiat Money, Bank, Money, the Force of the Rate of Interest and the Vanishing Float,

    Science.gov (United States)

    general equilibrium system depends upon the presence of two types of money in the system. These two types of money can be interpreted as fiat money issued by the government and bank money which is created and destroyed by the banking system. The previous models were formulated in terms of a discrete trading market with expenditures on trade and receipts of the goods taking place at the start of each period and receipt of income from the sale of goods obtained at the start of the next period. This formulation creates a one period ’float’ of money which has been

  18. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  19. The History of Money in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts the history of using money in Montenegro covering the period before the Christ until nowadays. Montenegro mostly used foreign currencies throughout its long history, these being Roman, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, Venetian, and even the Napoleon (French gold coin money. The first ideas for Montenegro’s own money came from the Bishop Petar Petrovic Njegoš in the 19th century. The first Montenegrin money, the Perper, was minted in 1906. The King Nikola`s Decree as of 11 April 1906 authorized the Ministry of Finance to mint the nickel and bronze coins. Silver and gold coins were minted later. The Perper disappeared from the scene with Montenegro’s joining the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, putting into circulation the Dinar, a currency of the newly established state. Montenegro, being a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, used the Dinar as its currency after World War II until 1999. Dual currency system consisting of the German Mark and the Dinar was introduced in late 1999, whereby the German Mark became the only legal tender in 2001. With the introduction of the Euro the German Mark was replaced and the Euro became the official means of payment.

  20. Money and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娟娟

    2012-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is a very famous novel written by Jane Austen and it is highly evaluated in British literature. That specific time decides that people at that time pay more attention to money in their marriage .In this paper we take some marriage case

  1. The Money-Creation Model: Graphic Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen; Kao, Ming-ruey

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose a pedagogical apparatus embodying a solid micro-foundation with emphasis on the public's choice between currency and demand deposits being an optimal decision. On the basis of the pedagogical exposition, the authors explain how money supply is related to the combined behaviors of the central bank, commercial banks, and the…

  2. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  3. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about

  4. Money Can't Buy Me Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Robson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate how external interventions shape process-based trust development in cross-border alliances. Specifically, we exploit a unique opportunity to observe the magnitude of external intervention through publicly available amounts of money given by the foreign, developed...

  5. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  6. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider w...

  7. Dynamic Process of Money Transfer Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Wang, Yougui; Ding, Ning

    2005-01-01

    We have studied numerically the statistical mechanics of the dynamic phenomena, including money circulation and economic mobility, in some transfer models. The models on which our investigations were performed are the basic model proposed by A. Dragulescu and V. Yakovenko [1], the model with uniform saving rate developed by A. Chakraborti and B.K. Chakrabarti [2], and its extended model with diverse saving rate [3]. The velocity of circulation is found to be inversely related with the average holding time of money. In order to check the nature of money transferring process in these models, we demonstrated the probability distributions of holding time. In the model with uniform saving rate, the distribution obeys exponential law, which indicates money transfer here is a kind of Poisson process. But when the saving rate is set diversely, the holding time distribution follows a power law. The velocity can also be deduced from a typical individual's optimal choice. In this way, an approach for building the micro-...

  8. STANDARD MONEY IN VICTOR JINGA'S OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olah Gheorghe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article has aimed to analyse Victor Jinga’s opinion on currency or on standard money, with respect to the importance he gave to the stability of the buying power of the currency and especially to the source of this stability.

  9. Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum states to create money that is physically impossible to counterfeit, something that cannot be done in the classical world. However, Wiesner's scheme required a central bank to verify the money, and the question of whether there can be unclonable quantum money that anyone can verify has remained open since. One can also ask a related question, which seems to be new: can quantum states be used as copy-protected programs, which let the user evaluate some function f, but not create more programs for f? This paper tackles both questions using the arsenal of modern computational complexity. Our main result is that there exist quantum oracles relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is possible, and any family of functions that cannot be efficiently learned from its input-output behavior can be quantumly copy-protected. This provides the first formal evidence that these tasks are achievable. The technical core of our result is a "Complexity-Theoretic No-Clon...

  10. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...

  11. Money Matters for the Young Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Children's economic reasoning follows a developmental sequence in which their ideas about money and other basic economic concepts are forming. Even children in the early primary grades can learn some basic economics and retain understanding of economic concepts if they are taught in developmentally appropriate ways. Given how important economic…

  12. Helping Students to Become Money Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supon, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Being money smart has value that offers individuals skills for a lifetime. "Lawmakers had no way of knowing in 2007 that the U. S. economic situation would be where it is today, making financial education for students now even more crucial than at any other time in recent history" (Black, 2009, p. 1). According to Beverly & Burkhalter (2005, p.…

  13. Money Market Operations in Fiscal 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Markets Department

    2008-01-01

    Throughout fiscal 2007, the Bank of Japan conducted money market operations with the uncollateralized overnight call rate as the operating target. The target level for the uncollateralized overnight call rate remained at "around 0.5 percent" throughout all of fiscal 2007. During this period, the basic loan rate applied to the complementary lending facility was 0.75 percent.

  14. Transfers, money and the balance of payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Marrewijk, Charles van

    1999-01-01

    The literature on international transfers largely ignores the fact that transfers are often given in the form of money. We analyze both the welfare consequences of financial transfers for the donor and the recipient, and their impact on the current account. Under normal circumstances transfer parado

  15. can Money Matter for Interest Rate Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueckner, M.; Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that money can matter for macroeconomic stability under interest rate policy when transactions frictions are non-negligible. We develop a sticky price model with a shopping time function, which induces the marginal utility of consumption to depend on the (predetermined)

  16. "money-laundering"的由来?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺生

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2006年10月31日,在北京举行的第十届全国人大常委会二十四次会议通过了《中华人民共和国反洗钱法》(AntiMoney-Laundering Law),该法于今年1月1日起正式生效.

  17. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about mon

  18. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  19. Money Matters for the Young Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Children's economic reasoning follows a developmental sequence in which their ideas about money and other basic economic concepts are forming. Even children in the early primary grades can learn some basic economics and retain understanding of economic concepts if they are taught in developmentally appropriate ways. Given how important economic…

  20. Helping Students to Become Money Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supon, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Being money smart has value that offers individuals skills for a lifetime. "Lawmakers had no way of knowing in 2007 that the U. S. economic situation would be where it is today, making financial education for students now even more crucial than at any other time in recent history" (Black, 2009, p. 1). According to Beverly & Burkhalter (2005, p.…

  1. Your Recreation Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on recreation, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook suggests ways to plan recreation expenses for special activities, equipment, and vacation travel. Section 1 looks at the need for recreation…

  2. STANDARD MONEY IN VICTOR JINGA'S OPINION

    OpenAIRE

    Olah Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    The author of this article has aimed to analyse Victor Jinga’s opinion on currency or on standard money, with respect to the importance he gave to the stability of the buying power of the currency and especially to the source of this stability.

  3. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  4. World Bank will lend more money to India for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the World Bank's plans to lend India money that will be used in part to fund HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The loan amounts to about US$200 million, of which 25% would be directed to research and development for HIV/AIDS. The loan is a 5-year extension of support that ended March 1999. The loan will cover the cost of blood safety programs, hospital and community care plans, and medical drugs for treating opportunistic infections. According to the Department of Biotechnology and the Indian Council of Medical Research, research and development money will be split between indigenous AIDS vaccine programs and assessment of local production of HIV diagnostic kits and development of vaginal microbicides. The government will support clinical trials of more than herbal medicines for treating tuberculosis. Funding will also support evaluation research on cost of patient care and the HIV/AIDS impact on the work force. A major focus will be on the high risk population of women and children. The World Bank requires that 50% of the loans go to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). However, the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India lost government financial funding and will not be able to fund NGO efforts directly. NACO must channel funding through state governments. There is fear that the AIDS control program will suffer due to the restructuring of operations and shortages of manpower. The AIDS program funding could be halted by the Bank due to India's nuclear testing.

  5. "Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2013-10-01

    Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would.

  6. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  7. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

  8. Macroeconomic Variables and Money Supply: Evidence from Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    long and short run relationship and causality of employed variables. The results ..... result that EXR has a negative and slightly insignificant impact on M2 in Nigeria. The ... Money in a developing economy: A portfolio approach to money.

  9. The Basics of the Money Flow Management of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanklevska Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of the definition of «money flow» of enterprise has been researched. The theoretical basis for the formation of money flows of enterprise, including the developments by mercantilists, marxists, monetarists, and contemporaries has been systematized. Cycles of the money flow and its relationship to the circulation of economic means have been characterized. The money flow discounting factors have been determined, which include inflation, risk, and alternativeness of investment process. The economic, political, social, and techno-economic risks that impact the management of money flows of enterprise have been allocated. The classification of money flows of enterprises by various attributes has been provided. The main sources of formation and modalities of the optimal money flow structure of enterprise have been determined. The advantages and disadvantages of using financial resources to generate money flows of enterprise have been characterized.

  10. The Ontology of Money : Institutions, Power and Collective Intentionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Papadopoulos (Georgios)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis is to revisit the elementary questions about the nature and the existence of money proposing a comprehensive alternative to the textbook analysis of money as a medium of exchange.

  11. The Ontology of Money : Institutions, Power and Collective Intentionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Papadopoulos (Georgios)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis is to revisit the elementary questions about the nature and the existence of money proposing a comprehensive alternative to the textbook analysis of money as a medium of exchange.

  12. An Industrial-Organization Approach to Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gunji, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of conventional interest rate policy, quantitative easing and the reserve accounts’ interest rate on the money stock in an industrial-organization model of the banking industry with money creation. Our main findings are as follows. First, under a plausible setting of the parameters, the model with money creation supports the liquidity puzzle, in which tight monetary policy increases the money stock. Second, quantitative monetary easing has a similar effect. ...

  13. Horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists: The theory of endogenous money reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...

  14. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  15. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  16. Empowering Volunteer Money Sense Advisors at a Military Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Joan; Varcoe, Karen

    Because money management is often a problem for lower-level military personnel, a resource management educational program called Money Sense was started by the University of California Cooperative Extension at Edwards Air Force Base in 1985. Volunteers for Money Sense were recruited at the base; they attended eight sessions on teaching techniques…

  17. Asset Markets, General Equilibrium and the Neutrality of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Chamley; Heracles M. Polemarchakis

    1981-01-01

    When government liabilities (including money) are held in private portfolios only as stores of value, and do not provide additional benefits (as liquidity services), the real variables in an economy with uncertainty are not affected by the government's trading in assets. There are also policies which alter the money supply through taxes or subsidies, and affect the price of money without changing real variables.

  18. Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Joras|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, Han-Hsin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357209370; Unger, Brigitte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, Loek|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, Jaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is trade-based money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  19. Gravity Models of Trade-based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, M.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, H.-S.; Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  20. 31 CFR 103.41 - Registration of money services businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Rules for Money Services... of money orders, cashed checks or exchanged currencies (other than as an agent for another business..., currency exchange, and money transmitting) the agent provides; (E) A listing of the months in the 12...

  1. THE ROLE OF MONEY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapurko Y. Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the role of money in the economic development of the state. It identifies functions of money; types of currency; factors characterizing the role of money in economic and financial relations between the state and businesses

  2. 12 CFR 561.28 - Money Market Deposit Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money Market Deposit Accounts. 561.28 Section 561.28 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.28 Money Market Deposit Accounts. (a) Money Market...

  3. 42 CFR 460.46 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties. 460.46 Section 460.46 Public...) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.46 Civil money penalties. (a) CMS may impose civil money penalties up to the following maximum amounts: (1) For each violation regarding enrollment or...

  4. 12 CFR 509.103 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 509.103 Section 509.103... PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Local Rules § 509.103 Civil money penalties. (a) Assessment. In the... may serve an order of assessment of civil money penalty upon the party concerned. The assessment order...

  5. 12 CFR 1250.3 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 1250.3 Section 1250.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES FLOOD INSURANCE § 1250.3 Civil money... to § 1250.2, the Director of FHFA, or his or her designee, may assess civil money penalties against...

  6. 12 CFR 908.6 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 908.6 Section 908.6... Proceedings § 908.6 Civil money penalties. (a) Notice of assessment—(1) Grounds. The Finance Board may issue and serve a notice of assessment of a civil money penalty on any Bank or any executive officer or...

  7. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  8. 48 CFR 1631.205-10 - Cost of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost of money. 1631.205-10... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-10 Cost of money. For the purposes of FAR 31.205-10(b)(3), the estimated facilities capital cost of money is specifically identified if...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1834 - Civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-10 - Cost of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Refers to— (i) Facilities capital cost of money (48 CFR 9904.414); and (ii) Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction (48 CFR 9904.417). (b) Cost of money is allowable, provided— (1) It is measured, assigned, and allocated to contracts in accordance with 48 CFR 9904.414...

  11. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent

  12. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV

  13. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Conner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion: As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to

  14. Does good medication adherence really save payers money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bruce C; Dai, Mingliang; Xu, Jing; Loh, Feng-Hua E; S Dougherty, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Despite a growing consensus that better adherence with evidence-based medications can save payers money, assertions of cost offsets may be incomplete if they fail to consider additional drug costs and/or are biased by healthy adherer behaviors unobserved in typical medical claims-based analyses. The objective of this study was to determine whether controlling for healthy adherer bias (HAB) materially affected estimated medical cost offsets and additional drug spending associated with higher adherence. A total of 1273 Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes enrolled in Part D plans between 2006 and 2009. Using survey and claims data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we measured medical and drug costs associated with good and poor adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80% and <80%, respectively) to oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, and statins over 2 years. To test for HAB, we estimated pairs of regression models, one set containing variables typically controlled for in conventional claims analysis and a second set with survey-based variables selected to capture HAB effects. We found consistent evidence that controlling for HAB reduces estimated savings in medical costs from better adherence, and likewise, reduces estimates of additional adherence-related drug spending. For ACE inhibitors/ARBs we estimate that controlling for HAB reduced adherence-related medical cost offsets from $6389 to $4920 per person (P<0.05). Estimates of additional adherence-related drug costs were 26% and 14% lower in HAB-controlled models (P < 0.05). These results buttress the economic case for action by health care payers to improve medication adherence among insured persons with chronic disease. However, given the limitations of our research design, further research on larger samples with other disease states is clearly warranted.

  15. Prevalence of HIV Among U.S. Female Sex Workers: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Noble, Meredith; Salo, Kathryn; Tregear, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States. We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3 % (95 % CI 13.5-21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32 %) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I(2) = 0.89, Q = 123; p HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high.

  16. Money and the natural rate of unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    mechanisms, indicating that money affects long-term production. The consequent policy implications are also discussed, including: the uses of monetary policy and monetary regimes in achieving macroeconomic goals; the impact of an independent central bank; the effects of a movement from floating exchange......The prevailing view among economists and policy makers is that money has no impact on production in a longer term characterised by full price and wage flexibility and rational expectations. This book presents a revisionist view of monetary policy and monetary regimes. It presents several new...... rates to fixed exchange rates in a monetary union. In addition to the theoretical and policy discussions the book also contains a comprehensive survey of the current state of scholarship in this area. This book is both a research resource for scholars and policy makers, and a text for advanced...

  17. Statistical ensembles for money and debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggiu, Stefano; Lionetto, Andrea; Bargigli, Leonardo; Longo, Michele

    2012-10-01

    We build a statistical ensemble representation of two economic models describing respectively, in simplified terms, a payment system and a credit market. To this purpose we adopt the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution where the role of the Hamiltonian is taken by the total money supply (i.e. including money created from debt) of a set of interacting economic agents. As a result, we can read the main thermodynamic quantities in terms of monetary ones. In particular, we define for the credit market model a work term which is related to the impact of monetary policy on credit creation. Furthermore, with our formalism we recover and extend some results concerning the temperature of an economic system, previously presented in the literature by considering only the monetary base as a conserved quantity. Finally, we study the statistical ensemble for the Pareto distribution.

  18. Risk Premia in the Czech Money Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pohl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate risk premia in the Czech money market and we pay special attention to the 2008-2009 crisis period. Our results imply a rising forward premium and we argue that the error correction model is the most appropriate method, but median may be used as a first guess estimator. We estimated the term premium between the policy rate and various money market interest rates. In this context, ARCH models proved to be useful in reflection of non-stationarity observed in the data. The financial crisis caused a structural break in our data sample, but the impact on the forward premium was only brief and forward premia normalized quickly. The widening of the term premium proved to be much more persistent, although it declined significantly since the peak of the crisis.

  19. Money matters: cash transfers for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Rachel Godfrey

    2011-04-15

    Developed countries have pledged billions of dollars a year to help poor nations adapt to climate change. But how should the money be spent? For the world's poor, who are both the most vulnerable to climate change and the most in need of social protection, the best answer may be cash transfer programmes. Giving money out in this way has a strong track record in reaching the poor and helping them improve their nutrition, education and incomes — all of which are vital for building their long-term capacity to adapt to climate change. Cash transfers are also well accepted at the local level and, given the right political backing, can be implemented on a broad scale.

  20. Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Halit AKTURK; Gocen, Hasan; Duran, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalized money (M2) multiplier formula to the literature for a monetary system with Reserve Option Mechanism (ROM). Various features of the proposed multiplier are then explored using monthly Turkish data during the decade 2005 to 2015. We report a step increase in the magnitude and a slight upward adjustment in the long-run trend of the multiplier with the adoption of ROM. We provide evidence for substantial change in the seasonal pattern of the multiplier, cash ra...

  1. Funding big research with small money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Joanne V; Koithan, Mary; Unruh, Lynn; Lundmark, Vicki

    2014-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that maybe successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives.With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools,and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives.In this article, the guest authors introduce crowd sourcing asa strategy for funding big research with small money.

  2. Does money affect children’s outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Children in low-income households do less well than their better-off peers on many outcomes in life, such as education or health, simply because they are poorer. While a parent's level of education, attitude towards bringing up children and other parental factors also have a bearing, research shows that having more money directly improves the development and level of achievement of children. Increases in family income substantially reduce differences in schooling outcomes and improve wider as...

  3. Land Supply and Money Growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Taoxiong; Huang, Mengdan

    2015-01-01

    China has experienced several episodes of inflation in recent years. Popular arguments attribute these episodes to relatively high growth rates of money, which were then primarily explained by China’s accumulation of foreign exchange reserves and the undervaluation of RMB. We attempt to explain China’s high monetary growth rates through the supply of land. Under China’s land system, the supply of land is controlled by the government and can be viewed as exogenous to the mo...

  4. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  5. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  6. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true prevalence of syphilis in the general population, but also among subpopulations such as illicit drug users. There is limited epidemiological data published on the proportion and risk factors of syphilis infections associated with illicit drug abuse. Methods Illicit drug addicts (n = 1223 in inpatients units in Germany were screened (2000–01 for syphilis and interviewed regarding patterns of drug use and sexual behaviour. TPHA-test for initial screening and FTA-ABS-IgM test in TPHA-positive patients were used. Results In total, TPHA-tests were positive in 39 (3.3% and 7 patients (0.6% were IgM positive. The prevalence rate for syphilis in males was 1.9% and for women it was 8.5%. Female patients were 4.56 (CI 95% 2.37–8.78 times more likely to have a positive TPHA test than males. Sexual behaviours such as high number of sexual partners, sex for drugs/money, sex on the first day were associated with syphilis infection only in women. Females with frequent sex for drugs or money had 4.31 (CI 95% 2.32–8.52 times more likely a reactive TPHA test than remaining patients. Neither the sociodemographic factors nor sexual behaviour were statistically significant associated with syphilis infection among men at all. Conclusion Our data suggest the need for screening for syphilis among these illicit drug users in inpatient settings, in particular among sexual active women. This conclusion is corroborated by the finding of increasing numbers of syphilis infections in the general population. The identification of syphilis cases among drug addicts would give treatment options to these individuals and would help to reduce the spread of infection in this population, but also a spread into heterosexual populations related to

  8. Drug abuse in Nepal: a rapid assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Uprety, L; Chapagain, M; Kafle, K

    1996-01-01

    A rapid assessment of drug abuse in Nepal was conducted at different sites, including eight municipalities in the five development regions of the country. To interview various groups of key informants, such methods as semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. A snowball sampling strategy for respondents who were drug abusers and a judgemental sampling strategy for the non-drug-using key informants were applied. About one fifth of the sample was recruited from the treatment centres and the rest from the community. Drug abusers in prison were interviewed, and secondary data from treatment centres and prisons analysed. The study revealed that the sample of drug abusers had a mean age of 23.8 years and was overwhelmingly male. Most respondents lived with their families and were either unemployed or students. About 30 per cent of the sample was married. A large majority of the sample had a family member or a close relative outside the immediate family who smoked or drank alcohol and a friend who smoked, drank or used illicit drugs. Apart from tobacco and alcohol, the major drugs of abuse were cannabis, codeine-containing cough syrup, nitrazepam tablets, buprenor-phine injections and heroin (usually smoked, rarely injected). The commonest sources of drugs were other drug-using friends, cross-border supplies from India or medicine shops. The commonest source of drug money was the family. There has been a clear trend towards the injection of buprenorphine by abusers who smoke heroin or drink codeine cough syrup. The reasons cited for switching to injections were the unavailability and rising cost of non-injectable drugs and the easy availability and relative cheapness of injectables. About a half of the injecting drug users (IDUs) commonly reported sharing injecting equipment inadequately cleaned with water. Over a half of IDUs reported visiting needle-exchange programmes at two of the study sites where such programmes were

  9. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  10. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.'

  11. 31 CFR 103.135 - Anti-money laundering programs for operators of credit card systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for...-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.135 Anti-money laundering programs for.... Virgin Islands. (b) Anti-money laundering program requirement. Effective July 24, 2002, each operator of...

  12. 31 CFR 103.170 - Exempted anti-money laundering programs for certain financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempted anti-money laundering... TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.170 Exempted anti-money... establishment of anti-money laundering programs: (1) An agency of the United States Government, or of a State or...

  13. Mental health and functioning of female sex workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research.Methods: We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48. The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. Results: On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45. Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4% and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%. In total, 224 FSW (86.5% wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%, with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%. Sexual, physical and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR=2.2. Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family while mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years. Conclusions: Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of

  14. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  15. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  16. Investigation on AIDS-related KAP in female sex workers and clients (drug users)%吸毒者中暗娼与嫖客艾滋病相关KAP调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔; 郑武; 刘旺民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the AIDS related KAP in female sex workers and clients, in particular, drug users, so as to provide basis for health education and behavioral intervention. Methods Basic information and KAP of sex workers and clients from drug rehabilitation centers were investigated, self-designed questionnaire was performed and cluster sampling method was applied. Results In terms of relevant knowledge of AIDS ,80.49% female sex workers thought that the use of condom could prevent AIDS;31.71% of female sex workers thought that the danger of AIDS was far away from them, and 28. 57% of clients had the similar idea( P < 0.05 ). The understanding rate of the AIDS transmission path in the female sex workers and clients was rather low,except that mother-infant breast-feeding path of HIV transmission,the difference was of statistical significance. The ratio of female sex workers resisting sexual freedom was significantly higher than that of the clients ( P < 0.05 ) ; The ratio of sex workers using condom was significantly higher than that of the clients ( P < 0.05). Conclusions Priority should be put on male high-risk group while carrying out the condom-use education and intervention for HIV prevention. Psychological, sexual moral publicity and AIDS-related knowledge education should be reinforced and the intervention of high-risk sexual behavior should be emphasized, in particular, among the drug-using group, including female sex workers and clients.%目的 了解吸毒者中暗娼与嫖客KAP现状,为该类人群的健康教育、行为干预提供依据.方法 应用自行设计的调查问卷,采取整群抽样的方法,对某戒毒所吸毒人员中暗娼与嫖客基本情况、KAP等进行调查分析.结果 艾滋病相关知识的掌握,80.49%的暗娼认为使用安全套可以预防艾滋病;31.71%的暗娼和28.57%的嫖客认为艾滋病离我们很远;暗娼和嫖客对传播途径的知晓率比较,除HIV阳性

  17. Money creation and circulation in a credit economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wanting; Fu, Han; Wang, Yougui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-agent model describing the main mechanisms of money creation and money circulation in a credit economy. Our special attention is paid to the role of debt in the two processes. With the agent-based modeling approach, macro phenomena are well founded in micro-based causalities. A hypothetical economy composed of a banking system and multiple traders is proposed. Instead of being a pure financial intermediary, the banking system is viewed as the center of money creation and an accelerator of money circulation. Agents finance their expenditures not only by their own savings but also through bank loans. Through mathematical calculations and numerical simulation, we identify the determinants of money multiplier and those of velocity of money. In contrast to the traditional money creation model, the money multiplier is determined not only by the behavior of borrowing but also by the behavior of repayment as well. The velocity of money is found to be influenced by both money-related factors such as the expenditure habits of agents with respect to their income and wealth and debt-related factors such as borrowing and repayment behaviors of debtors and the reserve requirements faced by banks.

  18. Steeper delay and probability discounting of potentially real versus hypothetical cigarettes (but not money) among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ryan M; Lawyer, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    There is a strong relationship between drug use and the tendency to discount the value of outcomes as a function of their delay and probability. Most discounting researchers use hypothetical monetary outcomes to establish discounting patterns among human subjects, who tend to discount the value of hypothetical money and real money similarily. However, no research to date has examined whether hypothetical non-monetary outcomes are discounted similarly to real non-monetary outcomes. In this study, smokers were assigned randomly to complete delay and probability discounting tasks for money and cigarettes that were either potentially real (n=33) or hypothetical (n=31). Consistent with previous research, smokers discounted the value of hypothetical and potentially real money similarly. However, smokers evidenced steeper rates of discounting for potentially real cigarettes in both delay and probability discounting. These findings suggest domain-specific discounting patterns in which potentially real and hypothetical outcomes may be synonymous in the context of monetary outcomes, but not in the context of non-monetary outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  20. Increasing risk behaviour can outweigh the benefits of antiretroviral drug treatment on the HIV incidence among men-having-sex-with-men in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei Shan, A.; Quax, R.; van de Vijver, D.; Zhu, Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The transmission through contacts among MSM (men who have sex with men) is one of the dominating contributors to HIV prevalence in industrialized countries. In Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands, the MSM risk group has been traced for decades. This has motivated studies which

  1. Deposit Money Creation in Search Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Keiichiro Kobayashi

    2002-01-01

    The endogenous creation of bank credit and of deposit money is modeled. If banks have a limited ability to commit to making interbank loans, then, in order for bank deposits to be accepted as liquid assets, an upper bound is placed upon the size of each bank's asset portfolio, where the bound is determined as a certain multiple of the bank's capital. In our search model, the Central Limit Theorem implies that the multiplier is a non-linear function of the aggregate level of bank assets. Thus ...

  2. Saving Money and Time with Virtual Server

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo

  3. The Economic Mobility in Money Transfer Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, N; Wang, Y; Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the economic mobility in some money transfer models which have been applied into the research on monetary distribution. We demonstrate the mobility by recording the agents' ranks time series and observing the volatility. We also compare the mobility quantitatively by employing an index, "the per capita aggregate change in log-income", raised by economists. Like the shape of distribution, the character of mobility is also decided by the trading rule in these transfer models. It is worth noting that even though different models have the same type of distribution, their mobility characters may be quite different.

  4. The economic mobility in money transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the economic mobility in four money transfer models which have been applied into the research on wealth distribution. We demonstrate the mobility by recording the time series of agents’ ranks and observing their volatility. We also compare the mobility quantitatively by employing an index, “the per capita aggregate change in log-income”, proposed by economists. Like the shape of distribution, the character of mobility is also decided by the trading rule in these transfer models. It is worth noting that even though two models have the same type of distribution, their mobility characters may be quite different.

  5. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Gaulard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  6. Hepatitis C and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population.

  7. Anti-Money Laundering Regulations And The Effective Use Of Mobile Money In South Africa – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Kersop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile financial services, specifically mobile money, has the potential to expand access to financial services to millions of unbanked people in South Africa. As such, it looks very promising in terms of financial inclusion. However, concerns exist that mobile money can be detrimental to financial integrity since there are several proven risk factors linked to mobile financial services. These risk factors make mobile money very susceptible to money laundering. The potential for abuse and the need for appropriate controls is therefore something which cannot be ignored. While the South African legislator has made provision for comprehensive anti-money laundering preventative measures by means of the Financial Intelligence Centre Act 38 of 2001, there exists no South African legislation explicitly concerned with mobile money. It is therefore difficult to determine what the regulatory stance is in terms of mobile money in South Africa. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF is, however, currently focusing attention on the effect which mobile money may have on financial integrity. The latest FATF Recommendations make provision for several anti-money laundering controls which are specifically applicable to mobile money, including controls regarding money or value transfer services and new technologies. While it is always difficult to balance financial integrity and financial inclusion, the risk-based approach makes it possible for governments to implement effective anti-money laundering measures, thereby preserving financial integrity, without the need to compromise on financial inclusion objectives. The fact that South Africa has not fully adopted a risk-based approach is a problem which needs to be addressed if mobile money is to deliver on its promises for financial inclusion, without being detrimental to financial integrity

  8. ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING REGULATIONS AND THE EFFECTIVE USE OF MOBILE MONEY IN SOUTH AFRICA – PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Kersop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile financial services, specifically mobile money, has the potential to expand access to financial services to millions of unbanked people in South Africa. As such, it looks very promising in terms of financial inclusion. However, concerns exist that mobile money can be detrimental to financial integrity since there are several proven risk factors linked to mobile financial services. These risk factors make mobile money very susceptible to money laundering. The potential for abuse and the need for appropriate controls is therefore something which cannot be ignored. While the South African legislator has made provision for comprehensive anti-money laundering preventative measures by means of the Financial Intelligence Centre Act 38 of 2001, there exists no South African legislation explicitly concerned with mobile money. It is therefore difficult to determine what the regulatory stance is in terms of mobile money in South Africa. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF is, however, currently focusing attention on the effect which mobile money may have on financial integrity. The latest FATF Recommendations make provision for several anti-money laundering controls which are specifically applicable to mobile money, including controls regarding money or value transfer services and new technologies . While it is always difficult to balance financial integrity and financial inclusion, the risk-based approach makes it possible for governments to implement effective anti-money laundering measures, thereby preserving financial integrity, without the need to compromise on financial inclusion objectives. The fact that South Africa has not fully adopted a risk-based approach is a problem which needs to be addressed if mobile money is to deliver on its promises for financial inclusion, without being detrimental to financial integrity

  9. Sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.

    2013-01-01

    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  10. Age- and sex-related prevalence and drug utilization pattern in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of 250 cases of type 2 diabetes management was conducted in a governmental tertiary care hospital of urban south India to determine the comparative prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases in diabetic population, core drug use indicators and drug utilization pattern in the management of diabetics entirely and with cardiovascular diseases. Highest prevalent age group for type 2 diabetes/cardiovascular diseases (greater incidence in female than male was 51-60 years. The 62.8% prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population ascertained in the study could provide an evidence-based rationale for the World Health Organization guidelines for the management of hypertension in type 2 diabetics. Incidence of polypharmacy (6.06, the mean number of total drug products prescribed; 59.26% of encounters prescribed antibiotics; 17.6 and 18.5 min of average consultation and dispensing time, respectively; 100% of drugs actually dispensed and adequately labeled; 81.26% of patients having knowledge of correct dosage and average drug cost of Indian Rupees 145.54 per prescription were the core drug use indicators found mainly. Moreover, drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List were more than 90% and thereby indicated the drug use in this set-up quite rational. Around 71.09% of cardiovascular agents prescribed by generic name revealed the cost effective medical care. Among the agents in type 2 diabetes management, Actrapid® (35.43% was the highest. Among the cardiovascular agents prescribed, lasix (19.37% was the highest. Cardiovascular agents prescribed orally by 76.48% signified the good prescription habit indicating the improved patients' adherence to the treatment. The present study emphasizes the need of early detection of hypertension as a preliminary diagnostic parameter of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics and appropriate management through concomitant therapy of

  11. Minding money: how understanding of value is culturally promoted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuya

    2011-03-01

    Adding to the issues of cognitive economics (Cortes and Londoño IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43(2):178-184, 2009) and the social psychology of "shadow economics" (Salvatore et al. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43(2), 2009), the carrier of economic exchanges, money, plays a key role in children's socialization in different societies. Money given to children, 'pocket money,' is a negotiated settlement between children's social demands and those of their parents. I analyze such negotiations here on the basis of a concrete case of a Korean family in which the provision of pocket money given the child was inconsistent over time. The results indicate the social ecology of money use, in both children and their parents, sets the stage for value construction of the meaning of money.

  12. Methods of Analysis of Electronic Money in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies methods of analysis of electronic money, formalises its instruments and offers an integral indicator, which should be calculated by issuing banks and those banks, which carry out operations with electronic money, issued by other banks. Calculation of the integral indicator would allow complex assessment of activity of the studied bank with electronic money and would allow comparison of parameters of different banks by the aggregate of indicators for the study of the electronic money market, its level of development, etc. The article presents methods which envisage economic analysis of electronic money in banks by the following directions: solvency and liquidity, efficiency of electronic money issue, business activity of the bank and social responsibility. Moreover, the proposed indicators by each of the directions are offered to be taken into account when building integral indicators, with the help of which banks are studied: business activity, profitability, solvency, liquidity and so on.

  13. Legal determination of money laundering in a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Mëçalla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the legal determinants of Money laundering referring to international legal acts and the national legislation of selected countries. The proper legal terminology of money laundering is hiding the true nature of the source, location, transferring of the real rights of ownership, having the knowledge that such “wealth” derives from a criminal activity. Money laundering is the process that makes “dirty money” appear legitimate, a criminal activity that encompasses the efforts to hide or camouflage criminal profit. Analyzing the legal dispositions attributable to money laundering, there are no substantial differentiations about this phenomenon. However, different countries do not have a consistent approach regarding Money laundering deriving from all sorts of criminal activity. Some countries criminalize every activity aiming at legitimizing criminal income; other countries have penal responsibility in the cases when money laundering is linked only to legalizing income from certain criminal acts.

  14. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  15. Value for money: putting the patient first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Robert; Mayer, Joseph; Adams, Owen

    2009-01-01

    Canadians spend more on healthcare than people in most other countries. We are fifth in the OECD in terms of health spending per capita, and eighth out of 28 countries in terms of health spending as a percentage of GDP. Given these facts, it is appropriate to discuss the issue of value for money in healthcare. In their paper, McGrail et al. present four challenges to improving value for money in Canadian healthcare: a lack of analysis of the hospital sector; the need to learn from rate variation analysis; the slow uptake of the electronic health record (EHR); and the need to measure health outcomes. Our paper addresses each of these points, but also proposes that a broader outlook is needed to come to grips with this question. It is essential to go beyond supply-side cost control, and also take into account the needs of the patient. Moreover, we need to look beyond our borders to learn how other countries have been able to evolve universal publicly funded health systems without long waiting times.

  16. Quantum money with nearly optimal error tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ryan; Arrazola, Juan Miguel

    2017-06-01

    We present a family of quantum money schemes with classical verification which display a number of benefits over previous proposals. Our schemes are based on hidden matching quantum retrieval games and they tolerate noise up to 23 % , which we conjecture reaches 25 % asymptotically as the dimension of the underlying hidden matching states is increased. Furthermore, we prove that 25 % is the maximum tolerable noise for a wide class of quantum money schemes with classical verification, meaning our schemes are almost optimally noise tolerant. We use methods in semidefinite programming to prove security in a substantially different manner to previous proposals, leading to two main advantages: first, coin verification involves only a constant number of states (with respect to coin size), thereby allowing for smaller coins; second, the reusability of coins within our scheme grows linearly with the size of the coin, which is known to be optimal. Last, we suggest methods by which the coins in our protocol could be implemented using weak coherent states and verified using existing experimental techniques, even in the presence of detector inefficiencies.

  17. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  18. MONEY LAUNDERING AS A TYPE OF ORGANIZED CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    Stevan Aleksoski; Ognen Aleksoski

    2015-01-01

    Laundry wash is a new form of crime that endangers stability, transparency and efficiency of financial systems, the developed countries and developing countries. One of the most widespread and simplest understanding, and according to some authors and simplest definition of the term money laundering is the conversion of "black money in green." The most comprehensive definition of the term money laundering would be the definition accepted by the G-7 and the FATF,...

  19. Liquidity, money creation and destruction, and the returns to banking

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Cavalcanti, Ricardo; Erosa, Andrés; Temzelides, Ted

    2004-01-01

    We build on our earlier model of money in which bank liabilities circulate as medium of exchange, and investigate the provision of liquidity for a range of central-bank regulations dealing with the potential of bank failure. In our model, banks issue inside money under fractional reserves, facing the event of excess redemptions. They monitor the float of their money issue and make reserve-management decisions which affect aggregate liquidity conditions. Numerical examples demonstrate bank fai...

  20. EXOGENOUS OR ENDOGENOUS MONEY SUPPLY: EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    ZATUL E. BADARUDIN; Ahmed M. Khalid; MOHAMED ARIFF

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of money supply in Australia over two separate monetary policy regimes: monetary and inflation targeting. The post-Keynesian theory on endogenous money was tested with the aim of investigating whether endogenous money supply, if it did exist, followed the accomodationist, structuralist or liquidity preference viewpoints. Data used are quarterly series from 1977 to 2007 and we used vector error-correction model for long-run and short-run causality tests. We f...

  1. Post Keynesian Endogeneity of Money Supply: Panel Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nayan, Sabri; Ahmad, Mahyudin; Kadir, Norsiah; Abdullah, Mat Saad

    2013-01-01

    Post Keynesian economics is actually macroeconomics in a world of uncertainty and endogenous money. Post Keynesians posit that money supply in a market oriented production economy is endogenous or endogenously determined (rather than exogenous as claimed by Monetarists). Money supply is said to be endogenous if it is determined within the economic system itself. The present paper investigates this theory using a panel dataset of 177 countries from year 1970-2011 utilising dynamic panel data a...

  2. MONEY LAUNDERING: RING AROUND THE WHITE COLLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In mine study I will deal with money laundering as a leading factor in white-collar criminality. The purpose of the present study and the guiding line in this article is to legislative upgrade of white-collar criminality fighting that might be of great importance as we intend to plan the policy of reduction of money Laundering criminality in Israel and Moldova. In order to deal with mine research subject I will express the lookout which I have conducted over a period three years and have included public sector tenders, with the CFE (Collection for the Environment Recycling Corporation in Israel. It has been found white-collar criminals are usually conventional people who deal with rises or opportunity that leads them to transgress the border temporarily and perpetrate a crime, and it is likely that they would be affected strongly by the punishment process. Therefore the outcome of the study is to produce the necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of money Laundering crime in Israel and the Republic of Moldova. In order to obtain this purposes and the author has performed some new steps to upgrade and supplement the Law with subjects as: Punishment Origin offences Entities obligated to report, Expanding of the duties of Money Laundering Prohibition Authority as a regulator and with authority to assign fines, etc. Those practical frameworks are necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of Money Laundering in Israel and the Republic of Moldova by constitutional - legal standpoints.SPĂLAREA BANILOR CA INFRACŢIUNE A GULERELOR ALBEÎn studiul efectuat se demonstrează că spălarea de bani constituie factorul principal al criminalităţii gulerelor albe. Scopul propus în acest articol este de a realiza o analiză complexă a propunerilor legislative îndreptate spre lupta cu cri-minalitatea gulerelor albe şi de a propune noi politici menite să reducă criminalitatea gulerelor albe atât în Republica Moldova, cât şi în Israel. Întru a

  3. Drug Control: Observations on Elements of the Federal Drug Control Strategy. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Although the United States government invests vast sums of money in the war on drugs, the availability of drugs and the number of persons using illegal drugs are still serious problems. Information that Congress can use in improving drug control strategies is provided here. Some of the report's highlights include current research on promising…

  4. NEW TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES IN THE MONEY LAUNDERING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its complexity, the crime of money laundering can be committed through a variety of methods which are in a constantly evolving. It seems that money launderers are always one step ahead of authorities. They find new and various ways to launder the proceeds of crime despite the efforts of the law enforcement authorities to develop the best tools to stop or at least to make difficult the criminal activity of money laundering. This study aims to analyze the latest money laundering typologies approaching online payment systems, virtual casinos, electronic auctions and Internet gambling.

  5. Liquid money or hard cash? Drowning into granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In British English, the term "hard cash" refers to the form of payment using coins or bill, rather than cheques or credit or money transfer. In American English, it is often prefixed by the adjective "cold". On the contrary, in Italian the equivalent expression "denaro liquido" can be literary translated as "liquid money". In French the expression is equivalent with the additional factor, with respect to the rest of this discussion, that money becomes "argent". We have therefore two very different points of view: Is money hard and cold, or rather liquid and "jingling" ("moneta sonante")? As usual, we shall investigate this topic starting from some comics about the duck family.

  6. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  7. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  8. Money Attitude, Self-esteem and Compulsive Buying in a Population of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB and to identify among compulsive buyers a specific relation to money, a different buying style and a lowered level of self-esteem. We included 203 medical students and diagnosed CB with the Mc Elroy criteria and a specific questionnaire. The money attitude was characterized by the Yamauchi and Templer’s scale and self-esteem with the Rosenberg scale. 11% of the medical students presented compulsive buying (CB +. Sex ratio and mean ages were comparable in the CB+ and control groups. CB+ students drank less alcohol and smoked an equivalent number of cigarettes. Compulsive buyers had higher scores of distress (tendency to be hesitant, suspicious and doubtful attitude toward situations involving money and bargain missing (fear of missing a good opportunity to buy an item. They bought more often gifts for themselves, items they use less than expected and choose goods increasing their self-esteem. Their score of self-esteem was not different from the one from controls.

  9. Money Attitude, Self-esteem, and Compulsive Buying in a Population of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Richoux-Benhaim, Charlotte; Betizeau, Annabelle; Lequen, Valérie; Lohnhardt, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This study tried to determine the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) and to identify among compulsive buyers a specific relation to money, a different buying style, and a lowered level of self-esteem. We included 203 medical students and diagnosed CB with the Mc Elroy criteria and a specific questionnaire. The money attitude was characterized by the Yamauchi and Templer's scale and self-esteem with the Rosenberg scale. 11% of the medical students presented compulsive buying (CB+). Sex ratio and mean ages were comparable in the CB+ and control groups. CB+ students drank less alcohol and smoked an equivalent number of cigarettes. Compulsive buyers had higher scores of distress (tendency to be hesitant, suspicious, and doubtful attitude toward situations involving money) and bargain missing (fear of missing a good opportunity to buy an item). They bought more often gifts for themselves, items they use less than expected and choose goods increasing their self-esteem. Their score of self-esteem was not different from the one from controls.

  10. 女性吸毒者艾滋病相关知识及高危性行为调查%Investigation on AIDS related knowledge and high risk sex behaviors among female drug abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮; 任桂秋; 肇恒伟; 赵子阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To understand the awareness situation of AIDS related knowledge and high risk sex behaviors among female drug abusers. Methods: Stratified random cluster sampling method and questionnaire survey were used to investigate 236 female drug abusers in Liaoning province, 1: 1 matched case - control study was carried out, female prison inmates during the same period were selected as control group, then they were surveyed by a questionnaire, Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of high risk sex behaviors among female drug abusers. Results: The mean correct awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge among female drug abusers was 57. 6% , 69. 9% of the respondents had multiple sexual partners, and 69. 1% of the respondents never used condom; the results of mult-ivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the scores of intravenous drug abuse and basic knowledge of AIDS were low, the respondents with low positive attitude to condom were easily to have high risk sex behaviors. Conclusion: The female drug abusers had misunderstanding toward AIDS related knowledge and attitudes, it is necessary to carry out interventional strategies targeting to their high risk sex behaviors.%目的:了解女性吸毒者艾滋病相关知识的知晓情况和高危性行为情况.方法:采用分层、随机、整群抽样相结合的方法对辽宁省236例女性吸毒者进行问卷调查,同时采用1:1病例对照研究方法,选择同期调查中女性监所服刑人员作为对照进行问卷调查,应用Logistic回归分析对女性吸毒者高危性行为的影响因素进行分析.结果:女性吸毒者艾滋病相关知识平均答对率为57.6%,69.9%的调查者与多个性伙伴发生性行为,69.1%的调查者从未使用安全套;多因素Logistic回归结果显示,静脉注射吸毒、艾滋病基本知识得分低,以及对安全套正性态度较低者更容易发生高危性行为.结论:女性吸毒者对艾滋病相关

  11. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  12. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  13. MONEY LAUNDERING TECHNIQUES COMMONLY USED. GENERAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Upward trend of criminality in Romania is the result both of the impact of serious social and economic problems typical of the period of transition to a market economy, and misunderstanding of freedoms by a lot of people interested in reaping benefits by evasion, doubled by the tendency of subjects infringing the law to set up illegal contacts in other countries, particularly among immigrant groups and even within some structures of “organized crime”. The provisional state that existed in all sectors of socio-political and economic life, including in respect of public order observance, facilitated expansion of criminal phenomenon, particularly in the area of violent crimes and against public and private property, inappropriate settlement of each and any social tension and conflict created precedents that led to escalating protest demonstrations and personal or collective justice. In the study hereby, we shall approach a number of money laundering techniques commonly used, limiting ourselves to their general overview, exclusively.

  14. Optimal Mechansim Design and Money Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Hartline, Jason D

    2008-01-01

    Mechanism design is now a standard tool in computer science for aligning the incentives of self-interested agents with the objectives of a system designer. There is, however, a fundamental disconnect between the traditional application domains of mechanism design (such as auctions) and those arising in computer science (such as networks): while monetary transfers (i.e., payments) are essential for most of the known positive results in mechanism design, they are undesirable or even technologically infeasible in many computer systems. Classical impossibility results imply that the reach of mechanisms without transfers is severely limited. Computer systems typically do have the ability to reduce service quality--routing systems can drop or delay traffic, scheduling protocols can delay the release of jobs, and computational payment schemes can require computational payments from users (e.g., in spam-fighting systems). Service degradation is tantamount to requiring that users burn money}, and such ``payments'' can...

  15. 31 CFR 103.20 - Reports by money services businesses of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... immediate attention, such as ongoing money laundering schemes, the money services business shall immediately... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by money services businesses of suspicious transactions. 103.20 Section 103.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  16. 31 CFR 103.130 - Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.130 Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds. (a) For...

  17. 31 CFR 103.137 - Anti-money laundering programs for insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.137 Anti-money laundering programs for insurance companies...

  18. 50 CFR 84.44 - What is the timetable for the use of grant money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money? 84.44 Section 84.44 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Acceptance/Use of Federal Money § 84.44 What is the timetable for the use of grant money? Once money is granted to the coastal States, the money is available...

  19. 'Mobile men with money': HIV prevention and the erasure of difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, Peter; Bell, Stephen A; Kelly-Hanku, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Men with Money is one of the latest risk categories to enter into HIV prevention discourse. Used in countries in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, it refers to diverse groups of men (e.g. businessmen, miners and itinerant wage labourers) who, in contexts of high population movement and economic disparity, find themselves at heightened risk of HIV as members of a 'most-at-risk population', or render others vulnerable to infection. How adequate is such a description? Does it make sense to develop HIV prevention programmes from such understandings? The history of the epidemic points to major weaknesses in the use of terminologies such as 'sex worker' and 'men who have sex with men' when characterising often diverse populations. Each of these terms carries negative connotations, portraying the individuals concerned as being apart from the 'general population', and posing a threat to it. This paper examines the diversity of men classified as mobile men with money, pointing to significant variations in mobility, wealth and sexual networking conducive to HIV transmission. It highlights the patriarchal, heteronormative and gendered assumptions frequently underpinning use of the category and suggests more useful ways of understanding men, masculinity, population movement, relative wealth in relation to HIV vulnerability and risk.

  20. Financial repression, money growth, and seignorage: The Polish experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Budina, N.

    1997-01-01

    Financial Repression, Money Growth and Seignorage: The Polish Experience. — A small analytical framework is developed to analyze the relation between reserve requirements, base money growth and seignorage revenues. From the analysis, the authors can derive of steady-state seignorage revenues as a