WorldWideScience

Sample records for drugs sex money

  1. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  2. Commercial sex work or ukuphanda? Sex-for-money exchange in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2002-09-01

    This article introduces the concept of ukuphanda, a Zulu verb that is used to describe the sex-for-money exchanges that take place outside of commercial sex work in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa. In line with the ethnographic literature from others areas of sub-Saharan Africa, it is argued that women who exchange sex for money in taverns do not self-identify as commercial sex workers and experience less stigma from the community. Unlike commercial sex work (as characterized by the commercial sex work in Hillbrow, Johannesburg), which is understood to be associated with short skirts and other revealing attire, sex-for-money exchange in the taverns is viewed as more private, ambiguous and informal. Women who work as informal sex workers, or "-phandela imali" ('try to get money'), are understood to be using sex-for-money exchange to survive financially.

  3. Dinheiro, poder e sexo Money, power, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana A. Zelizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A crença generalizada de que o dinheiro corrompe a intimidade bloqueia nossa capacidade de descrever e explicar como dinheiro, poder, e sexo, de fato, interagem. A crença oposta - de que o sexo funciona como uma mercadoria como qualquer outra - não é melhor para ajudar descrições e explicações. A intersecção de sexo, dinheiro e poder, de fato, gera confusão e conflito, mas isso ocorre precisamente porque os participantes estão simultaneamente negociando relações interpessoais delicadas e responsáveis e marcando diferenças entre essas relações e outras com as quais elas poderiam ser fácil e perigosamente confundidas. Na vida cotidiana, as pessoas lidam com essas dificuldades com um conjunto de práticas que poderíamos chamar de "Boas Combinações".Widespread beliefs that money corrupts intimacy block our ability to describe and explain how money, power, and sex actually interact. The opposite belief - that sex operates like an ordinary market commodity - serves description and explanation no better. The intersection of sex, money, and power, does indeed generate confusion and conflict, but that is precisely because participants are simultaneously negotiating delicate, consequential, interpersonal relations and marking differences between those relations and others with which they could easily and dangerously be confused. In everyday social life, people deal with these difficulties by relying on a set of practices we can call good matches.

  4. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  5. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  6. [New drugs: money-back guarantee?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhoek, Adri; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Franken, Margreet G; Rutten, Frans F H

    2011-01-01

    When a new medical technology, for example a new drug, is introduced onto the market there should be a discussion of the balance between "uncertainty versus value to society and demand". The new technology is sometimes given the benefit of the doubt due to a lack of information. Follow-up investigation is actually essential but is seldom mandatory and hardly ever spontaneously initiated. Specific measures, based on stimulation or penalization, could reduce the degree of uncertainty concerning the efficacy, safety and efficiency of a new technology. A serious option when a new drug produces disappointing results is to pay the manufacturer less.

  7. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  8. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  9. Discounting of money and sex: effects of commodity and temporal position in stimulant-dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Landes, Reid D; Christensen, Darren R; Jones, Bryan A; Jackson, Lisa; Yi, Richard; Bickel, Warren K

    2014-11-01

    Research on delay discounting has contributed to the understanding of numerous addiction-related phenomena. For example, studies have shown that substance dependent individuals discount their addictive substances (e.g., cocaine) more rapidly than they do other commodities (e.g., money). Recent research has shown that substance dependent individuals discount delayed sex more rapidly than delayed money, and their discounting rates for delayed sex were higher than those of non-addicted individuals. The particular reason that delay discounting rates for sex are higher than those for money, however, are unclear. Do individuals discount delayed sex rapidly because immediate sex is particularly appealing or because delayed sex does not retain its value? Moreover, do the same factors influence men and women's choices? The current study examined delay discounting in four conditions (money now versus money later; sex now versus sex later; money now, versus sex later; sex now versus money later) in cocaine dependent men and women. The procedures used isolated the role of the immediate versus delayed commodity. For men, the higher rates of delay discounting for sex were because delayed sex did not retain its value, whereas both the immediate and delayed commodity influenced the female participants' decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Jiang, Lizhu

    2015-02-01

    Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.

  11. Sex, love and money along the Namibian-Angolan border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Adriana de Araujo; Sampaio, Camila Alves Machado; Monteiro, Simone Souza; Murray, Laura Rebecca; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, young women engaged in relationships with multiple partners in order to gain material benefits play a key role in local HIV dynamics. This paper is based upon field observations and interviews with 38 young women who live along the Angolan-Namibian border. In the last 10 years, rapid urbanisation has attracted migrants in search of opportunities to do business in the region. Our findings show that sexual-affective economic networks reflect these socioeconomic changes. Women, particularly those from particular ethnic groups and/or from Namibia, with low levels of formal education and social support are often excluded from the labour market and turn to emotional-sexual male-centred networks for material and financial benefits. Men in these networks tend to be older, have higher socioeconomic status and greater geographic mobility. This 'capitalisation' of intimate relationships is material and symbolic; it enables women to acquire goods and access to services identified with an urban and globalised lifestyle. It is also emotional because relationships include affection and pleasure. Engaging in these relationships involves some social risks (bad reputation, family rejection, discrimination and violence), but maintaining ties often takes priority over safer sex and social sanctions.

  12. Should patient groups accept money from drug companies? No

    OpenAIRE

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Patient groups provide valuable support and advocacy for vulnerable people but funding the work can be difficult. Alastair Kent argues that not accepting industry money will unnecessarily limit the groups' effectiveness, but Barbara Mintzes believes that the money undermines their independence

  13. Should patient groups accept money from drug companies? Yes

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    Patient groups provide valuable support and advocacy for vulnerable people but funding the work can be difficult. Alastair Kent argues that not accepting industry money will unnecessarily limit the groups' effectiveness, but Barbara Mintzes believes that the money undermines their independence

  14. Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about brand-name drugs. Resources Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs can help you find lower-cost generic drugs. ... produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project supported by grants from ...

  15. Illicit Drug Trade, Black Money and Society in Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sharifi

    2003-11-01

    Well-known families which have relations not only with criminal organizations but also with police forces, control cocaine market and obtain huge wealth which spreads their power and influence over this state. In this article, the author reviews the effects of cocaine trade on emerging black money as well as the influnce of criminal groups over society.

  16. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women

  17. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco... guidance for industry entitled ``Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco Retailers: Responses to Frequently Asked... civil money penalties for violations of regulations issued under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  18. 78 FR 72900 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco Retailers... the guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco Retailers: Responses to Frequently Asked... issuance of civil money penalties for violations of regulations issued under the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  19. Sex Differences in College Student Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimbu, Jerry L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Determines patterns of drug usage and related behavior of college, university, and junior college students on a state-wide basis. This article focuses on sex as it relates to the total pattern of drug abuse of nine specific substances among a large group of college students and examines results in terms of both practical and statistical…

  20. Drugs, sex, money and power: An HPV vaccine case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Marion; Ashton, Toni; Blum, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

      In this paper we compare the experiences of seven industrialized countries in considering approval and introduction of the world's first cervical cancer-preventing vaccine. Based on case studies, articles from public agencies, professional journals and newspapers we analyse the public debate...... about the vaccine, examine positions of stakeholder groups and their influence on the course and outcome of this policy process. The analysis shows that the countries considered here approved the vaccine and established related immunization programs exceptionally quickly even though there still exist...... many uncertainties as to the vaccine's long-term effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety. Some countries even bypassed established decision-making processes. The voice of special interest groups has been prominent in all countries, drawing on societal values and fears of the public. Even though...

  1. Sex, Drugs, and Cognition: Effects of Marijuana†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana i...

  2. 76 FR 22905 - Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...] Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No... entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and No- Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers.'' This guidance document describes FDA's current policies with respect to civil money penalties and no-tobacco-sale orders...

  3. 75 FR 53316 - Draft Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Draft Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and... guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers.'' This guidance document is intended to describe FDA's current policies with respect to civil money penalties and no...

  4. Drug use and risk behaviours among injecting drug users: a comparison between sex workers and non-sex workers in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Courtney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the differences in demographics, drug use patterns and self reported risk behaviours between regular injecting drug users (IDU who report engaging in sex work for money or drugs and regular injecting drug users who do not. Methods Cross sectional data collected from regular IDU interviewed as part of the New South Wales (NSW Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS in 2003 were analysed. Results IDU who reported engaging in sex work were more likely to be female, and identify as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent. They initiated injecting drug use at a significantly younger age and were more likely to report injection related problems than IDU who had not engaged in sex work. There were no differences in the drug classes used, but findings suggested that the sex workers tended to be more frequent users of crystalline methamphetamine (ice and benzodiazepines. Conclusion The similarities between these groups were more striking than the differences. Further research, examining a larger sample is needed to clarify whether injecting drug users who are sex workers have heavier use patterns.

  5. The difference between drug money and a "lifetime's savings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebejer, Karl A; Winn, Jane; Carter, James F; Sleeman, Richard; Parker, Jill; Körber, Fritjof

    2007-04-11

    In many countries, monies suspected of being associated with drug trafficking can be seized by the authorities. One of the ways of investigating this association is through the analysis of seized banknotes for traces of controlled drugs. We report three studies which may assist the expert in assessing whether banknotes contaminated with diamorphine are part of the general population of notes in circulation or whether they show unusual contamination patterns which require explanation. Study 1 is based on three plausible contamination scenarios as they may occur during the various stages of an illicit drug transaction and seizure. It shows that notes which have been in direct contact with visible traces of diamorphine show significantly higher contamination to those in more indirect contact with the drug. Study 2 investigates the transfer of diamorphine from one highly contaminated note to other notes in a bundle over a period of 10 weeks with and without agitation. It was found that the total amount of drug transferred was smaller than 6% and no more than 4 out of a bundle of 10 previously clean notes became lightly contaminated. Based on extensive background data, study 3 proposes a probabilistic model to assess whether an observed proportion of diamorphine bearing banknotes is likely to have been contaminated by chance. The model predicts that there is only a 0.3% chance that a bundle of 100 notes from the general banknote population contains more than six contaminated specimens. Jointly, the three studies give useful indications for the spread of contamination throughout a sample and the amounts of heroin which may be expected given plausible contamination scenarios.

  6. What Money Can't Buy: Different Patterns in Decision Making About Sex and Money Predict Past Sexual Coercion Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier Emond, Fannie; Gagnon, Jean; Nolet, Kevin; Cyr, Gaëlle; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine

    2018-02-01

    Self-reported impulsivity has been found to predict the perpetration of sexual coercion in both sexual offenders and male college students. Impulsivity can be conceptualized as a generalized lack of self-control (i.e., general perspective) or as a multifaceted construct that can vary from one context to the other (i.e., domain-specific perspective). Delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner smaller rewards over larger delayed rewards, is a measure of impulsive decision making. Recent sexual adaptations of delay discounting tasks can be used to test domain-specific assumptions. The present study used the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, a standard money discounting task, and a sexual discounting task to predict past use of sexual coercion in a sample of 98 male college students. Results indicated that higher negative urgency scores, less impulsive money discounting, and more impulsive sexual discounting all predicted sexual coercion. Consistent with previous studies, sexuality was discounted more steeply than money by both perpetrators and non-perpetrators of sexual coercion, but this difference was twice as large in perpetrators compared to non-perpetrators. Our study identified three different predictors of sexual coercion in male college students: a broad tendency to act rashly under negative emotions, a specific difficulty to postpone sexual gratification, and a pattern of optimal non-sexual decision making. Results highlight the importance of using multiple measures, including sexuality-specific measures, to get a clear portrait of the links between impulsivity and sexual coercion.

  7. Debate: Money, Money, Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ilona Ellinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The question: ‘What would be the best way to use ten million dollars?’ leads to many other questions when related to anti-trafficking work. What should the money be spent on? Who should be appointed to spend the money? And, perhaps most importantly, who should be the beneficiaries? In other words, are the ten million dollars to prevent trafficking of people meant for activities to stop smuggling of people, to stop unwanted migrants, or to protect and uphold people’s rights when they move across borders and need to be protected from trafficking? Would the money be best spent on anti-trafficking work, or would it be better spent on strengthening the rights of all migrants to minimise the risk of trafficking?

  8. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Michael J; Lohrenz, Terry; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; McClure, Samuel M; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Newton, Thomas F; Bickel, Warren K; Montague, P Read

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

  9. Not a good buy: value for money of prescription drugs sold on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella; Marcantoni, Claudio; Filippucci, Laura; Gelatti, Umberto

    2012-08-01

    In this note we study the value for money of purchases of fluoxetine made through on-line pharmacies without prescription. We show that this channel is not good value from an economic point of view and that it can be dangerous in medical terms because of the poor quality of the drugs received and the lack of prescribing instructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of a drug versus money and drug versus drug self-administration choice procedure with oxycodone and morphine in opioid addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D; Metz, Verena E; Cooper, Ziva D; Kowalczyk, William J; Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Manubay, Jeanne M; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Smith, Mary E; Peyser, Deena; Saccone, Phillip A

    2013-09-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of oral morphine (0, 45, 135 mg/70 kg) and oral oxycodone (0, 15, 45 mg/70 kg) on buprenorphine-maintained opioid addicts. As a 3: 1 morphine : oxycodone oral dose ratio yielded equivalent subjective and physiological effects in nondependent individuals, this ratio was used in the present study. Two self-administration laboratory procedures - that is, a drug versus money and a drug versus drug procedure - were assessed. Study participants (N=12) lived in the hospital and were maintained on 4 mg/day sublingual buprenorphine. When participants chose between drug and money, money was preferred over all drug doses; only high-dose oxycodone was self-administered more than placebo. When participants chose between drug and drug, both drugs were chosen more than placebo, high doses of each drug were chosen over low doses, and high-dose oxycodone was preferred over high-dose morphine. The subjective, performance-impairing, and miotic effects of high-dose oxycodone were generally greater than those of high-dose morphine. The study demonstrated that a 3: 1 oral dose ratio of morphine : oxycodone was not equipotent in buprenorphine-dependent individuals. Both self-administration procedures were effective for assessing the relative reinforcing effects of drugs; preference for one procedure should be driven by the specific research question of interest.

  11. Prevalence of consistent condom use with various types of sex partners and associated factors among money boys in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Hong; Yan, Jin; Yang, Guo-Li; Long, Shuo; Yu, Yong; Wu, Xi-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Money boys with inconsistent condom use (less than 100% of the time) are at high risk of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), but relatively little research has examined their risk behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of consistent condom use (100% of the time) and associated factors among money boys. A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire was conducted among money boys in Changsha, China, between July 2012 and January 2013. Independent variables included socio-demographic data, substance abuse history, work characteristics, and self-reported HIV and STI history. Dependent variables included the consistent condom use with different types of sex partners. Among the participants, 82.4% used condoms consistently with male clients, 80.2% with male sex partners, and 77.1% with female sex partners in the past 3 months. A multiple stepwise logistic regression model identified four statistically significant factors associated with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male clients: age group, substance abuse, lack of an "employment" arrangement, and having no HIV test within the prior 6 months. In a similar model, only one factor associated significantly with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male sex partners was identified in multiple stepwise logistic regression analyses: having no HIV test within the prior six months. As for female sex partners, two significant variables were statistically significant in the multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis: having no HIV test within the prior 6 months and having STI history. Interventions which are linked with more realistic and acceptable HIV prevention methods are greatly warranted and should increase risk awareness and the behavior of consistent condom use in both commercial and personal relationship. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Sex differences in the subjective tolerability of antipsychotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbui, Corrado; Nosè, Michela; Bindman, Jonathan; Schene, Aart; Becker, Thomas; Mazzi, Maria A.; Kikkert, Martijn; Camara, Jayne; Born, Anja; Tansella, Michele

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, research efforts have been directed to better characterize the Subjective experience of taking psychotropic drugs. This Study investigated the sex difference in the subjective tolerability of antipsychotic drugs. Participants were recruited from patients under the care of

  13. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  14. Sex-Role Attitudes of Drug Abuse Treatment Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Carole

    1982-01-01

    Examined the sex-role attitude of the drug abuse treatment counselor. Found: 1) male counselors viewed clients of both sexes more negatively; 2) male clients were viewed more negatively by counselors of both sexes; 3) counselors with less education had more negative attitudes; and 4) attitudes differed with treatment program type. (Author/RC)

  15. Correlates of Sex Trading among Drug-Involved Women in Committed Intimate Relationships: A Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Despite a slight decline in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in New York, marked increases and concentrated epidemics continue among subsets of the population, including women engaged in sex trading. We examined the prevalence and correlates of sex trading among 346 low-income, HIV-negative women in HIV-concordant intimate relationships. Women and their long-term main partners were recruited to participate in an HIV prevention intervention. Baseline data were used in this article. Of the 346 women in the study, 28% reported sex trading during the prior 90 days. Multivariate analyses showed increased relative risk of sex trading by lifetime experience of severe intimate partner violence (IPV), drug, and alcohol use, and marginal significance for mental health hospitalization, partner drug dependency, and homelessness. These findings suggest an urgent need for HIV prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward women in intimate relationships who trade sex for money or drugs, with an emphasis on IPV, mental health, history of incarceration, and substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Power of Money and the Power of Sex. Anthropology of Sexual Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lagunas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, the flow of people, ideas and goods, generates a situation in which the sex industry has been globalized through increasingly sophisticated channels and networks of prostitution and human traffic. These are, adapting themselves to the changing meanings and practices of sex. The North domination of the South and East is manifested in multiple ways, including sex tourism. The text analyzes some aspects of sex tourism in different national and international contexts, and postulates the advisability and opportunity to explore both the individual and the subjective, as well as related socio–political dimensions.

  17. Money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Eliška

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering is marginalized phenomenon with high social impact which comes from necessary connection of this activity with illegal activities, especially organized crime. Since the goal of almost every illegal activity is to create profit (and since the biggest profit comes from the activities which are highly dangerous for the society, such as drug trafficking) it is vital for the society to fight money laundering effectively. It is in the best interest of the whole society to fight thi...

  18. The Great Sexologists: John Money on Sin, Science, and the Sex Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, John

    This paper discusses the role of sex police in society from the 14th century to the present and their affect on sex education in the schools. Jean Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris and Dean of the Cathedral School of Notre Dame, was one of the first to publish information concerning nocturnal wet dreams and boyhood masturbation. His…

  19. Prevalence and meanings of exchange of money or gifts for sex in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... montrent que l\\'acceptation de l\\'argent ou des cadeaux pour le sexe n\\'est pas nécessairement une force coercitive, mais pourrait être plutôt un aspect de routine de fixer un rendez-vous entre petits amis. Keywords: transactional sex, adolescents, condom use. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 11 (3) 2007: pp.

  20. Sex as a biological variable: Drug use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anthony L; Hempel, Briana J; Clasen, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (preoccupation/anticipation). Following this overview, an assessment of the basis for the reported sex differences is discussed in the context of the affective (rewarding and aversive) properties of drugs of abuse and how such properties and their balance vary with sex and contribute to drug intake. Finally, the interaction of sex with several experiential (drug history) and subject (age) factors and how these interactions affect reward and aversion are discussed to highlight the importance of understanding such interactions in predicting drug use and abuse. We note that sex as a biological variable remains one of critical evaluation and that such investigations of sex differences in drug use and abuse continue and be expanded to assess all facets of their mediation, including these affective properties, how their balance may be impacted by the multiple conditions under which drugs are taken and how this overall balance affects drug use and addiction vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…

  2. The first welfare case: money, sex, marriage, and white supremacy in Selma, 1966: a reproductive justice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinger, Rickie

    2010-01-01

    King v. Smith, the first welfare case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court, overturned the Alabama substitute father law. Such laws directed or allowed welfare officials to use the sexual behavior and reproductive capacity of poor African American women to alienate this population from "cash-money"; to reassert political and bureaucratic control over the intimate relationships of African Americans, demonstrating that this population was unprepared for civil rights and full citizenship; and to shore up white supremacy in the civil rights era. The context for this case which originated in Selma, Alabama in 1966 illustrates that even if poor African American women had had access to contraception and legal abortion at that time, they would still have lacked reproductive autonomy and dignity as the state surveilled their sexual behavior and enforced laws making sex, itself, as well as reproduction, and the right to define their own intimate relationships and families, a race and class privilege.

  3. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproduction (I): Sex, Drug and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Thaddeus

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the evidence of drug effects on the unborn, the chromosomal constituency of intersexuality, and the relationships between drug dependence and sexual inadequacy. The sexual effects of alcohol and smoking are discussed. Considers ethical and legal problems raised by the research. (AL)

  5. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-20

    Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.

  6. Trading Sex for Money or Compensation: Prevalence and Associated Characteristics from a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Clinic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara B; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Plax, Katie; Kaushik, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and individual risk factors of people who trade or sell sex among sexually active individuals seeking HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Using electronic agency records, an analysis of the characteristics of 5,029 youth and adults who voluntarily obtained HIV and STI testing was conducted. Multiple imputation procedures for missing data from 3 variables and logistic regression were conducted. A total of 128 individuals reported having traded sex. Nine variables had statistically significant associations with trading sex. Individuals who identified as White and female had lesser odds of trading sex, whereas individuals who were transgender, were living in a shelter, had been sexually assaulted, had a previous STI, had high-risk sex, or used drugs had greater odds of trading sex. Elevated levels of high-risk behavior in addition to sexual trauma should be considered in intervention research and community health practice. Implications for service providers and researchers are discussed.

  7. Sex, sport and money: voice, choice and distributive justice in England, Scotland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    The three British Sports Councils are instrumental in developing the policy landscape for sport and physical education (PE). They aspire to equality between the sexes in ‘sport and physical recreation’ (SPR), in keeping with their Royal Charters (SE, 2009; SS, 1996; SW, 1997) and the Equality Act (HM Government, 2010). As public bodies they are committed to eliminating direct and indirect discrimination in provision, and advancing equality. One of their main functions is the distribution of p...

  8. Sex, gender, and pharmaceutical politics: From drug development to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Ronald, Lorna M

    2010-08-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms affect the provision of health care products and services, but there has been little explicit analysis of the impact of sex differences and gender norms on the regulation of pharmaceutical development and marketing. This article provides an overview of the regulation of pharmaceuticals and examines the ways that regulatory agencies account for sex and gender in their review of scientific data and marketing materials. The primary focus is on the US context, but information is also included about regulatory models in Europe, Canada, and Japan for comparative purposes. Specific examples show how sex differences and gender norms influence scientific and policy decisions about pharmaceuticals. The United States and Canada were found to be the only countries that have explicit requirements to include women in clinical trials and to perform sex-based subgroup analysis on study results. The potential influence of politics on regulatory decisions may have led to an uneven application of standards, as seen through the examples of mifepristone (for abortion) and sildenafil citrate (for erectile dysfunction). Three detailed case studies illustrate the importance of considering sex and gender in pharmaceutical development and marketing: Phase I clinical trials; human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine; and tegaserod, a drug for irritable bowel syndrome. Sex and gender play important roles in pharmaceutical regulation, from the design of clinical trials and the approval of new drugs to advertising and postmarketing surveillance. However, regulatory agencies pay insufficient attention to both biological sex differences and sociocultural gender norms. This disregard perpetuates inequalities by ignoring drug safety problems that predominate in women and by allowing misleading drug marketing that reinforces gender stereotypes. Recommendations have been made to improve the regulation of pharmaceuticals in regard to sex and

  9. Subjective Well-Being among Those Who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This work explores differences in subjective well-being (SWB) between two samples. Survey data from Yunnan China was collected by Yang and Luo in 2003 and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. A second pilot data set was collected in Thailand during January and February 2007. Predictors of SWB were explored among the Yunnan sample as…

  10. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.

  13. Sex differences in drug use among polysubstance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-12-01

    Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    by inhabitants in the county of Funen (n = 466567). The number of individuals concurrently using two to four drugs (minor PP) and five or more drugs (major PP) was calculated on a random day in 1994. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index. The main...... therapeutic class (second level of the ATC code) was used as an indicator for the type of health problem. A stepwise backwards logistic regression was used to identify predictors of major PP. Odds ratios were calculated for different drug classes, and the age and sex of all drug users. RESULTS: On a random...... day, 8.3% of the population were exposed to minor PP and 1.2% to major PP. The prevalence of PP increased with age, and from the age of 70 years, two thirds of all drug users were PP users. Drug use was 50% more prevalent among women than men, but over the age of 70, the sexes did not differ...

  15. Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Lemus, Hector; Wagner, Karla D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Gómez, Rangel María Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (i) sex work prior to injecting drugs initiation; (ii) injection drug use prior to sex work initiation; and (iii) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e. initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-US border. A total of 557 FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years. Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. Nearly half (n = 258) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n = 163) initiated injection first and a quarter (n = 136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one-third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work and one-quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Exchange Sex Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in the New York Metropolitan Area: The Importance of Local Context, Gender and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Reilly, Kathleen H; Anderson, Bridget J; Bolden, Barbara; Wogayehu, Afework; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2018-02-21

    Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.

  17. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  18. Sex, drugs, and HIV: rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Belani, Hrishikesh; Achrekar, Angeli; Parry, Charles D; Dewing, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    South Africa is experiencing significant changes in patterns of illicit drug use, including increasing injection and non-injection drug use, and the use of drugs by persons engaged in sex work, both of which could further expand the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005, a rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in Durban, South Africa, to learn more about patterns of drug use and HIV risk behaviors among drug-using, street-based sex workers. Field teams recruited 52 current injection and non-injection drug users for key informant interviews and focus groups, and they conducted mapping and observation in identified high-risk neighborhoods. Key informants were offered free, voluntary counseling and HIV rapid testing. The results of the assessment indicate that in this population, drugs play an organizing role in patterns of daily activities, with sex work closely linked to the buying, selling, and using of drugs. Participants reported using multiple drugs including crack cocaine, heroin, Ecstasy and Mandrax, and their choices were based on their expectations about the functional role and behavioral and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The organization of sex work and patterns of drug use differ by gender, with males exercising more control over daily routines and drug and sexual transactions than females. Activities of female sex workers are subject to considerable control by individual pimps, many of whom also function as landlords and drug dealers. A strong hold over the overlapping economies of drugs and sex work by a few individuals extends to control of the physical and social settings in which sex is exchanged and drugs are sold and used as well as the terms under which sex work is carried out. The potential for accelerated HIV spread is considerable given the evidence of overlapping drug-using and sexual risk behaviors and the mixing patterns across drug and sexual risk networks.

  19. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  20. Sex and drugs and rock'n'roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J

    The community center at the housing estate of St. Mellons in Cardiff, Wales, has two projects serving youth. A physician and nurse make up a team operating family planning clinic at the youth center on Friday afternoons. Local graffiti artists have created brightly colored posters to promote the drop-in center. Teenagers come to the youth center to play pool, drink coffee, and to listen to music. In a room next to this activity, the team distributes contraceptives (e.g., condoms). They also counsel teens about sexuality, relationships, self-respect, health, and disease. They work to dispel any incorrect information that they often hear. Counseling provides the teens correct information, which they can convey to their peers. The director of family planning and well-woman services for South Glamorgan finds peer education to be more effective than sex education in schools. A psychiatric nurse and her community drug colleagues set up a drop-in center for a needle exchange, but the team finds itself acting as a drugs information service. The advice it gives includes ho to use drugs more safely, possible adverse reactions, referrals (medical, detoxification, and counseling), and the nature of substances on the street. Clients trust the team so much that they share with the team members when there is a bad drug on the market. An outreach worker has headed up a residential week-end with some teens to further discuss drug use. Despite their success and popularity, lack of financial or human resources prevents expansion of both service. The drug needle exchange/information service tried to work out of another youth center, but fear by neighbors that it would give the area a bad name hampered its opening.

  1. Migration, urbanization, and drug use and casual sex in China: a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiushi Yang; Huasong Luo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a survey conducted in 2003 and employing multilevel modeling, this paper examines the impact of migration and urbanization on drug abuse and casual sex in China. The results suggest that being a migrant predicts significantly higher odds of having casual sex but lower odds of drug abuse. Living in an urban place is a significant risk factor for both illicit drug use and casual sex. There are significant cross-community (primary sampling unit) variances in the random intercept ...

  2. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs.

  3. Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Ritter, Alison; Berends, Lynda; Lancaster, Kari

    2016-05-01

    The structures of health systems impact on patient outcomes. We present and analyse the first detailed mapping of who funds alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and the channels and intermediaries through which funding flows from the funding sources to treatment providers. The study involved a literature review of AOD treatment financing and existing diagrammatic representations of the structure of the Australian health system. We interviewed 190 key informants to particularise the AOD treatment sector, and undertook two case examples of government funded non-government organisations providing AOD treatment. Funding sources include the Australian and state and territory governments, philanthropy, fund-raising and clients themselves. While funding sources align with the health sector generally and the broader social services sector, the complexity of flows from source to treatment service and the number of intermediaries are noteworthy. So too are the many sources of funding drawn on by some treatment providers. Diversification is both beneficial and disadvantageous for non-government treatment providers, adding to administrative workloads, but smoothing the risk of funding shortfalls. Government funders benefit from sharing risk. Circuitous funding flows multiply the funding sources drawn on by services and put distance between the funding source and the service provider. This leads to concerns over lack of transparency about what is being purchased and challenges for the multiply funded service provider in maintaining programs and service models amid multiple and sometimes competing funding and accountability frameworks. [Chalmers J, Ritter A, Berends L, Lancaster K. Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:255-262]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.

  5. Criminalizing Sex Work Clients and Rushed Negotiations among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs in a Canadian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Adina; Shannon, Kate; Krüsi, Andrea; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Nosova, Ekaterina; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2017-08-01

    Previous research indicates that criminalization of sex work is associated with harms among sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver Police Department changed their sex work policy to no longer target sex workers while continuing to target clients and third parties in an effort to increase the safety of sex workers (similar to "end-demand sex work" approaches being adopted in a number of countries globally). We sought to investigate the trends and correlates of rushing negotiations with clients due to police presence among 359 sex workers who use drugs in Vancouver before and after the guideline change. Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of people who use drugs in Vancouver between 2008 and 2014. We used sex-stratified multivariable generalized estimating equation models. The crude percentages of sex workers who use drugs reporting rushing client negotiations changed from 8.9% before the guideline change to 14.8% after the guideline change among 259 women, and from 8.6 to 7.1% among 100 men. In multivariable analyses, there was a significant increase in reports of rushing client negotiation after the guideline change among women (p = 0.04). Other variables that were independently associated with increased odds of rushing client negotiation included experiencing client-perpetrated violence (among both men and women) and non-heterosexual orientation (among women) (all p sex workers who use drugs. It was also associated with client-perpetrated violence and other markers of vulnerability. These findings lend further evidence that criminalizing the purchase of sexual services does not protect the health and safety of sex workers.

  6. Rapid assessment of drug use and sexual HIV risk patterns among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-injection drug use (mainly cannabis, methaqualone, crack cocaine and crystal methamphetamine) and injection drug use (mainly heroin) was occurring in these cities. Drug users report selling sex for money to buy drugs, and CSWs used drugs before, during and after sex. Most (70%) of the drug-using KIs offered HIV ...

  7. Money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvosheieva, Ganna

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with evaluation of ant-money laundering effectiveness. In theoretical part money laundering, FATF (Financial Ask Task Force) and AML(anti-money laundering) are defined. Practical part concentrates on the biggest scandals of the latest years and assessment of AML effectiveness. Based on this evaluation, weak places in AML mechanisms were identified. Additionally, tools of AML improvement were determined.

  8. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War's Rentier Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California's real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of "illegal" wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the "il/legal" dynamics of marijuana land use. As marijuana becomes licit, prohibitionist policies have enabled the capture of ground rent by landed interests from the marijuana industry at a time when the price of marijuana is declining (in part due to its increasing licitness). The resulting "drug war rentier nexus," a state-land-finance complex, is becoming a key, if obscured, component within marijuana's contemporary political economy.

  9. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  10. Sex differences in the vulnerability to drug abuse: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Megan E; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2004-10-01

    Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that males and females differ on several aspects of drug reinforcement. Females are more vulnerable than males during transition periods of drug use that are characteristic of drug addiction and relapse. Females are also more sensitive than males to the reinforcing effects of stimulants. It has been suggested that ovarian hormones contribute to the mechanisms of action underlying these sex differences. This review examines the preclinical literature on sex differences and ovarian hormonal influences on drug self-administration in animals. It summarizes the findings on the effects of these variables during different phases of drug addiction. Possible differences in the mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse due to interactions with sex differences or ovarian hormonal factors are considered. The animal literature on sex differences in drug abuse treatment effectiveness is also discussed.

  11. ?Money talks, bullshit walks? interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekstr?m, Anna Mia

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa?s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur am...

  12. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  14. The interaction of drug use, sex work, and HIV among transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth R

    2014-06-01

    Transgender women have a higher prevalence of drug use, HIV, drug use, and sex work than the general population. This article explores the interaction of these variables and discusses how sex work and drug use behaviors contribute to the high rates of HIV. A model predicting HIV rates with sex work and drug use as well as these behaviors in the transgender woman's social network is presented. Challenges to intervening with transgender women, as well as suggestions and criteria for successful interventions, are discussed.

  15. "Money talks, bullshit walks" interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2013-07-18

    Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing

  16. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  17. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p<0.001. Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  18. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Persuader Sex Differences and Peer Pressure Effects on Attitudes Toward Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher I.; Shute, Robert E.

    This experiment was performed to assess the effects of the experimental confederates' sex and contrived group peer pressure on the drug attitudes of male college students. Subjects were exposed to all male or all female groups of experimental confederates (persuaders) who expressed either extremely pro-drug or anti-drug sentiments in a guided…

  20. Drug Use and Sex Work Among At-risk Women: A Qualitative Study of Initial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanfekr, Payam; Noori, Roya; Dejman, Masoumeh; Fathi Geshnigani, Zahra; Rafiey, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in performing research on drug use and sex work among at-risk women. Although there is a well-documented literature of the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work among women, there is, however, a paucity of information in this area in Iran. This study aimed to explore the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work in a group of female treatment seekers, who presented health-related risk behaviors, in Tehran, Iran. This qualitative study enrolled a total of 65 at-risk women, from five women-specific drug clinics, who participated in the study in 2011. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Focus group interviews were conducted with 10 key informants. All interviews were audio-taped and thematically written. The recorded data were analyzed using ATLASti qualitative research software version 10. The median age of the sample was 34 years. In addition, 44.6% of subjects were opiate users, and 55.4% were users of opiates and methamphetamine. Sex work was the main source of income for almost half of the sample. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial drug use, were extrinsic motivations, including the drug-using family, friends or social networks. Intrinsic motivations, including curiosity and individual willingness to use drugs, were other initial reasons. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial sex work, included the need to purchase drugs and financial problems. The study findings demonstrated a number of reasons associated with initial drug use and sex work. The role of sex work in providing drugs necessitates education and prevention. Special treatment programs should be implemented to prevent sex work among at-risk women in Iran.

  1. Smart Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    From using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online, school districts are seeking money-saving methods. In this article, the author discusses some methods used by school districts that allow them to save money from using virtualization technology to accepting lunch payments online.

  2. Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of the European Union in the emergence, consolidation and development of the governance of money laundering. In particular, it identifies three sets of factors that explain the role of the European Union in the global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regime...

  3. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  4. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...

  5. Multiplying Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is not a comprehensive factual history of money as an economic instrument. It aims rather to present an essential psychological history of the power of money as a social organization or social technology. It explores the catalytic role of money in the development of society and its ever-increasing capacity for accomplishment in both economic and non-economic fields. This perspective focuses attention on the unutilized potential for harnessing the social power of money for promoting full employment, global development and human welfare. The title ‘multiplying money’ is intended to convey the idea that this untapped potential is exponential in nature. In order to recognize it, some fundamental misconceptions about the nature of money, how it is created and on what it is based need to be examined. This is the second article in a series.

  6. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  7. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  8. Gendered contexts: psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Bethany G.; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of ...

  9. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...

  10. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Legal tender in the form of coins and banknotes is expected to be replaced at one point in the future by digital legal tender. This transformation is an opportunity for central banks to rethink the idea of money and overhaul the prevailing payment systems. Digital legal tender is expected to reduce...... exchange instrument that relies on computer protocols to facilitate, verify, and enforce certain conditions for its appropriation as payment, e.g. who may use the money, where, and for what. If we believe that digital legal tender will become ubiquitous, then the emergence and diffusion of smart money...

  11. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  12. Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Roth, Megan E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2002-11-01

    The recent focus on drug abuse in women has brought attention to numerous differences between women and men. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical findings of sex differences in drug abuse as well as mechanisms that may underlie these differences. Recent evidence suggests that the progression to dependence and abuse may differ between women and men; thus, different prevention and treatment strategies may be required. Similar sex differences in drug sensitivity and self-administration have been reported in laboratory animal studies. Females appear to be more vulnerable than males to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants, opiates, and nicotine during many phases of the addiction process (e.g. acquisition, maintenance, dysregulation-escalation, relapse). Male and female animals differ in their behavioral, neurological, and pharmacological responses to drugs. Although the role of sex in the mechanisms of drug action remains unclear, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, play a role in producing sex differences in drug abuse. Future research is necessary to provide information on how to design more effective drug abuse treatment programs and resources that are sex specific.

  13. Making Money from Making Money

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCann, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after prov...

  14. Making Money from Making Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Laurie; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Bjerg, Ole

    Who has control over the supply of new money and what benefits does it bring? There is now widespread acceptance that in modern economies, commercial banks, rather than the central bank or state, create the majority of the money supply. This report examines ‘seigniorage’ – the profits...... that are generated through the creation of money. We show that in the UK, commercial bank seigniorage profits amount to a hidden annual subsidy of £23 billion, representing 73% of banks’ profits after provisions and taxes....

  15. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Rodovalho, Aurélio Goulart; Fernandes, Inaina Lara; Silva, Graciele Cristina; de Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes; Vera, Ivânia; Gregório, Valéria Duarte; Lucchese, Roselma

    2016-01-01

    Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  16. Sex differences in the self-administration of cannabinoids and other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for important sex-dependent differences in the origins, outcomes and treatment of drug abuse and dependence. Preclinical studies typically have employed animal models of addiction, such as oral or intravenous self-administration, to untangle the environmental, neurobiological and genetic factors that contribute to the shift from occasional, recreational use to compulsive, uncontrolled intake of drugs. Craving and relapse of drug seeking in abstinent individuals have also been found to differ between men and women. Identification of the neurobiological basis of craving and drug dependence continues to pose a challenge to addiction research. Significant sex differences are emerging in substance-abuse-related behavior, which has increased the demand for research on how drug consumption may have different causes, progression and consequences in men and women. In keeping with epidemiological data in humans, differences between the two sexes in drug seeking and intake have been well-documented in animal studies, with most recent findings related to abuse of cannabinoids. Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that sex and gonadal hormones may account for individual differences in susceptibility to the reinforcing effects of addictive substances, and that differences in vulnerability to drug abuse may be mediated by the same biological mechanisms. This review focuses on the differences between males and females in relation to drug self-administration and how such behavior may be affected by hormonal status.

  17. Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Aline Dayrell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the profile of male injecting drug users who have sex with other men (MSM IDUs recruited through a cross-sectional multi-city survey (AjUDE-Brasil II Project in six Brazilian cities, in 2000-2001. MSM IDUs were compared to other male IDUs using bivariate and multivariate procedures (logistic regression and answer tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm. Among the 709 male IDUs, 187 (26.4% reported ever having had sex with other men, while only 37 reported sex with other men in the previous six months. MSM IDUs were more likely to be unemployed (OR = 2.3, to have injected tranquilizers (OR = 3.6, and to be HIV-seropositive (OR = 2.1, compared to other male IDUs. Male same-sex relations in this subgroup appear to be associated with strategies to finance drug consuming habits, including sex for drugs with occasional female partners or obtaining injection paraphernalia from occasional sex partners. Further studies should focus on this especially vulnerable subgroup of IDUs, due to the bidirectional and complex interrelationships between their drug injecting habits and sexual risk behaviors.

  18. Social participation and drug use in a cohort of Brazilian sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hannah Hogan; Ahern, Jennifer; Chinaglia, Magda; Kerrigan, Deanna; Lippman, Sheri A

    2013-06-01

    Structural interventions focused on community mobilisation to engender an enabling social context have reduced sexual risk behaviours among sex workers. Interventions to date have increased social participation and shown an association between participation and safer sex. Social participation could modify risk for other health behaviours, particularly drug use. We assessed social participation and drug use before and after implementation of a clinical, social and structural intervention with sex workers intended to prevent sexually transmitted infections/HIV infection. We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. We estimated the association of participation in external social groups with drug use at baseline and follow-up using logistic regression and marginal modelling. Follow-up analyses of preintervention/postintervention change in drug use employed inverse probability weighting to account for censoring and were stratified by exposure to the intervention. Social participation showed a protective association with drug use at baseline (1 SD higher level of social participation associated with 3.8% lower prevalence of drug use, 95% CI -0.1 to 8.3). Among individuals exposed to Encontros, higher social participation was associated with an 8.6% lower level of drug use (95% CI 0.1 to 23.3). No significant association was found among the unexposed. A structural intervention that modified sex workers' social environment, specifically participation in external social groups, was associated with reduced drug use. These findings suggest that sexual risk prevention initiatives that enhance social integration among marginalised populations can produce broad health impacts, including reductions in drug use.

  19. Free Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    School library budgets are about as miserably low or nonexistent as many librarians have ever seen. The population of school librarians who have not just one, but "many" school libraries to manage is growing. Time and funds are short, and needs for books, programming, and technology are high. Grant money is out there for librarians, and the author…

  20. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gendered contexts: psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G.; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that while psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. PMID:27030996

  2. The Role of Drinking Severity on Sex Risk Behavior and HIV Exposure among Illicit Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Trenz, Rebecca; Harrell, Paul; Mauro, Pia; Latimer, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined how drinking severity among injection and non-injection drug users is associated with sex risk behaviors and risk of HIV exposure. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of an investigation of risk factors among drug users in Baltimore known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study. Participants (N = 557) completed an interview, self-reported 30-day alcohol use, lifetime injection and non-injection drug use, and provided blood samples to screen for HIV. Participants were grouped into one of three drinking severity conditions: Abstinent (no reported alcohol use in prior 30-days), Moderate Alcohol Use (≤30 drinks for females, or ≤ 60 drinks for males), or Problematic Alcohol Use (>30 drinks for females, or >60 drinks for males). Drinking severity groups were significantly different on lifetime injection drug use, heroin injection, snorting/sniffing cocaine, and smoking crack. Results Logistic regression analyses found problematic alcohol users to be more likely than alcohol abstainers to inject drugs before or during sex (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.07-16.10), and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI = 2.09-11.81), inject drugs before/during sex (AOR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.29-6.80) and to be HIV+ among Black participants (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.14-6.49). Conclusions These results outline the necessity for research and clinical intervention among this population to reduce sex risk behaviors and potential HIV exposure, while highlighting the need to examine drinking severity as a predictor of sex risk behaviors. PMID:23617865

  3. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar?es, Rafael Alves; Rodovalho, Aur?lio Goulart; Fernandes, Inaina Lara; Silva, Graciele Cristina; de Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes; Vera, Iv?nia; Greg?rio, Val?ria Duarte; Lucchese, Roselma

    2016-01-01

    Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goi?s State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p < 0.001). Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) were ri...

  4. Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

  5. Event-Level Analysis of Anal Sex Roles and Sex Drug Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed event-level partnership data from a computer-assisted survey of 719 gay and bisexual men (GBM) enrolled in the Momentum Health Study to delineate potential linkages between anal sex roles and the so-called "sex drugs," i.e., erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), poppers, and crystal methamphetamine. Univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized linear mixed models with logit link function with sexual encounters (n = 2514) as the unit of analysis tested four hypotheses: (1) EDD are significantly associated with insertive anal sex roles, (2) poppers are significantly associated with receptive anal sex, (3) both poppers and EDD are significantly associated with anal sexual versatility, and (4) crystal methamphetamine is significantly associated with all anal sex roles. Data for survey respondents and their sexual partners allowed testing these hypotheses for both anal sex partners in the same encounter. Multivariable results supported the first three hypotheses. Crystal methamphetamine was significantly associated with all anal sex roles in the univariable models, but not significant in any multivariable ones. Other multivariable significant variables included attending group sex events, venue where first met, and self-described sexual orientation. Results indicate that GBM sex-drug use behavior features rational decision-making strategies linked to anal sex roles. They also suggest that more research on anal sex roles, particularly versatility, is needed, and that sexual behavior research can benefit from partnership analysis.

  6. [A study on syphilis and HSV-2 infection and related behaviors among female sex workers who take new types of drugs in Jiaozhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Dongmin; Jiang, Zhenxia; Liu, Huixin; Wang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    To explore the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 among female sex workers (FSWs) who use new types of drugs in Jiaozhou city. Through convenient sampling, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among female sex workers to collect demographic characteristics, new-type drugs abusing characteristics and related sexual behaviors from October to December, 2013. Blood specimens were drawn for serological tests of syphilis antibody and HSV-2 antibody. Urine specimens of the subjects surveyed were collected to test for methamphetamine. Differences in demographic characteristics, new-type drug abusing characteristics, and sexual behaviours between drug-abusing FSWs and non-drug-abusing FSWs were compared by t-test and χ(2)-test. A total of 460 FSWs were recruited in this study, and 105 FSWs admitted their drug abuse history. Among the 341 urine specimens confirmed to be methamphetamine positive, there were 3 FSWs claimed that they never abuse new-type drugs. The rate of new-type drug abuse was 23.5% (108/460). A total of 71.4% (75/105) of the new drug-abusing FSWs started using drugs under 25 years old. The main reasons for drug abuse were clients request (24, 22.9%), making more money (23, 21.9%) and companion temptations (22, 21.0%). Totally, 41.9% of them (44/105) took drugs with 4-5 persons, 32.4% (34/105) had sex with 2-3 men after taking drugs, and 60.2% of new-type drug-abusing FSWs (65/108) used condoms in the latest commercial intercourse, while only 7.4% FSWs (8/108) used condoms every time during their commercial sex activities in the recent month. Compared with FSWs having no drug abuse behavior, drug-abusing FSWs had higher single proportion (73.2% (79/108) vs 63.6% (224/352), χ(2) = 8.64, P drug-abusing FSWs, the prevalence rates of syphilis and HSV-2 were 12.0% (13/108) and 55.6% (60/108) , respectively. A total of 33 FSWs claimed that they were diagnosed with STDs in the recent year (30.6%) . The rates of syphilis(12.0% (13/108) vs 4.0% (14/352),

  7. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  8. The future of drugs: recreational drug use and sexual health among gay and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane; Lea, Toby; Murphy, Dean; Pienaar, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain. Sexualised drug use is associated with a range of other problems, including dependence, mental health issues, accident and overdose. A growing body of work in the Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) field demonstrates the action of drugs and their purported effects to be a product of their relations with various other actors, contexts and practices. Given these contingencies, it is impossible to predict the future of drugs or their effect on the sexual health of gay and MSM with any degree of certainty. This article outlines some of the conditions most likely to mediate such futures in the medium term. Public funding for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer drug issues should not remain restricted to questions of HIV prevention and sexual health. It should be expanded to equip sexual health and AOD service providers with the cultural and sexual literacy to mitigate stigma and allow them to respond constructively to drug problems among sexual and gender minorities as a matter of priority.

  9. Student Interests and Attitude Change toward Drug Educators as a Function of Sex and Role Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.

    1982-01-01

    Focused on recorded tapes and sex-role interaction of 12 sessions on drug abuse. Subjects were 247 seventh-grade males and females. Communicators (males and females) made two presentations with roles rotated according to ex-addict/learned specialist. Results indicated female and male students were influenced most by female specialist…

  10. Sex-dimorphic adverse drug reactions to immune suppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zelinkova (Zuzana); E. Bultman (Evelien); L. Vogelaar (Lauran); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To analyze sex differences in adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the immune suppressive medication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: All IBD patients attending the IBD outpatient clinic of a referral hospital were identifed through the electronic diagnosis

  11. Sex differences in antihypertensive drug use : determinants of the choice of medication for hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A; Paes, A.H.P.; Seidell, J C; Bakker, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and explain sex differences in antihypertensive drug use. DESIGN AND METHODS: From 1987 to 1995, two cross-sectional population-based surveys of cardiovascular disease risk factors in The Netherlands were carried out among 56026 men and women aged 20-59 years. Polytomous

  12. Short-term cessation of sex work and injection drug use: evidence from a recurrent event survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Urada, Lianne A; Martinez, Gustavo; Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Reed, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-06-01

    This study quantitatively examined the prevalence and correlates of short-term sex work cessation among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and determined whether injection drug use was independently associated with cessation. We used data from FSW-IDUs (n=467) enrolled into an intervention designed to increase condom use and decrease sharing of injection equipment but was not designed to promote sex work cessation. We applied a survival analysis that accounted for quit-re-entry patterns of sex work over 1-year stratified by city, Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Overall, 55% of participants stopped sex work at least once during follow-up. Controlling for other characteristics and intervention assignment, injection drug use was inversely associated with short-term sex work cessation in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, women receiving drug treatment during follow-up had a 2-fold increase in the hazard of stopping sex work. In both cities, income from sources other than sex work, police interactions and healthcare access were independently and significantly associated with shorter-term cessation. Short-term sex work cessation was significantly affected by injection drug use. Expanded drug treatment and counseling coupled with supportive services such as relapse prevention, job training, and provision of alternate employment opportunities may promote longer-term cessation among women motivated to leave the sex industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  14. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  15. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Offer of financial incentives for unprotected sex in the context of sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Caitlin L; Callon, Cody; Li, Kathy; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Commercial sex workers (CSW) are often portrayed as vectors of disease transmission. However, the role clients play in sexual risk taking and related decision making has not been thoroughly characterised. Participants were drawn from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study, a longitudinal cohort. Analyses were restricted to those who reported selling sex between June 2001 and December 2005. Using multivariate generalised estimating equation, we evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with being offered money for sex without a condom. A total of 232 CSW were included in the analyses, with 73.7% reporting being offered more money for condom non-use, and 30.6% of these CSW accepting. Variables independently associated with being offered money for sex without a condom included daily speedball use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23-0.62], daily crack smoking (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.19), daily heroin injection (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.27-2.43) and drug use with clients (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 2.37-4.37). Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity was not significant (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67-1.44). Findings highlight the role clients play in contributing to unprotected sex through economic influence and exploitation of CSW drug use. HIV serostatus has no bearing on whether more money is offered for sex without a condom. Novel interventions should target both CSW and clients.

  18. Streets, strolls and spots: sex work, drug use and social space in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus, Paul; Roddy, Juliette; Asabigi, Kanzoni

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we explore social spaces related to street sex work and illicit drug use in Detroit. We consider these spaces as assemblages (Duff, 2011, 2013; Latour, 2005) that reflect the larger moral geography (Hubbard, 2012) of the city and fulfill specific functions in the daily lives of drug using sex workers. We draw on thirty-one in-depth qualitative interviews with former street sex workers who were recruited through a court-based treatment and recovery program, as well as ethnographic field notes from drug treatment and law enforcement settings. Our interview findings reveal highly organized and routine activities that exist in a relatively stable, symbiotic relationship with law enforcement practices, employment and commuter patterns, and built environments. While the daily life of street sex work involves a good deal of individual agency in terms of moving between spaces and negotiating terms of exchange, daily trajectories were also circumscribed by economics, illicit substance use, and the objective risks of the street and the police. We consider the implications of these results for future policy directed at harm reduction in the street setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex work, injection drug use, and abscesses: Associations in women, but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurcel, Alysse G; Burke, Deirdre; Skeer, Margie; Landy, David; Heimer, Robert; Wong, John B; Chui, Kenneth K H; Stopka, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Abscesses commonly occur among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, whether the risks are comparable between males and females, and the impact of sex work on abscess risk is unclear. The goal of this study was to examine the contemporary associations of gender and sex work with the risk of abscesses in PWID. Combining data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in the Greater Boston Area with people at risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), we used the following inclusion criteria: age 18-45 years and report of illicit or non-prescription drug injection within the 30 days prior to the survey. Information on demographics, injection-mediated risks, and sexual behaviors was collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Software. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to model associations. The study sample included 298 people including 30% were female. Females were more likely than men to report sex work (28% vs. 16%, p = .012) and abscess during their lifetime (55% vs. 37% p = .004). Among the females, engaging in sex work increased by >5-fold the odds of reporting abscesses [Adjusted odds ratio 5.42; 95% CI: 1.27, 23.10]. There was no association between sex work and abscesses among men. We found a female-specific association between sex work, injection drug use, and abscesses among PWID. Although the cross-sectional designs precluded causal inferences, longitudinal studies could enhance understanding of gender-associated risks for abscesses and inform the development of harm reduction interventions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; He, Jianmei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Tang, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using “snowball” techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants. Results Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4%) reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users. Conclusion Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM. PMID:25950912

  1. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM.A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using "snowball" techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants.Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4% reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users.Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM.

  2. Sex-related differences in cadmium-induced alteration of drug action in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, R.C.; Pence, D.H.; Prosser, T.D.; Miya, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    Three days after pretreatment of rats of both sexes with cadmium (2 mg/kg, i.p.), the duration of hypnosis induced by hexobarbital (75 mg/kg, i.p.) was potentiated in males but not females. Likewise, similar treatment with cadmium leads to significant inhibition of the metabolism of hexobarbital by hepatic microsomal enzymes obtained from male but not female animals. These data suggest that there is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to alter drug action in rats.

  3. An Apology for Money

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    2008-01-01

    This review is about the convenience, the benefits, as well as the destructive capacities of money. It deals with various aspects of money creation, with its value, and its appropriation. All sorts of money tend to get corrupted by eventually creating too much of them. In the long run, this renders money worthless and deprives people holding it. This misuse of money creation is inevitable and should come as no surprise. Abusive money creation comes in various forms. In the present fiat money ...

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  6. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  8. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Distinct Circulating Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Among Injecting Drug Users and Sex Workers in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    assessed sociodemographics, travel history, sex- work history, and activity for SWs and sexual -activity history for IDUs, past and current drug-use...behaviors, past and current STI symptoms, condom (men and women) and contraceptive (women only) use, and knowledge about HIV. SW participants received a...32.7 years. Most were married (72.7%) and had >6 years of formal education (72.7%). The mean reported duration of injecting was 2.45 years (SD¼ 1.63

  10. Sex, drugs and moral goals: reproductive strategies and views about recreational drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Dukes, Amber; Weeden, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Humans, unlike most other species, show intense interest in the activities of conspecifics, even when the activities in question pose no obvious fitness threat or opportunity. Here, we investigate one content domain in which people show substantial interest, the use of drugs for non-medical purposes. Drawing from two subject populations—one undergraduate and one Internet-based—we look at the relationships among (i) abstract political commitments; (ii) attitudes about sexuality; and (iii) views surrounding recreational drugs. Whereas some theories suggest that drug views are best understood as the result of abstract political ideology, we suggest that these views can be better understood in the context of reproductive strategy. We show that, as predicted by a strategic construal, drug attitudes are best predicted by sexual items rather than abstract political commitments and, further, that the relationship between factors such as political ideology and drugs, while positive, are reduced to zero or nearly zero when items assessing sexuality are controlled for. We conclude that considering morality from the standpoint of strategic interests is a potentially useful way to understand why humans care about third party behaviour. PMID:20554547

  11. How to save money on medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Saving money on prescription drugs. www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm134215.htm . Updated May 4, 2016. Accessed October 14, 2016. U.S. Food and Drug ...

  12. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  13. Diclofenac sex-divergent drug-drug interaction with Sunitinib: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Chii Chii; Ng, Salby; Chee, Yun Lee; Koo, Teng Wai; Liew, Ming Hui; Chee, Evelyn Li-Ching; Modamio, Pilar; Fernández, Cecilia; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Coadministration of diclofenac and sunitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, led to sex-divergent pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction outcomes. Male and female mice were administered 60 mg/kg PO sunitinib alone (control groups) or with 30 mg/kg PO diclofenac. Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney and liver were determined by HPLC and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. In male mice, diclofenac decreased AUC 0→∞ 38% in plasma (p diclofenac increased the liver uptake efficiency in male (27%, p diclofenac with probable clinical translatability due to potential different effects in male and female patients requiring careful selection of the NSAID and advanced TDM to implement a personalized treatment.

  14. Drug, sex and age differentials in the use of Australian publicly funded treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jane Anne; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those 'at risk', by drug type, sex and age. The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey) and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006-2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset) and public hospitals (2006-2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset) to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. 'At risk' for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001). 'At risk' for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15-19 years) and older adults (40+ years) seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment. Publicly available data can be used to estimate harms associated with the use of particular

  15. Effectiveness of Culturally Appropriate Initiative on Drug-Related Harm Reduction for Sex Workers on the Thai/Malaysian Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunun, Worapol; Kanato, Manop

    2015-07-01

    Drug use can harm to sex workers. Abstinence intervention, however, may not be appropriate since drug use fosters their career performance. The objective was to develop the culturally appropriate model for sex workers participation on drug demand reduction at the Thailand/Malaysian border This study was a pre-post quasi-experimental design. Tripartite participation was used to develop the model aiming to reduce harm regarding drug use. The study carried out during June 2010-May 2011. Data were collected from 150 key informant interviews, 56 focus group discussions, 22 participant observations in various situations, and numerous related materials. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and 95% confidence interval were utilizedfor quantitative data. Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Drug related harm reduction was evaluated at two-week time along implementation period of 12 months. 89.5% of all sessions introduced could decrease drug related harm. Of all sex workers participated in the study, intended to treat analysis showed 86.9% success rate (95% CI; 77.1, 96.7). Of these, 32.6% became abstinence, 39.1% reduced most of drug related harm. 13.0% reduced partial drug related harm either lessfrequency, less quantity, less concentration, decrease types of drugs/switch to safe drugs or safer method of administration. 2.2% was infancy stage, which needed further support. Key success ofthe model was tripartite participation. With active leaders and strong support, sex workers were continually motivated to reduce harm regarding drug use.

  16. Sex-gender differences in drug abuse: a shift in the burden of proof?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherington, Cora Lee

    2007-10-01

    In the early years of NIDA-supported drug abuse research, much of the research on women was treatment related and conducted out of concern for their pregnancy status. Since then, drug abuse research on women has expanded to include females of all ages, including infants, children, and adolescents, both human and animal. This expansion has also extended to the study of male-female differences. In the early years of the expansion, National Institutes of Health study sections demanded a heavy burden of proof from drug abuse researchers who proposed to study male-female differences. The need for such research appeared not to have face validity. The tide has now changed with the growing body of literature attesting to its scientific and clinical validity. This change is often reflected in concerns expressed in study sections reviewing drug abuse grant applications that an applicant does not propose to analyze the data for sex-gender differences when in fact the literature suggests that such differences would be observed. Although the change has been slow, it suggests that the burden of proof is shifting from having to defend why sex-gender differences should be studied to having to defend why they should not. (c) 2007 APA

  17. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  18. Client demands for unsafe sex: the socioeconomic risk environment for HIV among street and off-street sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kathleen N; Lyons, Tara; Feng, Cindy X; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate

    2013-08-01

    Among sex workers (SWs) in Vancouver, Canada, this study identified social, drug use, sex work, environmental-structural, and client-related factors associated with being offered and accepting more money after clients' demand for sex without a condom. Cross-sectional study using baseline (February 2010 to October 2011) data from a longitudinal cohort of 510 SWs. A 2-part multivariable regression model was used to identify factors associated with 2 separate outcomes: (1) being offered more money for sex without a condom in the last 6 months; and (2) accepting more money, among those who had been offered more money. The sample included 490 SWs. In multivariable analysis, being offered more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs who used speedballs, had higher average numbers of clients per week, had difficulty accessing condoms, and had clients who visited other SWs. Accepting more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs self-reporting as a sexual minority and who had experienced client violence and used crystal methamphetamine less than daily (versus none) and less likely for SWs who solicited mainly indoors for clients (versus outdoor/public places). These results highlight the high demand for sex without a condom by clients of SWs. HIV prevention efforts should shift responsibility toward clients to reduce offers of more money for unsafe sex. Programs that mitigate the social and economic risk environments of SWs alongside the removal of criminal sanctions on sex work to enable condom use within safer indoor workspaces are urgently required.

  19. Saving Money or Spending Tomorrow's Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芳梅

    2017-01-01

    Chinese are normally believed to be thrifty.However,economic development has had a tremendous impact upon Chinese society,uprooting the long-engraved ideas.With the emergence of the credit cards,spending tomorrow's money becomes a reality.In this way,people are in dilemma:saving money or spending tomorrow's money.Firstly,this paper focuses on the benefits of spending tomorrow's money.Secondly,it shows that spending tomorrow's money is confronted with many challenges.Finally,the paper comes up with some suggestions to solve these problems.

  20. A uniform procedure for reimbursing the off-label use of antineoplastic drugs according to the value-for-money approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, A; Fadda, V; Trippoli, S

    2011-04-01

    National healthcare systems as well as local institutions generally reimburse numerous off-label uses of anticancer drugs, but an explicit framework for managing these payments is still lacking. As in the case of on-label uses, an optimal management of off-label uses should be aimed at a direct proportionality between cost and clinical benefit. Within this framework, assessing the incremental cost/effectiveness ratio becomes mandatory, and measuring the magnitude of the clinical benefit (e.g. gain in overall survival or progression-free survival) is essential.This paper discusses how the standard principles of cost-effectiveness and value-for-money can be applied to manage the reimbursement of off-label treatments in oncology. It also describes a detailed operational scheme to appropriately implement this aim. Two separate approaches are considered: a) a trial-based approach, which is designed for situations where enough information is available from clinical studies about the expected effectiveness of the off-label treatment; b) an individualized payment-by-results approach, which is designed for situations in which adequate information on effectiveness is lacking; this latter approach requires that each patient receiving off-label treatment is followed-up to determine individual outcomes and tailor the extent of payment to individual results.Some examples of application of both approaches are presented in detail, which have been extracted from a list of 184 off-label indications approved in 2010 by the Region of tuscany in italy. these examples support the feasibility of the two methods proposed.In conclusion, the scheme described in this paper represents an operational solution to an unsettled problem in the area of oncology drugs. © E.S.I.F.T. srl - Firenze

  1. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in emerging adulthood: differentiating sex from gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Stewart, Breanna C; Steele, Jennifer L; Wagner, Fernando A

    2016-01-01

    Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; female) in NMUPD but has yet to explain how gender-orientation (e.g., masculine, feminine) might impact NMUPD. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by examining the influence of gender-orientation on NMUPD. Using survey data collected during the 2013-2014 academic year from a convenience sample of college students at a mid-sized Midwestern university, we examine the association of gender-orientation with NMUPD (N=796). To do this, we separate masculine and feminine scales from the BEM Sex Role Inventory and use logistic regression to test whether masculine or feminine gender characteristics influence the likelihood of NMUPD (lifetime measure of any use and by category). This analysis shows that self-identified characteristics associated with masculinity increase the odds of NMUPD while femininity is associated with lower odds of NMUPD. Findings from this study increase our knowledge of gender-orientation and sex interactions as factors that might influence NMUPD thus demonstrating the importance of differentiating sex from gender-orientation.

  2. Sex differences in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and the implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Dou, Liu; Trenfield, Sarah J; Madla, Christine M; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Sousa, Jõao; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2018-03-30

    Pre-clinical research often uses rodents as animal models to guide the selection of appropriate oral drug and dose selection in humans. However, traditionally, such research fails to consider the gastrointestinal differences between the sexes of rats and the impact on oral drug delivery. This study aimed to identify and characterise the potential sex-related differences in the gastrointestinal environment of sacrificed male and female Wistar rats. Their gastrointestinal tracts were excised and segmented into the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. The respective contents and tissue sections were collected and analysed for pH, buffer capacity, surface tension, osmolality and relative P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. The pH in the stomach of females was found to be lower than in males. Female rats also exhibited a higher buffer capacity in the caecum and colon when compared with their male counterparts. Males were found to have a higher osmolality than females in the duodenum, ileum and colon. Significant sex differences (p < 0.05) in surface tension were observed in the ileum, where females exhibited a higher surface tension. Interestingly, female rats displayed significantly higher relative P-gp expression levels (p < 0.05) when compared with male rats in the duodenum (1.24 ± 0.85 vs. 0.36 ± 0.26), jejunum (1.45 ± 0.88 vs. 0.38 ± 0.26) and ileum (0.92 ± 0.43 vs. 0.40 ± 0.18) but not in the colon (0.5 ± 0.32 vs. 0.33 ± 0.16) segments. The work reported has demonstrated the stark physiological differences between male and female rats at a physiological level, indicating how the 'sex of the gut' could influence oral drug delivery. These findings, therefore, are of critical importance in pre-clinical research and drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational and demographic factors associated with drug use among female sex workers at the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail-Jares, Katie; Choi, Sugy; Duo, Lin; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Within the last decade, the use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) has swelled in Myanmar. Regionally, female sex workers have reported turning to ATS for occupational reasons. In doing so, drug-using female sex workers (FSW) face compounded risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Here, we examine the factors that impact FSW drug use in Muse, a town along the China-Myanmar border. In 2012, 101 FSW were recruited from entertainment venues and brothels along the Myanmar-Chinese border. Participants participated in a self-administered behavioral survey covering demographics, drug use, sex work, and risk behaviors. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. Thirty four percent of respondents indicated current drug use. ATS derivatives were the most commonly used drugs (87.5%) with injection drug use being nearly non-existent in the sample. Drug using FSWs were older, had engaged in sex work longer, had more Chinese clients, and were more likely to have a previous boyfriend who had used drugs. They were also 3.5 times more likely to report a STI. Client condom use, HIV testing rates, and familiarity with public health resources did not statistically differ by drug use status. More research is needed to examine how romantic and professional sexual relationships push-and-pull FSW into using drugs. Our results suggest that diverse safer sex strategies, beyond client condom use, should be promoted with drug using FSWs, including strategies that acknowledge the impact of ATS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensation seeking moderates the effects of alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-04-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in the United States each year, and young MSM (ages 13-24) have the highest increases in new infections. Identifying which young MSM engage in sexual risk-taking in which contexts is critical in developing effective behavioral intervention strategies for this population. While studies have consistently found positive associations between the use of certain drugs and sexual risk, research on alcohol use as a predictor of risk has been less consistent. Participants included 114 young MSM from a longitudinal study of LGBT youth (ages 16-20 at baseline). Participants reported number of unprotected sex acts with up to nine partners across three waves of data collection spanning a reporting window of 18 months, for a total of 406 sexual partners. Sensation seeking was evaluated as a moderator of the effects of both alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk. Higher levels of sensation seeking were found to significantly increase the positive associations between frequency of unprotected sex and frequency of both alcohol use and drug use with partners. Follow-up analysis found that average rates of alcohol use moderated the association between alcohol use prior to sex and sexual risk, such that decreases in average alcohol use increased the positive association between these variables. Results suggest that while drug use with partners increased sexual risk for all young MSM, the effects of alcohol use prior to sex were limited in low sensation-seeking young MSM as well as those who are high alcohol consumers on average. Implications for future research and behavioral interventions are discussed.

  5. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  6. Piloting a ‘Spatial Isolation’ Index: The Built Environment and Sexual and Drug Use Risks to Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kathleen N; Rusch, Melanie; Amram, Ofer; Chettiar, Jill; Nguyen, Paul; Feng, Cindy X; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background Employing innovative mapping and spatial analyses of individual and neighborhood environment data, we examined the social, physical and structural features of overlapping street-based sex work and drug scenes and explored the utility of a ‘spatial isolation index’ in explaining exchanging sex for drugs and exchanging sex while high. Methods Analyses drew on baseline interview and geographic data (Jan/10-Oct/11) from a large prospective cohort of street and off-street sex workers (SWs) in Metropolitan Vancouver and external publically-available, neighborhood environment data. An index measuring ‘spatial isolation’ was developed from seven indicators measuring features of the built environment within 50m buffers (e.g. industrial or commercial zoning, lighting) surrounding sex work environments. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between the two outcomes (exchanged sex for drugs; exchanged sex while high) and the index, as well as each individual indicator. Results Of 510 SWs, 328 worked in street-based/outdoor environments (e.g. streets, parks, alleys) and were included in the analyses. In multivariable analysis, increased spatial isolation surrounding street-based/outdoor SWs’ main places of servicing clients as measured with the index was significantly associated with exchanging sex for drugs. Exchanging sex for drugs was also significantly positively associated with an indicator of the built environment suggesting greater spatial isolation (increased percent of parks) and negatively associated with those suggesting decreased spatial isolation (increased percent commercial areas, increased count of lighting, increased building footprint). Exchanging sex while high was negatively associated with increased percent of commercial zones but this association was removed when adjusting for police harassment. Conclusions The results from our exploratory study highlight how built environment shapes risks

  7. Piloting a 'spatial isolation' index: the built environment and sexual and drug use risks to sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kathleen N; Rusch, Melanie; Amram, Ofer; Chettiar, Jill; Nguyen, Paul; Feng, Cindy X; Shannon, Kate

    2014-05-01

    Employing innovative mapping and spatial analyses of individual and neighbourhood environment data, we examined the social, physical and structural features of overlapping street-based sex work and drug scenes and explored the utility of a 'spatial isolation index' in explaining exchanging sex for drugs and exchanging sex while high. Analyses drew on baseline interview and geographic data (January 2010-October 2011) from a large prospective cohort of street and off-street sex workers (SWs) in Metropolitan Vancouver and external publically-available, neighbourhood environment data. An index measuring 'spatial isolation' was developed from seven indicators measuring features of the built environment within 50m buffers (e.g., industrial or commercial zoning, lighting) surrounding sex work environments. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between the two outcomes (exchanged sex for drugs; exchanged sex while high) and the index, as well as each individual indicator. Of 510 SWs, 328 worked in street-based/outdoor environments (e.g., streets, parks, alleys) and were included in the analyses. In multivariable analysis, increased spatial isolation surrounding street-based/outdoor SWs' main places of servicing clients as measured with the index was significantly associated with exchanging sex for drugs. Exchanging sex for drugs was also significantly positively associated with an indicator of the built environment suggesting greater spatial isolation (increased percent of parks) and negatively associated with those suggesting decreased spatial isolation (increased percent commercial areas, increased count of lighting, increased building footprint). Exchanging sex while high was negatively associated with increased percent of commercial zones but this association was removed when adjusting for police harassment. The results from our exploratory study highlight how built environment shapes risks within overlapping street-based sex

  8. Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: overlapping HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Jorm, Anthony F; Samson, Luke; Joubert, Lynette; Singh, Shalini; Kermode, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Redefining the money market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: money market, monetary policy, money, financial markets. 1. ..... Both sides of the banks' consolidated balance sheet increase by USD 100 million. ... As substantiation of the statement that the KIR substantially influencing the.

  10. Philosophy of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.

  11. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  12. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  13. The relationship between violence and engagement in drug dealing and sex work among street-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Daly-Grafstein, Ben; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2016-06-27

    Street-involved youth are highly vulnerable to violence. While involvement in income-generating activities within illicit drug scenes is recognized as shaping youths' vulnerability to violence, the relative contributions of different income-generating activities remain understudied. We sought to examine the independent effects of drug dealing and sex work on experiencing violence among street-involved youth. Data were derived from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 who used drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, between September 2005 and May 2014. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the impact of involvement in drug dealing and sex work on experiencing violence. Among 1,152 participants, including 364 (31.6%) women, 740 (64.2%) reported having experienced violence at some point during the study period. In multivariable analysis, involvement in drug dealing but not sex work remained independently associated with experiencing violence among females (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.90) and males (AOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.25-1.80), while involvement in sex work only was not associated with violence among females (AOR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.76-1.74) or males (AOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 0.81-2.48). Findings indicate that involvement in drug dealing is a major factor associated with experiencing violence among our sample. In addition to conventional interventions, such as addiction treatment, novel approaches are needed to reduce the risk of violence for drug-using youth who are actively engaged in drug dealing. The potential for low-threshold employment and decriminalization of drug use to mitigate violence warrants further study.

  14. Correlates of intensive alcohol and drug use in men who have sex with men in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Esteve, Anna; Zaragoza, Kati; Muñoz, Rafa; Casabona, Jordi

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug use before or during sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Catalonia during 2006, and to identify factors associated with variables of intensive alcohol and drug use. Cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires. Men were recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a public park and by mail to all the members of the Catalonia Gay Federation. 19.6% of men said they were frequent users of alcohol, some type of drug (21.7%), or that they were multidrug users (18%) in the last 12 months. The multivariate analysis showed an association between having suffered discrimination and frequent alcohol and multidrug use. Being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive was associated with frequent use of drugs and multidrug use. Associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour also emerged. The high percentage of MSM who use alcohol and drugs before and during sex and association between these substances and sexual risk behaviours reveals the need to intensify interventions to reduce their levels of use and/or to reduce the associated damage and risks. These programs must try to cover MSM-specific psychosocial aspects and include prevention for HIV-positive men.

  15. Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  16. The importance of biological rhythms in drug treatment of hypertension and sex-dependent modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmer B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Björn LemmerInstitute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, GermanyAbstract: The cardiovascular system is highly organized in time. Blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral resistance, pressure, and vasodilating hormones display pronounced circadian variations. New data presented here demonstrate also sex-dependent differences in vasodilating hormones, with higher NOχ excretion in females than males and a steeper early morning rise in norepinephrine in males, whereas the 24-hour blood pressure and heart-rate profiles were not different. Various antihypertensive drugs were investigated in crossover studies – morning versus evening dosing – in hypertensive patients; however, consistent data were only described for angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor blockers. Whereas in dippers ACE inhibitors had a superdipping effect when dosed at night, no difference in the blood pressure lowering effect or on the 24-hour blood pressure profile was found with calcium channel blockers after morning and evening dosing. In nondippers, the calcium channel blockers isradipine and amlodipine transformed nondippers into dippers, similar after evening dosing. The effects of AT1-receptor blockers are similar to those of ACE inhibitors. Also, diuretics are able to normalize non dipping behavior. Moreover, a circadian phase dependency in their pharmacokinetics has been demonstrated for various cardiovascular-active drugs, such as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, oral nitrates, and ACE inhibitors, modified by the galenic formulation. There is evidence that in hypertensive dippers, antihypertensive drugs should be given during early morning hours, whereas in non dippers it can be necessary to add an evening dose or even to apply a single evening dose in order not only to reduce high blood pressure, but also to

  17. Specific Sex-Drug Combinations Contribute to the Majority of Recent HIV Seroconversions Among MSM in the MACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, David G.; Plankey, Michael W.; Cox, Christopher; Li, Xiuhong; Shoptaw, Steven; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Stall, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background New HIV infections are being observed among men who have sex with men. Understanding the fusion of risky sexual behaviors, stimulant and erectile dysfunction drug use with HIV seroconversion may provide direction for focused intervention. Methods During the follow-up period (1998–2008) we identified 57 HIV seroconverters among 1,667 initially HIV-seronegative men. Time to seroconversion was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for 7 combinations of sex-drugs (inhaled nitrites or “poppers”, stimulants, and EDDs) used at the current or previous semi-annual visit, adjusting for other risk factors including sexual behavior, alcohol and other drugs used, and depression. Model-based adjusted attributable risks were then calculated. Results The risk of seroconversion increased linearly with the number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners (URASP), with hazard ratios (HR) ranging from 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75, 4.01) for 1 partner, to 4.23 (95% CI: 1.76, 10.17) for 2–4 partners to 14.21 (95% CI: 6.27, 32.20) for 5+ partners, independent of other risk factors. After adjustment, risks for seroconversion increased from 2.99 (95% CI: 1.02, 8.76) for men who reported using stimulants only (1 drug) to 8.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 26.71) for men who reported using all 3 sex-drugs. The use of any of the 7 possible sex-drug combinations accounted for 63% of the nine-year HIV seroincidence in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). When contributions of increased URASP and combination drug use were analyzed together, the total attributable risk for HIV seroconversion was 74%, with 41% attributable to URASP alone and a residual of 33% due to other direct or indirect effects of sex-drug use. Conclusions Use of poppers, stimulants and EDDs increased risk for HIV seroconversion significantly in this cohort. These data reinforce the importance of implementing interventions that target drug-reduction as part of comprehensive and

  18. The impact of violence on sex risk and drug use behaviors among women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draughon Moret, Jessica E; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen S; Couture, Marie-Claude; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Violence, substance use, and HIV disproportionately impact female entertainment and sex workers (FESW), but causal pathways remain unclear. We examined data from an observational cohort of FESW age 15-29 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia for associations between violence exposure and sexual risk and drug use. Validated measures of physical and sexual violence were assessed at baseline. Self-reported outcomes measured quarterly over the next 12-months included past month sexual partners, consistent condom use by partner type, sex while high, and amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) use. Biomarkers measured quarterly included prostate specific antigen (PSA) and urine toxicology. Generalized estimating equations were fit adjusting for age, education, marital status and sex work venue. Of 220 women, 48% reported physical or sexual violence in the preceding 12-months. Physical violence was associated with increased number of sex partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 1.33; 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), greater odds of sex while high (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.42; 95% CI: 1.10-5.33), increased days of ATS use (aIRR 2.74; 95% CI: 1.29-5.84) and increased odds of an ATS+ urine screen (aOR 2.80, 95%CI: 1.38-5.66). Sexual violence predicted decreased odds of consistent condom use with non-paying partners (aOR 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10-0.59) and greater odds of a PSA+ vaginal swab (aOR 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13-2.93). Physical and sexual violence are prevalent among Cambodian FESW and associated with subsequent sexual risk and drug use behaviors. Clinical research examining interventions targeting structural and interpersonal factors impacting violence is needed to optimize HIV/AIDS prevention among FESW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unexpectedly high proportion of drug users and men having sex with men who develop chronic hepatitis B infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houdt, Robin; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Prins, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims: In low endemic countries, most hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are found in adult behavioural risk groups, such as drug users (DU) and men having sex with men (MSM). These risk groups are frequently exposed to HBV, which might induce a different rate of viral clearance compared

  20. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K.-S.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater “behavioral approach tendency” toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships. PMID:27047415

  1. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater "behavioral approach tendency" toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.

  2. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Prevalence of recreational drug use reported by men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics in Manchester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, A; Ahmad, S; Cannon, L; Higgins, S P; Kliner, M; Kolyva, A; Ward, C; Vivancos, R

    2018-03-01

    Recreational drug use (RDU) has been reported to be disproportionately higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. To identify RDU, links to risky sexual practices and infections for MSM attending three sexual health clinics across Manchester, United Kingdom, a retrospective case note review was conducted using a random powered sample of service users attending three sites during 2014. Three hundred and fifty-seven case notes were reviewed across three sites. Eighteen per cent of service users reported any type of RDU. Use of at least one of the three drugs associated with chemsex (crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone, gamma hydroxybutyrate/gamma butyrolactone) was reported by 3.6%. A statistically significant difference was identified between non-drug users and any-drug users reporting: group sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.88, p = 0.013), condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) (OR 2.77, p = 0.003) and condomless oral intercourse (OR 2.52, p = 0.016). A statistically significant difference was identified between chemsex-related drug user and non-drug user groups reporting: group sex (OR 13.05, p = 0.023), CRAI (OR 3.69, p = 0.029) and condomless insertive anal intercourse (OR 1.27, p = 0.039). There was also a statistically higher incidence of gonorrhoea infection in chemsex-related drug use compared with those not using drugs (p = 0.002, OR 6.88). This study identifies that substance use is common in MSM attending sexual health clinics in Manchester. High-risk sexual practices and certain sexually transmitted infections are more common in MSM reporting RDU.

  4. Designing New Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole

    The prospect of central banks issuing digital currency (CBDC) immediately raises the question of how this new form of money should co-exist and interact with exist-ing forms of money. This paper evaluates three different scenarios for the imple-mentation of CBDC in terms of their monetary policy...... simultaneously only pursue two out of the following three policy objectives: Free convertibility between CBDC and bank money, parity between CBDC and bank money, and central bank monetary sovereignty, which is the use of monetary policy for anything else than support for commercial bank credit creation...

  5. Money Creation and Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Salomon; Gersbach, Hans

    2017-01-01

    We study money creation and destruction in today’s monetary architecture and examine the impact of monetary policy and capital regulation in a general equilibrium setting. There are two types of money created and destructed: bank deposits, when banks grant loans to firms or to other banks and central bank money, when the central bank grants loans to private banks. We show that equilibria yield the first-best level of money creation and lending when prices are flexible, regardless of the monet...

  6. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  7. Money and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Borcuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of the money design on willingness to make purchases. In this paper, we focus on three aspects that structure the relation between money and design: the link between design and finance (in general, determinants of design and perspective of currency design. The main research problem explored in this paper is: Does the money design have influence on the willingness to make purchases by employees/employers at design studios, design students and students of economics/management? The main hypothesis is as follows – the more experience in design practice, the more important is money design.

  8. Hume and Endogenous Money

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2006-01-01

    David Hume’s monetary theory has three standard yet inconsistent readings. As a forefather of the quantity theory of money, Hume sees money as neutral. As an inflationist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy. As a monetarist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy only in the short run. This paper reads Hume consistently instead by showing that for Hume money is endogenous and demand-driven. Hume would read the money equation in terms of reverse causation and ...

  9. Sex differences in drug-related stress-system changes: implications for treatment in substance-abusing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.

  10. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  11. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Guh, Daphne; Marsh, David C; Brissette, Suzanne; Schechter, Martin T

    2012-01-25

    Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months). A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. NCT00175357.

  12. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. Conclusions After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. Trial Registration NCT00175357.

  13. HIV among female sex workers in the Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan, and Mongolia: contexts and convergence with drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Todd, Catherine S; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Lloyd, Jennifer; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Sabin, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Central Asia is culturally and demographically diverse, both between and within its respective countries. That diversity is represented in the range of individual, network, community, and structural risks for female sex workers (FSWs) regionally. FSWs have several risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission including behavioral, biological, and structural risk factors. Across Central Asia, sexual risks have become conflated with risks associated with injection and non-injection illicit drug use. Peer-reviewed literature databases and gray literature were searched for articles on sex work in Central Asia. The medial subject heading (MeSH) of "sex work" was cross-referenced with terms associated with Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Afghanistan. HIV prevalence data for FSWs suggest sustained or increasing prevalence in the region. There are increasing data directly linking HIV among FSWs to injection drug use; odds of HIV are up to 20 times higher among FSWs reporting injecting drug use. Though injecting drug use among FSWs is rare in some settings, recreational drugs and alcohol use limits other risk reduction behaviors, such as condom use. The Central Asian HIV epidemic has traditionally been assumed to be driven nearly exclusively by drug use, resulting in surveillance systems focused on parenteral transmission. The reviewed data highlight limited attention to characterizing the burden of HIV and risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission among FSWs who use drugs. Moving forward will require enhanced HIV surveillance and research to inform HIV prevention approaches to address all levels of HIV risks affecting FSWs in Central Asia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ming eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants’ feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating. Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners’ physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men’s preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship. Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. Results of Study 2 indicated that both men and women who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money exhibited a greater behavioral approach tendency toward an attractive member of the opposite sex than those primed to feel that they had less money. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships.

  15. Prevalence of drug use during sex amongst MSM in Europe: Results from a multi-site bio-behavioural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Gios, Lorenzo; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Marcus, Ulrich; Schink, Susanne; Sherriff, Nigel; Jones, Anna-Marie; Folch, Cinta; Dias, Sonia; Velicko, Inga; Mirandola, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    Substance use has been consistently reported to be more prevalent amongst Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) compared to the general population. Substance use, in particular polydrug use, has been found to be influenced by social and contextual factors and to increase the risk of unprotected intercourse among MSM. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of drug use during a sexual encounter and to identify specific prevention needs. A multi-site bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey was implemented in 13 European cities, targeting MSM and using Time-Location Sampling and Respondent-Driven Sampling methods Multivariable multi-level logistic random-intercept model (random effect of study site) was estimated to identify factors associated with the use of alcohol, cannabis, party drugs, sexual performance enhancement drugs and chemsex drugs. Overall, 1261 (30.0%) participants reported drug use, and 436 of 3706 (11.8%) reported the use of two or more drugs during their last sexual encounter. By drug class, 966 (23.0%) reported using sexual performance enhancement drugs, 353 (8.4%) - party drugs, and 142 (3.4%) the use of chemsex drugs. Respondents who reported drug use were more frequently diagnosed with HIV (10.5% vs. 3.9%) before and with other STIs during the 12 months prior to the study (16.7% vs. 9.2%). The use of all the analysed substances was significantly associated with sexual encounter with more than one partner. Substance and polydrug use during sexual encounters occurred amongst sampled MSM across Europe although varying greatly between study sites. Different local social norms within MSM communities may be important contextual drivers of drug use, highlighting the need for innovative and multi-faceted prevention measures to reduce HIV/STI risk in the context of drug use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of slowly released male sex hormone drug by radiation polymerization technique and its evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rueizhi; Lei Shaoqiong; Li Ximing

    1992-01-01

    The radiation polymerization technique was used for immobilization testosterone propionate into crosslinked network of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate to prepare slowly released male sex hormone drug which is used for testicular prosthesis. The testicular prosthesis was transplanted into the scrotum of male rabbit whose testes was excised 2 months before the transplantation. Then the level of male sex hormone in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay once a week after transplantation. The results of measurement in a period of 6 months were shown that the testicular prosthesis has a stable release of male sex hormone. The testosterone level in serum of the castrated male rabbits rises markedly and finally stabilizes at the level of 429 ± 36 ng/100 ml after transplantation. Macroscopic examination of biopsies taken from the tissues around the testicular prosthesis showed that tissue compatibility was revealed well

  17. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  18. Workplace violence among female sex workers who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada: does client-targeted policing increase safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangnell, Amy; Shannon, Kate; Nosova, Ekaterina; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, by clients or predators, poses serious negative health consequences for sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver (British Columbia), Canada Police Department changed their guidelines with the goal of increasing safety for sex workers by focusing law enforcement on clients and third parties, but not sex workers. We sought to examine the trends and correlates of workplace violence among female sex workers (FSW) before and after the guideline change, using data collected from prospective cohorts of persons who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Among 259 FSW, 21.0% reported workplace violence at least once during the study period between 2008 and 2014. There was no statistically significant change in rates of workplace violence after the guideline change. In our multivariable analysis, daily heroin use was independently associated with workplace violence. The 2013 policing guideline change did not appear to have resulted in decreased reports of workplace violence. Increased access to opioid agonist therapies may reduce workplace violence among drug-using FSW.

  19. Quality assurance and quality improvement using supportive supervision in a large-scale STI intervention with sex workers, men who have sex with men/transgenders and injecting-drug users in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogasale, V.; Wi, T.C.; Das, A.; Kane, S.; Singh, A.K.; George, B.; Steen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Documentation of the long-term impact of supportive supervision using a monitoring tool in STI intervention with sex workers, men who have sex with men and injection-drug users is limited. The authors report methods and results of continued quality monitoring in a large-scale STI services

  20. Excipient-mediated alteration in drug bioavailability in the rat depends on the sex of the animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yang; Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Basit, Abdul W

    2017-09-30

    The pharmaceutical excipient, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), unexpectedly alters the bioavailability of the BCS class III drug ranitidine in a sex-dependent manner. As ranitidine is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we hypothesized that the sex-related influence could be due to interactions between PEG 400 and P-gp. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by: i) measuring the influence of PEG 400 on the oral bioavailability of another P-gp substrate (ampicillin) and of a non-P-gp substrate (metformin); and ii) measuring the effect of PEG 400 on drug bioavailability in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor (cyclosporine A) in male and female rats. We found that PEG 400 significantly increased (pbioavailability of ampicillin (the P-gp substrate) in male rats, but not in female ones. In contrast, PEG 400 had no influence on the bioavailability of the non-P-gp substrate, metformin in male or female rats. Inhibition of P-gp by oral pre-treatment with cyclosporine A increased the bioavailability of the P-gp substrates (ampicillin and ranitidine) in males and females (pbioavailability of metformin in either male or female rats. These results prove the hypothesis that the sex-specific effect of PEG 400 on the bioavailability of certain drugs is due to the interaction of PEG 400 with the efflux transporter P-gp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An artificially intelligent chat agent that answers adolescents' questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Portugal, Sarah Dias; Fisser, Erwin M; Grolleman, Jorne J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if and how an artificially intelligent chat agent (chatbot) that answers questions about sex, drugs, and alcohol is used and evaluated by adolescents, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. A sample of 929 adolescents (64% girls, mean age = 15), varying in urbanization level and educational level, participated in this study. Use of the chatbot was objectively tracked through server registrations (e.g., frequency and duration of conversations with the chatbot, the number and topics of queries), and a web-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the chatbot (e.g., the perception of anonymity, conciseness, ease of use, fun, quality and quantity of information, and speed) and to compare it with information lines and search engines. The chatbot reached high school attendees in general and not only adolescents with previous experience related to sex, drugs, or alcohol; this is promising from an informed decision-making point of view. Frequency (M = 11) and duration of conversations (3:57 minutes) was high and the chatbot was evaluated positively, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. The use of chatbots within the field of health promotion has a large potential to reach a varied group of adolescents and to provide them with answers to their questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A comparison of HIV-risk behaviors between young black cisgender men who have sex with men and young black transgender women who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro

    2018-06-01

    This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.

  4. Combinatorial Auctions without Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    istence of thresholds (a.k.a., critical prices) (for every set). The result in Theorem 3.4 relates to the characterization of truthful CAs with money and no...with money and no verification, each bidder optimizes her valu- ation minus the critical price over all her demanded sets; in the setting without money...auctions. ICALP, pp. 90-101, 2010. [2] P. Briest, P. Krysta, and B. Vöcking. Approximation techniques for utilitarian mechanism design. STOC, pp. 39-48

  5. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  6. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamina M Gorbach

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed; specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154 with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04, while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07. In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43; and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38. This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  7. Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: influences of sex and cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Hong, Kwang-ik Adam; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Fulbright, Robert K; Tuit, Keri L; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Although stress and drug cue exposure each increase drug craving and contribute to relapse in cocaine dependence, no previous research has directly examined the neural correlates of stress-induced and drug cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent women and men relative to comparison subjects. Functional MRI was used to assess responses to individualized scripts for stress, drug/alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing-imagery conditions in 30 abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals (16 women, 14 men) and 36 healthy recreational-drinking comparison subjects (18 women, 18 men). Significant three-way interactions between diagnostic group, sex, and script condition were observed in multiple brain regions including the striatum, insula, and anterior and posterior cingulate. Within women, group-by-condition interactions were observed involving these regions and were attributable to relatively increased regional activations in cocaine-dependent women during the stress and, to a lesser extent, neutral-relaxing conditions. Within men, group main effects were observed involving these same regions, with cocaine-dependent men demonstrating relatively increased activation across conditions, with the main contributions from the drug and neutral-relaxing conditions. In men and women, subjective drug-induced craving measures correlated positively with corticostriatal-limbic activations. In cocaine dependence, corticostriatal-limbic hyperactivity appears to be linked to stress cues in women, drug cues in men, and neutral-relaxing conditions in both. These findings suggest that sex should be taken into account in the selection of therapies in the treatment of addiction, particularly those targeting stress reduction.

  8. Sex Under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383

  9. Comorbidity and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users Not in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S.; Theno, Shelley A.; Fisher, Dennis G.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 700 drug users, 64% evidenced comorbidity (i.e., coexisting substance use and psychiatric disorders). Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. (Contains 44 references and 2 tables.) (Author)

  10. Gender and Sex Trading Among Active Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Meade, Christina S

    2017-05-12

    South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women. In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug use severity was correlated with sex trading. Women with experiences of violence and trauma were also more likely to trade sex. Conclusions/importance: The results stress a need for linkage to drug treatment, as addiction may be fueling sex trading. Targeted interventions geared towards safe sex practices may reduce risky sexual behaviors. Women need interventions that are attuned to their specific vulnerabilities. More research is needed to explore the experiences of men who have sex with men given their particularly high rates of sex trading behavior.

  11. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  12. Itinerancy of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutomi, Ayumu

    2003-09-01

    Previously, I studied [Physica D 82, 180-194 (1995)] the emergence and collapse of money in a computer simulation model. In this paper I will revisit the same topic, building a model in the same line. I discuss this problem from the viewpoint of chaotic itinerancy. Money is the most popular system for evading the difficulty of exchange under division of labor. It emerges autonomously from exchanges among selfish agents which behave as automata. And such emergent money collapses autonomously. I describe money as a structure in economic space, explaining its autonomous emergence and collapse as two phases of the same phenomenon. The key element in this phenomenon is the switch of the meaning of strategies. This is caused by the drastic change of environment caused by the emergence of a structure. This dynamics shares some aspects with chaotic itinerancy.

  13. Time, money, and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Mogilner, Cassie

    2014-02-01

    Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed.

  14. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  15. Saving lives, money and resources: drug and CABG/PCI use after myocardial infarction in a Swedish record-linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Lars; Welin, Lennart; Odén, Anders; Björnberg, Arne

    2010-04-01

    Drug costs are increasing despite the introduction of cheaper generic drugs. The aim of the present study was to analyse the entire costs of hospital care, out-patient care, and the cost of drugs for 16 months following a myocardial infarction (MI) to see to what extent drug costs contribute to the overall costs of care. Diagnoses and costs for care as well as mortality data obtained from the Västra Götaland Region, Sweden, and drug costs from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, were merged in a computer file. Patients registered from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006 were followed from 28 days after an MI, with follow-up until 31 October 2006. Of 4,725 patients, 711 died before the start of the study and 721 during follow-up. Higher age [hazard ratio (HR, 95%CI) = 1.06 (1.05-1.07)], previous MI [HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.53)] and diabetes mellitus [HR = 1.34 (1.13-1.58)] were associated with increased mortality, which decreased with coronary interventions: CABG/PCI [HR = 0.19 (0.14-0.27)]. In a multivariable analysis, mortality was lower for patients taking simvastatin [HR = 0.62 (0.50-0.76)] and clopidogrel [HR = 0.58 (0.46-0.74)]. Costs for out-patient care accounted for 25% and drugs for 5% of total costs. If patients not treated with simvastatin or clopidogrel had received these drugs, an additional 154-306 lives might have been saved. Drug costs would be higher, but total costs lower. Thus, even expensive drugs may reduce overall costs.

  16. A meme for money

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, L. Randall

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the usual framing of discussions of money, monetary policy, and fiscal policy plays into the hands of conservatives. That framing is also largely consistent with the conventional view of the economy and of society more generally. To put it the way that economists usually do, money "lubricates" the market mechanism-a good thing, because the conventional view of the market itself is overwhelmingly positive. Acknowledging the work of George Lakoff, this paper takes the pos...

  17. Money market futures

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoli Kuprianov

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all financial innovation in the U.S. money market during the past 20 years has centered on interest rate derivatives, including futures and swaps. Furthermore, money market futures--especially futures contracts on Eurodollar time deposits--have been at the vanguard of the recent explosion of trading activity in interest rate derivatives. While futures markets traditionally have been viewed as markets for the transfer of price risk, recent research shows that they may serve other imp...

  18. Government, Money, and International Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Hans-Hermann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with: (1) Definition of government; incentive structure under government: taxation, war and territorial expansion. (2) Origin of money; government and money; the devolution of money from commodity to fiat money. (3) International politics and monetary regimes; monetary imperialism and the drive toward a one-world central bank and fiat currency.

  19. New types of drug use and risks of drug use among men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jiezhe; Jiang, Jun; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xingliang; Li, Xiting

    2018-04-17

    The use of new types of drugs has become more common among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of the use of new types of drugs, such as methamphetamine, ketamine, ecstasy, and rush poppers, and to examine the factors associated with drug use and HIV infection among MSM in Hangzhou, China. This cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. We used snowball sampling to recruit MSM; participants were recruited from voluntary counseling and testing centers, baths, bars, Blued (an app for the gay community), QQ groups, clubs, and other types of venues. MSM were included if their previous HIV test results were negative or unknown, or they had not been tested for HIV. MSM were excluded if they were known to be HIV positive before the survey. Face-to-face questionnaires were conducted and a venous blood specimen was drawn from each participant following the interview. In total, 555 MSM were included; 18.2% (101/555) of the participants had used new types of drugs in the past 3 months. Among the users, 65.3% used single-use rush poppers, while the remainder used ketamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, or other mixed combinations of drugs. The HIV positivity rate was 14.8% (82/555). Factors associated with increased odds of using new types of drugs in the past 3 months were higher education levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-9.37), having multiple sexual partners (AOR 1.76, 95 CI 1.02-3.05), alcohol use before sexual intercourse (AOR 33.44, 95% CI 10.80-103.50), and seeing friends using new types of drugs. We revealed the widespread use of new types of drugs, as well as a high diagnosis rate of new HIV infection, among MSM in Hangzhou. The use of new types of drugs was associated with an increased number of sexual partners among MSM; the high-risk sexual behaviors increased the risk of HIV infection. Attention should be given to the use of new types of drugs in MSM

  20. Findings from within-subjects comparisons of drug use and sexual risk behaviour in men who have sex with men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence for the encounter-level association between sexualised drug use and unprotected anal intercourse in men who have sex with men is unclear and has not examined men who have sex with men in England. To estimate this association, we compared dyadic sexual encounters within respondents. We used encounter-level data from a longitudinal online survey of men who have sex with men living in England and multilevel models to test univariate and multivariate associations between any respondent or partner drug use, specific respondent drug use, additional situational characteristics and unprotected anal intercourse. Based on 6742 encounters from 2142 men who have sex with men, respondent drug use and respondent use of certain specific drugs were associated with increased unprotected anal intercourse odds. In univariate models, partner drug use was associated with increased unprotected anal intercourse odds, but in multivariate models, only non-specific knowledge of partner drug use was associated with the same. Encounters with non-regular-and-steady partners or that were not HIV-seroconcordant were associated with decreased unprotected anal intercourse odds. This is the first within-subjects comparison of drug use and unprotected anal intercourse conducted on a sample from England, and the largest of its kind. Findings are consistent with other studies, though associations between drug use and unprotected anal intercourse are shaped by social contexts that may change over time.

  1. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  2. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Nappo, Solange A; Cruz, Joselaine I; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Carlini, Claudia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  3. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  4. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  5. Money Inventories in Search Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Aleksander

    1998-01-01

    The paper relaxes the one unit storage capacity imposed in the basic search-theoretic model of fiat money with indivisible real commodities and indivisible money. Agents can accumulate as much money as they want. It characterizes the stationary distributions of money and shows that for reasonable parameter values (e.g. production cost, discounting, degree of specialization) a monetary equilibrium exists. There are multiple stationary distributions of a given amount of money, which differ in t...

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  7. Prevalence and correlates of 'agua celeste' use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-09-01

    Agua celeste, or "heavenly water", is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of agua celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs≥18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14-23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8h per day, and younger age. We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Time versus money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Ashwani; Zor, Ozum

    2018-04-21

    Consumers are known to spend both time and money. These two resources are often seen as economically comparable because the value of one's time can be equated to a monetary amount, such as one's wage rate. Recent research suggests that even when time and money are economically equivalent, they are psychologically different. We discuss how time (versus money) leads to decision making that is more heuristic rather than systematic, to an orientation that is more emotional rather than value-maximizing, to a thinking process that is more holistic rather than analytic, and to a mindset that is more abstract rather than concrete. Implications arise for a variety of domains such as consumer search, happiness, product evaluation, and charitable giving. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On Understanding Money

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Shubik

    2001-01-01

    Fiat money is a creation of both the state and society. Its value is supported by expectations which are conditioned by the dynamics of trust in government, the socio-economic structure and by outside events such as wars, plagues or political unrest. The micro-management of a dynamic economy is not far removed in difficulty from the micro-management of the weather. However, money and the financial institutions and instruments of a modern economy provide the means to influence expectations and...

  10. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations.

  11. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  12. Changes in Attitudes towards Drug Educators as a Function of Communicator Sex and Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.; Baum, Carlene Stober

    1980-01-01

    Significant interactions between role and sex of communicator indicated that male ex-addicts produced more positive changes in evaluation than female ex-addicts, while female specialists produced more positive changes in evaluation than male specialists. Female specialists produced more positive changes in ratings of potency than male specialists.…

  13. Short Report: HIV Infection among Commercial Sex Workers and Injecting Drug Users in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůčková, M.; Bautista, C.T.; Graham, R.R.; Malý, Marek; Vandasová, J.; Presl, J.; Sumegh, L.; Chapman, G.D.; Carr, J.K.; Sanchez, J.L.; Earhart, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2006), s. 1017-1020 ISSN 0002-9637 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : HIV infection * commercial sex workers Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2006

  14. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  15. Changes in HIV Seroprevalence and Related Behaviors Among Male Injection Drug Users Who Do and Do Not Have Sex With Men: New York City, 1990–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315

  16. Follow The Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batikas, Michail; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Online copyright enforcement, in the form of either direct action against the supply- side (via website shutdowns) or the demand-side (via individual lawsuits against users), has not been very effective in reducing piracy. Regulators have therefore put forward the so called “follow the money...

  17. Money illusion and coordination failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Economists long considered money illusion to be largely irrelevant. Here we show, however, that money illusion has powerful effects on equilibrium selection. If we represent payoffs in nominal terms, choices converge to the Pareto inferior equilibrium; however, if we lift the veil of money...... by representing payoffs in real terms, the Pareto efficient equilibrium is selected. We also show that strategic uncertainty about the other players' behavior is key for the equilibrium selection effects of money illusion: even though money illusion vanishes over time if subjects are given learning opportunities...... in the context of an individual optimization problem, powerful and persistent effects of money illusion are found when strategic uncertainty prevails...

  18. HIV-1 viraemia and drug resistance amongst female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Jenny; Hunt, Gillian; Jaffer, Maya; Otwombe, Kennedy; Scott, Lesley; Bongwe, Asiashu; Ledwaba, Johanna; Molema, Sephonono; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E

    2017-01-01

    HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa. A cross-sectional, respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enrol FSWs based in Soweto. Participants were tested for HIV and undertook a survey that included HIV knowledge and treatment status. Whole blood specimens were collected from HIV positive FSWs to measure for CD4 counts, viral load (VL) and perform HIVDR genotyping. Frequencies were determined for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for the continuous. Of the 508 enrolled participants, 55% (n = 280) were HIV positive and of median age 32 (IQR: 20-51) years. Among the HIV positive, 51.8% (132/269) were defined as virologically suppressed (VL HIV positive FSWs had unsuppressed viral loads, increasing the likelihood for onward transmission of HIV. Disturbingly, more than 1:4 treatment naïve women with unsuppressed viral loads had HIVDR suggesting that possible sexual transmission of drug resistance is occurring in this high-risk population. Given the high burden of HIVDR in a population with a high background prevalence of HIV, it is imperative that routine monitoring of HIVDR be implemented. Understanding transmission dynamics of HIVDR in FSW and its impact on treatment success should be urgently elucidated.

  19. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  20. Sex differences in prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol and drug use disorders: results from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime prevalences of each disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were compared between men and women. Sex-specific associations of alcohol, any drug, and cannabis- and cocaine-specific abuse and dependence with each comorbid disorder were examined using logistic regression, first with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and then with additional adjustment for all other psychiatric disorders. Prevalences of most comorbid disorders differed significantly by sex among respondents with each AUD and DUD. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, there were few sex differences in unique comorbid associations of specific AUDs and DUDs with specific psychiatric disorders. Rates of psychiatric disorders comorbid with AUDs and DUDs indicate large burdens of morbidity in both sexes, highlighting the need for careful assessment and appropriate treatment of both substance use and mental health disorders. The unique comorbid associations with AUDs and DUDs identified in this study further indicate the need for prospective etiological research to characterize these associations, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible sex specificity of those mechanisms.

  1. The use of generic drugs in prevention of chronic disease is far more cost-effective than thought, and may save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Liberman, Joshua N; Brennan, Troyen A

    2011-07-01

    In this article we highlight the important role that medication therapy can play in preventing disease and controlling costs. Focusing on coronary artery disease, we demonstrate that prevention, with the appropriate use of generic medications, appears far more cost-effective than previously documented, and it may even save on costs. For example, an earlier study estimated that reducing blood pressure to widely established clinical guidelines in nondiabetic patients cost an estimated $52,983 per quality-adjusted life-year if a brand-name drug was used. However, we estimate that the cost is just $7,753 per quality-adjusted life-year at generic medication prices. As the nation attempts to find strategies to improve population health without adding to the unsustainably high cost of care, policy makers should focus on ensuring that patients have access to essential generic medications.

  2. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  3. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Evolution of Paper Money

    OpenAIRE

    Levintal, Oren; Zeira, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This paper tells the story of how paper money evolved as a result of lending by banks. While lending commodity money requires holding large reserves of commodity money to ensure liquidity, issuing convertible paper money reduces these costs significantly. The paper also examines the possibility of issuing inconvertible notes and shows that while they further reduce the cost of borrowing they also have adverse effects on the stability of the banking system. As a result, governments often inter...

  5. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  6. Exchanging the liquidity hypothesis: Delay discounting of money and self-relevant non-money rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Yi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evidence that primary rewards (e.g., food and drugs of abuse) are discounted more than money is frequently attributed to money's high degree of liquidity, or exchangeability for many commodities. The present study provides some evidence against this liquidity hypothesis by contrasting delay discounting of monetary rewards (liquid) and non-monetary commodities (non-liquid) that are self-relevant and utility-matched. Ninety-seven (97) undergraduate students initially completed a conventional binary-choice delay discounting of money task. Participants returned one week later and completed a self-relevant commodity delay discounting task. Both conventional hypothesis testing and more-conservative tests of statistical equivalence revealed correspondence in rate of delay discounting of money and self-relevant commodities, and in one magnitude condition, less discounting for the latter. The present results indicate that liquidity of money cannot fully account for the lower rate of delay discounting compared to non-money rewards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol, Drugs, and Sex: Are Kids as Bad as We Think They Are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Jack

    This paper discusses the results of a Phi Delta Kappa study (1996) of core values in the schools, focusing on student and teacher perceptions of alcohol and drug use and sexual behavior among high school students. The study involved 2,125 teachers and 2,429 students. About three-fourths of the students were white, Catholic, middle-class, and…

  8. The money mission matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperus, Mirthe

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is popular in current academics and other media. This thesis adds to this literature by discovering what the drivers are for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Several stakeholders were identified, creating profiles of the key players in social entrepreneurship. These stakeholders uncovered key factors that represent the drivers for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Key factors were then aligned along the two dimensions: Money and Mission. This crea...

  9. "Money in Finance"

    OpenAIRE

    L. Randall Wray

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...

  10. A gap in science's and the media images of people who use drugs and sex workers: research on organizations of the oppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Agata; Friedman, Samuel R

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses organizations of the oppressed, such as drug user and sex worker groups, and the images of themselves that they construct. We suggest that analysis of these organizationally-produced collective self-images -frequently overlooked in scholarly research -is crucial to understanding the complex internal dynamics of users' and sex workers' organizations and struggles they engage in when defining their collective (organizational) identities and course of action.

  11. Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papworth, Erin; Ceesay, Nuha; An, Louis; Thiam-Niangoin, Marguerite; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Holland, Claire; Dramé, Fatou Maria; Grosso, Ashley; Diouf, Daouda; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The West and Central Africa (WCA) sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270), among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986), among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714) and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459). Conclusions The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key populations than the

  12. ACUTE NARCOTIC DRUG INTOXICATIONS: ETIOLOGY, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.

  13. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  14. Sex-Dependent Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of THC and MDMA in an Animal Model of Adolescent Drug Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Puighermanal, Emma; Burokas, Aurelijus; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Marco, Eva M.; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd) 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46), MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB), whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs. PMID:24223797

  15. Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Llorente-Berzal

    Full Text Available Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46, MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB, whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs.

  16. The intersection between sex and drugs: a cross-sectional study among the spouses of injection drug users in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Santhanam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. Methods A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A convenience sample of 400 spouses of the male IDUs in this cohort was recruited in 2009. A risk assessment questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with prevalent HIV. Results Median age was 31 years; thirteen percent were widowed and 7% were not currently living with their spouse. Only 4 (1% reported ever injecting drugs; Twenty-two percent and 25% reported ever using non-injection drugs and alcohol, respectively. The majority had one lifetime sexual partner and 37 (9% reporting exchanging sex. Only 7% always used condoms with their regular partner. HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence were 2.5%, 3.8% and 0.5%, respectively; among spouses of HIV+ IDUs (n = 78, HIV prevalence was 10.3%. The strongest predictor of HIV was spousal HIV status (OR: 17.9; p Conclusions Our finding of a 10-fold higher HIV prevalence among spouses of IDUs compared with general population women indicates their vulnerability; prevalence is likely to increase given the context of low condom use and frequent sexual violence. Prevention efforts directed at IDUs should also include programs for spouses.

  17. Drug-, dose- and sex-dependent effects of chronic fluoxetine, reboxetine and venlafaxine on open-field behavior and spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vanessa C; Hughes, Robert N

    2015-03-15

    In an effort to address the need to include both sexes in studies of effects of the SSRI fluoxetine, the NRI reboxetine and the SNRI venlafaxine on anxiety-related behavior and memory along with the use of chronic drug administration, male and female PVG/c rats were fed diets containing two doses of each drug for 21 days. The rats' anxiety level was then assessed in an open field. Short-term spatial memory for a brightness change in a Y maze was also measured. While there was little evidence of anxiolytic effects of any of the drugs, both fluoxetine and, to a lesser extent, venlafaxine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic in their action depending on both dose and sex. Reboxetine was relatively ineffective in this respect. Ability to locate the Y-maze arm that had changed (from white to black) seemed to be impaired for male (but not female) rats by both fluoxetine and venlafaxine and, to a much lesser extent, by reboxetine. Given the relative ineffectiveness of reboxetine in either test, it is possible that the effects of the other two drugs on both anxiety and memory were mainly due to their serotonin reuptake inhibiting properties. The differences that occurred between males and females in responsiveness to all three drugs supported the long-held view that both sexes should be investigated in studies of this sort, especially in view of reports of sex differences in effects of clinically prescribed antidepressants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Men and Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Past studies suggested that sex ratio influences individuals’ economic behaviors; however, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In the current work, we examined how sex ratio influenced women’s preference for relative gain over greater absolute gain in the context of games involving resource allocation between oneself and another woman; the role of intrasexual competition in this process was also explored. By experimentally manipulating women’s perceptions of local sex ratio, the present study found that women primed with a female-biased sex ratio (i.e., an excess of women showed higher levels of intrasexual competition. Exposure to the cue of a scarcity of men also led women to care more about their relative gain compared with absolute gain. The effect of sex ratio on shifts of women’s preference between relative gain and absolute gain was mediated by the strength of women’s competitive attitude toward same-sex others. These findings suggest that, by altering the intensity of female–female competition, sex ratio may have a pronounced effect on women’ economic-related decisions.

  19. Changes in Female Sex Hormones in Patients with Intentional Drug and Chemical Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Afzali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal changes as a factor influencing the emotional state of women have an important role in the incidence of suicide. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in FSH-LH, Estrogen, and Progesterone hormones in women attempting suicide by drugs and chemicals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women of reproductive diagnosed with drug and chemical poisoning who were hospitalized in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were assessed regarding LH, FSH estrogen and progesterone hormones over a period of six months in 2011. Overall, 80 patients were studied with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The highest rate of suicide was in the age range of 14-25 years (47 patients, 60.1%. A significant relationship was observed among the blood levels of hormones FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen. The association of hormone levels and LMP and attempted suicide was significant. The LH level was significantly lower in patients with substance abuse. The estrogen level was significantly lower in patients with the history of self-injury. Most patients (67.5% were in the follicular phase which was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, there was a significant relationship between the levels of different hormones. The significant relationship was positive in some cases but negative in other.

  20. Energy, money, and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores general equilibrium consumption choices and interest rate determination in a deterministic two-period model in which the production side explicitly describes the thermodynamic process unavoidably connected with production, as argued by Georgescu Roegen. A simple energy based production process is modeled, which is not in a stationary state. The resulting production function is time dependent. In neoclassical general equilibrium the thermodynamic implication of the production process, i.e., the production of waste, will not be taken into account by decision making agents. For welfare optimality, the resulting externality needs to be corrected by a social planner, or through the use of environmental related taxation. However, it is shown that imposing energy as a medium of exchange (money) in the same economy makes agents 'energy conscious' and decreases the externality associated with entropic waste through a market mechanism, without the need for intervention. In the limit case in which production occurs in thermodynamic equilibrium, no entropic waste is produced, and the model collapses to the nested neoclassical model. A contribution of the proposed approach is the determination of energy (money) prices in general equilibrium. Despite the fact that energy does not enter the agents' utility function, and therefore has no direct value, money prices and interest rate can be fully characterized in the model due precisely to the production technology adopted. In this competitive equilibrium the market interest rate will be greater than the real interest rate. The change in the numeraire and medium of exchange used affects the economy due to the non stationarity of the production process, but has no effect in the limit case in which the productive process reaches a steady state. (author)

  1. Lipids and addiction: how sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids interact with drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kokesh, Kevin J; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2013-04-01

    Lipidomics aims to identify and characterize all endogenous species of lipids and understand their roles in cellular signaling and, ultimately, the functioning of the organism. We are on the cusp of fully understanding the functions of many of the lipid signaling systems that have been identified for decades (e.g., steroids, prostaglandins), whereas our understanding of newer lipid signaling systems (e.g., endocannabinoids, N-acyl amides) still lags considerably behind. With an emphasis on their roles in the neurophysiology of addiction, we will examine three classes of lipids--sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids--and how they work synergistically in the neurocircuitry of motivation. We will first give a brief overview of the biosynthesis for each class of lipid and its receptors, and then summarize what is known about the collective roles of the lipids in cocaine and alcohol abuse. This approach provides a novel view of lipid signaling as a class of molecules and their synergistic roles in addiction. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Money or Education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Tracing life stories and family histories back to rural Punjab, I explore the development and processes of upward social mobility of the Pakistani community in Denmark from the 1960s onwards. I suggest that social mobility among Pakistani immigrants and their descendants must be seen as the outcome...... of the Danish labour market during the late 1970s and 1980s pushed them into two different long-term strategies of money or education respectively. This created a split in the Pakistani community between educated and non-educated families and shaped the second generation’s way of life in terms of, for example...

  3. Follow the money

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2012-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Many years ago there was a Federal whistleblower, Deep Throat, who leaked confidential Government information about the Nixon White House to reporters from the Washington Post. Fans of the book and movie will remember that his famous line was, “Follow the money.” That line came to mind when an article appeared in Health Affairs summarizing the US health care expenditures for 2010 (1). The main gist of the article is that the rate of growt...

  4. Hope Amidst Horror: Documenting the Effects of the "War On Drugs" Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Mittal, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war. Drawing on a critical phenomenology framework, which links political economy with phenomenological concern for subjective experience, we explore the ways in which couples try to find hope amidst the horrors of the drug war. Critical visual scholarship may provide a powerful alternative to dominant media depictions of violence, and ultimately clarify why this drug war must end.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ‘On Demand’ Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Non-Injection Drug-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Ouellet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent trials report the efficacy of continuous tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for prevention of HIV infection. The cost effectiveness of ‘on demand’ PrEP for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV acquisition has not been evaluated.

  6. Complex drug use patterns and associated HIV transmission risk behaviors in an Internet sample of U.S. men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gary; Wall, Melanie M; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2015-02-01

    Although the relationship between drug use and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well described, relatively few studies have employed empirical methods to assess underlying classes of drug use that may better predict the risk of HIV or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis (LCA) would identify underlying drug classes reported prior to sex, as well as predict unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the last sexual encounter among MSM. From 2004 to 2005, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 8,717 sexually active MSM recruited from gay-affiliated U.S. websites. LCA clustered participants into six distinct drug use classes based on the specific types and number of drugs used: (1) low/no drug use, (2) recreational drug use, (3) poppers with prescription erectile dysfunction (ED) drug use, (4) poppers with both prescription and non-prescription ED drug use, (5) recreational, club, and ED drug use, and (6) high polydrug use. Compared with men in Class 1, men in the highest drug use class were 4.84 times more likely to report UAI in their last sexual encounter and 3.78 times more likely to report an STI in the past year (both ps < .001). Younger MSM aged 18-29 were significantly more likely to report an STI than men aged 50 and above (p < .001). There is a need to better understand the complex relationship between a diverse set of drugs used among MSM and how polydrug use impacts sexual negotiation over time.

  7. Complex Drug Use Patterns and Associated HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors in an Internet Sample of U.S. Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gary; Wall, Melanie M.; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Although the relationship between drug use and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well described, relatively few studies have employed empirical methods to assess underlying classes of drug use that may better predict the risk of HIV or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM. The aim of this study was to determinewhether latent class analysis (LCA) would identify underlying drug classes reported prior to sex, as well as predict unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the last sexual encounter among MSM. From 2004 to 2005, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 8,717 sexually active MSM recruited from gay-affiliated U.S. websites. LCA clustered participants into six distinct drug use classes based on the specific types and number of drugs used: (1) low/no drug use, (2) recreational drug use, (3) poppers with prescription erectile dysfunction (ED) drug use, (4) poppers with both prescription and non-prescription ED drug use, (5) recreational, club, and ED drug use, and (6) high polydrug use. Compared with men in Class 1, men in the highest drug use class were 4.84 times more likely to report UAI in their last sexual encounter and 3.78 times more likely to report an STI in the past year (both ps<.001). Younger MSM aged 18–29 were significantly more likely to report an STI than men aged 50 and above (p<.001). There is a need to better understand the complex relationship between a diverse set of drugs used among MSM and how polydrug use impacts sexual negotiation over time. PMID:25104104

  8. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yougui Wang; Ning Ding; Ning Xi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides e...

  9. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  10. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  11. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  12. High Lifetime Pregnancy and Low Contraceptive Usage Among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs- An Unmet Reproductive Health Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson Debbie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008 of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody, and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4 were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5. The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR: 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3, apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4 and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2 among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45], and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59] were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver.

  13. 31 CFR 103.125 - Anti-money laundering programs for money services businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for... Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.125 Anti-money laundering programs for money..., and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program. An effective anti-money laundering program is...

  14. HIV-1 viraemia and drug resistance amongst female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: A cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Coetzee

    Full Text Available HIV drug resistance (HIVDR poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs, where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs from Soweto, South Africa.A cross-sectional, respondent driven sampling (RDS recruitment methodology was used to enrol FSWs based in Soweto. Participants were tested for HIV and undertook a survey that included HIV knowledge and treatment status. Whole blood specimens were collected from HIV positive FSWs to measure for CD4 counts, viral load (VL and perform HIVDR genotyping. Frequencies were determined for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges (IQR for the continuous.Of the 508 enrolled participants, 55% (n = 280 were HIV positive and of median age 32 (IQR: 20-51 years. Among the HIV positive, 51.8% (132/269 were defined as virologically suppressed (VL < 400 copies/ml. Of the 119 individuals with unsuppressed viral loads who were successfully genotyped for resistance testing 37.8% (45/119 had detectable drug resistance. In this group, HIVDR mutations were found amongst 73.7% (14/19 of individuals on treatment, 27.4% (26/95 of individuals who were treatment naïve, and 100% (5/5 of defaulters. One phylogenetic cluster was found amongst treatment naïve FSWs. The K103N mutation was detected most commonly in 68.9% (31/45 individuals with HIVDR mutations, with 20/26 (76.9% of treatment naïve FSW with detectable resistance having this mutation. The M184V mutation was found in both FSWs on treatment (12/14, 85.7% and those defaulting (1/5, 20.0%.More than one third (45/119 of the genotyped sample had HIVDR, with resistance to the NNRTI

  15. Privately issued money reduces GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...

  16. Pattern of Demand For Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Berlian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the activity of the modern economy, the availability of money as a means of transaction is very important, because with the money as a means to pay consumers can easily to get the basic material needs are required, the manufacturer can provide the raw materials of labor for production, and distributors can obtain a variety of merchandise to be delivered at the end consumer. The pattern of use of money is influenced by the attitude of the public in the transaction. Researchers assume, that there are differences among communities, either by group differences in income, educational differences, ethnic differences, differences in profession, and perhaps even religious differences embraced. So as to provide information to the monetary authorities, to enrich the theory of demand for money based economic agents in Indonesia, and for the application of the theory of demand for money, the researchers felt the need to study patterns of use of money. Qualitative research, in addition to knowing whether the variables that affect the demand for money as the above theory is still relevant for economic actors in Indonesia at this time, or even are new variables, as well as the motive of money demand. Keywords: Demand for money, Keynes Theory, qualitative method

  17. College Students Discount Money "Won" More than Money "Owed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would…

  18. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J.

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about money laundering: Why should we fight money laundering? How is money laundered? In which sectors is money laundered? And how can we fight money laundering? The literature mentions 25 effects of money ...

  19. VA Disability Compensation and Money Spent on Substance Use Among Homeless Veterans: A Controversial Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    There has long been concern that public support payments are used to support addictive behaviors. This study examined the amount of money homeless veterans spend on alcohol and drugs and the association between public support income, including VA disability compensation, and expenditures on alcohol and drugs. Data were from 1,160 veterans from 19 sites on entry into the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were conducted. About 33% of veterans reported spending money on alcohol and 22% reported spending money on drugs in the past month. No significant association was found between public support income, VA disability compensation, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans spend some income on alcohol and drugs, but disability income, including VA compensation, does not seem to be related to substance use or money spent on addictive substances.

  20. Molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Hepatitis C virus among injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Marwoto; Arifin Adnan, Zainal; Hartono

    2018-05-01

    Male commercial sex workers are one of the high-risk community for blood-borne viruses. However, there are no data concerning the molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) circulated among male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia. Blood samples obtained from injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg, and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. Blood samples were also subjected to viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV, and HCV by nested (RT) PCRs. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV, and HCV were detected in 29.4% (10/34), 17.6% (6/34), and 52.9% (18/34), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 was predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a was predominated, followed by 1c, 3a, 1b, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  1. Understanding the mobile money ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem, p...

  2. The psychological science of money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Psychological Science of Money brings together classic and current findings on the myriad ways money affects brain, mind, and behavior to satisfy not only our needs for material gain, but also for autonomy and self-worth. Leading experts trace the links between early concepts of value and modern

  3. A psychological perspective on money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’

  4. Money neutrality: Rethinking the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaoui Fakhri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2, income (GDP, and prices (CPI. The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only meet motives of transaction, precaution, and speculation but also of fictional or quasi-fictional future demands due to the fact that they are created without real counterparts. The capacity of production systems in developed countries to respond to increases in money supply by creating more wealth, involves the assumption of money neutrality in the long-run. However, in developing countries, the excess of money supply may lead to inflation trends. The present study has confirmed the long-term non-neutrality of money supply in the USA, and its neutrality in Gabon and Morocco.

  5. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  6. Follow the money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Many years ago there was a Federal whistleblower, Deep Throat, who leaked confidential Government information about the Nixon White House to reporters from the Washington Post. Fans of the book and movie will remember that his famous line was, “Follow the money.” That line came to mind when an article appeared in Health Affairs summarizing the US health care expenditures for 2010 (1. The main gist of the article is that the rate of growth in health care expenditures had slowed to only 3.9% and approximated the slowed growth from 2009 which was 3.8%. Previously the growth had been much larger averaging 7.2% from 2000-8 (2. The article points out that during recession expenditures usually slow but the expected decline in healthcare expenditures usually occurs far after the beginning of the recession. The authors state that the “lagged slowdown in health spending growth from the recent recession occurred more quickly …

  7. Sex Work as an Emerging Risk Factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroconversion Among People who Inject Drugs in the SurvUDI Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Roy, Élise; Blanchette, Caty; Parent, Raymond; Serhir, Bouchra; Alary, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Recent analyses have shown an emerging positive association between sex work and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the SurvUDI network. Participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited across the Province of Quebec and in the city of Ottawa, mainly in harm reduction programs. They completed a questionnaire and provided gingival exudate for HIV antibody testing. The associations with HIV seroconversion were tested with a Cox proportional hazard model using time-dependent covariables including the main variable of interest, sexual activity (sex work; no sex work; sexually inactive). The final model included significant variables and confounders of the associations with sexual activity. Seventy-two HIV seroconversions were observed during 5239.2 person-years (py) of follow-up (incidence rates: total = 1.4/100 py; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7; sex work = 2.5/100 py; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6; no sex work = 0.8/100 py; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2; sexually inactive = 1.8/100 py; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5). In the final multivariate model, HIV incidence was significantly associated with sexual activity (sex work: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13-4.25; sexually inactive: AHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92-2.88), and injection with a needle/syringe used by someone else (AHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.73-4.66). Sex work is independently associated with HIV incidence among PWIDs. At the other end of the spectrum of sexual activity, sexually inactive PWIDs have a higher HIV incidence rate, likely due to more profound dependence leading to increased vulnerabilities, which may include mental illness, poverty, and social exclusion. Further studies are needed to understand whether the association between sex work and HIV is related to sexual transmission or other vulnerability factors.

  8. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  9. Money, Debt, People and Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob von Uexkull

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread failure to understand money creation plays a key role in the current policy impasse. In a world ruled by money, this failure disempowers and prevents serious consideration of alternatives. The key reasons why we are not moving faster in tackling the global crises are, we are told, because it is too expensive, there is not enough money, it is not (yet profitable enough to do etc. Within the current global monetary framework, this is largely true. Therefore, any realistic plan to change course before we are overwhelmed by the inter-linked environmental, social and security threats facing us, is to change this framework to ensure that money becomes our servant again. The current debt crisis offers an opportunity to replace discredited debt-based money created by private banks in their interest with government-created debt-free money benefitting all, which can be used to fund a global emergency programme.“We know now that government by organised money is just as dangerous as government by organised mob.” — President F.D. Roosevelt, 31.10.36“The essence of the contemporary monetary system is creation of money, out of nothing, by private banks’ often foolish lending. Why is such privatisation of a public function right and proper, but action by the central bank to meet pressing public need, a road to catastrophe?” — Martin Wolf, ‘Financial Times’, 9.11.10“The obvious way to reduce our public and private debts is to stop having all our money created as debt.” — James Robertson, ‘Future Money’

  10. Sex and drug risk behavior pre- and post-emigration among Latino migrant men in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer; Burton, Nicole; Schmidt, Norine; Salinas, Oscar; Hembling, John; Aran, Alberto; Shedlin, Michele; Kissinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    High rates of sex and drug risk behaviors have been documented among Latino migrant men in the U.S. Whether these behaviors were established in the migrants’ home countries or were adopted in the U.S. has not been described and has implications for prevention strategies. Quarterly surveys were conducted to gather information on selected sex and drug risk practices of Latino migrant men who arrived in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina seeking work. Both kappa scores and McNemar’s tests were performed to determine if practice of these behaviors in home country was similar to practice post-emigration to the U.S. Female sex worker (FSW) patronage, same sex encounters (MSM), and crack cocaine use was more likely to occur post-rather than pre-emigration. Of those who ever engaged in these selected behaviors, most adopted the behavior in the U.S. (i.e. 75.8% of FSW patrons, 72.7% of MSM participants, and 85.7% of crack cocaine users), with the exception of binge drinking (26.8%). Men who were living with a family member were less likely to adopt FSW patronage OR=0.27, CI=0.10-0.76, whereas men who earned >$465 per week were more likely to adopt crack cocaine use OR=6.29 CI=1.29, 30.57. Interventions that facilitate the maintenance of family cohesion and provide strategies for financial management may be useful for reducing sex and drug risk among newly arrived migrants. PMID:22669638

  11. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Risky Combination with Unprotected Sex for Acquiring HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625 of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers was the most frequently used drug (19.2%, followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%, methamphetamine (4.0%, and ketamine (0.8%. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.9, single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2–3.6, and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8–2.8. Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0–6.2. Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population.

  12. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Risky Combination with Unprotected Sex for Acquiring HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Jie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Christiana Meng; Shang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625) of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers) was the most frequently used drug (19.2%), followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%), methamphetamine (4.0%), and ketamine (0.8%). The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.9), single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2–3.6), and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8–2.8). Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0–6.2). Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population. PMID:24829916

  13. Veblen effect, marginal utility of money, and money illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Malakhov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper discovers microeconomic mechanism of Veblen effect as well as of Giffen case as results of the negative marginal utility of money. The marginal utility of consumption also becomes negative. The total consumption-leisure utility is increased due to the increase in leisure time. This overall effect results in the phenomenon of money illusion on the macroeconomic level. This general effect has deep historical and institutional grounds and, in order to minimize its disequilibrium econom...

  14. Private Electronic Money, Fiat Money and the Payments System

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Whinston; Paula Hernandez-Verme; Haibo Huang

    2004-01-01

    Temzelides and Williamson (2001) provides valuable contribution into the private money literature, however, as pointed out by Schreft (2001), while the model provides insight about historical experiences with private paper monies, it does not provide a clear insight on how a modern system of private electronic money would work and how the necessary network shall function. Our target of this paper is to fill in that gap. We present a model with two types of private electronic currencies with o...

  15. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  16. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  17. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men infected with HIV in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Sari, Yulia

    2018-05-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) share similar routes of transmission with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the HTLV-1/2 co-infection may affect the clinical course of HIV infection. The HIV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection risk higher if the patient performing the high-risk activities. This study evaluated the presentation of HTLV-1 and 2 in HIV-infected men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia. Blood samples collected from HIV-infected men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta were tested using HTLV-1/2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 17.4% (8/46). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, three was HTLV-1 positive and five was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolates had a close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolates with that of isolated in the USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in drug abused men who have sex with men infected with HIV in Surakarta.

  19. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  20. The Governance of Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    What are the drivers behind the anti-money laundering (AML) governance framework? Who are the actors and institutions, and what is the policy content? This chapter provides an overview of the processes and mechanisms of AML policy-making. AML is often presented as a financial problem, and something......, moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...

  1. 2007 National Money Laundering Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... them. The National Money Laundering Strategy for 2007 identifies areas in which the U.S. government will work to revise, enhance, or renew efforts to enforce existing Federal laws and regulations...

  2. Value and money in Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Boundi Chraki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the link between Marx's monetary theory and its explanation of value, production and circulation. For this, it presents the basic theoretical elements that allow a critique of the quantitative theory, the Chartalist conception of the genesis of money and the post-Keynesian theory of endogenous money. Then, from a Marxist perspective, it analyzes the controversial relationship between the monetization of public debt and the increase in the general level of prices.

  3. Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in southern China: sexual and drug-using behaviours among female sex workers and male clients in Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods.

  4. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  5. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  6. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar; Munk, Martin David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money....

  7. The Money Market Liaison Group Sterling Money Market Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The Bank of England recently initiated a new survey of the sterling money market on behalf of the Money Market Liaison Group. This market — where short-term wholesale borrowing and lending in sterling takes place — plays a central role in the Bank’s pursuit of its monetary and financial stability objectives. Participants include banks, other financial institutions and non-financial companies, who use the market to manage their liquidity, by investing over short periods and raising short-term ...

  8. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  9. Money and the Transmission of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Carpenter; Selva Demiralp

    2009-01-01

    The transmission mechanism of monetary policy has received extensive treatment in the macroeconomic literature. Most models currently used for macroeconomic analysis exclude money or else model money demand as entirely endogenous. Nevertheless, academic research and many textbooks continue to use the money multiplier concept in discussions of money. We explore the institutional structure of the transmission mechanism beginning with open market operations through to money and loans to document...

  10. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan Cepni; Ibrahim Ethem Guney

    2017-01-01

    There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand ...

  11. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern.

  12. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Rusch, Melanie; Nguyen, Lucie; Pollini, Robin A; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; Beletsky, Leo; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-25

    FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, psocial environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients) and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs) predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  13. Sex and Drugs and Nuclear War: Secular, Developmental and Type A Influences upon Adolescents' Fears of the Nuclear Threat, AIDS and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Robert; Lewis, Charlie

    1993-01-01

    Examined fear of nuclear war among 3,556 secondary school students. Results suggest that such concern is expressed differently according to age and sex and that subjects who expressed concern about nuclear war and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were more likely to show significantly higher Type A identification. (Author/NB)

  14. Race, money and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  15. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  16. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  17. Discount rates in risk versus money and money versus money tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberini, Anna; Chiabai, Aline

    2007-04-01

    We use data from a survey of residents of five Italian cities conducted in late spring 2004 to estimate the discount rates implicit in (1) money versus future risk reductions and (2) money versus money tradeoffs. We find that the mean personal discount rate is 0.3-1.7% in (1) and 8.7% in (2). The latter is lower than the discount rates estimated in comparable situations in many recent studies, greater than market interest rates in Italy at the time, and exhibits modest variation with age and gender. The discount rate implicit in money versus risk tradeoffs is within the range of estimates from studies in the United States and Europe, and does not depend on observable individual characteristics. We use split samples to investigate whether a completely abstract risk reduction - one where the risk reduction delivery has been stripped of all specifics, so that respondents should focus on the risks without being distracted by details - results in WTP and discount figures comparable to those from an identified delivery mechanism (a medical test). We find that while WTP for an immediate risk reduction is 42-73% higher with the abstract risk reduction, the discount rate in the money versus risk tradeoffs and the variance of the error term in the WTP equation are the same across the two variants of the questionnaire.

  18. Sex bias in experimental immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice: suggested roles for Tregs, estrogen, and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Cho

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury (DILI triggered by drug haptens is more prevalent in women than in men. However, mechanisms responsible for this sex bias are not clear. Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs and 17β-estradiol is crucial in the pathogenesis of sex bias in cancer and autoimmunity. Therefore, we investigated their role in a mouse model of immune-mediated DILI.To model DILI, we immunized BALB/c, BALB/cBy, IL-6-deficient, and castrated BALB/c mice with trifluoroacetyl chloride-haptenated liver proteins. We then measured degree of hepatitis, cytokines, antibodies, and Treg and splenocyte function.BALB/c females developed more severe hepatitis (p<0.01 and produced more pro-inflammatory hepatic cytokines and antibodies (p<0.05 than did males. Castrated males developed more severe hepatitis than did intact males (p<0.001 and females (p<0.05. Splenocytes cultured from female mice exhibited fewer Tregs (p<0.01 and higher IL-1β (p<0.01 and IL-6 (p<0.05 than did those from males. However, Treg function did not differ by sex, as evidenced by absence of sex bias in programmed death receptor-1 and responses to IL-6, anti-IL-10, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28. Diminished hepatitis in IL-6-deficient, anti-IL-6 receptor α-treated, ovariectomized, or male mice; undetectable IL-6 levels in splenocyte supernatants from ovariectomized and male mice; elevated splenic IL-6 and serum estrogen levels in castrated male mice, and IL-6 induction by 17β-estradiol in splenocytes from naïve female mice (p<0.05 suggested that 17β-estradiol may enhance sex bias through IL-6 induction, which subsequently discourages Treg survival. Treg transfer from naïve female mice to those with DILI reduced hepatitis severity and hepatic IL-6.17β-estradiol and IL-6 may act synergistically to promote sex bias in experimental DILI by reducing Tregs. Modulating Treg numbers may provide a therapeutic approach to DILI.

  19. Moneta e quasi-moneta. (Money and quasi-money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CESARANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L'analisi della definizione degli aggregati monetari ha avuto un ruolo di primo piano nel dibattito sul denaro negli anni Sessanta e la prima metà degli anni Settanta . I problemi connessi con il rapporto tra denaro e quasi- denaro ha importanti implicazioni per i vari aspetti fondamentali della teoria monetaria e della politica monetaria . In Italia , per motivi legati alla peculiarità del  quadro istituzionale , il problema in questione non ha ricevuto molta attenzione . Solo di recente , a seguito della diffusione di strumenti di mercato monetario ,  molti partiti hanno sollevato la questione per quanto riguarda l'inclusione di questi strumenti nella definizione dello stock del denaro . Dopo aver spiegato la natura del problema , il presente lavoro fornisce un'analisi empirica della questione .The analysis of the definition of monetary aggregates has had a leading role in the debate on money in the sixties and the first half of the seventies. The problems associated with the relationship between money and quasi-money has important implications for various fundamental aspects of monetary theory and monetary policy. In Italy, for reasons related to the peculiar institutional framework, the issue in question has not received much attention. Only recently, as a result of the diffusion of money market instruments, have many parties raised the question regarding the inclusion of these instruments in the definition of the stock of money. After explaining the nature of the problem, the present work provides an empirical analysis of the issue.JEL: E42, E52

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest ...

  1. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, J; Tang, W; Liu, C; Wong, NS; Tang, S; Wei, C; Tucker, JD

    2018-01-01

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic charac...

  2. Eleven Ways To Make Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Many school districts are becoming aggressively entrepreneurial in their efforts to raise money. One district serves as the Internet service provider for their area, another rents buses and drivers to community groups. A sidebar describes a controversial deal between Coca-Cola and the Colorado Springs School District. (MLF)

  3. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  4. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  5. Money Matters: Comment and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    1998-01-01

    If money truly does not matter, and disadvantage cannot be quantified in terms of valuable social or economic goods, then questions of justice become aridly academic. How are resources to be valued? Faulty research design skewed Eric Hanushek's results. More precisely designed studies are revealing relationships between school expenditures and…

  6. Keynesian multiplier versus velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yougui; Xu, Yan; Liu, Li

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we present the relation between Keynesian multiplier and the velocity of money circulation in a money exchange model. For this purpose we modify the original exchange model by constructing the interrelation between income and expenditure. The random exchange yields an agent's income, which along with the amount of money he processed determines his expenditure. In this interactive process, both the circulation of money and Keynesian multiplier effect can be formulated. The equilibrium values of Keynesian multiplier are demonstrated to be closely related to the velocity of money. Thus the impacts of macroeconomic policies on aggregate income can be understood by concentrating solely on the variations of money circulation.

  7. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  8. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  9. HIV, syphilis and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men in a drug-using area of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Lan; Yi, Chen; Shuai, Tang; Zhiyong, Shen; Zhenzhu, Tang; Yuhua, Ruan; Yousuf, Mohammed Adnan; Wensheng, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwestern China, where HIV started as a drug-driven epidemic, and shifted to mainly heterosexual transmission. These cross-sectional studies were conducted yearly in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Guangxi, China. A total of 1,996, 1,965, and 1,697 participants were recruited in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The data included demographic and sexual behavioral variables. Other variables included individuals who used illegal drugs, and who received HIV counseling, testing, and free condoms, and peer education. Participants were tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with whole blood specimens. Questionnaires and laboratory testing data were double entered, and validated with EpiData software. The data were then transferred into SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and Chi-square test performed. The prevalence of HIV was 6.6% in 2013, 8.4% in 2014, and 11.2% in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.3% in 2013, 9.8% in 2014, and 6.1% in 2015. And HCV prevalence was 0.5% in 2013 and remained stable at 0.4% in 2014, and 2015. HIV infection, and associated factors among MSM in these 3 annual cross-sectional survey showed that HIV-infected MSM were significantly, more likely, to perform unprotected anal intercourse with any commercial male partners in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.50–2.20), had sex with any female partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01–1.71), used drugs in the past (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30–5.71), and are syphilis infected (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.77–4.49). There is an urgent need for intervention strategies like condom distribution, HIV counseling, free testing, and education regarding safe sex, HIV, and other sex-related diseases in Guangxi to curb, and prevent HIV among MSM. PMID:29668597

  10. Clinical and economic consequences of treating patients with peripheral neuropathic pain with brand name or generic drugs in routine clinical practice: The effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Artieda, R; Rejas-Gutiérrez, J; Pérez-Paramo, M; Sicras-Mainar, A

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of age and sex on pain and cost for patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) who have started treatment with brand name gabapentin versus generic gabapentin (EFG). We conducted a retrospective multicentre study using electronic medical records (EMR) for patients of both sexes, older than 18, who began treatment with brand name or generic gabapentin. Adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR]), persistence, use of healthcare resources, cost, and pain reduction were measured for one year. We analysed 1369 EMRs [61.1% women; mean age 64.6 (15.9), 52.4%≥65 years]; 400 used brand name drugs while 969 used generic gabapentin. Persistence and adherence were higher in patients using brand name gabapentin (7.3 vs 6.3 months, Pbrand-name gabapentin in both age groups (brand treatment showed greater pain relief: 13.5% (10.9-16.2) and 10.8% (8.2-13.5) in brand name medication showed greater persistence and adherence to treatment than those taking generic drugs. Brand name treatment also involved lower healthcare costs, and greater pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Does parental job insecurity matter? Money anxiety, money motives, and work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vivien K G; Sng, Qing Si

    2006-09-01

    A structural model focusing on the spillover effect of parental perceived job insecurity on money anxiety was developed and tested. The crossover effect of parents' money anxiety on their children's money anxiety, money motives, and motivation to work was also examined. Data were collected from a sample of undergraduates and their parents. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported a spillover effect of paternal perceived job insecurity on paternal money anxiety. However, maternal perceived job insecurity was not significantly associated with maternal money anxiety. Results also supported a crossover effect of parental money anxiety on youths' money anxiety. Youths' money anxiety was significantly related to youths' negative money motives. In turn, youths' negative money motives were associated with their intrinsic motivation to work. Implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Cepni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.

  13. Mobile Money and Local Development | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New forms of mobile-based financial applications - known as mobile money ... and shared with teams presently implementing socially-motivated mobile money ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, S; Collumbien, M; Qureshi, A; Platt, L; Rafiq, N; Faisel, A; Lalji, N; Hawkes, S

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the nature and extent of human rights abuses against three vulnerable groups (injecting drug users (IDUs) and male and female sex workers), to understand the social and sexual linkages between them and to examine how protecting their rights could enhance the impact of HIV prevention policies. In-depth interviews were carried out with 38 high-risk respondents (IDUs and female, male and transgender sex workers) and a bio-behavioural survey was performed of 813 IDU/sex worker respondents in Rawalpindi. People in all vulnerable groups interacted both sexually and socially. All groups experienced human rights abuses by state and non-state actors which increased their HIV risk. Non-state actors, including relations and sex worker clients, are responsible for verbal, physical and sexual violence. State actors (particularly police) perpetrate harassment, exploitation and abuse of all vulnerable groups with impunity. Health service providers fail to provide adequate services for vulnerable groups. High levels of discrimination and abuse of human dignity of all groups studied were revealed. This violates their physical and mental integrity and also leads to an increased risk of HIV. The sexual and social interactions between groups mean that human rights abuses experienced by one high-risk group can increase the risk of HIV both for them and other groups. The protection of human rights needs to become an integral part of a multisector response to the risk of HIV/AIDS by state and non-state agencies. The Government of Pakistan should work at both legal and programme levels to protect the rights of, and minimise discrimination against, groups vulnerable to HIV in order to reduce the potential for the spread of HIV before the epidemic takes hold.

  15. Monetary Policy Implications of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Aleksander

    1997-01-01

    The term digital money refers to various proposed electronic payment mechanisms designed for use by consumers to make retail payments. Digital money products have the potential to replace central bank currency, thereby affecting the money supply. This paper studies the effect of replacing central bank currency on the narrowly defined stock of money under various assumptions regarding regulatory policies and monetary operations of central banks and the reaction of the banking system.

  16. Energetic Issues Concerning the Content of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Negoescu Gheorghe; Radu Riana Iren

    2012-01-01

    In full times of crisis, money has become increasingly more important. We put the issue to analyze whether money can be considered a form of energy. The article is taking into consideration the conservation of energy and for money is due to kinetic energy during the boom and to potential energy during the crisis. In the article is also made an illustration of the energetic content of money at a company’s level.

  17. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  18. The endogeneity of money and the eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...

  19. European Regulatory Framework for Money Market Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Portuese, Aurelien; MacNeil, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Money market funds are widely used by all types of investors, including households, corporate treasurers, pension funds, or insurance companies, who regard money market funds as a ‘safe’ short-term liquid asset class for investing cash. In this case they are proxies to cash deposits. Money market funds are themselves key lenders to issuers of short dated high quality money market instruments. They provide an important source of funding for a variety of institutions such as sovereigns, banks, ...

  20. The Meaning of Money Revisited: Workers' View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping

    Money has significant impacts on people's motivation and their work-related behavior in organizations. This study was conducted to develop the Money Ethic Scale (MES) and to examine the initial nomological network of the scale. A 25-page questionnaire on attitudes toward money was distributed to 1,200 subjects, including students and faculty of a…

  1. Fertility and money in an OLG model

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.

  2. 75 FR 10059 - Money Market Fund Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... contain adverse effects on the capital markets and other money market funds. In addition, throughout the... acquisition of second tier securities by money market funds might have a negative effect on those issuers of...; Treasury Strategies Comment Letter. Commenters asserted that eliminating money market funds' ability to...

  3. THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research the origin of money and their functionality on the market.The aim of this paper is to analyse the origin of money as a social institution. The appearance and use of money has prehistoric roots. People have turned to the usage of money out of need to facilitate trade. During thousands of years money has known different forms going from money as merchandise, to coins and later to paper money and electronic currency. In this study I have analysed the role of natural money, as well as their production and functionality on the market. The main questionto be answered is whether the production and functionality of paper money nowadays is the consequence of the free market, having the Austrian’s School liberal perspective as a starting point. This methodological approach demonstrates that money is and will remain a social institution and the implication of the authorities in the currency issuing, even from ancient times, has caused distortions in the economic activity.

  4. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Dong Hua; Gu Yan; Zhang Zuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (t β-HCG =4.845, t E =7.655, t P =11.390, P E =9.089, P P =2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  5. The Meaning of Money Revisited: The Development of the Money Ethic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping

    Despite the fact that money is important in everyday life, there is a dearth of empirical material and research concerning the meaning of money and people's attitudes towards money in the psychological literature. This study examined the underlying concepts or beliefs people hold about money and the extent to which different needs can be fulfilled…

  6. Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire: Premarital Sexual Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    take into account the increasing influence of modernity, gender differences and the compelling influence of peer ... farming, although some people also engage in ..... They make every efforts to .... friends have boyfriends or girlfriends, some.

  7. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives to illuminate the rise and fall of pin money and mad money as uniquely “women’s dollars." 

  8. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-07

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors.

  9. Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ≥90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p = 0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained

  10. HIV prevention through drugs and sex education in junior high schools in Bandung West Java: the teachers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Riyanti, Eka; Tasya, Irma A; Pohan, Mawar N; Sumintardja, Elmira N; Astuti, Sri R; Jabar, Bambang A; Pinxten, Lucas Wj; Hospers, Harm J

    2009-07-01

    to explore the teacher perspective on needs (in terms of knowledge, skills and curriculum content), attitudes, beliefs and self-efficacy related to teaching and implementation of a reproductive health (RH)/drug education (DE) program at their own junior high school. one hundred and thirty-three teachers participated in a survey, from February to April 2009, measuring: socio demographic, behavioral intention, perceived behavior control, content knowledge, school climate, reproductive health knowledge and school drug education. all teachers had a high intention to teach RH and DE, especially the younger RH teachers had a high intention to teach about teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. DE teachers had a high intention facts/effects of drugs, first-time drug use dealing with peer pressure. Perceived beliefs of teachers, parents, school management and perceived self-efficacy were strong predictors for the intention of RH teaching and DE. the high intention of the RH and DE teacher offers a great opportunity to build and implement a DE and RH curriculum in junior high school. Before a curriculum is developed and implemented there is a need to assess and strengthen the teacher's skills and effectiveness in teaching RH and DE.

  11. Money Creation in a Random Matching Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei Deviatov

    2006-01-01

    I study money creation in versions of the Trejos-Wright (1995) and Shi (1995) models with indivisible money and individual holdings bounded at two units. I work with the same class of policies as in Deviatov and Wallace (2001), who study money creation in that model. However, I consider an alternative notion of implementability–the ex ante pairwise core. I compute a set of numerical examples to determine whether money creation is beneficial. I find beneficial e?ects of money creation if indiv...

  12. Money growth volatility and the demand for money in Germany: Friedman's volatility hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...

  13. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  14. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  15. Money demand elasticity, effective money supply and money market disequilibrium: ¡°China¡¯s Puzzle¡± and long-term excessive liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    LI Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    Chinese excessive liquidity problems are more serious than other main countries. The upgrading industrial structure and the increasing opening degree lead to the excessive money demand and higher money demand elasticity. Bad credits weaken money supply effectiveness and lead to illusive increasing money. We set up the money market disequilibrium model under the condition of the excessive liquidity. The imbalance between money demand and money supply is the key of Chinese excessive liquidity p...

  16. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well understood. Our hypothesis is that allopregnanolone, during gestation, plays a particularly vital role in mitigating effects of stress on the developing fetus and may mediate, in part, alterations apparent throughout the lifespan. Specifically, altered balance between glucocorticoids and progestogens during critical periods of development (stemming from psychological, immunological, and/or endocrinological stressors during gestation may permanently influence behavior, brain morphology, and/or neuroendocrine-sensitive processes. 5α-reduced progestogens are integral in the developmental programming of sex-typical, stress-sensitive, and/or disorder-relevant phenotypes. Prenatal stress may alter these responses and dysregulate allopregnanolone and its normative effects on stress axis function. As an example of a neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and/or neurodegenerative process, this review focuses on responsiveness to drugs of abuse, which is sensitive to prenatal stress and progestogen milieu. This review explores the notion that allopregnanolone may effect, or be influenced by, prenatal stress, with consequences for neurodevelopmental-, neuropsychiatric- and/or neurodegenerative- relevant processes, such as addiction.

  17. Camp life: Are northern work camps safe havens for a migrant workforce, or dens of iniquity rampant with sex, drugs and alcohol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty, K.

    2004-02-01

    Two studies, dealing with life in work camps in northern Alberta and yielding contradictory results, are discussed. One study by a graduate student in sociology found that many of the men and women housed in work camps in remote locations of the northeastern oilsands belt use drugs, alcohol and casual sex to relieve boredom and loneliness. The other study, commissioned by the Athabasca Regional Issues Working Group (RWIG) found that camp workers visit Fort McMurray on the average of just over once a week, and use that time to take care of normal business, such as visiting health care professionals, buying gasoline, clothing, etc. It found no evidence of widespread sex, or drug or alcohol abuse among work camp residents. The RWIG study surveyed 25 per cent of the 6,272 worker population living in three camps in the Wood Buffalo region during June 2003. The study prepared by V. Taylor for a M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Calgary was severely criticized, primarily for its conclusions being based on a sample size of only nine men and one woman. Despite the criticism, the Taylor study made headlines across the country and has been instrumental in raising awareness of the special needs of a mobile workforce. A more broadly-based study is in progress at the University of Alberta, supported by the RCMP and a number of workplace stakeholders. Its objectives are to examine the situation more thoroughly, identify gaps in services and to explore long term solutions to what is undeniably a serious problem, indicated, if not proven, by the Taylor study.

  18. Availability and Quality of Size Estimations of Female Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and Transgender Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sabin

    Full Text Available To assess the availability and quality of population size estimations of female sex workers (FSW, men who have sex with men (MSM, people who inject drug (PWID and transgender women.Size estimation data since 2010 were retrieved from global reporting databases, Global Fund grant application documents, and the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Overall quality and availability were assessed against a defined set of criteria, including estimation methods, geographic coverage, and extrapolation approaches. Estimates were compositely categorized into 'nationally adequate', 'nationally inadequate but locally adequate', 'documented but inadequate methods', 'undocumented or untimely' and 'no data.'Of 140 countries assessed, 41 did not report any estimates since 2010. Among 99 countries with at least one estimate, 38 were categorized as having nationally adequate estimates and 30 as having nationally inadequate but locally adequate estimates. Multiplier, capture-recapture, census and enumeration, and programmatic mapping were the most commonly used methods. Most countries relied on only one estimate for a given population while about half of all reports included national estimates. A variety of approaches were applied to extrapolate from sites-level numbers to national estimates in two-thirds of countries.Size estimates for FSW, MSM, PWID and transgender women are increasingly available but quality varies widely. The different approaches present challenges for data use in design, implementation and evaluation of programs for these populations in half of the countries assessed. Guidance should be further developed to recommend: a applying multiple estimation methods; b estimating size for a minimum number of sites; and, c documenting extrapolation approaches.

  19. Go where the money is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressler, T. G. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The information required by investment banks from private E and P companies regarding private financing, sales, mergers or acquisitions, was discussed. A bank will always refer to a company's reserve report in its evaluation. Using this and other information at its disposal, the principal role of the investment bank is to advise clients in regard to financial transactions, to help them receive a fair value and to steer them in the direction where the required funds are most likely to be available ('go where the money is'), be it in public or private markets, or through a sale, or merger

  20. MONEY LAUNDERING OR LAUNDERING OF THE PROCEEDS OF CRIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyses which of the phrases money laundering or laundering the proceeds of crime is more appropriate to describe the crime provided by art. 23 of Law no. 656/2002 on prevention and sanctioning money laundering, as well as for setting up some measures for prevention and combating terrorism financing. In this respect, the article includes a survey of the important international documents in this matters ratified by Romania - United Nations Vienna Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the Vienna Convention, the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime, The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism. To remove any ambiguities arising from the approach of the money laundering concept and to reach a conclusion, there are also presented the controversial views regarding the use of the expression money laundering in both Title and content of Law, views expressed in specialized literature.

  1. Big Money: The Effect of Money Size on Value Perceptions and Saving Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz, Johanna; Soliman, Monica

    2016-01-28

    Motivated perception has been shown to affect people's estimates of money (e.g., perceiving coins as larger than real size). In the present research, we examine whether simply varying the size of a picture of money can affect its perceived value and subsequent decisions. Participants presented with a picture of money enlarged by 15% perceived the depicted money as more valuable compared with those seeing a real-size picture (Study 1). When told to imagine their own cash and banked money in the depicted form, participants presented with a picture enlarged by 15% felt more subjectively wealthy and reported fewer intentions to conserve their money compared with those seeing a real-size picture of the same money (Study 2). Together, these studies suggest that judgments about money and even attitudes toward personal spending can be influenced by manipulating the size of a picture of money. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  3. Sport without game: Money laundering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijat Ljiljana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport is firmly connected to politics in the whole world, the Republic of Serbia being no exception. Pronounced motives of profit in sport led to the appearance of new problems, like money laundering and business and moral unreliability of the participants. Some of anomalies are connected with politically exposed persons (PEP. Offering services within the banking industry, especially considering the private banking, entails a higher degree of discretion and confidentiality in comparison with the ordinary clients. Misuse of these business relationships by PEP has been identified. This paper surveys the statistically significant differences between domestic banks and the domestic banks with the foreign capital in relation to the groups of procedures concerning PEP based on the Recommendation 6 of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering - FATF. Although the domestic banks with the foreign capital were obliged to apply the procedures related to the FATF's Recommendations to the same extent as the Main Office, significant differences between domestic and foreign banks were not found, in terms of Recommendation 6. Inadequacy of regulations and lack of enforcement procedures jeopardize the program of reforms, threatening, the privatisation in sports.

  4. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  5. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Adimora, Adaora A; Wohl, David A; Keen, Larry D; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-06-07

    Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR = 3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23-24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk.

  6. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Golin, Carol E.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Wohl, David A.; Keen, Larry D.; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. Methods We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n= 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Results Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR=3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23–24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. Conclusions STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk. PMID:28426364

  7. Comparison of Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview and Face-To-Face Interview Methods in Eliciting HIV-Related Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Inject Drugs in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mi...

  8. Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Teesselink, E; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P

    2017-01-01

    Given the expected increase in the number of patients with osteoporosis and fragility fractures it is important to have concise information on trends in prescription rates of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD). We undertook a retrospective observational study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the UK between 1990 and 2012 in subjects 50years or older, stratified by age, sex, geographic region and ethnicity. Yearly prescription incidence rates of any AOD and of each specific AOD were calculated as the number of patients first prescribed these AODs per 10,000person-years (py). In women, yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased from 1990 to 2006 (from 2.3 to 169.7 per 10,000py), followed by a plateau and a 12% decrease in the last three years. In men, a less steep increase from 1990 to 2007 (from 1.4 to 45.3 per 10,000py) was followed by a plateau from 2008 onwards. Yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased up to the age of 85-89years (248.9 per 10,000py in women and 119.3 in men). There were marked differences between ethnic groups and regions. Bisphosphonates were the most frequently prescribed AODs: etidronate till 2000, and then subsequently alendronate. We have demonstrated marked secular changes in rates of anti-osteoporosis drug prescription over the last two decades. The plateau (and decrease amongst women) in rates in recent years, set against an ever ageing population, is worrying, suggesting that the well-documented care gap in osteoporosis treatment persists. The differences in prescription rates by geographic location and ethnicity raise intriguing questions in relation to underlying fracture rates, provision of care and health behaviour. We studied the prescription incidence of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD) from 1990 to 2012 in the UK CPRD. Overall AOD prescription incidence showed a strong increase from 1990 to 2006, followed by a plateau in both sexes and a decrease amongst women in the last three years

  9. The Determinants of Money Arguments between Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy B. Durband

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A commonly held view is that arguments about money are associated with marital problems, but relatively little is known about the nature of arguing about money within marriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, this study uses a collective bargaining approach to examine the role of money arguments in marriage. The sample (N = 1,371 consists of married women. A collective bargaining framework provides a context for understanding money arguments within the marital relationship. Results indicate that costly communication is the dominant predictor of money arguments, followed by level and proportion of wife’s income, and household net worth. Because results suggest that both communication and financial resources are important components to understanding money arguments within marriage, a combination of professionals trained in marital therapy and/or financial planning is required for couples interested in seeking assistance to increase their satisfaction and/or avoid divorce.

  10. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  11. Some observations about the endogenous money theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocco Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The endogenous money theory constitutes the core element of the post-keynesian monetary theory. The first formulation of this theory can be found in the works of Kaldor published in the 1970s. Taking these studies as a starting point, the post-keynesians elaborated two versions of the endogenous money theory which differ in their assumptions about the behaviour of the monetary authorities and the banking system, and hence offer different conclusions about the slope of the money supply curve. ...

  12. A Theory of Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    David Andolfatto; Ed Nosal

    2003-01-01

    We construct a simple environment that combines a limited communication friction and a limited information friction in order to generate a role for money and intermediation. We ask whether there is any reason to expect the emergence of a banking sector (i.e., institutions that combine the business of money creation with the business of intermediation). In our model the unique equilibrium is characterized, in part, by the existence of an agent that: (1) creates money (a debt instrument that ci...

  13. Measuring Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Shahid; Ali, Umbreen; Dawood, Mamoon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the factors such as interest rate, GDP per capita, exchange rate, fiscal deficit, urban and rural population to determine money demand function for Pakistan over the period from 1972-2013. We use ARDL Bound Testing approach in order to test long run relation between money demand and its factors whereas both long and short run coefficients will be found using similar approach. The results show that real interest rate exerts significant and negative effect upon money dem...

  14. Money Laundering – an Economic Offence

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia ŞERBAN MORĂREANU

    2011-01-01

    Preventing and combating money laundering, the product of the transnational organized crime, in general, is one of the most efficient means of stopping this activity, which is a threat for the national or international economic operations. The penal incrimination and sanction of money laundering is a useful instrument for the accountability of all categories of offenders, but also with the purpose of imposing more severe sanctions for those who commit offences generating dirty money, behind s...

  15. Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...

  16. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  17. Money creation in the modern economy

    OpenAIRE

    McLeay, Michael; Radia, Amar; Thomas, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    This article explains how the majority of money in the modern economy is created by commercial banks making loans. Money creation in practice differs from some popular misconceptions — banks do not act simply as intermediaries, lending out deposits that savers place with them, and nor do they ‘multiply up’ central bank money to create new loans and deposits. The amount of money created in the economy ultimately depends on the monetary policy of the central bank. In normal times, this is carri...

  18. Money Demand Features in CEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina-Ioana MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a stable relationship between money demand and its determinants is important for the efficiency of monetary policy. In this paper we carried a preliminary analysis on the variables that can influence money demand in five Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in order to determine which characteristics define the evolution of money demand and its determinants, and how volatile they are. The results indicate a number of similarities in terms of monetary development and also suggest that some additional variables that may influence money demand in this specific sample.

  19. Money and inflation: a functional relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Wolla, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    They say that "money makes the world go round." Just imagine a world without money as our method of payment for everyday transactions. Without money, we would all need to barter for necessary goods and services. For example, suppose an accountant needs to have her car fixed. Under a barter system, she would have to find someone who needed some tax advice in exchange for car repairs. The search to find a barter partner is time consuming and wasteful. Money solves this problem and many others. ...

  20. "Introduction to an Alternative History of Money"

    OpenAIRE

    L. Randall Wray

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the various strands of an alternative, heterodox view on the origins of money and the development of the modern financial system in a manner that is consistent with the findings of historians and anthropologists. As is well known, the orthodox story of money's origins and evolution begins with the creation of a medium of exchange to reduce the costs of barter. To be sure, the history of money is "lost in the mists of time," as money's invention probably predates writing....

  1. Money growth and aggregate stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Böing, Tobias; Stadtmann, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We empirically evaluate the predictive power of money growth measured by M2 for stock returns of the S&P 500 index. We use monthly US data and predict multiperiod returns over 1, 3, and 5 years with long-horizon regressions. In-sample regressions show that money growth is useful for predicting returns. Higher recent money growth has a significantly negative effect on subsequent returns of the S&P 500. An out-of-sample analysis shows that a simple model with money growth as a single predictor ...

  2. Attitudes toward Money and Demographic Variables as Related to Income and Life Satisfaction: USA Vs. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Arocas, Roberto Luna; Whiteside, Harold D.

    A study of 207 faculty at a state university in the southeastern United States and 102 faculty members at the University of Valencia (Spain) examined demographic variables and attitudes toward money, income, and life satisfaction. Demographic variables (sex, age, education, marital status, race, current job experience, total work experience, and…

  3. Correlates of current transactional sex among a sample of female exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-04-01

    Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers' sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2) to examine the role of the club environment in these behaviors, and (3) to examine correlates of currently exchanging sex. From June 2008 to February 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study among women who were aged 18 years or older and reported exotic dancing within the past 3 months (n = 98). The survey ascertained socio-demographic characteristics, personal health, medical history, sexual practices, drug use, and employment at clubs on the block. Bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify correlates of current sex exchange. Participants were a median of 24 years old, and were 58% white; 43% had not completed high school. Seventy-four percent reported ever having been arrested. Twenty-six percent reported having injected heroin and 29% reported having smoked crack in the past 3 months. Fifty-seven percent reported using drugs in the club in the past 3 months. Sixty-one percent had ever engaged in transactional sex, and 67% of those did so for the first time after beginning to dance. Forty-three percent reported selling any sex in the club in the past 3 months. In multiple Poisson regression, factors associated with current sex exchange included: race, ever having been arrested, and using drugs in the club. High levels of both drug use and transactional sex among this sample of exotic dancers were reported. These findings indicate that there are a number of drug- and sex-related harms faced by exotic dancers in strip clubs

  4. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena EVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawyers are not immune to committing offences and the provisions of criminal law apply to them accordingly. The criminal liability of lawyers represents a natural aspect in the rule of law. Lawyers involved as defendants in criminal cases do not benefit from any special status or privileges compared to other defendants. In the international context of the fight against money laundering, the community law has submitted the profession of lawyer to two obligations concerning vigilance and denouncement. The assimilation of lawyer’s profession to financial or non-regulated professions entails the deformation of rules and principles specific to lawyers, as well as discussing the bases of any democratic society: the professional secrecy of lawyers and their independence.

  5. Work for Passion or Money?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Løyland, Knut; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    on the supply of arts hours. This finding supports arts policy and shows the impact of art grants on artists’ motivation to work on their arts. The causality of wages on supply is demonstrated by estimating the effects of wage shocks (grants) on arts labor supply using fixed-effect and difference......This paper assesses the relative impact of work for money or work for passion on Norwegian artists by examining artists’ labor supply. Our contribution is twofold. The first is to test the work-preference model and the second is to investigate the impact of arts grants on artists’ labor supply...... adds to the literature by estimating the significance of these various income sources on the time allocated to arts work, non-arts work, and leisure. The results provide convincing evidence for the work-preference model, and ad hoc evidence shows that art grants have a significant positive effect...

  6. Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill [Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.F.; Cryer, Bob; Carlisle, Kenneth; Dean, Paul.

    1990-01-01

    The debate concerns the authorisation of payment of the money required to reorganise the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom provided for in the Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill in progress through Parliament. In the Bill the contractorisation of the establishment is recommended and some sort of Government owned company operated scheme set up. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. The issues raised concerned the actual sums likely to be incurred in the formation of a Company to carry out the designated activities of the Bill. These are connected with the research, development, production or maintenance of nuclear devices and the premises needed. The government spokesman suggested the sums required to support the Bill would not be large and the resolution was agreed to without a vote. (UK)

  7. Money, Markets and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The future science of Economics must be human-centered, value-based, inclusive, global in scope and evolutionary in perspective. It needs to be fundamentally interdisciplinary to reflect the increasingly complex sectoral interconnections that characterize modern society. It must also be founded on transdisciplinary principles of social existence and human development that constitute the theoretical foundation for all the human sciences. This paper examines three fundamental aspects of modern economy to illustrate the types of issues and perspectives relevant to a reformulation of Economics framed within a broader political, social, cultural, psychological and ecological context. It examines the social forces responsible for the present functioning of economies, which can be effectively addressed and controlled only when they are made conscious and explicit. Whatever the powers that have shaped its development in the past, the rightful aim of economic science is a system of knowledge that promotes the welfare and well-being of all humanity. Markets and money are instruments for the conversion of social potential into social power. They harness the power of organization to transform human energies into the capacity for social accomplishment. The distribution of rights and privileges in society determines how these social institutions function and who benefits. Freedom means access to social power and is only possible in the measure all forms of that power—political, economic and social—are equitably distributed. The current system is inherently biased in favor of privileged elites reinforcing domination by the more powerful. The emergence of the individual is the vanguard of social evolution and the widest manifestation of creative individuality is its pinnacle. This emergence can only be fully achieved in conditions of freedom and equality. Economic theory needs to make explicit the underlying forces determining the distribution of power and

  8. When Does Money Make Money More Important? Survey and Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford E. DeVoe; Jeffrey Pfeffer; Byron Y. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate how the amount and source of income affects the importance placed on money. Using a longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey and evidence from two laboratory experiments, they found that larger amounts of money received for labor were associated with individuals placing greater importance on money; but this effect did not hold for money not related to work. The longitudinal survey analysis demonstrated these differential effects of the source of inco...

  9. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.

  10. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  11. Effects of yohimbine and drug cues on impulsivity and attention in cocaine-dependent men and women and sex-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, M M; Baker, N L; McRae-Clark, A L; Prisciandaro, J J; Brady, K T

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in executive function have been associated with risk for relapse. Data from previous studies suggest that relapse may be triggered by stress and drug-paired cues and that there are significant sex differences in the magnitude of these responses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the pharmacological stressor and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine and cocaine cues on executive function in cocaine-dependent men and women. In a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study, cocaine-dependent men (n=12), cocaine-dependent women (n=27), control men (n=31) and control women (n=25) received either yohimbine or placebo prior to two cocaine cue exposure sessions. Participants performed the Connors' Continuous Performance Test II prior to medication/placebo administration and immediately after each cue exposure session Healthy controls had a significant increase in commission errors under the yohimbine condition [RR (95% CI)=1.1 (1.0-1.3), χ(2)1=2.0, p=0.050]. Cocaine-dependent individuals exhibited a significant decrease in omission errors under the yohimbine condition [RR (95% CI)=0.6 (0.4-0.8), χ(2)1=8.6, p=0.003]. Cocaine-dependent women had more omission errors as compared to cocaine-dependent men regardless of treatment [RR (95% CI)=7.2 (3.6-14.7), χ(2)1=30.1, pwomen exhibited a slower hit reaction time as compared to cocaine-dependent men [Female 354 ± 13 vs. Male 415 ± 14; t89=2.6, p=0.012]. These data add to a growing literature demonstrating significant sex differences in behaviors associated with relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is

  13. The Meaning of Money: The Measurement and Dimensionality of the Money Ethic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Kim, Jwa K.

    Money has been recognized as an important factor to attract, retain, and motivate employees and has significant impacts on people's behavior, performance, and effectiveness in organizations. Created to evaluate the validity of the Money Ethic Scale, this study investigates the measurement and dimensionality of money attitudes through…

  14. The Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Individuals in Croatia: The Role of Transmission Clusters of Men Who Have Sex with Men Carrying the T215S Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Ivana; Lunar, Maja M.; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365

  15. Associations of Drug Use, Violence, and Depressive Symptoms with Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Women with Alcohol Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen; Hutton, Heidi E; Lesko, Catherine R; Monroe, Anne K; Alvanzo, Anika; McCaul, Mary E; Chander, Geetanjali

    2018-05-18

    Alcohol misuse is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk behaviors by women. Drug use, intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur, are well-recognized alcohol misuse comorbidities, and may interact to increase risk behaviors. Using a syndemic framework we examined associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors by 400 women with alcohol misuse attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. Participants completed computer-assisted interviews querying drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior outcomes-unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol, sex for drugs/money, and number of lifetime sexual partners. We used multivariable analysis to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for independent and joint associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and our outcomes. To investigate synergy between risk factors we calculated the relative excess prevalence owing to interaction for all variable combinations. In multivariable analysis, drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms alone and in combination were associated with higher prevalence/count of risk behaviors compared with women with alcohol misuse alone. The greatest prevalence/count occurred when all three were present (unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9]), sex for money or drugs [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2], and number of lifetime partners [PR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2]). Drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms did not interact synergistically to increase sexual risk behavior prevalence. A higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by women with alcohol misuse combined with drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms supports the need for alcohol interventions addressing these additional comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 7 CFR 3560.462 - Money laundering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money laundering. 3560.462 Section 3560.462 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Other Actions § 3560.462 Money laundering. The Agency will act in accordance with U.S. Code Title 18...

  17. Money Talks Series: Hunger Attack! (Teen Guide)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Investigate how the food you choose affects the amount of money you spend and your health. Calculate how much money you spend on food, explore motives for your food choices, examine the nutritional quality of the food you buy, and identify easy ways to make healthier, lower cost food choices.

  18. Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…

  19. The Topology of Danish Interbank Money Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Kirsten Bonde; Bech, Morten Linnemann

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of Danish money market flows. We analyze the structure of two networks with different types of transactions. The first network is the money market network, which is driven by banks' behavior on the interbank market, the second is the network...

  20. 'Strange money': risk, finance and socialized debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Nigel

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores an essential but neglected aspect of recent discussions of the banking and financial system, namely money itself. Specifically, I take up a distinction drawn by Susan Strange which has never been fully elaborated: between a financial system that is global, and an international monetary system that remains largely territorial. I propose a sociological elaboration of this distinction by examining each category, 'finance' and 'money', in terms of its distinctive orientation to risk and debt. Money is distinguished by its high degree of liquidity and low degree of risk, corresponding to expectations that derive from its status as a 'claim upon society'- a form of socialized debt. But as Strange argued, these features of money are being undermined by the proliferation of sophisticated instruments of financial risk management -'strange money'- that, as monetary substitutes, both weaken states' capacity to manage money, and more broadly, contribute to 'overbanking'. The ultimate danger, according to Strange, is the 'death of money'. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the distinction for sociological arguments about the changing nature of money. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  1. A Goldsmith Exercise for Learning Money Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…

  2. MONEY AS A GLOBAL PUBLIC GOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu Alexandra-Codruta

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss a complex and yet not taken in consideration global public good: money. Money is a social convention created and accepted by people in order to facilitate economic transactions, being a symbol, without an int

  3. Money, Power, Equity and Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Enjoo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In current issue of the Journal of Medical Education, Afshar in the Editorial “The Role of Private Sector in Higher Education; From Quantity and Quality to Access and Social Justice” proposed the importance of justice and quality. (1 It seems that there are some differences between two typesof private sector in higher education. One type of private financial support in higher education comes purely from private sector without any contribution of public sector. The second type of private finance in the higher education especially the type which has grown recently in Iranianhigher education is a type of combination between public higher education and private sector the so called international branch of the university till recent years, and nowadays called selfgoverning campus of the university. (2 In this type of private contribution to public higher education those who have no or little money must pass very hard national examination to be accepted in the university, and those who can pay the tuition fee could enter to the best schools of that university without the exam (in the firstyear of the project or by loose standards or lower cut off scores. Actually, this is an instance of the double standards.One of the elements of being equitable and avoiding discrimination is to prevent undue achievement by the owners of the power such as owners of political, religious, economic, or military power, and to avoid any distinction according to race, colour, sex, language, and etc. (3 In this type ofprivate money absorption in the higher education, while the others have no extra way to enter to the university that would lead to achievement of scientific power, the owners of the economic powers’ daughters and sons could have a special chance to achieve scientific power by the powerof their parents, and there is a different criterion to enter the university based on non-scientific differences.In such situation growing student movements against

  4. Predicate Offences of Money Laundering and Anti Money Laundering Practices in Bangladesh Among South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering

  5. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  6. Time and Money - Are they Substitutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    In this paper, we analyse the distribution of time and money for Danish wage earner couples, where time is defined as leisure time and money as extended income, i.e. the sum of disposable income and the value of housework. The hypothesis is that individuals being rich in one dimension are more...... likely to be poor in the other dimension, such that individuals can be classified as either money-poor/time-rich or money-rich/time-poor. We analyse two different distributions of income, where the first assumes no sharing and the second complete sharing of income between spouses. The data are from...... the Danish Time-Use Survey 2001, merged with register data. Results show that the substitution of money for time is more prominent for women than for men, because they have a larger income share of time-intensive value of housework, while men have the larger share of disposable income. Furthermore, when...

  7. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives t...

  8. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  9. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  10. 77 FR 65198 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ..., U.S. postal money order, or wire transfer. FDA has partnered with the U.S. Department of the... money order and make payable to the order of the Food and Drug Administration. Your payment can be mailed to: Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 979108, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. If checks are to be...

  11. 'Pure' drug users, commercial sex workers and 'ordinary girls': gendered narratives of HIV risk and prevention in post-Soviet Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D; Cho, Woojeong

    2018-02-08

    International best practices call for a gender-responsive approach to HIV prevention for women, including those who use drugs and those who engage in sex work. This paper draws on multiple qualitative data sources collected over five years in Ukraine to explore the notions of gender, women and family that buttress HIV-related programmes for women. Our analysis reveals that service providers often cast women as hapless victims of unfortunate family circumstances and troubled personal relationships that produce sudden poverty, or social strivers who seek access to wealth and privilege at the expense of their health. Women are portrayed as most vulnerable to HIV when they lack a male 'protector'. We argue that the programmes constituted around these stereotypes of women and their vulnerabilities reflect new forms of institutional power that deflect attention away from gendered socio-economic processes that contribute to women's HIV vulnerability, including job insecurity and unemployment, workplace discrimination, unreliable social benefits and power imbalances within their relationships. We explore how to transform HIV prevention efforts to better address the causes of women's increased vulnerability to HIV in Ukraine and in Eastern Europe more generally.

  12. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ (2)= 14.879, P =0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly ( OR =1.676, 95 %CI : 1.201-2.339, P =0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  13. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas

    2013-08-28

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider.

  14. 31 CFR 28.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.550 Sex as a...

  15. Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A Time Series ... the impacts of money and interest rate on economic growth and development. ... Money Supply, Interest Rates, Economic growth, Co-integration and Inflation.

  16. Money and the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luburić Radoica

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of money on the quality of life, in the light of the major importance it has on all aspects of our lives. Bearing in mind that money is an everyday, inseperable and unavoidable companion, with all its advantages and power, as well as its numerous challenges, risks and temptations, it inevitably affects all segments of the quality of life. The relation between money and quality of life, therefore, can be viewed not only theoretically, but also at a practical level. In the times we live in, which have been labelled the digital age, with ever increasing change, the key questions which arise are whether and to what extent do people really manage their money, and to what extent does money manage people and their lives, do people own money or does money own people? Although it sounds paradoxical, money causes people financial worries, whether they have it or whether they do not and so can significantly influence their quality of life. Standard macro-economic indicators, traditionally used as measures of the well-being of society, do not always give a real and complete picture of the quality of life, as this encompasses the way of life, as well as the standard of living. The quality of life includes the whole spectrum of factors, not only economic, but also many others which lead to satisfaction, both material and spiritual. These can include financial and material living conditions, employment, health, education, leisure time and social activities, economic and physical safety, human rights and freedoms, protection of the environment and overall life satisfaction. This paper analyses the direct and indirect connections between effective and efficient money management and the aforementioned factors which are decisive in forming the quality of life.

  17. Endogenous money supply and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents changes in the cyclical behavior of nominal data series that appear after 1979:Q3 when the Federal Reserve implemented a policy to lower the inflation rate. Such changes were not apparent in real variables. A business cycle model with impulses to technology and a role for money is used to show how alternative money supply rules are expected to affect observed business cycle facts. In this model, changes in the money supply rules have almost no effect on the cyclical behav...

  18. An elementary model of money circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskii, Vladimir N.; Schinckus, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates money circulation for a system, consisting of a production system, the government, a central bank, commercial banks and many customers of the commercial banks. A set of equations for the system is written; the theory determines the main features of interaction between production and money circulation. Investigation of the equations in a steady-state situation reveals some relationship among output of the production system and monetary variables. The relation of quantity theory of money is confirmed, whereas a new concept of the efficiency of the system is introduced.

  19. Silvio Gesell's Theory and Accelerated Money Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Blanc

    1998-01-01

    A former version of this paper was published as “Free Money for Social Progress : Theory and practice of Gesell's accelerated money”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 57(8), October, 1998, pp. 469-483.; Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) proposed a system of stamped money in order to accelerate monetary circulation and to free money from interest. This was part of a global socialist system intended to free economy from rent and interest. In the 1930s, Irving Fisher, who proposed the system...

  20. Money handling influences BMI: a survey of cashiers

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Karve; Ketaki Shurpali; Neelesh Dahanukar; Maithili Jog; Milind Watve

    2008-01-01

    Money is a recent phenomenon in the evolutionary history of man and therefore no separate brain centre to handle money is likely to have evolved. The brain areas activated by food reward and money reward are extensively overlapping. In an experimental set-up, hunger was demonstrated to influence money related decisions and money related thoughts to influence hunger. This suggests that the brain areas evolved for handling food related emotions are exapted to handle money and therefore there co...

  1. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  2. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  3. Money and sociality: Measuring the unmeasurable money as justice, time and usury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Levinas confirms: a reflection about a money as a social and economical reality is not possible without a serious analysis of empirical data. On the other hand, this reflection always involves something else, so a money is never a merely economical category. In that sense, Levinas proposes an intriguing meditation about some “dimensions” of a money in the western tradition. Contrary to the traditional moral condemnation of a money - which however remains unquestionable because of the fact that a man always carries a risk of becoming a merchandise - Levinas suggests that money never simply means a reification, but always implies some positive dimensions. Levinas suggests that a money is not something morally bad or simply neutral covering human relationships, but rather a condition of human community. Furthermore, he claims that a money is a fundament of the justice. A money makes possible a community, he explains, because it opens up the dimension of the future, and implies the existence of human beings who give themselves a credit; a credit understood as a time and a confidence. We shall try to address some problems implied by this thesis, particularly the problem of the relationship between time, money and credit. Finally, we are going to ask whether this cred­it - inseparable from the very essence of the money - is not always already a sort of usury.

  4. Money Matters and Money Talks: German Children’s Experiences with and Perspectives on Their Own Money

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The following thesis rectifies the often assumed notion that children are economic innocents and portrays the full complexity of children’s economic lives. It traces the experiences of 17 German 6 to 8 year old children with their own money and explores their perspectives on their money relations. Empirical data is derived from semi-structured individual interviews and focus-group discussions with children, children’s drawings as well as semi-structured interviews with the parents of these ch...

  5. HIV-related risk behaviors among kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past six months. Almost all participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32 and 36%, respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in the job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.

  6. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S.; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D.; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. Objective: We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Results: Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). Conclusions: This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings

  7. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.

  8. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDENBERG, Shira M.; CHETTIAR, Jill; SIMO, Annick; SILVERMAN, Jay G.; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A.; MONTANER, Julio; SHANNON, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation, and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Design Baseline data (2010–2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time-location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. Methods SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/STI testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Results Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian-born (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.42–19.02), inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0–2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.3–3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.14–4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3–3.2). Conclusions Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs. PMID:23982660

  9. MONEY ATTITUDES VS ECONOMIC SOCIALIZATION IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta KOWALCZYK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the attitudes people have towards money, analysed from an economic and psychological point of view. The article presents an overview of current knowledge on the issues of money attitudes, as well as derived own research derived. This research was designed in order to identify different types of money attitudes as well as their determinants. The study identified five dominant profiles and showed that the most popular is a rational approach, and second – it’s opposite - improvidence. The results have been faced with the most important economic socialization determinants identified during the literature review. The comparison proved to be important, e.g. in the form of receiving pocket money.

  10. Corporate responsibility and prevention of money laundering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes corporate responsibility and prevention of money laundering from the point of view of the new emerging business enviroinment, while taking into account the aspects of risk and legal responsibility. Furthermore, it analyzes the legal foundation, international standards, as well as the national Serbian regulatory system approach to anti-money laundering battle. The paper points to the key elements of anti-money laundering activities aimed at protection and safeguarding business interests, using the principles like 'knowing your client well', protecting your employees etc. By doing so, we also protect national interests, increase security and maintain the rule of law and of the stability of democratic society and institutions. Special focus is placed on the activities, roles and responsibilities of management in recognizing money laundering indicators and typologies, as well as the education of corporate staff in this area so as to be able to detect the aforementioned illegal activities in a timely manner.

  11. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  12. international money transfer services market in uzbekistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kuchkarov

    competition and entrepreneurship and International Development Research Centre. Antimonopoly ...... multiple methods of the effective usage of such money ... current type of services. .... qualitative changes as a result of scientific- technical ...

  13. The symbolic power of money: reminders of money alter social distress and physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-06-01

    People often get what they want from the social system, and that process is aided by social popularity or by having money. Money can thus possibly substitute for social acceptance in conferring the ability to obtain benefits from the social system. Moreover, past work has suggested that responses to physical pain and social distress share common underlying mechanisms. Six studies tested relationships among reminders of money, social exclusion, and physical pain. Interpersonal rejection and physical pain caused desire for money to increase. Handling money (compared with handling paper) reduced distress over social exclusion and diminished the physical pain of immersion in hot water. Being reminded of having spent money, however, intensified both social distress and physical pain.

  14. Trends in HIV seroprevalence, AIDS and prevention policy among intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men, before and after 1990 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piribauer, Franz; Duer, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    This study reports for the first time on secular trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, and possible associations with prevention policy in Austria. We analysed HIV seroprevalence and AIDS cases among intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study we found a diminished rate of increase in new cases of AIDS and a decline in HIV seroprevalence among IDU but not among MSM. Among clients visiting HIV counselling and testing centres in Austria between 1987 and 1990, seroprevalence among IDU was estimated at 27.9% as compared to 19.6% between 1990 and 1992 (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45-0.85). Among MSM corresponding prevalence for these two periods was 12.1% and 10.9%, respectively, which was not a significant decline. In the period 1990 to 1994, the increase in AIDS cases per half-year levelled off for IDU (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) but to a lesser extent among MSM (IRR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02). The most effective prevention policy intervention was considered to be the national methadone maintenance program (MMTP), started in 1987, and the provision of sterile injection equipment. We observed that in the recent period there was a decline in the frequency of attendance among young (less than 28 years of age) MSM at counselling centres (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), accompanied by the observation that the rate of seroprevalence among this group did not decline. This is in contrast to young IDU where attendance did not decline but seroprevalence did. Although inference is limited from cross sectional studies, we argue for a reoriented and effectively monitored HIV prevention policy focused on young MSM

  15. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  16. Analisis Kurs dan Money Supply di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Adek Laksmi; Sentosa, Sri Ulfa; Aimon, Hasdi

    2013-01-01

    This article focused on analyze (1) Effect of the money supply, income, domestic interest rates, inflation and the trade balance to the exchange rate in Indonesia. (2) The influence of domestic interest rates, output and the exchange rate on the money supply in Indonesia. Data used time series of (I year kuartal 2000 – IV year kuartal 2010). This article use analyzer model equation of simultaneous with method of Two Stage Least Squared (TSLS). The result of research concludes that (1) the ...

  17. Money and Growth: An Alternative Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Peter N

    1994-01-01

    This paper takes an alternative approach to the topic of money and growth by developing a model in which the effects of sustained capital accumulation on an evolving system of payments, in addition to the conventional effects of sustained inflation on growth, are examined. While the effects of inflation on growth are small, the effects of growth on the monetary system are substantial. The results are consistent with ideas about money and growth contained in work that predates that of James To...

  18. Prepaid cards: vulnerable to money laundering?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential money laundering threat that prepaid cards face as they enter the mainstream of consumer payments. Over the past year, several government agencies have issued reports describing the threat to the U.S. financial system, including the use of prepaid cards by money launderers. Also, this paper incorporates the presentations made at a workshop hosted by the Payment Cards Center at which Patrice Motz, executive vice president, Premier Compliance Solutions, and Pa...

  19. Money laundering in the norwegian securities market: on the conditions of money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based u...

  20. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ferwerda

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...

  1. The love of money results in objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijing; Krumhuber, Eva G

    2017-06-01

    Objectification, which refers to the treatment of others as objectlike things, has long been observed in capitalism. While the negative impact of money on interpersonal harmony has been well documented, the social cognitive processes that underlie them are relatively unknown. Across four studies, we explored whether the love of money leads to objectification, while controlling for social power and status. In Study 1, the love and importance attached to money positively predicted the tendency to construe social relationships based on instrumentality. In Study 2, the likelihood to favour a target of instrumental use was increased by momentarily activating an affective state of being rich. Temporarily heightening the motivation for money further resulted in deprivation of mental capacities of irrelevant others, including humans (Study 3) and animals (Study 4). This lack of perceived mental states partially mediated the effects of money on subsequent immoral behaviour (Study 4). The findings are the first to reveal the role of objectification as a potential social cognitive mechanism for explaining why money often harms interpersonal harmony. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-10 - Cost of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of money. 31.205-10....205-10 Cost of money. (a) General. Cost of money— (1) Is an imputed cost that is not a form of...) Refers to— (i) Facilities capital cost of money (48 CFR 9904.414); and (ii) Cost of money as an element...

  4. 24 CFR 291.535 - Earnest money deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnest money deposit. 291.535... Next Door Sales Program § 291.535 Earnest money deposit. (a) General. The earnest money deposit is the sum of money that must be paid by the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency...

  5. 24 CFR 81.83 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...

  6. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used. Theoretically, many equilibria exist side by side, in which senders use either costless messages, money, or both. We find that senders prefer to communicate through costless

  7. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  8. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  9. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV

  10. "First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10-17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory "rehabilitation" in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10-17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10-17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10-17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent KPs in institutions, they are

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Money Demand Function: Case of Turkey*

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...

  12. Money creation process in a random redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyan; Wang, Yougui; Li, Keqiang; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamical process of money creation in a random exchange model with debt is investigated. The money creation kinetics are analyzed by both the money-transfer matrix method and the diffusion method. From both approaches, we attain the same conclusion: the source of money creation in the case of random exchange is the agents with neither money nor debt. These analytical results are demonstrated by computer simulations.

  13. The Vulnerability of Correspondent Banking on Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2017-01-01

    Bank has important role in process of converting illicit money to be legal proceeds. Once opportunity appears, money launderer will take advantage of that situation. Generally, banks which have poor anti-money laundering control become the main priority for offenders to process laundering their illicit money. These typical banks are usually high risk engaged in criminal behaviour, because they do not know whether or not their clients are engaged in money laundering activities. Offenders in ot...

  14. Social redistribution of pain and money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Metcalfe, Robert D; Crockett, Molly J; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-30

    People show empathic responses to others' pain, yet how they choose to apportion pain between themselves and others is not well understood. To address this question, we observed choices to reapportion social allocations of painful stimuli and, for comparison, also elicited equivalent choices with money. On average people sought to equalize allocations of both pain and money, in a manner which indicated that inequality carried an increasing marginal cost. Preferences for pain were more altruistic than for money, with several participants assigning more than half the pain to themselves. Our data indicate that, given concern for others, the fundamental principle of diminishing marginal utility motivates spreading costs across individuals. A model incorporating this assumption outperformed existing models of social utility in explaining the data. By implementing selected allocations for real, we also found that while inequality per se did not influence pain perception, altruistic behavior had an intrinsic analgesic effect for the recipient.

  15. Money and the natural rate of unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    The prevailing view among economists and policy makers is that money has no impact on production in a longer term characterised by full price and wage flexibility and rational expectations. This book presents a revisionist view of monetary policy and monetary regimes. It presents several new...... mechanisms, indicating that money affects long-term production. The consequent policy implications are also discussed, including: the uses of monetary policy and monetary regimes in achieving macroeconomic goals; the impact of an independent central bank; the effects of a movement from floating exchange...... undergraduate and graduate students in macroeconomics, labour economics and finance. This work offers a revisionist view of monetary policy and monetary regimes. It presents several new mechanisms, indicating that money affects long-term production. The consequent policy implications are also discussed...

  16. Money: a therapeutic tool for couples therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    This article addresses the therapeutic importance of discussing money at every stage of a couple's relationship, both as a concrete reality and as a metaphor for security, adequacy, competence, commitment, acceptance, and acknowledgment in a relationship. I will present a developmental schema looking at financial issues that couples confront at various stages in the adult life cycle and how these affect and reflect relationship problems. The article also presents a money questionnaire as a useful tool for exploring family-of-origin financial history, affect, and behavior.

  17. Ageing, property prices and money demand

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyohiko Nishimura; Elod Takáts

    2012-01-01

    When the baby boomers joined the workforce and started saving, money supply and property prices entered a rising trajectory. We conclude that demography was the long-run driver of this process, basing our argument on data from 22 advanced economies for the 1950-2010 period. According to our lifecycle model, large working-age populations saved for their old age by investing in property and broad money instruments, such as deposits. In the past, savings activity by baby boomers drove up propert...

  18. THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF MONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2014-01-01

    The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research t...

  19. Money and bonds: an equivalence theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana R. Kocherlakota

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...

  20. Money Matters. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Cuestiones de Dinero. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to keep track of one's money is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to prepare a personal…

  1. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL

    2011-01-01

    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  2. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  4. Exchange sex among people receiving medical care for HIV in the United States - medical monitoring project 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Nerlander, Lina; Mattson, Christine L; Beer, Linda

    2018-04-20

    Many studies of persons who exchange sex for money or drugs have focused on their HIV acquisition risk, and are often limited to select populations and/or geographical locations. National estimates of exchange sex among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are in medical care, and its correlates, are lacking. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a surveillance system that produces nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of PLWH receiving medical care in the United States, to estimate the weighted prevalence of exchange sex overall, and by selected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics. We found 3.6% of sexually active adults reported exchange sex in the past 12 months. We found a higher prevalence of exchange sex among transgender persons, those who experienced homelessness, and those with unmet needs for social and medical services. Persons who exchanged sex were more likely to report depression and substance use than those who did not exchange sex. We found a higher prevalence of sexual behaviors that increase the risk of HIV transmission and lower viral suppression among persons who exchanged sex. PLWH who exchanged sex had a higher prevalence of not being prescribed ART, and not being ART adherent than those who did not exchange sex. We identify several areas for intervention, including: provision of or referral to services for unmet needs (such as housing or shelter), enhanced delivery of mental health and substance abuse screening and treatment, risk-reduction counseling, and ART prescription and adherence support services.

  5. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  6. Giving or receiving something for sex: a cross-sectional study of transactional sex among Ugandan university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Choudhry

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the prevalence of transactional sex among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between transactional sex and sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use.In 2010, 1954 undergraduate students at a Ugandan university responded to a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mental health, substance use, physical violence and sexual behaviors including sexual coercion and transactional sex. The prevalence of transactional sex was assessed and logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the associations between various risk factors and reporting transactional sex.Approximately 25% of the study sample reported having taken part in transactional sex, with more women reporting having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex, while more men reporting having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Sexual coercion in men and women was significantly associated with having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex. Men who were victims of physical violence in the last 12 months had higher probability of having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex than other men. Women who were victims of sexual coercion reported greater likelihood of having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Respondents who had been victims of physical violence in last 12 months, engaged in heavy episodic drinking and had poor mental health status were more likely to have paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex.University students in Uganda are at high risk of transactional sex. Young men and women may be equally vulnerable to the risks and consequences of transactional sex and should be included in program initiatives to prevent transactional sex. The role of sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use should be considered when designing interventions for countering transactional sex.

  7. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  8. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies......This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true prevalence of syphilis in the general population, but also among subpopulations such as illicit drug users. There is limited epidemiological data published on the proportion and risk factors of syphilis infections associated with illicit drug abuse. Methods Illicit drug addicts (n = 1223 in inpatients units in Germany were screened (2000–01 for syphilis and interviewed regarding patterns of drug use and sexual behaviour. TPHA-test for initial screening and FTA-ABS-IgM test in TPHA-positive patients were used. Results In total, TPHA-tests were positive in 39 (3.3% and 7 patients (0.6% were IgM positive. The prevalence rate for syphilis in males was 1.9% and for women it was 8.5%. Female patients were 4.56 (CI 95% 2.37–8.78 times more likely to have a positive TPHA test than males. Sexual behaviours such as high number of sexual partners, sex for drugs/money, sex on the first day were associated with syphilis infection only in women. Females with frequent sex for drugs or money had 4.31 (CI 95% 2.32–8.52 times more likely a reactive TPHA test than remaining patients. Neither the sociodemographic factors nor sexual behaviour were statistically significant associated with syphilis infection among men at all. Conclusion Our data suggest the need for screening for syphilis among these illicit drug users in inpatient settings, in particular among sexual active women. This conclusion is corroborated by the finding of increasing numbers of syphilis infections in the general population. The identification of syphilis cases among drug addicts would give treatment options to these individuals and would help to reduce the spread of infection in this population, but also a spread into heterosexual populations related to

  10. The History of Money in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts the history of using money in Montenegro covering the period before the Christ until nowadays. Montenegro mostly used foreign currencies throughout its long history, these being Roman, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, Venetian, and even the Napoleon (French gold coin money. The first ideas for Montenegro’s own money came from the Bishop Petar Petrovic Njegoš in the 19th century. The first Montenegrin money, the Perper, was minted in 1906. The King Nikola`s Decree as of 11 April 1906 authorized the Ministry of Finance to mint the nickel and bronze coins. Silver and gold coins were minted later. The Perper disappeared from the scene with Montenegro’s joining the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, putting into circulation the Dinar, a currency of the newly established state. Montenegro, being a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, used the Dinar as its currency after World War II until 1999. Dual currency system consisting of the German Mark and the Dinar was introduced in late 1999, whereby the German Mark became the only legal tender in 2001. With the introduction of the Euro the German Mark was replaced and the Euro became the official means of payment.

  11. The Money-Creation Model: Graphic Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen; Kao, Ming-ruey

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose a pedagogical apparatus embodying a solid micro-foundation with emphasis on the public's choice between currency and demand deposits being an optimal decision. On the basis of the pedagogical exposition, the authors explain how money supply is related to the combined behaviors of the central bank, commercial banks, and the…

  12. The Multidisciplinary Economics of Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526

    2012-01-01

    Money laundering has been studied for many years, but mainly by lawyers and criminologists. This dissertation presents a number of ways on how an economist – mainly in a multidisciplinary fashion – can contribute to this field of research. This dissertation answers four important questions about

  13. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...

  14. can Money Matter for Interest Rate Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueckner, M.; Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that money can matter for macroeconomic stability under interest rate policy when transactions frictions are non-negligible. We develop a sticky price model with a shopping time function, which induces the marginal utility of consumption to depend on the (predetermined)

  15. MONEY AND MONETARY POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Iliev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will clarify the issues related to: the emergence of money - their functions and varieties, the specificity of their demand and supply and the main aspects of the monetary policy of the state with its effects on the economic development.

  16. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-01

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  17. Mexico's digital money revolution | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... The Prospera Digital e-banking program aims to put money in the hands of Mexico's low-income women with just a few taps — and transform their lives in the process. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between IDRC and ...

  18. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  19. Your Recreation Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on recreation, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook suggests ways to plan recreation expenses for special activities, equipment, and vacation travel. Section 1 looks at the need for recreation…

  20. Money Market Operations in Fiscal 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Markets Department

    2008-01-01

    Throughout fiscal 2007, the Bank of Japan conducted money market operations with the uncollateralized overnight call rate as the operating target. The target level for the uncollateralized overnight call rate remained at "around 0.5 percent" throughout all of fiscal 2007. During this period, the basic loan rate applied to the complementary lending facility was 0.75 percent.

  1. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  2. Helping Students to Become Money Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supon, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Being money smart has value that offers individuals skills for a lifetime. "Lawmakers had no way of knowing in 2007 that the U. S. economic situation would be where it is today, making financial education for students now even more crucial than at any other time in recent history" (Black, 2009, p. 1). According to Beverly & Burkhalter (2005, p.…

  3. Money Matters for the Young Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Children's economic reasoning follows a developmental sequence in which their ideas about money and other basic economic concepts are forming. Even children in the early primary grades can learn some basic economics and retain understanding of economic concepts if they are taught in developmentally appropriate ways. Given how important economic…

  4. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  5. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  6. Instruments of the Money Market. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy Q., Ed.

    This booklet is a compilation of articles on money market instruments which were published in the "Monthly Review" of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond from 1964-1967. They have been revised to include recent changes in the various markets, as well as to reflect currently applicable laws and regulations. The articles are titled: The Money…

  7. Rural Women, Money and Financial Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggins, Janice

    1985-01-01

    The author points out the multifaceted aspects of the problems associated with rural women's need for money and financial services and outlines innovative schemes in this area such as the bank for the landless in Bangladesh, a savings and loan cooperative for market women in Nicaragua, and a savings development movement in Zimbabwe. (CT)

  8. Is money laundering a true problem in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, He

    2006-02-01

    Money laundering was stipulated as an offense by Chinese criminal law more than 10 years ago. However, the judicial situation is such that no one has yet been prosecuted for it. This article describes the phenomena that are closely related to money laundering, namely the current situation of the predicate offences and other factors conducive to money laundering such as corruption, underground bank shops, and shell companies. Based on these facts, the article infers that money laundering is a real problem in China. Then it explores the reasons why case examples of money laundering are not available. Finally, this article presents some of the factors necessary in the investigation of money laundering.

  9. Towards a digital money structure for illiterate users

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin, WF; Ghinea, G; Atnafu, S

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, although money is becoming digital in the form of mobile money, it is not easily used by millions of illiterate users in their everyday transactions. Digitization of material money thus poses a challenge to many users. Existing mobile money systems and platforms represent money in terms of simple numbers, like 13, 50, 0.78, 23.64, 80 etc. This way of money representation is almost unusable by illiterate users, unless they depend on others' help. The literature has ove...

  10. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  11. "Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2013-10-01

    Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would.

  12. Does good medication adherence really save payers money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bruce C; Dai, Mingliang; Xu, Jing; Loh, Feng-Hua E; S Dougherty, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Despite a growing consensus that better adherence with evidence-based medications can save payers money, assertions of cost offsets may be incomplete if they fail to consider additional drug costs and/or are biased by healthy adherer behaviors unobserved in typical medical claims-based analyses. The objective of this study was to determine whether controlling for healthy adherer bias (HAB) materially affected estimated medical cost offsets and additional drug spending associated with higher adherence. A total of 1273 Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes enrolled in Part D plans between 2006 and 2009. Using survey and claims data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we measured medical and drug costs associated with good and poor adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80% and <80%, respectively) to oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, and statins over 2 years. To test for HAB, we estimated pairs of regression models, one set containing variables typically controlled for in conventional claims analysis and a second set with survey-based variables selected to capture HAB effects. We found consistent evidence that controlling for HAB reduces estimated savings in medical costs from better adherence, and likewise, reduces estimates of additional adherence-related drug spending. For ACE inhibitors/ARBs we estimate that controlling for HAB reduced adherence-related medical cost offsets from $6389 to $4920 per person (P<0.05). Estimates of additional adherence-related drug costs were 26% and 14% lower in HAB-controlled models (P < 0.05). These results buttress the economic case for action by health care payers to improve medication adherence among insured persons with chronic disease. However, given the limitations of our research design, further research on larger samples with other disease states is clearly warranted.

  13. Beyond the static money multiplier: in search of a dynamic theory of money

    OpenAIRE

    Berardi, Michele

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the process of money creation in a credit economy. We start from the consideration that the traditional money multiplier is a poor description of this process and present an alternative and dynamic approach that takes into account the heterogeneity of agents in the economy and their interactions. We show that this heterogeneity can account for the instability of the multiplier and that it can make the system path-dependent. By using concepts and techniques borrowed f...

  14. Money circulation and debt circulation: A restatement of quantity theory of money

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Wanting; Chen, Liujun; Chen, Jiawei; Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Both money and debt are products of credit creation of banks. Money is always circulating among traders by facilitating commodity transactions. In contrast, debt is created by borrowing and annihilated by repayment as it is matured. However, when this creation- annihilation process is mediated by banks which are constrained by a credit capacity, there exists continuous transfer of debt among debtors, which can be defined as debt circulation. This paper presents a multi-agent model in which in...

  15. The role of compensation in money market and new money market instruments Open

    OpenAIRE

    Duduiala-Popescu, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Creation and proper functioning of the money market in Romania is subject to a preponderant constancy of private property, to support competition as a factor increasing the efficiency of the economy. Appearance money market in Romania is related to the transformations that have manifested in our country since 1989. As a mechanism of market economy, can not talk about them in existence before 1989. In a centralized economy, instruments, financial categories have ceased to reflect the actual si...

  16. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-06-14

    Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary "evil" for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk.

  17. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

  18. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID

  19. The Basics of the Money Flow Management of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanklevska Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of the definition of «money flow» of enterprise has been researched. The theoretical basis for the formation of money flows of enterprise, including the developments by mercantilists, marxists, monetarists, and contemporaries has been systematized. Cycles of the money flow and its relationship to the circulation of economic means have been characterized. The money flow discounting factors have been determined, which include inflation, risk, and alternativeness of investment process. The economic, political, social, and techno-economic risks that impact the management of money flows of enterprise have been allocated. The classification of money flows of enterprises by various attributes has been provided. The main sources of formation and modalities of the optimal money flow structure of enterprise have been determined. The advantages and disadvantages of using financial resources to generate money flows of enterprise have been characterized.

  20. Macroeconomic Variables and Money Supply: Evidence from Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    increasing attention in the field of monetary and financial economics in recent ... Various assertion has been downplaying the position of money in an economy, ... To determine the impact of inflation on the level of Money Supply in Nigeria.

  1. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  2. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  3. Techniques for implementing anti-money laundering procedures

    OpenAIRE

    BEREZANSKY V.V.; CHALDAEVA L.A.; KILYACHKOV A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the banking system for purposes of money laundering is a relatively new phenomenon. This problem was first identified in 1986 in the United States, when it was classified as a criminal offense. In Russia, anti-money laundering measures are regulated with Federal Law No. 115-FZ On Counteracting Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (7 August 2001, as amended). Given the high-speed, digitized nature of banking transactions, the technology for countering money laundering s...

  4. An Industrial-Organization Approach to Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gunji, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of conventional interest rate policy, quantitative easing and the reserve accounts’ interest rate on the money stock in an industrial-organization model of the banking industry with money creation. Our main findings are as follows. First, under a plausible setting of the parameters, the model with money creation supports the liquidity puzzle, in which tight monetary policy increases the money stock. Second, quantitative monetary easing has a similar effect. ...

  5. Anti-Money Laundering Requirements – Perceived Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Huang; M. S. Amirrudin; N. A. Ahamad Noruddin; R. Othman

    2013-01-01

    Anti-money laundering is commonly recognized as a set of procedures, laws or regulations designed to reduce the practice of generating income through illegal actions. In Malaysia, the government and law enforcement agencies have stepped up their capacities and efforts to curb money laundering since 2001. One of these measures was the enactment of the Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) in 2001. The implementation costs on anti-money laundering requirements (AMLR) can be burd...

  6. Understanding Interface Design and Mobile Money Perceptions in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chun-Wei; Anderson, Caroline; Flores-Saviaga, Claudia; Arenas, Eduardo Jr; Colin, Felipe; Romero, Mario; Rivera-Loaiza, Cuauhtemoc; Chavez, Norma Elva; Savage, Saiph

    2018-01-01

    Mobile money can facilitate financial inclusion in developing countries, which usually have high mobile phone use and steady remittance activity. Many countries in Latin America meet the minimum technological requirements to use mobile money, however, the adoption in this region is relatively low. This paper investigates the different factors that lead people in Latin America to distrust and therefore not adopt mobile money. For this purpose, we analyzed 27 mobile money applications on the ma...

  7. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  8. Horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists: The theory of endogenous money reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Palley, Thomas I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...

  9. HIV, syphilis and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men in a drug-using area of southwestern China: Results of 3 cross-sectional surveys from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Lan; Yi, Chen; Shuai, Tang; Zhiyong, Shen; Zhenzhu, Tang; Yuhua, Ruan; Yousuf, Mohammed Adnan; Wensheng, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwestern China, where HIV started as a drug-driven epidemic, and shifted to mainly heterosexual transmission.These cross-sectional studies were conducted yearly in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Guangxi, China. A total of 1,996, 1,965, and 1,697 participants were recruited in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The data included demographic and sexual behavioral variables. Other variables included individuals who used illegal drugs, and who received HIV counseling, testing, and free condoms, and peer education. Participants were tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with whole blood specimens. Questionnaires and laboratory testing data were double entered, and validated with EpiData software. The data were then transferred into SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and Chi-square test performed.The prevalence of HIV was 6.6% in 2013, 8.4% in 2014, and 11.2% in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.3% in 2013, 9.8% in 2014, and 6.1% in 2015. And HCV prevalence was 0.5% in 2013 and remained stable at 0.4% in 2014, and 2015. HIV infection, and associated factors among MSM in these 3 annual cross-sectional survey showed that HIV-infected MSM were significantly, more likely, to perform unprotected anal intercourse with any commercial male partners in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.50-2.20), had sex with any female partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.71), used drugs in the past (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30-5.71), and are syphilis infected (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.77-4.49).There is an urgent need for intervention strategies like condom distribution, HIV counseling, free testing, and education regarding safe sex, HIV, and other sex-related diseases in Guangxi to curb, and prevent HIV among MSM.

  10. The theory of money supply: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The theory of money supply is less developed than that of money demand, largely because 19th-century economists believed that money was unimportant and because they viewed the central bank as either an appendage to the economy or as a welfare-maximizing black box. The paper reviews each of these beliefs in turn.

  11. 29 CFR 500.143 - Civil money penalty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalty assessment. 500.143 Section 500.143... MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Enforcement § 500.143 Civil money penalty assessment. (a) A civil money penalty may be assessed for each violation of the Act or these regulations. (b) In...

  12. The role of social networks for combating money laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imanpour, M.

    2017-01-01

    Money laundering is the disguising of the illegal origin of money by bringing it back into the legal financial circuit. Therefore, in this dissertation I try to establish a theoretical framework to understand the role of social networks, and the link between criminals and legal actors in the money

  13. Gravity Models of Trade-based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, M.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, H.-S.; Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  14. Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Joras|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, Han-Hsin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357209370; Unger, Brigitte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, Loek|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, Jaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is trade-based money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  15. 29 CFR 801.42 - Civil money penalties-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalties-assessment. 801.42 Section 801.42... APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Enforcement § 801.42 Civil money penalties—assessment. (a) A civil money penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for any violation may be assessed...

  16. Error Correction Model of the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    1998-01-01

    The paper estimated dynamic demand for money (Currency) function for Pakistan. it is concluded that in the long run money demand depends on income, rate of inflation and bond rate. The rate of Inflation and rate of interst on deposits emerged as important determinant of money demand in the short run. Moreover dynamic model remans stable througtout the study period.

  17. Bitcoin: Informational Money en het Einde van Gewoon Geld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Deze paper bevat een verkorte beschrijving van de Nakamoto architectuur voor informational money, een positionering van Bitcoin, een "money-like informational commodity", als een verschijningsvorm van iGoud, en een bespiegeling over de vraag hoe hoe informational money het einde van Gewoon Geld in

  18. 29 CFR 501.19 - Civil money penalty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... workers. (c) A civil money penalty for each violation of the work contract or a requirement of 8 U.S.C..., with the following exceptions: (1) A civil money penalty for each willful violation of the work... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil money penalty assessment. 501.19 Section 501.19 Labor...

  19. 29 CFR 502.19 - Civil money penalty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Enforcement of Work Contracts § 502.19 Civil money... money penalty for violation of the work contract will not exceed $1,000 for each violation committed... of the work contract, or for willful discrimination, the civil money penalty shall not exceed $5,000...

  20. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for payment...