WorldWideScience

Sample records for drugs research documented

  1. Foreign patent documentation and information research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongsheng; Wu Xianfeng; Liu Jia; Cao Jifen; Song Tianbao; Feng Beiyuan; Zhang Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentations are important scientific and technical documentations, which gather legal information, technical information and economic information together. According to WIPO forecasts, making full use of patent documentation can save 40% of research funding and 60% of the study period. Foreign patent documentations are the world's most valuable patent documentations, and many original technologies that have significant influence are first disclosed in foreign patent documentation. Studying and making use of foreign patent documentations can improve our starting point of scientific and technological innovation, and reduce the research investment. This paper analyzes foreign patent documentation and, combining with the actual development of nuclear technology in our country, makes specific recommendations for patent documentation research. (authors)

  2. Growing electronic documents created by researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Weiss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world technology is an indispensable element, both in personal and professional sphere. Despite the fact, that we do not attach significance to it in our everyday lives, the technological development engulfed us and still reminds us about that. In the face of dynamically growing digitization there occurred a new form of document – an electronic document. The study concerns the growing electronic documentation among researchers working at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The analysis of surveys and interviews resulted in thesis, that researchers use e-document more frequently than analog documentation. Flexibility and accessibility of this type of documents become a problem in personal papers which will be archived in the future – maybe in most part in the form of electronic documentation.

  3. Integration of clinical research documentation in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Debra

    2015-04-01

    Clinical trials of investigational drugs and devices are often conducted within healthcare facilities concurrently with clinical care. With implementation of electronic health records, new communication methods are required to notify nonresearch clinicians of research participation. This article reviews clinical research source documentation, the electronic health record and the medical record, areas in which the research record and electronic health record overlap, and implications for the research nurse coordinator in documentation of the care of the patient/subject. Incorporation of clinical research documentation in the electronic health record will lead to a more complete patient/subject medical record in compliance with both research and medical records regulations. A literature search provided little information about the inclusion of clinical research documentation within the electronic health record. Although regulations and guidelines define both source documentation and the medical record, integration of research documentation in the electronic health record is not clearly defined. At minimum, the signed informed consent(s), investigational drug or device usage, and research team contact information should be documented within the electronic health record. Institutional policies should define a standardized process for this integration in the absence federal guidance. Nurses coordinating clinical trials are in an ideal position to define this integration.

  4. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, Knut; Aberer, Werner; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M

    2016-01-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical...... history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed...... a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed...

  5. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  6. Antiviral Drug Research Proposal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Injaian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an "expert" in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity.

  7. XML documents cluster research based on frequent subpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tienan; Li, Wei; Li, Xiongfei

    2015-12-01

    XML data is widely used in the information exchange field of Internet, and XML document data clustering is the hot research topic. In the XML document clustering process, measure differences between two XML documents is time costly, and impact the efficiency of XML document clustering. This paper proposed an XML documents clustering method based on frequent patterns of XML document dataset, first proposed a coding tree structure for encoding the XML document, and translate frequent pattern mining from XML documents into frequent pattern mining from string. Further, using the cosine similarity calculation method and cohesive hierarchical clustering method for XML document dataset by frequent patterns. Because of frequent patterns are subsets of the original XML document data, so the time consumption of XML document similarity measure is reduced. The experiment runs on synthetic dataset and the real datasets, the experimental result shows that our method is efficient.

  8. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    will increase exponentially in the years to come due to ageing of the European population, it is necessary to act now in order to curb this increase and possibly reverse the trend. Thus, establishing a strong European platform supporting basic and clinical research in neuroscience is needed to confront...... version. Multinational and multidisciplinary teams have once again come together to express their views, not only on the current strengths in European research, but also on what needs to be done in priority, hoping that this update will inspire policy makers and stakeholders in directing funding...

  9. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological diseases combined represent a considerable social and economic burden in Europe. A recent study conducted by the European Brain Council (EBC) quantified the 'cost and burden' of major brain diseases in Europe, amounting to €386bn per year. Considering that these costs...... version. Multinational and multidisciplinary teams have once again come together to express their views, not only on the current strengths in European research, but also on what needs to be done in priority, hoping that this update will inspire policy makers and stakeholders in directing funding...

  10. 77 FR 38297 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... removed 15 drugs from the 2012 list because they did not meet the NIOSH definition, were no longer... NIOSH-033-A] Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in... of the following document entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in...

  11. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargelski, C. J.; Berrett, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  12. Integrated Management System, Configuration and Document Control for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steynberg, B.J.; Bruyn, J.F. du

    2017-01-01

    An integrated management system is a single management framework establishing all the processes necessary for the organisation to address all its goals and objectives. Very often only quality, environment and health & safety goals are included when referred to an integrated management system. However, within the research reactor environment such system should include goals pertinent to economic, environmental, health, operational, quality, safeguards, safety, security, and social considerations. One of the important objectives of an integrated management is to create the environment for a healthy safety culture. Configuration management is a disciplined process that involves both management and technical direction to establish and document the design requirements and the physical configuration of the research reactor and to ensure that they remain consistent with each other and the documentation. Configuration is the combination of the physical, functional, and operational characteristics of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) or parts of the research reactor, operation, or activity. The basic objectives and general principles of configuration management are the same for all research reactors. The objectives of configuration management are to: a) Establish consistency among design requirements, physical configuration, and documentation (including analyses, drawings, and procedures) for the research reactor; b) Maintain this consistency throughout the life of the research reactor, particularly as changes are being made; and c) Retain confidence in the safety of the research reactor. The key elements needed to manage the configuration of research reactors are design requirements, work control, change control, document control, and configuration management assessments. The objective of document control is to ensure that only the most recently approved versions of documents are used in the process of operating, maintaining, and modifying the research reactor

  13. Quality assurance application in the documentation of nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nababan, N.

    1999-01-01

    For each nuclear research reactor a document control system should be established and should be provide for preparation, review, approval, issuance, distribution, revision and validation (where appropriate) of documents essential to the management, performance and verification of work. In the document control system the responsibilities for each participating organization or individual should be defined in writing. The types of document include, but are not limited to document comprising the QA program, safety requirements, maintenance and operating procedures, inspection instructions, inspection and test reports, assessment reports, drawings, data files, calculations, specifications, computer codes, purchase orders and related documents, vendor supplied documents and work instruction. Management should identify the need for documents and should provide guidance to the organizations and people preparing them. The guidance should cover the status, scope and contents and the policies, standards and codes witch apply. It should also explain the need for feedback of experience. Plant modification or the results of assessments could also give rise to the need for a new document

  14. Documentation and dissemination of agricultural Research results in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to find out the volume of documented vis a vis generated agricultural research information over a 10-year period and to identify existing avenues for disseminating generated research information to the target population. A questionnaire survey was conducted between December 1996 and February ...

  15. Perspectives on Linguistic Documentation from Sociolinguistic Research on Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Sali A.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to demonstrate how sociolinguistic research can be applied to endangered language documentation field linguistics. It first provides an overview of the techniques and practices of sociolinguistic fieldwork and the ensuring corpus compilation methods. The discussion is framed with examples from research projects focused on…

  16. Automated Generation of Technical Documentation and Provenance for Reproducible Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, B.; Medyckyj-Scott, D.; Spiekermann, R.; Ausseil, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Data provenance and detailed technical documentation are essential components of high-quality reproducible research, however are often only partially addressed during a research project. Recording and maintaining this information during the course of a project can be a difficult task to get right as it is a time consuming and often boring process for the researchers involved. As a result, provenance records and technical documentation provided alongside research results can be incomplete or may not be completely consistent with the actual processes followed. While providing access to the data and code used by the original researchers goes some way toward enabling reproducibility, this does not count as, or replace, data provenance. Additionally, this can be a poor substitute for good technical documentation and is often more difficult for a third-party to understand - particularly if they do not understand the programming language(s) used. We present and discuss a tool built from the ground up for the production of well-documented and reproducible spatial datasets that are created by applying a series of classification rules to a number of input layers. The internal model of the classification rules required by the tool to process the input data is exploited to also produce technical documentation and provenance records with minimal additional user input. Available provenance records that accompany input datasets are incorporated into those that describe the current process. As a result, each time a new iteration of the analysis is performed the documentation and provenance records are re-generated to provide an accurate description of the exact process followed. The generic nature of this tool, and the lessons learned during its creation, have wider application to other fields where the production of derivative datasets must be done in an open, defensible, and reproducible way.

  17. Utopia documents: linking scholarly literature with research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, T K; Kell, D B; McDermott, P; Marsh, J; Pettifer, S R; Thorne, D

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the gulf between the mass of accumulating-research data and the massive literature describing and analyzing those data has widened. The need for intelligent tools to bridge this gap, to rescue the knowledge being systematically isolated in literature and data silos, is now widely acknowledged. To this end, we have developed Utopia Documents, a novel PDF reader that semantically integrates visualization and data-analysis tools with published research articles. In a successful pilot with editors of the Biochemical Journal (BJ), the system has been used to transform static document features into objects that can be linked, annotated, visualized and analyzed interactively (http://www.biochemj.org/bj/424/3/). Utopia Documents is now used routinely by BJ editors to mark up article content prior to publication. Recent additions include integration of various text-mining and biodatabase plugins, demonstrating the system's ability to seamlessly integrate on-line content with PDF articles. http://getutopia.com.

  18. Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research on ... du secteur privé ainsi que les tendances qui influencent l'élaboration et la ... afin de guider l'élaboration de son agenda de recherche en matière de ...

  19. The Amistad Research Center: Documenting the African American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)

  20. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research(CDER) performs an essential public health task by making sure that safe and effective drugs are available to improve the...

  1. Semantic Document Library: A Virtual Research Environment for Documents, Data and Workflows Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, K.; Liu, Y.; Myers, J.; Futrelle, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Semantic Document Library (SDL) was driven by use cases from the environmental observatory communities and is designed to provide conventional document repository features of uploading, downloading, editing and versioning of documents as well as value adding features of tagging, querying, sharing, annotating, ranking, provenance, social networking and geo-spatial mapping services. It allows users to organize a catalogue of watershed observation data, model output, workflows, as well publications and documents related to the same watershed study through the tagging capability. Users can tag all relevant materials using the same watershed name and find all of them easily later using this tag. The underpinning semantic content repository can store materials from other cyberenvironments such as workflow or simulation tools and SDL provides an effective interface to query and organize materials from various sources. Advanced features of the SDL allow users to visualize the provenance of the materials such as the source and how the output data is derived. Other novel features include visualizing all geo-referenced materials on a geospatial map. SDL as a component of a cyberenvironment portal (the NCSA Cybercollaboratory) has goal of efficient management of information and relationships between published artifacts (Validated models, vetted data, workflows, annotations, best practices, reviews and papers) produced from raw research artifacts (data, notes, plans etc.) through agents (people, sensors etc.). Tremendous scientific potential of artifacts is achieved through mechanisms of sharing, reuse and collaboration - empowering scientists to spread their knowledge and protocols and to benefit from the knowledge of others. SDL successfully implements web 2.0 technologies and design patterns along with semantic content management approach that enables use of multiple ontologies and dynamic evolution (e.g. folksonomies) of terminology. Scientific documents involved with

  2. Document co-citation analysis to enhance transdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Long, Tammy M.

    2018-01-01

    Specialized and emerging fields of research infrequently cross disciplinary boundaries and would benefit from frameworks, methods, and materials informed by other fields. Document co-citation analysis, a method developed by bibliometric research, is demonstrated as a way to help identify key literature for cross-disciplinary ideas. To illustrate the method in a useful context, we mapped peer-recognized scholarship related to systems thinking. In addition, three procedures for validation of co-citation networks are proposed and implemented. This method may be useful for strategically selecting information that can build consilience about ideas and constructs that are relevant across a range of disciplines. PMID:29308433

  3. Drug allergies documented in electronic health records of a large healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Dhopeshwarkar, N; Blumenthal, K G; Goss, F; Topaz, M; Slight, S P; Bates, D W

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of drug allergies documented in electronic health records (EHRs) of large patient populations is understudied. We aimed to describe the prevalence of common drug allergies and patient characteristics documented in EHRs of a large healthcare network over the last two decades. Drug allergy data were obtained from EHRs of patients who visited two large tertiary care hospitals in Boston from 1990 to 2013. The prevalence of each drug and drug class was calculated and compared by sex and race/ethnicity. The number of allergies per patient was calculated and the frequency of patients having 1, 2, 3…, or 10+ drug allergies was reported. We also conducted a trend analysis by comparing the proportion of each allergy to the total number of drug allergies over time. Among 1 766 328 patients, 35.5% of patients had at least one reported drug allergy with an average of 1.95 drug allergies per patient. The most commonly reported drug allergies in this population were to penicillins (12.8%), sulfonamide antibiotics (7.4%), opiates (6.8%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (3.5%). The relative proportion of allergies to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have more than doubled since early 2000s. Drug allergies were most prevalent among females and white patients except for NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, and thiazide diuretics, which were more prevalent in black patients. Females and white patients may be more likely to experience a reaction from common medications. An increase in reported allergies to ACE inhibitors and statins is noteworthy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity - An ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockow, K.; Aberer, W.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Bavbek, S.; Bircher, A.; Bilo, B.; Blanca, M.; Bonadonna, P.; Burbach, G.; Calogiuri, G.; Caruso, C.; Celik, G.; Cernadas, J.; Chiriac, A.; Demoly, P.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gomes, E.; Garvey, L. H.; Gooi, J.; Gotua, M.; Grosber, M.; Kauppi, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Laguna, J. J.; Makowska, J. S.; Mosbech, H.; Nakonechna, A.; Papadopolous, N. G.; Ring, J.; Romano, A.; Rockmann, H.; Sargur, R.; Sedlackova, L.; Sigurdardottir, S.; Schnyder, B.; Storaas, T.; Torres, M.; Zidarn, M.; Terreehorst, I.

    2016-01-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical

  5. Consent Documentation and the Accessibility of Research Results in International Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Malich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study touches on issues that may arise in international development research, with reflections based on experiences conducting research in Peru. The two issues to be discussed are that of cultural differences in the consent documentation process, and ensuring that the benefits of research flow back to research participants.

  6. A Cognitive Model of Document Use during a Research Project. Study I. Document Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling; Soergel, Dagobert

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a model of document selection by real users of a bibliographic retrieval system. Reports on Part I of a longitudinal study of decision making on document use by academics (25 faculty and graduate students in Agricultural Economics). Examines what components are relevant to the users' decisions and what cognitive process may have occurred…

  7. 77 FR 41190 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-190] Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012, Correction AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the...

  8. Microfluidic cell culture systems for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-04-21

    In pharmaceutical research, an adequate cell-based assay scheme to efficiently screen and to validate potential drug candidates in the initial stage of drug discovery is crucial. In order to better predict the clinical response to drug compounds, a cell culture model that is faithful to in vivo behavior is required. With the recent advances in microfluidic technology, the utilization of a microfluidic-based cell culture has several advantages, making it a promising alternative to the conventional cell culture methods. This review starts with a comprehensive discussion on the general process for drug discovery and development, the role of cell culture in drug research, and the characteristics of the cell culture formats commonly used in current microfluidic-based, cell-culture practices. Due to the significant differences in several physical phenomena between microscale and macroscale devices, microfluidic technology provides unique functionality, which is not previously possible by using traditional techniques. In a subsequent section, the niches for using microfluidic-based cell culture systems for drug research are discussed. Moreover, some critical issues such as cell immobilization, medium pumping or gradient generation in microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems are also reviewed. Finally, some practical applications of microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems in drug research particularly those pertaining to drug toxicity testing and those with a high-throughput capability are highlighted.

  9. Drug utilization research and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mol, Peter G. M.; Elseviers, Monique; Wettermark, Björn; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Andersen, Morten; Benko, Ria; Bennie, Marion; Eriksson, Irene; Godman, Brian; Krska, Janet; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Taxis, Katja; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Stichele, Robert Vander

    2016-01-01

    Good risk management requires continuous evaluation and improvement of planned activities. The evaluation impact of risk management activities requires robust study designs and carefully selected outcome measures. Key learnings and caveats from drug utilization research should be applied to the

  10. Targeting molecular networks for drug research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of molecular networks has recently moved into the limelight of biomedical research. While it has certainly provided us with plenty of new insights into cellular mechanisms, the challenge now is how to modify or even restructure these networks. This is especially true for human diseases, which can be regarded as manifestations of distorted states of molecular networks. Of the possible interventions for altering networks, the use of drugs is presently the most feasible. In this mini-review, we present and discuss some exemplary approaches of how analysis of molecular interaction networks can contribute to pharmacology (e.g., by identifying new drug targets or prediction of drug side effects, as well as listing pointers to relevant resources and software to guide future research. We also outline recent progress in the use of drugs for in vitro reprogramming of cells, which constitutes an example par excellence for altering molecular interaction networks with drugs.

  11. A linguistic rule-based approach to extract drug-drug interactions from pharmacological documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; de Pablo-Sánchez, César

    2011-03-29

    A drug-drug interaction (DDI) occurs when one drug influences the level or activity of another drug. The increasing volume of the scientific literature overwhelms health care professionals trying to be kept up-to-date with all published studies on DDI. This paper describes a hybrid linguistic approach to DDI extraction that combines shallow parsing and syntactic simplification with pattern matching. Appositions and coordinate structures are interpreted based on shallow syntactic parsing provided by the UMLS MetaMap tool (MMTx). Subsequently, complex and compound sentences are broken down into clauses from which simple sentences are generated by a set of simplification rules. A pharmacist defined a set of domain-specific lexical patterns to capture the most common expressions of DDI in texts. These lexical patterns are matched with the generated sentences in order to extract DDIs. We have performed different experiments to analyze the performance of the different processes. The lexical patterns achieve a reasonable precision (67.30%), but very low recall (14.07%). The inclusion of appositions and coordinate structures helps to improve the recall (25.70%), however, precision is lower (48.69%). The detection of clauses does not improve the performance. Information Extraction (IE) techniques can provide an interesting way of reducing the time spent by health care professionals on reviewing the literature. Nevertheless, no approach has been carried out to extract DDI from texts. To the best of our knowledge, this work proposes the first integral solution for the automatic extraction of DDI from biomedical texts.

  12. Intervention research in rational use of drugs : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Grand, A; Van Hogerzeil, H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; LeGrand, A.

    Many studies have been done to document drug use patterns, and indicate that overprescribing, multi-drug prescribing, misuse of drugs, use of unnecessary expensive drugs and overuse of antibiotics and injections are the most common problems of irrational drug use by prescribers as well as consumers.

  13. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  14. Improving the quality of nursing documentation: An action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha M. Okaisu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Improving nursing documentation involved complex challenges in this setting and demanded multiple approaches. Evidence-based practise was the foundation of changes in systems required to produce visible improvement in practise. The involved role of leadership in these efforts was very important.

  15. Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Process: Research Method Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Susan M. Kocis; Stanley J. Zarnoch; J. Ross Arnold

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved information on recreational use of National Forest System lands, the authors have developed a nationwide, systematic monitoring process. This report documents the methods they used in estimating recreational use on an annual basis. The basic unit of measure is exiting volume of visitors from a recreation site on a given day. Sites...

  16. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, rm. 2201, Silver... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0125] Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an...

  17. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  18. [Media and drugs: a documental analysis of the Brazilian writing media between 1999 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Fernandes, Ameli Gabriele Batista; Gebara, Carla Ferreira de Paula; Oliveira, Samia Abreu; Scoralick, Natália Nunes; Lourenço, Lélio Moura

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the kind of information published by the Brazilian 'written media' about drugs. It was examined articles about drugs in a national circulation magazine between 1999 and 2003, through an analysis of content. A total of 481 articles were found. 'Consumption' was the most appeared topic. The most quoted drugs were: cocaine (21%), marijuana (19%), alcoholic beverages (12%) and cigarettes (12%). This research also showed that 57% of the articles were related to cigarettes, its harmful effects, whereas alcohol had the same amount of articles showing it as a good or a bad substance for the human being and considered the most addictive drug (23%). On the other hand, cocaine was related to drug dealing (30%). In general, cocaine and marijuana were in focus in the media while alcohol and solvents had less prominence considering the epidemiologic data of use. We can notice that there is an incompatibility between the media focus and the profile of drug consumption in Brazil, that could influence the person's beliefs about certain substances and public politics about drugs in Brazil.

  19. Operating data documentation system for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparec, F.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The documentation system developed for the reactor to replace the automatic data logger is described in the paper. It is based on former experiences with the data logger which had led to a selection of representative data and useful data formats, but also made clear that the paper reports produced by the hardcopy terminal were not useful for further evaluation. A special pre-buffer hardware was provided to connect the data logger to the VAX. Because of its proven reliability an Epson-HX20 microcomputer was selected for this purpose. The documentation system hardware and the software are presented. The system has been operational for about ten months, collecting a daily average of 30kByte of data, and overcome a number of VAX system crashes, maintenance days and VAX/VMS updates. Various software extensions have been developed for processing the daily reports. Among these extensions there are programs for convenient tape backup, procedures for formatted printer output, and other. It is especially helpful to use commercial personal computer software for further data processing, in particular when PCs are connected in a network with the VAX or, on the other hand, emulate VAX terminals. There is a vast number of spread-sheet or database programs with excellent computational and graphic support available for PCs. Most of them allow data import, though format conversion programs will be necessary in most of the cases

  20. Research using blogs for data: public documents or private musings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Linda A

    2011-08-01

    Nursing and other health sciences researchers increasingly find blogs to be valuable sources of information for investigating illness and other human health experiences. When researchers use blogs as their exclusive data source, they must discern the public/private aspects inherent in the nature of blogs in order to plan for appropriate protection of the bloggers' identities. Approaches to the protection of human subjects are poorly addressed when the human subject is a blogger and the blog is used as an exclusive source of data. Researchers may be assisted to protect human subjects via a decisional framework for assessing a blog author's intended position on the public/private continuum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multi-target drugs: the trend of drug research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing the status of drugs in the market and examining the trend of drug research and development is important in drug discovery. In this study, we compared the drug targets and the market sales of the new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from January 2000 to December 2009. Two networks, namely, the target-target and drug-drug networks, have been set up using the network analysis tools. The multi-target drugs have much more potential, as shown by the network visualization and the market trends. We discussed the possible reasons and proposed the rational strategies for drug research and development in the future.

  2. Teaching Integrity in Empirical Research: A Protocol for Documenting Data Management and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Medeiros, Norm

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a protocol the authors developed for teaching undergraduates to document their statistical analyses for empirical research projects so that their results are completely reproducible and verifiable. The protocol is guided by the principle that the documentation prepared to accompany an empirical research project should be…

  3. Diterpenes: Advances in Neurobiological Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Torequl; da Silva, Claucenira Bandeira; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; Paz, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of studies have been performed with diterpene effect on the brain. Our study aims to make a systematic revision on them. The initial purpose of this review was to screen diterpenes with neurological activity, in particular those that have already been studied and published in different journals (databases until August 2015). The second purpose was to make an action-wise discussion as results viewed on them by taking into drug discovery and development account. Diterpenes considered in this review were selected on the basis of updated information on them and having sufficient information on their screenings. We identified several examples of diterpenes having an interest in further study. We have included the possible sources of them as observed in evidence, their known molecular neurobiological mechanisms, and the active constituents responsible for such activities with the doses and test systems. Results suggest diterpenes to have neurobiological activities like neuro-protection, anti-epileptic, anxiolytic, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-cerebral ischemia, anti-neuropathic pain, anti-neuro-inflammatory, and many more. In conclusion, diterpenes may be the prominent candidates in neurobiological drug research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Research synergy and drug development: Bright stars in neighboring constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Keserci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and subsequent availability of a new breakthrough therapeutic or ‘cure’ is a compelling example of societal benefit from research advances. These advances are invariably collaborative, involving the contributions of many scientists to a discovery network in which theory and experiment are built upon. To document and understand such scientific advances, data mining of public and commercial data sources coupled with network analysis can be used as a digital methodology to assemble and analyze component events in the history of a therapeutic. This methodology is extensible beyond the history of therapeutics and its use more generally supports (i efficiency in exploring the scientific history of a research advance (ii documenting and understanding collaboration (iii portfolio analysis, planning and optimization (iv communication of the societal value of research. Building upon prior art, we have conducted a case study of five anti-cancer therapeutics to identify the collaborations that resulted in the successful development of these therapeutics both within and across their respective networks. We have linked the work of over 235,000 authors in roughly 106,000 scientific publications that capture the research crucial for the development of these five therapeutics. Applying retrospective citation discovery, we have identified a core set of publications cited in the networks of all five therapeutics and additional intersections in combinations of networks. We have enriched the content of these networks by annotating them with information on research awards from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH. Lastly, we have mapped these awards to their cognate peer review panels, identifying another layer of collaborative scientific activity that influenced the research represented in these networks. Keywords: Information science, Cancer research

  5. Research synergy and drug development: Bright stars in neighboring constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserci, Samet; Livingston, Eric; Wan, Lingtian; Pico, Alexander R; Chacko, George

    2017-11-01

    Drug discovery and subsequent availability of a new breakthrough therapeutic or 'cure' is a compelling example of societal benefit from research advances. These advances are invariably collaborative, involving the contributions of many scientists to a discovery network in which theory and experiment are built upon. To document and understand such scientific advances, data mining of public and commercial data sources coupled with network analysis can be used as a digital methodology to assemble and analyze component events in the history of a therapeutic. This methodology is extensible beyond the history of therapeutics and its use more generally supports (i) efficiency in exploring the scientific history of a research advance (ii) documenting and understanding collaboration (iii) portfolio analysis, planning and optimization (iv) communication of the societal value of research. Building upon prior art, we have conducted a case study of five anti-cancer therapeutics to identify the collaborations that resulted in the successful development of these therapeutics both within and across their respective networks. We have linked the work of over 235,000 authors in roughly 106,000 scientific publications that capture the research crucial for the development of these five therapeutics. Applying retrospective citation discovery, we have identified a core set of publications cited in the networks of all five therapeutics and additional intersections in combinations of networks. We have enriched the content of these networks by annotating them with information on research awards from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Lastly, we have mapped these awards to their cognate peer review panels, identifying another layer of collaborative scientific activity that influenced the research represented in these networks.

  6. 78 FR 8446 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; Prescription Drug Labeling Improvement and Enhancement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... utility of the prescription drug labeling as a communication tool and to discuss strategies for making it... the Web site after this document publishes in the Federal Register.) All holders of marketing... before June 30, 2001, and for generic drugs. The initiative is anticipated to take place over several...

  7. Lung MRI for experimental drug research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Nicolau; Cannet, Catherine; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Tigani, Bruno; Zurbruegg, Stefan; Ble, Francois-Xavier; Cremillieux, Yannick; Trifilieff, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Current techniques to evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments for airways diseases in preclinical models are generally invasive and terminal. In the past few years, the flexibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain anatomical and functional information of the lung has been explored with the scope of developing a non-invasive approach for the routine testing of drugs in models of airways diseases in small rodents. With MRI, the disease progression can be followed in the same animal. Thus, a significant reduction in the number of animals used for experimentation is achieved, as well as minimal interference with their well-being and physiological status. In addition, under certain circumstances the duration of the observation period after disease onset can be shortened since the technique is able to detect changes before these are reflected in parameters of inflammation determined using invasive procedures. The objective of this article is to briefly address MRI techniques that are being used in experimental lung research, with special emphasis on applications. Following an introduction on proton techniques and MRI of hyperpolarized gases, the attention is shifted to the MRI analysis of several aspects of lung disease models, including inflammation, ventilation, emphysema, fibrosis and sensory nerve activation. The next subject concerns the use of MRI in pharmacological studies within the context of experimental lung research. A final discussion points towards advantages and limitations of MRI in this area

  8. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  9. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Najla Dar-Odeh1, Soukaina Ryalat1, Mohammad Shayyab1, Osama Abu-Hammad21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Medicine and Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Jordan; 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, JordanObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients.Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period.Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection.Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure.Keywords: dental records, documentation, prescriptions, local anesthesia

  10. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448. [65 FR... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 312.145 Section 312.145 Food...

  11. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  12. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-H; Lin, H-W; Simon Pickard, A; Tsai, H-Y; Mahady, G B

    2012-11-01

    The use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) alone or concomitantly with medications can potentially increase the risk of adverse events experienced by the patients. This review aims to evaluate the documented HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. A structured literature review was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, tertiary literature and Internet. While 85 primary literatures, six books and two web sites were reviewed for a total of 1,491 unique pairs of HDS-drug interactions, 213 HDS entities and 509 medications were involved. HDS products containing St. John's Wort, magnesium, calcium, iron, ginkgo had the greatest number of documented interactions with medications. Warfarin, insulin, aspirin, digoxin, and ticlopidine had the greatest number of reported interactions with HDS. Medications affecting the central nervous system or cardiovascular system had more documented interactions with HDS. Of the 882 HDS-drug interactions being described its mechanism and severity, 42.3% were due to altered pharmacokinetics and 240 were described as major interactions. Of the 152 identified HDS contraindications, the most frequent involved gastrointestinal (16.4%), neurological (14.5%), and renal/genitourinary diseases (12.5%). Flaxseed, echinacea, and yohimbe had the largest number of documented contraindications. Although HDS-drug interactions and contraindications primarily concerned a relatively small subset of commonly used medications and HDS entities, this review provides the summary to identify patients, HDS products, and medications that are more susceptible to HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. The findings would facilitate the health-care professionals to communicate these documented interactions and contraindications to their patients and/or caregivers thereby preventing serious adverse events and improving desired therapeutic outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 75 FR 48179 - Comprehensive List of Guidance Documents at the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Products (PDF - 57KB) 11/1994 Preparation of Investigational New Drug Products (Human and Animal) (PDF... Form FDA 356h ``Application to Market a New Drug, Biologic or an Antibiotic Drug for Human Use'' 5/10... Description Information for Human Plasma-Derived Biological Products, Animal Plasma or Serum-Derived Products...

  14. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... labeled drug or regarding human physiology, pathophysiology, or biochemistry (but not intended for...

  15. Research Highlights: Helping Adolescents Resist Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Project ALERT departs boldly from prevention models of the 196Os and 197Os, which emphasized informing adolescents about the long-term consequences of drug use or building their decisionmaking skills...

  16. Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. RESULTS: Our search...

  17. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop AGENCY... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and..., and to gain additional insight from, professional societies, patient advocates, industry, consumer...

  18. Drugs and Crime: The Relationship of Drug Use and Concomitant Criminal Behavior. Research Issues 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts of major research and theoretical studies dealing with the relationship between drug use, criminal behavior and the law is concerned with criminal acts other than the possession of, or trafficking in, illicit drugs. Included are 107 selected studies categorized into seven major topic areas: Reviews and Theories, Drug Use…

  19. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  20. Drug knowledge bases and their applications in biomedical informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Elemento, Olivier; Pathak, Jyotishman; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Recent advances in biomedical research have generated a large volume of drug-related data. To effectively handle this flood of data, many initiatives have been taken to help researchers make good use of them. As the results of these initiatives, many drug knowledge bases have been constructed. They range from simple ones with specific focuses to comprehensive ones that contain information on almost every aspect of a drug. These curated drug knowledge bases have made significant contributions to the development of efficient and effective health information technologies for better health-care service delivery. Understanding and comparing existing drug knowledge bases and how they are applied in various biomedical studies will help us recognize the state of the art and design better knowledge bases in the future. In addition, researchers can get insights on novel applications of the drug knowledge bases through a review of successful use cases. In this study, we provide a review of existing popular drug knowledge bases and their applications in drug-related studies. We discuss challenges in constructing and using drug knowledge bases as well as future research directions toward a better ecosystem of drug knowledge bases. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  2. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  3. Ethical Issues in Internet Research: International Good Practice and Irish Research Ethics Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Heike

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the main research ethical concerns that arise in internet research and reviews existing research ethical guidance in the Irish context in relation to its application to internet research. The chapter begins with a brief outline of high profile cases in the early history of the internet that highlighted specific emerging…

  4. Measuring the Value Added by Technical Documentation: A Review of Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Reviews existing work on establishing value of technical documentation to determine its principles. States that value can be returned by reducing internal investment, increasing sales, and reducing after-sales costs. Argues that further research will improve the understanding of information as the product itself, rather than simply a supporting…

  5. Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; McCoy, Dacia; Wahl, Elaine; Shier, Ashley; Denune, Hilary; Kimener, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of guidance on the methodological details needed for measuring and sampling the independent variable or actual intervention occurrences in research and practice. Furthermore, the planning and support necessary to document the independent variable in both circumstances may be considerable. The current study extends prior…

  6. Advances in drug metabolism and pharmacogenetics research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Peter I; Somogyi, Andrew A; Miners, John O

    2017-02-01

    Metabolism facilitates the elimination, detoxification and excretion in urine or bile (as biotransformation products) of a myriad of structurally diverse drugs and other chemicals. The metabolism of drugs, non-drug xenobiotics and many endogenous compounds is catalyzed by families of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). These include the hemoprotein-containing cytochromes P450, which function predominantly as monooxygenases, and conjugation enzymes that transfer a sugar, sulfate, acetate or glutathione moiety to substrates containing a suitable acceptor functional group. Drug and chemical metabolism, especially the enzymes that catalyse these reactions, has been the research focus of several groups in Australia for over four decades. In this review, we highlight the role of recent and current drug metabolism research in Australia, including elucidation of the structure and function of enzymes from the various DME families, factors that modulate enzyme activity in humans (e.g. drug-drug interactions, gene expression and genetic polymorphism) and the application of in vitro approaches for the prediction of drug metabolism parameters in humans, along with the broader pharmacological/clinical pharmacological and toxicological significance of drug metabolism and DMEs and their relevance to drug discovery and development, and to clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Who has used internal company documents for biomedical and public health research and where did they find them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Susan Wieland

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. RESULTS: Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%. Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6% were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%. The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%. Most articles (346/361; 96% used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles, the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. CONCLUSIONS: Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been

  8. Who has used internal company documents for biomedical and public health research and where did they find them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Rosman, Lori M; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for

  9. Research in North-Rhine Westphalia. Environmental research in 1986 - a documentation. Forschung in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Umweltforschung 1986 - Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Environmental research within the meaning of this documentation is any research aiming predominantly at reducing, avoiding, or removing environmental pollution. The documentation includes especially projects of relevance to technology and economy, natural science, biology, planning, medicine, and pedagogy. For the period of report January 1984 to February 1986, nearly 500 research projects of environmental relevance were made out at the scientific institutions of the country. Some 230 research groups and institutions are intensively studying questions relating to cyclones for dust separation, from their analytics to their use. The 13 sectors covered are: Forest die-back; planning; open areas; noise in residential areas; clean air; conservancy of nature and species; soil; foodstuffs; waters; waste; medicine and toxicology; analytics; topics of a general nature. (HSCH).

  10. Studies in youth, drug and alcohol consumption at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten; Demant, Jakob Johan; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    or providing genuine contribution to the sociological analysis and understanding of youth cultures. From the mid-00 s and forward however, a range of analytical tools were developed at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) in order to understand the relationship between youth, drug and alcohol use......Background: During the 90 s and especially in the beginning of the 00 s research in youth, drug and alcohol consumption increased markedly in Denmark. Much of this research was applied and placed in a dilemma between reproducing existing social problem characterizations of youthful behaviors...... and to move beyond the applied perspective into a more social science analytical approach. Aim: The article investigates the relationship developments between drug and alcohol research and youth research in Denmark in general, with a special focus on research conducted at CRF. Specifically, we will focus...

  11. Standardized End Point Definitions for Coronary Intervention Trials: The Academic Research Consortium-2 Consensus Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McFadden, Eugène P; Farb, Andrew; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Spertus, John; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Morel, Marie-Angèle; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Zuckerman, Bram; Fearon, William F; Taggart, David; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vranckx, Pascal; Windecker, Stephan; Cutlip, Donald; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-14

    The Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 initiative revisited the clinical and angiographic end point definitions in coronary device trials, proposed in 2007, to make them more suitable for use in clinical trials that include increasingly complex lesion and patient populations and incorporate novel devices such as bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. In addition, recommendations for the incorporation of patient-related outcomes in clinical trials are proposed. Academic Research Consortium-2 is a collaborative effort between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe, device manufacturers, and European, US, and Asian regulatory bodies. Several in-person meetings were held to discuss the changes that have occurred in the device landscape and in clinical trials and regulatory pathways in the last decade. The consensus-based end point definitions in this document are endorsed by the stakeholders of this document and strongly advocated for clinical trial purposes. This Academic Research Consortium-2 document provides further standardization of end point definitions for coronary device trials, incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Their use will aid interpretation of trial outcomes and comparison among studies, thus facilitating the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of these devices.

  12. Variability in the quality of overdose advice in Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) documents: gut decontamination recommendations for CNS drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Andrew J B; Bateman, D N; Waring, W S

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-poisoning is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) document is a legal requirement for all drugs, and Section 4.9 addresses the features of toxicity and clinical advice on management of overdose. The quality and appropriateness of this advice have received comparatively little attention. Section 4.9 of the SPC was examined for all drugs in the central nervous system (CNS) category of the British National Formulary. Advice concerning gut decontamination was examined with respect to specific interventions: induced vomiting, oral activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and other interventions. Data were compared with standard reference sources for clinical management advice in poisoning. These were graded 'A' if no important differences existed, 'B' if differences were noted but not thought clinically important, and 'C' if differences were thought to be clinically significant. SPC documents were examined for 258 medications from 67 manufacturers. The overall agreement was 'A' in 23 (8.9%), 'B' in 28 (10.9%) and 'C' in 207 (80.2%). Discrepancies were due to inappropriate recommendation of induced emesis in 21.7% (95% confidence interval 17.1, 27.1), gastric lavage in 38.4% (32.7, 44.4), other gut decontamination in 5.8% (3.6, 9.4) and failure to recommend oral activated charcoal in 57.4% (51.1, 63.4). Gut decontamination advice in SPC documents with respect to CNS drugs was inadequate. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies and ways of improving the consistency of advice are proposed.

  13. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  14. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Drug research methodology. Volume 2, The identification of drugs of interest in highway safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents findings of a workshop on the identification of drugs that should be the focus of near-term highway safety research. Drugs of interest are those that have a potential to increase the likelihood of traffic crashes and their attend...

  16. Prescription drugs for human use generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded: drugs used in research: radioactive drugs for certain research uses; amended reporting requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This amendment revises the reporting requirements for research studies in which radioactive drugs are used. It deletes the requirement for detailed measurements and calculations for each subject in the study; instead, it permits submission of data on a representative subject. The effect will be to decrease the burden in reporting required of the Radioactive Drug Research Committee, but still provide the agency with data to evaluate the risk attributable to radioactive drugs

  17. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2011-09-01

    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 601.29 Section 601.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...

  19. Mitocans: Mitochondrial targeted anti-cancer drugs as improved therapies and related patent documents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ralph, S.J.; Low, P.; Dong, L.; Lawen, A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2006), s. 327-346 ISSN 1574-8928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mitocans * vitamin E analogues * mitochondria-based targeting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Antin, Tamar M J

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms ( thizz , crystal ) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream ( crank , speed ) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill ) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research.

  1. Variation in adverse drug reactions listed in product information for antidepressants and anticonvulsants, between the USA and Europe: a comparison review of paired regulatory documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Victoria R; Liu, Kun; Peacock, Janet; Sauzet, Odile

    2016-03-20

    To compare consistency of adverse drug reaction (ADR) data in publicly available product information documents for brand drugs, between the USA and Europe. To assess the usefulness of information for prescribers and patients. A comparison review of product information documents for antidepressants and anticonvulsants concurrently marketed by the same pharmaceutical company in the USA and Europe. For each drug, data were extracted from the US Product Inserts and the European Summary of Product Characteristics documents between 09/2013 and 01/2015. Individuals contributing ADR information to product information documents. All ADRs reported in product information sections 5 and 6 (USA), and 4·4 and 4·8 (Europe). Twelve brand drugs--24 paired documents--were included. On average, there were 77 more ADRs reported in the USA compared with in the European product information document, with a median number of 201 ADRs (range: 65-425) and 114 (range: 56-265), respectively. More product information documents in the USA reported information on the source of evidence (10 vs 5) and risk (9 vs 5) for greater than 80% of ADRs included in the document. There was negligible information included regarding duration, severity, reversibility or recurrence of ADRs. On average, only 29% of ADR terms were reported in both paired documents. Product information documents contained a large number of ADRs, but lacked contextual data and information important to patients and prescribers, such as duration, severity and reversibility. The ADR profile was found to be inconsistently reported between the USA and Europe, for the same drug. Identifying, selecting, summarising and presenting multidimensional harm data should be underpinned by practical evidence-based guidelines. In order for prescribers to provide considered risk-benefit advice across competing drug therapies to patients, they need access to comprehensible and reliable ADR information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  2. Illicit drugs and the media: models of media effects for use in drug policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Hughes, Caitlin E; Spicer, Bridget; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Dillon, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Illicit drugs are never far from the media gaze and although identified almost a decade ago as 'a new battleground' for the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field there has been limited research examining the role of the news media and its effects on audiences and policy. This paper draws together media theories from communication literature to examine media functions. We illustrate how each function is relevant for media and drugs research by drawing upon the existing literature examining Australian media coverage during the late 1990s of escalating heroin-related problems and proposed solutions. Media can influence audiences in four key ways: by setting the agenda and defining public interest; framing issues through selection and salience; indirectly shaping individual and community attitudes towards risk; and feeding into political debate and decision making. Each has relevance for the AOD field. For example, media coverage of the escalating heroin-related problems in Australia played a strong role in generating interest in heroin overdoses, framing public discourse in terms of a health and/or criminal issue and affecting political decisions. Implications AND CONCLUSION: Media coverage in relation to illicit drugs can have multifarious effects. Incorporating media communication theories into future research and actions is critical to facilitate understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of media coverage on illicit drugs and the avenues by which the AOD field can mitigate or inform future media debates on illicit drugs. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Documentation in Otolaryngology. Sharing Otolaryngology research data in an open science ecosyste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda PESET

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The present text addresses the most significant aspects to share research data in otolaryngology in the context of open science as an ecosystem. Its aim is to offer a panoramic view that helps the researcher to manage their data as part of enriched science. Method: A bibliographical review and of the own experience in the field of the investigation data was performed. Results: The basic pillars for success are offered: its political, technical and necessary capacities. Discussion: The tasks of making data available should be recognized as part of the researcher's curriculum because documenting them to be reusable is a highly specialized and time-consuming task. Conclusions: It is considered that we are at a crucial moment to begin to share data. It is being considered in all scientific policy scenarios as in the EU through the European Open Science Computing.

  4. Documents assignment to archival fonds in research institutions of the NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichova O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main aspects of the assignment of the records of research institutions of the NAS of Ukraine to archival fonds, in particular, the records assignment to archival fonds according to certain characteristics, archival fonds creation in accordance with the scientific principles of provenance, continuity and archival fond integrity. Shown are the features of the internal systematization of the documents of research institutions of the NAS of Ukraine, caused by the specifics of the institutions functions. Illustrated are the examples of institutional archival fonds acquiring names and the conditions leading to their renaming. Analyzed is the procedure of a chronological scope fixation of a research institution of the NAS of Ukraine archival fond

  5. Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research: A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Schmidt, Laura A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-11-01

    Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor. The SRF set the review's objective, contributed articles for inclusion, and received drafts. The SRF's funding and role was not disclosed. Together with other recent analyses of sugar industry documents, our findings suggest the industry sponsored a research program in the 1960s and 1970s that successfully cast doubt about the hazards of sucrose while promoting fat as the dietary culprit in CHD. Policymaking committees should consider giving less weight to food industry-funded studies and include mechanistic and animal studies as well as studies appraising the effect of added sugars on multiple CHD biomarkers and disease development.

  6. 23 CFR 420.111 - What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and research funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Research Funds § 420.111 What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and research funds? 420.111 Section 420.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Documenting the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Oblate Earth Simulation Equations of Motion and Integration Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R.; Lintereur, L.; Bahm, C.

    2016-01-01

    A desire for more complete documentation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), Edwards, California legacy code used in the core simulation has led to this e ort to fully document the oblate Earth six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion and integration algorithm. The authors of this report have taken much of the earlier work of the simulation engineering group and used it as a jumping-o point for this report. The largest addition this report makes is that each element of the equations of motion is traced back to first principles and at no point is the reader forced to take an equation on faith alone. There are no discoveries of previously unknown principles contained in this report; this report is a collection and presentation of textbook principles. The value of this report is that those textbook principles are herein documented in standard nomenclature that matches the form of the computer code DERIVC. Previous handwritten notes are much of the backbone of this work, however, in almost every area, derivations are explicitly shown to assure the reader that the equations which make up the oblate Earth version of the computer routine, DERIVC, are correct.

  8. 21 CFR 361.1 - Radioactive drugs for certain research uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Research Committee. A Radioactive Drug Research Committee, composed and approved by the Food and Drug... CFR 20.61. Investigator Chairman, Radioactive Drug Research Committee At any time a proposal is... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radioactive drugs for certain research uses. 361.1...

  9. Research on Generating Method of Embedded Software Test Document Based on Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, MingCheng; Wu, XiangHu; Tao, YongChao; Liu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides a dynamic model-based test document generation method for embedded software that provides automatic generation of two documents: test requirements specification documentation and configuration item test documentation. This method enables dynamic test requirements to be implemented in dynamic models, enabling dynamic test demand tracking to be easily generated; able to automatically generate standardized, standardized test requirements and test documentation, improved document-related content inconsistency and lack of integrity And other issues, improve the efficiency.

  10. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  11. Taking advantage of continuity of care documents to populate a research repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Mendis, Michael; Phillips, Lori C; Goodson, Alyssa P; Rocha, Beatriz H; Goldberg, Howard S; Wattanasin, Nich; Murphy, Shawn N

    2015-03-01

    Clinical data warehouses have accelerated clinical research, but even with available open source tools, there is a high barrier to entry due to the complexity of normalizing and importing data. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology's Meaningful Use Incentive Program now requires that electronic health record systems produce standardized consolidated clinical document architecture (C-CDA) documents. Here, we leverage this data source to create a low volume standards based import pipeline for the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) clinical research platform. We validate this approach by creating a small repository at Partners Healthcare automatically from C-CDA documents. We designed an i2b2 extension to import C-CDAs into i2b2. It is extensible to other sites with variances in C-CDA format without requiring custom code. We also designed new ontology structures for querying the imported data. We implemented our methodology at Partners Healthcare, where we developed an adapter to retrieve C-CDAs from Enterprise Services. Our current implementation supports demographics, encounters, problems, and medications. We imported approximately 17 000 clinical observations on 145 patients into i2b2 in about 24 min. We were able to perform i2b2 cohort finding queries and view patient information through SMART apps on the imported data. This low volume import approach can serve small practices with local access to C-CDAs and will allow patient registries to import patient supplied C-CDAs. These components will soon be available open source on the i2b2 wiki. Our approach will lower barriers to entry in implementing i2b2 where informatics expertise or data access are limited. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  13. Conceptualizing ethnicity in alcohol and drug research: Epidemiology meets social theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Kolind, Torsten; Antin, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1990s, social scientists have rejected notions of ethnicity as something static and discrete, instead highlighting the context-dependent and fluid nature of multiple identities. In spite of these developments, researchers within the substance use fields continue to assess ethnic group categories in ways that suggest little critical reflection in terms of the validity of the measurements themselves, nor the social, bureaucratic, and political decisions shaping standard measures of ethnicity. This paper highlights these considerations, while also acknowledging the role of socially-delineated ethnic categorizations in documenting health inequities and social injustices. We call on researchers in alcohol and drugs research to critically appraise their use of ethnic categorizations, querying how to best measure ethnicity within their own studies in ways that are justified beyond simplified explanations of social convention and that "do no harm" in terms of perpetuating racism and obscuring the roots causes of social and health problems related to alcohol and drugs.

  14. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to § 201...

  16. Life Sciences Space Station planning document: A reference payload for the Life Sciences Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station, projected for construction in the early 1990s, will be an orbiting, low-gravity, permanently manned facility providing unprecedented opportunities for scientific research. Facilities for Life Sciences research will include a pressurized research laboratory, attached payloads, and platforms which will allow investigators to perform experiments in the crucial areas of Space Medicine, Space Biology, Exobiology, Biospherics and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). These studies are designed to determine the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, with particular emphasis on assuring the permanent presence of humans in space. The applied and basic research to be performed, using humans, animals, and plants, will increase our understanding of the effects of the space environment on basic life processes. Facilities being planned for remote observations from platforms and attached payloads of biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (Exobiology) will permit exploration of the relationship between the evolution of life and the universe. Space-based, global scale observations of terrestrial biology (Biospherics) will provide data critical for understanding and ultimately managing changes in the Earth's ecosystem. The life sciences community is encouraged to participate in the research potential the Space Station facilities will make possible. This document provides the range and scope of typical life sciences experiments which could be performed within a pressurized laboratory module on Space Station.

  17. Gore offers to help drug companies pursue research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-08

    A meeting convened between Vice President Al Gore and executives of leading pharmaceutical companies to determine means of accelerating efforts to develop vaccines, therapeutics, and microbicides for people with HIV. Gore explained that the administration will work with pharmaceutical companies to determine the long-term effectiveness of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), work with international groups to increase investment in vaccine development, help develop new microbicides for women with HIV, and identify promising areas of AIDS research. According to advocates, the Clinton Administration has made great strides in improving and accelerating the FDA's drug approval process. The next goal of the pharmaceutical research agenda should be to include consumer advocates in the decision-making process.

  18. Pediatric eMental healthcare technologies: a systematic review of implementation foci in research studies, and government and organizational documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Nicole D; McGrath, Patrick; Wozney, Lori; Soleimani, Amir; Bennett, Kathryn; Hartling, Lisa; Huguet, Anna; Dyson, Michele P; Newton, Amanda S

    2017-06-21

    Researchers, healthcare planners, and policymakers convey a sense of urgency in using eMental healthcare technologies to improve pediatric mental healthcare availability and access. Yet, different stakeholders may focus on different aspects of implementation. We conducted a systematic review to identify implementation foci in research studies and government/organizational documents for eMental healthcare technologies for pediatric mental healthcare. A search of eleven electronic databases and grey literature was conducted. We included research studies and documents from organization and government websites if the focus included eMental healthcare technology for children/adolescents (0-18 years), and implementation was studied and reported (research studies) or goals/recommendations regarding implementation were made (documents). We assessed study quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and document quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II. Implementation information was grouped according to Proctor and colleagues' implementation outcomes-acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability-and grouped separately for studies and documents. Twenty research studies and nine government/organizational documents met eligibility criteria. These articles represented implementation of eMental healthcare technologies in the USA (14 studies), United Kingdom (2 documents, 3 studies), Canada (2 documents, 1 study), Australia (4 documents, 1 study), New Zealand (1 study), and the Netherlands (1 document). The quality of research studies was excellent (n = 11), good (n = 6), and poor (n = 1). These eMental health studies focused on the acceptability (70%, n = 14) and appropriateness (50%, n = 10) of eMental healthcare technologies to users and mental healthcare professionals. The quality of government and organizational documents was high (n = 2), medium (n = 6

  19. Can open-source R&D reinvigorate drug research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The low number of novel therapeutics approved by the US FDA in recent years continues to cause great concern about productivity and declining innovation. Can open-source drug research and development, using principles pioneered by the highly successful open-source software movement, help revive the industry?

  20. Ethnographic research in immigrant-specific drug abuse recovery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anna; Lee, Juliet P; García, Victor; Recarte, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL BASIS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT IN RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy M. Tukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the implementation of electronic document management (EDM in research institutions as a part of the e-government in Ukraine. Process of EDM implementation in state institutions is analysed. Two aspects of EDM implementation are emphasized: EDM implementation as information system and users’ readiness to implement the EDM into pedagogical process organized at the non-formal level of the adult education. The organizational and pedagogical principles are considered as the organizational support and pedagogical conditions to form user’s willingness to implement EDM. The organizational and pedagogical model for EDM implementation is proposed. The typical life cycle model of EDM is supplemented by organizational and pedagogical model for EDM implementation, proposed in the paper.

  2. Information and documentation resources for researchers of NIRD URBAN-INCERC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaie Constantinescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development instruments aiding the researchers are expressing a variety that only innovative capacity is able to render. Linked to these, information and communication capacities grew to support the evolution of new models in support of the researcher concerning acquiring new knowledge in the open context formed by his or she’s online connected colleagues. For a better development of the institutional capacity the best yielding base investment is in information and documentation, let that via subscriptions to the scientific databases, or becoming a service supplier for third persons/bodies. The rule of thumb says that to empower such base, a survey of the internal and external resources is needed, and the following efforts lead to a charting of the most visible and valuable information resources out there. Once this effort started, the steps taken to a consolidation as a research pole and as a service provider for quality information, will lead to a continuous evaluation and growth of the existing informational asset - the library.

  3. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  4. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  5. Health Services Research for Drug and Alcohol Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.

  6. An ethical exploration of barriers to research on controlled drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDREAE, Michael H; RHODES, Evelyn; BOURGOISE, Tylor; CARTER, George; WHITE, Robert S.; INDYK, Debbie; SACKS, Henry; RHODES, Rosamond

    2016-01-01

    We examine the ethical, social and regulatory barriers that may hamper research on therapeutic potential of certain controversial controlled substances like marijuana, heroin or ketamine. Hazards for individuals and society, and their potential adverse effects on communities may be good reasons for limiting access and justify careful monitoring of certain substances. Overly strict regulations, fear of legal consequences, stigma associated with abuse and populations using illicit drugs, and lack of funding may hinder research on their considerable therapeutic potential. We review the surprisingly sparse literature and address the particular ethical concerns of undue inducement, informed consent, risk to participants, researchers and institutions, justice and liberty germane to the research with illicit and addictive substances. We debate the disparate research stakeholder perspectives and why they are likely to be infected with bias. We propose an empirical research agenda to provide a more evidentiary basis for ethical reasoning. PMID:26982922

  7. Drug repurposing for aging research using model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, Matthias; Kaur, Satwant; Ivanov, Dobril K; Ballester, Pedro J; Marcus, David; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M

    2017-10-01

    Many increasingly prevalent diseases share a common risk factor: age. However, little is known about pharmaceutical interventions against aging, despite many genes and pathways shown to be important in the aging process and numerous studies demonstrating that genetic interventions can lead to a healthier aging phenotype. An important challenge is to assess the potential to repurpose existing drugs for initial testing on model organisms, where such experiments are possible. To this end, we present a new approach to rank drug-like compounds with known mammalian targets according to their likelihood to modulate aging in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. Our approach combines information on genetic effects on aging, orthology relationships and sequence conservation, 3D protein structures, drug binding and bioavailability. Overall, we rank 743 different drug-like compounds for their likelihood to modulate aging. We provide various lines of evidence for the successful enrichment of our ranking for compounds modulating aging, despite sparse public data suitable for validation. The top ranked compounds are thus prime candidates for in vivo testing of their effects on lifespan in C. elegans or Drosophila. As such, these compounds are promising as research tools and ultimately a step towards identifying drugs for a healthier human aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. The Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research: social science alcohol and drug research in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads U; Elmeland, Karen; Frank, Vibeke A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the social science alcohol and drug research undertaken by the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) and at the same time offer an insight into the development in Danish alcohol and drug research throughout the past 15-20 years. A review of articles, books and reports published by researcher from CRF from the mid-1990s until today and an analysis of the policy-making in the Danish substance use and misuse area. CRF is a result of the discussions surrounding social, health and allocation policy questions since the mid-1980s. Among other things, these discussions led to the formal establishment of the Centre in 1991 under the Aarhus University, the Faculty of Social Science. Since 2001 the Centre has received a permanent basic allocation, which has made it possible to appoint tenured senior researchers; to work under a more long-term research strategy; to function as a milieu for educating PhD students; and to diversify from commissioned research tasks to initiating projects involving more fundamental research. Research at the Centre is today pivoted around four core areas: consumption, policy, prevention and treatment. The emergence, continuation, financing and character of the research taking place at CRF can be linked closely to the specific Danish drug and alcohol discourse and to the division of the responsibility for alcohol and drug research into separate Ministries. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Guideline for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: S2K-Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and the German Dermatological Society (DDG) in collaboration with the Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the German Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the Austrian Society for Allergology and Immunology (ÖGAI), the German Academy of Allergology and Environmental Medicine (DAAU), the German Center for Documentation of Severe Skin Reactions and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Products (BfArM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Przybilla, Bernhard; Aberer, Werner; Bircher, Andreas J; Brehler, Randolf; Dickel, Heinrich; Fuchs, Thomas; Jakob, Thilo; Lange, Lars; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Ott, Hagen; Pfaar, Oliver; Ring, Johannes; Sachs, Bernhardt; Sitter, Helmut; Trautmann, Axel; Treudler, Regina; Wedi, Bettina; Worm, Margitta; Wurpts, Gerda; Zuberbier, Torsten; Merk, Hans F

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. They manifest either within 1-6 h following drug intake (immediate reactions) with mild to life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis, or several hours to days later (delayed reactions), primarily as exanthematous eruptions. It is not always possible to detect involvement of the immune system (allergy). Waiving diagnostic tests can result in severe reactions on renewed exposure on the one hand, and to unjustified treatment restrictions on the other. With this guideline, experts from various specialist societies and institutions have formulated recommendations and an algorithm for the diagnosis of allergies. The key principles of diagnosing allergic/hypersensitivity drug reactions are presented. Where possible, the objective is to perform allergy diagnostics within 4 weeks-6 months following the reaction. A clinical classification of symptoms based on the morphology and time course of the reaction is required in order to plan a diagnostic work-up. In the case of typical symptoms of a drug hypersensitivity reaction and unequivocal findings from validated skin and/or laboratory tests, a reaction can be attributed to a trigger with sufficient confidence. However, skin and laboratory tests are often negative or insufficiently reliable. In such cases, controlled provocation testing is required to clarify drug reactions. This method is reliable and safe when attention is paid to indications and contraindications and performed under appropriate medical supervision. The results of the overall assessment are discussed with the patient and documented in an "allergy passport" in order to ensure targeted avoidance in the future and allow the use of alternative drugs where possible.

  10. HOW ADVERSE DRUG-REACTIONS CAN PLAY A ROLE IN INNOVATIVE DRUG RESEARCH - SIMILARITIES IN ADVERSE DRUG REACTION PROFILES OF CAPTOPRIL AND PENICILLAMINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIKKEN, F; VOS, R

    1995-01-01

    We describe how adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can play an important role in pharmaceutical research and drug development. Not only do ADRs represent the risks and drawbacks associated with drugs but they can also be related to other knowledge available in pharmaceutical and medical research. We

  11. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  12. Nano-enabled drug delivery: a research profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Porter, Alan L; Robinson, Douglas K R; Shim, Min Suk; Guo, Ying

    2014-07-01

    Nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) systems are rapidly emerging as a key area for nanotechnology application. Understanding the status and developmental prospects of this area around the world is important to determine research priorities, and to evaluate and direct progress. Global research publication and patent databases provide a reservoir of information that can be tapped to provide intelligence for such needs. Here, we present a process to allow for extraction of NEDD-related information from these databases by involving topical experts. This process incorporates in-depth analysis of NEDD literature review papers to identify key subsystems and major topics. We then use these to structure global analysis of NEDD research topical trends and collaborative patterns, inform future innovation directions. This paper describes the process of how to derive nano-enabled drug delivery-related information from global research and patent databases in an effort to perform comprehensive global analysis of research trends and directions, along with collaborative patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Design Research, Documentations, and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLement, Bethany M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) is a group within the Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) that focuses on the overall health of astronauts by reinforcing the three divisions - the Environmental Maintenance System (EMS), the Countermeasures System (CMS), and the Health Maintenance System (HMS). This internship provided opportunity to gain knowledge, experience, and skills in CHeCS engineering and operations tasks. Various and differing tasks allowed for occasions to work independently, network to get things done, and show leadership abilities. Specific exercises included reviewing hardware certification, operations, and documentation within the ongoing Med Kit Redesign (MKR) project, and learning, writing, and working various common pieces of paperwork used in the engineering and design process. Another project focused on the distribution of various pieces of hardware to off-site research facilities with an interest in space flight health care. The main focus of this internship, though, was on a broad and encompassing understanding of the engineering process as time was spent looking at each individual step in a variety of settings and tasks.

  14. Research and institutional dimensions of environmental justice: Implications for NEPA documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    Satisfying the environmental justice requirements imposed on the NEPA process is a challenging imperative. Among the challenges for NEPA documentation are: (1) adapting existing disciplinary methodologies that address distributional effects to the dictates of the executive order; (2) determining operational and, perhaps, threshold values for policy directives (e.g., disproportionately high and adverse effects); (3) identifying and involving representatives of minority, Native American, and low-income communities and populations in the NEPA process without jeopardizing their independence and integrity; (4) developing strategies, approaches, and methodologies that are more responsive to the consideration of multiple and cumulative exposures; and (5) developing professional standards for environmental justice assessment that are consistent with the letter and intent of the executive order, protective of the environments of minority, Native American, and low-income populations and communities, and useful to decision makers. This report will address current research and institutional activities associated with these issues, present alternative approaches available for their resolution, and identify the implications of those alternative approaches.

  15. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of gall bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hari Shankar; Sirohi, Bhawna; Behari, Anu; Sharma, Atul; Majumdar, Jahar; Ganguly, Manomoy; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Sandeep; Saini, Sunil; Sahni, Peush; Singh, Tomcha; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Sucharita, V.; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.All postcholecystectomy gallbladder specimens should be opened and examined carefully by the operating surgeon and be sent for histopathological examination.All “incidental” gall bladder cancers (GBCs) picked up on histopathological examination should have an expert opinion.Evaluation of a patient with early GBC should include essential tests: A computed tomography (CT) scan (multi-detector or helical) of the abdomen and pelvis for staging with a CT chest or chest X-ray, and complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests. magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (PET)-CT are not recommended for all patients.For early stage disease (up to Stage IVA), surgery is recommended. The need for adjuvant treatment would be guided by the histopathological analysis of the resected specimen.Patients with Stage IVB/metastatic disease must be assessed for palliative e.g. endoscopic or radiological intervention, chemotherapy versus best supportive care on an individual basis. These patients do not require extensive workup outside of a clinical trial setting.There is an urgent need for multicenter trials from India covering various aspects of epidemiology (viz., identification of population at high-risk, organized follow-up), clinical management (viz., bile spill during surgery, excision of all port sites, adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy) and basic research (viz., what causes GBC). PMID:26157282

  16. Drug research methodology. Volume 5, Experimentation in drugs and highway safety : the study of drug effects on skills related to driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on experimental research in the area of drugs and highway safety. Complementing studies of drug use in different driving populations, experimentation here refers to studies performed under controlled co...

  17. Drug research methodology. Volume 4, Epidemiology in drugs and highway safety : the study of drug use among drivers and its role in traffic crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on epidemiology in drugs and highway safety. A cross-disciplinary panel of experts (1) identified methodological issues and constraints present in research to define the nature and magnitude of the drug...

  18. [Does the public sector have an independent research role in the development of drugs?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Grønlykke, Thor Buch

    2003-04-14

    Exclusively private companies do drug development. The State contributes with education of academics and basic research constituting the basis of half of the drugs developed by the private companies. The Danish private drug research amounts to six billion DKK per year, corresponding to the estimated price of the development of one new drug. The development shows a negative tendency. There are doubts about the scientific credibility, the number of new drugs is declining, drug development costs are rising, and the competitiveness in Europe is declining compared with the one of The United States. Continued improvement of Danish drug development can be achieved by stimulation of the public research related to drug development.

  19. Identification needs in developing, documenting, and indexing WSDOT photographs : research report, February 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Over time, the Department of Transportation has accumulated image collections, which document important : aspects of the transportation infrastructure in the Pacific Northwest, project status and construction details. These : images range from paper ...

  20. How Are Researching and Reading Interwieved during Retrieval from Hierarchically Structured Documents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Lalmas, M.; Frøkjær, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Effective use of information retrieval systems requires that users know when to – temporarily – cease searching to do some reading and where to start reading. In hierarchically structured documents, users can to some extent interchange searching and reading by entering the text at different levels...... information retrieval systems could exploit document structure to return the best points to support reading, rather than merely hits...

  1. A Prospective Research on Self-medication Practices of Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    METHODS: A multi-stage stratified sampling of drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa was employed. ... the drug. Two-thirds of the drug consumers requested drugs by specifically mentioning the name of the drug or category to which it belongs and 20.7% by telling their illness or .... city, and further classified as private, public.

  2. In silico studies in drug research against neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhouri, Farahnaz Rezaei; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2017-08-22

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive neurodegenerative forms of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cerebellar ataxias, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy are described by slow and selective dysfunction and degeneration of neurons and axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Computer-aided or in silico design methods have matured into powerful tools for reducing the number of ligands that should be screened in experimental assays. In the present review, the authors provide a basic background about neurodegenerative diseases and in silico techniques in the drug research. Furthermore, they review the various in silico studies reported against various targets in neurodegenerative diseases, including homology modeling, molecular docking, virtual high-throughput screening, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR), hologram quantitative structure activity relationship (HQSAR), 3D pharmacophore mapping, proteochemometrics modeling (PCM), fingerprints, fragment-based drug discovery, Monte Carlo simulation, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, quantum-mechanical methods for drug design, support vector machines, and machine learning approaches. Neurodegenerative diseases have a multifactorial pathoetiological origin, so scientists have become persuaded that a multi-target therapeutic strategy aimed at the simultaneous targeting of multiple proteins (and therefore etiologies) involved in the development of a disease is recommended in future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice, the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  4. Animal models of pancreatic cancer for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    The operative and conservative results of therapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain appallingly poor. This underlines the demand for further research for effective anticancer drugs. The various animal models remain the essential method for the determination of efficacy of substances during preclinical phase. Unfortunately, most of these tested substances showed a good efficacy in pancreatic carcinoma in the animal model but were not confirmed during the clinical phase. The available literature in PubMed, Medline, Ovid and secondary literature was searched regarding the available animal models for drug testing against pancreatic cancer. The models were analyzed regarding their pros and cons in anticancer drug testing. The different modifications of the orthotopic model (especially in mice) seem at present to be the best model for anticancer testing in pancreatic carcinoma. The value of genetically engineered animal model (GEM) and syngeneic models is on debate. A good selection of the model concerning the questions supposed to be clarified may improve the comparability of the results of animal experiments compared to clinical trials.

  5. The evolution of drug design at Merck Research Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank K; Sherer, Edward C; Johnson, Scott A; Holloway, M Katharine; Sherborne, Bradley S

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 1981, Fortune magazine published a cover article entitled the "Next Industrial Revolution: Designing Drugs by Computer at Merck". With a 40+ year investment, we have been in the drug design business longer than most. During its history, the Merck drug design group has had several names, but it has always been in the "design" business, with the ultimate goal to provide an actionable hypothesis that could be tested experimentally. Often the result was a small molecule but it could just as easily be a peptide, biologic, predictive model, reaction, process, etc. To this end, the concept of design is now front and center in all aspects of discovery, safety assessment and early clinical development. At present, the Merck design group includes computational chemistry, protein structure determination, and cheminformatics. By bringing these groups together under one umbrella, we were able to align activities and capabilities across multiple research sites and departments. This alignment from 2010 to 2016 resulted in an 80% expansion in the size of the department, reflecting the increase in impact due to a significant emphasis across the organization to "design first" along the entire drug discovery path from lead identification (LID) to first in human (FIH) dosing. One of the major advantages of this alignment has been the ability to access all of the data and create an adaptive approach to the overall LID to FIH pathway for any modality, significantly increasing the quality of candidates and their probability of success. In this perspective, we will discuss how we crafted a new strategy, defined the appropriate phenotype for group members, developed the right skillsets, and identified metrics for success in order to drive continuous improvement. We will not focus on the tactical implementation, only giving specific examples as appropriate.

  6. The evolution of drug design at Merck Research Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank K.; Sherer, Edward C.; Johnson, Scott A.; Holloway, M. Katharine; Sherborne, Bradley S.

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 1981, Fortune magazine published a cover article entitled the "Next Industrial Revolution: Designing Drugs by Computer at Merck". With a 40+ year investment, we have been in the drug design business longer than most. During its history, the Merck drug design group has had several names, but it has always been in the "design" business, with the ultimate goal to provide an actionable hypothesis that could be tested experimentally. Often the result was a small molecule but it could just as easily be a peptide, biologic, predictive model, reaction, process, etc. To this end, the concept of design is now front and center in all aspects of discovery, safety assessment and early clinical development. At present, the Merck design group includes computational chemistry, protein structure determination, and cheminformatics. By bringing these groups together under one umbrella, we were able to align activities and capabilities across multiple research sites and departments. This alignment from 2010 to 2016 resulted in an 80% expansion in the size of the department, reflecting the increase in impact due to a significant emphasis across the organization to "design first" along the entire drug discovery path from lead identification (LID) to first in human (FIH) dosing. One of the major advantages of this alignment has been the ability to access all of the data and create an adaptive approach to the overall LID to FIH pathway for any modality, significantly increasing the quality of candidates and their probability of success. In this perspective, we will discuss how we crafted a new strategy, defined the appropriate phenotype for group members, developed the right skillsets, and identified metrics for success in order to drive continuous improvement. We will not focus on the tactical implementation, only giving specific examples as appropriate.

  7. Analyzing research trends on drug safety using topic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chen

    2018-04-06

    Published drug safety data has evolved in the past decade due to scientific and technological advances in the relevant research fields. Considering that a vast amount of scientific literature has been published in this area, it is not easy to identify the key information. Topic modeling has emerged as a powerful tool to extract meaningful information from a large volume of unstructured texts. Areas covered: We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 4347 articles in four journals dedicated to drug safety from 2007 to 2016. We applied Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model to extract 50 main topics, and conducted trend analysis to explore the temporal popularity of these topics over years. Expert Opinion/Commentary: We found that 'benefit-risk assessment and communication', 'diabetes' and 'biologic therapy for autoimmune diseases' are the top 3 most published topics. The topics relevant to the use of electronic health records/observational data for safety surveillance are becoming increasingly popular over time. Meanwhile, there is a slight decrease in research on signal detection based on spontaneous reporting, although spontaneous reporting still plays an important role in benefit-risk assessment. The topics related to medical conditions and treatment showed highly dynamic patterns over time.

  8. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  9. Effectiveness of fully documented fisheries to estimate discards in a participatory research scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Ulrich, Clara; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge for fisheries science and management is the access to reliable and verifiable catch data. In science, the challenge is to collect reliable, precise and traceable data to provide sound advice. In management, the challenge is that catch documentation is necessary to enforce regulati......A key challenge for fisheries science and management is the access to reliable and verifiable catch data. In science, the challenge is to collect reliable, precise and traceable data to provide sound advice. In management, the challenge is that catch documentation is necessary to enforce...

  10. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  11. Canadian safeguards research and development in support of the IAEA program document outlining the various tasks which comprise the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Canada has established a safeguards research and development program, the purpose of which is to supplement the resources of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The program of support is a coordinated effort for the development and application of safeguards techniques and instruments to facilities safeguarded by the IAEA. This document sets forth those tasks which comprise the program

  12. Research on drug abuse and addiction treatment in prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Kljajević Srđan

    2017-01-01

    The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...

  13. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to...

  14. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  15. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat Chaveerach; Runglawan Sudmoon; Tawatchai Tanee

    2017-01-01

    Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made,simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs.The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas,such as foods,traditional medicine,fragrances and seasonings.Then those data will be associated with scientific researches,namely plant collection and identification,phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,pharmacological study/review for their functions,and finally safety and efficiency tests in human.For safety testing,in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed.When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses,then,the potential medicinal natural products will be produced.Based on these procedures,the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties.Thus,the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  16. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Baranowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient’s compliance.

  17. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  18. Video research: documenting and learning from HIV and AIDS communication strategies for social change in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Decosas, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic landscape of global communications continually presents new challenges for the design and analysis of media and communication within international development projects. This Masters project uses video and web technology to document, explore and extend the role of communication in a CIDA funded HIV and AIDS stigma reduction project in Ghana, West Africa. The project includes a documentary video entitled: The Challenge of Stigma, Reflections on community education as a pathway to ch...

  19. The role of the document delivery service at an evolving research library in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayakumar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Design/methodology/approach – To collect the responses of document delivery service users, an online questionnaire was used with 12 multiple-choice questions and two open-ended questions. The questionnaires were sent only to the users of this service, and the responses were collected anonymously. Two surveys were conducted, in 2010 and 2013, with the same questions. The responses are displayed graphically prepared to compare the results. There were 71 responses in 2010 and 95 in 2013. Findings – In both surveys, the majority of users rated the service, staff behaviour, speed, quality, etc. with a high satisfaction level. Document delivery order statistics are a major decision-making tool, in addition to usage analysis, for developing a better, economical and highly utilized collection in brand new libraries. delivery order statistics are a major decision-making tool, in addition to usage analysis, for developing a better, economical and highly utilized collection in brand new libraries. Originality/value – This is the first published study of user perception of document delivery in Saudi Arabia.

  20. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus-Based Checklist to Define Clinical Documentation Tools for Both Routine and Research Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Veraar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To the best of our knowledge, a strategic approach to define the contents of structured clinical documentation tools for both clinical routine patient care and research purposes has not been reported so far, although electronic health record will become more and more structured and detailed in the future. Objective: To achieve an interdisciplinary consensus on a checklist to be considered for the preparation of disease- and situation-specific clinical documentation tools. Methods: A 2-round Delphi consensus-based process was conducted both with 19 physicians of different disciplines and 14 students from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany. Agreement was defined as 80% or more positive votes of the participants. Results: The participants agreed that a working group should be set up for the development of structured disease- or situation-specific documentation tools (97% agreement. The final checklist included 4 recommendations concerning the setup of the working group, 12 content-related recommendations, and 3 general and technical recommendations (mean agreement [standard deviation] = 97.4% [4.0%], ranging from 84.2% to 100.0%. Discussion and Conclusion: In the future, disease- and situation-specific structured documentation tools will provide an important bridge between registries and electronic health records. Clinical documentation tools defined according to this Delphi consensus-based checklist will provide data for registries while serving as high-quality data acquisition tools in routine clinical care.

  2. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  3. Swedish deep repository siting programme. Guide to the documentation of 25 years of geoscientific research (1976-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Alan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out geoscientific research and feasibility studies aimed at identifying suitable sites for deep repositories in the Precambrian basement of the Baltic Shield. The documentation of this research effort forms an extensive body of material which is exceptionally wide-ranging and which is generally little known outside the Swedish nuclear waste community. This has now been compiled in the form of a 'documentation guide' in order to make the research results more easily accessible to the scientific community at large, and to show how they relate to their 'nearest surroundings', i.e. the relevant academic scientific literature and the documentation of similar research by other institutions, in Sweden and in other countries (Finland, Canada). The documentation covers the period 1976-2000 and contains ca. 850 citations, of which about half are technical reports published by SKB and its forerunners. In the main body of the guide (Chapters 2-9), the material is arranged thematically and the scope of the documentation in each theme is described and commented in short texts, showing the interrelationships between the individual reports and scientific papers, with appropriate cross-references. Early chapters (2-5, and 7) cover general themes: bedrock geology, fracturing, glaciation and crustal dynamics, deep groundwater, and geosphere transport, each subdivided into citation groups under headings which are of particular interest to the Swedish deep repository siting programme. Later chapters (6, and 8-9) include thumbnail sketches of the Swedish study sites (Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Kamlunge, Klipperaas, Sternoe), the underground laboratory sites of Stripa and Aespoe, and comparable sites in Finland and Canada, as well as the complete documentation to the feasibility studies carried out in eight Swedish municipalities between 1993 and 2000 (Storuman

  4. Swedish deep repository siting programme. Guide to the documentation of 25 years of geoscientific research (1976-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, Alan Geoffrey

    2002-03-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out geoscientific research and feasibility studies aimed at identifying suitable sites for deep repositories in the Precambrian basement of the Baltic Shield. The documentation of this research effort forms an extensive body of material which is exceptionally wide-ranging and which is generally little known outside the Swedish nuclear waste community. This has now been compiled in the form of a 'documentation guide' in order to make the research results more easily accessible to the scientific community at large, and to show how they relate to their 'nearest surroundings', i.e. the relevant academic scientific literature and the documentation of similar research by other institutions, in Sweden and in other countries (Finland, Canada). The documentation covers the period 1976-2000 and contains ca. 850 citations, of which about half are technical reports published by SKB and its forerunners. In the main body of the guide (Chapters 2-9), the material is arranged thematically and the scope of the documentation in each theme is described and commented in short texts, showing the interrelationships between the individual reports and scientific papers, with appropriate cross-references. Early chapters (2-5, and 7) cover general themes: bedrock geology, fracturing, glaciation and crustal dynamics, deep groundwater, and geosphere transport, each subdivided into citation groups under headings which are of particular interest to the Swedish deep repository siting programme. Later chapters (6, and 8-9) include thumbnail sketches of the Swedish study sites (Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Kamlunge, Klipperaas, Sternoe), the underground laboratory sites of Stripa and Aespoe, and comparable sites in Finland and Canada, as well as the complete documentation to the feasibility studies carried out in eight Swedish municipalities between 1993 and 2000 (Storuman, Malaa, Nykoeping

  5. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  6. Announced document collection of the 3rd information exchange meeting on radioactive waste disposal research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The 3rd meeting on 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was held at the Ricotti techno community square of JAEA on September 3 and 4, 2007. The 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was established in Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program under academic collaborative agreement between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tokyo. The objective is to bring both research infrastructures and human expertise in Japan to an adequate performance level, thereby contributing to the development of the fundamental research area in the field of radioactive waste disposal. This lecture material is a collection of presentations and discussions during the information exchange meeting. (author)

  7. 42 CFR 2a.5 - Contents of application; research projects in which drugs will be administered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... application; research projects in which drugs will be administered. (a) In addition to the information... drug shall contain: (1) Identification of the drugs to be administered in the research project and a... project will be conducted. (b) An application for an authorization of confidentiality with respect to a...

  8. [Research Progress on Forensic Toxicology of Z-drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-zhi; He, Hong-yuan; She, Cai-meng; Lian, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The Z-drugs (zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon), as the innovative hypnotics, have an improvement over the traditional benzodiazepines in the management of insomnia. Z-drugs have significant hypnotic effects by reducing sleep latency and improving sleep quality, though duration of sleep may not be significantly increased. As benzodiazepines, Z-drugs exert their effects through increasing the transmission of γ-aminobutyric acid. Z-drugs overdose are less likely to be fatal, more likely would result in poisoning. Z-drugs can be detected in blood, urine, saliva, and other postmortem specimens through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Zolpidem and zaleplon exhibit significant postmortem redistribution. Z-drugs have improved pharmacokinetic profiles, but incidence of neuropsychiatric sequelae, poisoning, and death may prove to be similar to the other hypnotics. This review focuses on the pharmacology and toxicology of Z-drugs with respect to their adverse effect profile and toxicity and toxicology data in the field of forensic medicine.

  9. Documentation on the interlinked sponsorship programme of the BMFT for basic research in the natural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The reports from the individual research teams working at various places in Germany show their particular achievements on the one hand, and at the same time illustrate the effectiveness of the interlinked sponsorship concept adopted by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology (BMFT). There is an annex giving statistical data on the scope and organisation of state sponsorship of basic research bound to large-scale research equipment. (DG) [de

  10. "Clustering" Documents Automatically to Support Scoping Reviews of Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James; Kavanagh, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scoping reviews of research help determine the feasibility and the resource requirements of conducting a systematic review, and the potential to generate a description of the literature quickly is attractive. Aims: To test the utility and applicability of an automated clustering tool to describe and group research studies to improve…

  11. The Starkey habitat database for ungulate research: construction, documentation, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Priscilla K. Coe; Rosemary J. Stussy; [and others].

    1998-01-01

    The Starkey Project, a large-scale, multidisciplinary research venture, began in 1987 in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. Researchers are studying effects of forest management on interactions and habitat use of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle. A...

  12. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  13. Research and Engagement Strategies for Young Adult Immigrants Without Documentation: Lessons Learned Through Community Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Flesch, Marissa; Siemons, Rachel; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has focused on undocumented immigrants' health and access to care. This paper describes participant engagement strategies used to investigate the health needs of immigrants eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). Community-based strategies engaged advocates and undocumented Californians in study design and recruitment. Outreach in diverse settings, social media, and participant-driven sampling recruited 61 DACA-eligible focus group participants. Social media, community-based organizations (CBOs), family members, advocacy groups, and participant-driven sampling were the most successful recruitment strategies. Participants felt engaging in research was instrumental for sharing their concerns with health care providers and policymakers, noteworthy in light of their previously identified fears and mistrust of government officials. Using multiple culturally responsive strategies including participant-driven sampling, engagement with CBOs, and use of social media, those eligible for DACA eagerly engage as research participants. Educating researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) about legal and safety concerns can improve research engagement.

  14. Research on drug abuse and addiction treatment in prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajević Srđan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by inmates. There are different theoretical approaches in explaining this phenomenon. Treatment programs based on empirically validated principles that guarantee the effectiveness, may be one strategy for solving the problem of drug abuse in prisons, with multiple positive effects.

  15. [Guidelines given by several international documents to the Italian legislation on bioethics in scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G

    2001-01-01

    Moving from the most recent progresses in some address international acts on bioethics of the research, the Convention of human rights and biomedicine and La declaration universelle sur le génome humain e les droits de l'homme, this paper describes the legislative acts which regard many aspects of theoretical and practical scientific research, both in the Italian national and supra-national fields. This legislation concerns mainly the following topics: rights of the human subjects of research, informed consent, privacy on the personal data, activity on organ transplantation, research in genetics, activity in the field of treatment of human gametes and embrios. The author here quotes these legislative acts referring briefly to national and international laws.

  16. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  17. Sewage epidemiology and illicit drug research: the development of ethical research guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Jeremy; Hall, Wayne; de Voogt, Pim; Zuccato, Ettore

    2014-02-15

    To discuss the need to develop ethical guidelines for researchers using sewage epidemiology to monitor drug use in the general population and specific precincts, including prisons, schools and workplaces. Describe current applications of sewage epidemiology, identify potential ethical risks associated with this science, and identify key means by which these risks may be mitigated through proportionate ethical guidance that allows this science to be fully developed. A rapidly advancing field of research is sewage epidemiology (SE) - the analysis of wastewater samples to monitor illicit drug use and other substances. Typically this research involves low ethical risks because individual participants cannot be identified and, consequently, review has been waived by human research ethics committees. In the absence of such oversight, ethical research guidelines are recommended for SE teams, peer reviewers and journal editors; guidelines will assist them to mitigate any risks in general population studies and studies of prisons, schools and workplaces. Potential harms include the stigmatisation of participants and, in the prison setting, austere policy responses to SE data that impact negatively upon inmate-participants. The risk of harm can be managed through research planning, awareness of the socio-political context in which results will be interpreted (or, in the case of media, sensationalised) and careful relations with industry partners. Ethical guidelines should be developed in consultation with SE scholars and be periodically amended. They should include publication processes that safeguard scientific rigour and be promulgated through existing research governance structures. Guidelines will assist to promote an ethical research culture among SE teams and scholars involved in the publication process and this will work to protect the reputation of the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Chilet-Rosell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is part of the studies of gender bias in health which together with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine shares the empirical assumption that there are inaccuracies in medical practice, in addition to a lack of rigour and transparency. It worked with the distinction between the concepts of sex and gender and between the concepts of sex-related differences and gender inequalities, in terms of applying a gender perspective in the study design and the subsequent analysis. This PhD review presents the research process conducted in Spain, which can provide an example for future research. Study I described a review of 58 clinical trials (CTs of etoricoxib to assess its compliance with the Recommendations of Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. In Study II, key informants from professions related to different areas in drug development and pharmacovigilance held a working meeting to reach a consensus document on recommendations for the study and evaluation of gender differences in CTs in Spain. In Study III, the websites of the eight best-selling hormone replacement therapy drugs in Spain on Google first page of results were analysed. In Study IV, a logistic regression analysis was performed to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a higher or lower Gender Development Index (GDI than the Spanish average. Gender biases identified in this thesis limited the legitimacy of medicine, which is not based on the best possible evidence. The results also demonstrate the existence of inequalities between men and women that are not due merely to biological differences, but are gender inequalities stemming from the social differences that exist between both sexes.

  19. Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the studies of gender bias in health which together with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine shares the empirical assumption that there are inaccuracies in medical practice, in addition to a lack of rigour and transparency. It worked with the distinction between the concepts of sex and gender and between the concepts of sex-related differences and gender inequalities, in terms of applying a gender perspective in the study design and the subsequent analysis. This PhD review presents the research process conducted in Spain, which can provide an example for future research. Study I described a review of 58 clinical trials (CTs) of etoricoxib to assess its compliance with the Recommendations of Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. In Study II, key informants from professions related to different areas in drug development and pharmacovigilance held a working meeting to reach a consensus document on recommendations for the study and evaluation of gender differences in CTs in Spain. In Study III, the websites of the eight best-selling hormone replacement therapy drugs in Spain on Google first page of results were analysed. In Study IV, a logistic regression analysis was performed to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a higher or lower Gender Development Index (GDI) than the Spanish average. Gender biases identified in this thesis limited the legitimacy of medicine, which is not based on the best possible evidence. The results also demonstrate the existence of inequalities between men and women that are not due merely to biological differences, but are gender inequalities stemming from the social differences that exist between both sexes.

  20. Metric Documentation of Cultural Heritage: Research Directions from the Italian Gamher Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitelli, G.; Balletti, C.; Brumana, R.; Barazzetti, L.; D'Urso, M. G.; Rinaudo, F.; Tucci, G.

    2017-08-01

    GAMHer is a collaborative project that aims at exploiting and validating Geomatics algorithms, methodologies and procedures in the framework of new European regulations, which require a more extensive and productive use of digital information, as requested by the Digital Agenda for Europe as one of the seven pillars of the Europe 2020 Strategy. To this aim, GAMHer focuses on the need of a certified accuracy for surveying and monitoring projects with photogrammetry and laser scanning technologies, especially when used in a multiscale approach for landscape and built heritage documentation, conservation, and management. The approach used follows a multi-LoD (level of detail) transition that exploits GIS systems at the landscape scale, BIM technology and "point cloud based" 3d modelling for the scale of the building, and an innovative BIM/GIS integrated approach to foster innovation, promote users' collaboration and encourage communication between users. The outcomes of GAMHer are not intended to be used only by a community of Geomatics specialists, but also by a heterogeneous user community that exploit images and laser scans in their professional activities.

  1. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  2. METRIC DOCUMENTATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE: RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FROM THE ITALIAN GAMHER PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bitelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available GAMHer is a collaborative project that aims at exploiting and validating Geomatics algorithms, methodologies and procedures in the framework of new European regulations, which require a more extensive and productive use of digital information, as requested by the Digital Agenda for Europe as one of the seven pillars of the Europe 2020 Strategy. To this aim, GAMHer focuses on the need of a certified accuracy for surveying and monitoring projects with photogrammetry and laser scanning technologies, especially when used in a multiscale approach for landscape and built heritage documentation, conservation, and management. The approach used follows a multi-LoD (level of detail transition that exploits GIS systems at the landscape scale, BIM technology and “point cloud based” 3d modelling for the scale of the building, and an innovative BIM/GIS integrated approach to foster innovation, promote users’ collaboration and encourage communication between users. The outcomes of GAMHer are not intended to be used only by a community of Geomatics specialists, but also by a heterogeneous user community that exploit images and laser scans in their professional activities.

  3. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  4. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project investigation program for the 2007 fiscal year (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Nakayama, Masashi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takehiro

    2008-09-01

    As past of the research and development program on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the Midterm Plan of JAEA, geological investigations are to be carried out during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth, while research and development in the areas of engineering technology and safety assessment are to be promoted by collaboration with other research organizations. The results of the R and D activities will be systematized as a 'knowledge base' that supports a wide range of arguments related to the safety of geological disposal. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2007 fiscal year (2007/2008), the third year of the Phase 2 investigations. In the 2007 fiscal year, investigations in geoscientific research', including 'development of techniques for investigating the geological environment', 'development of techniques for use in the deep underground environment' and 'studies on the long-term stability of the geological environment', is continuously carried out. Investigations in 'research and development on geological disposal technology', including improving the reliability of disposal technologies' and 'enhancement of safety assessment methodologies' are also continuously carried out. Construction of the underground facilities is ongoing at the Ventilation Shaft and the East Shaft

  5. Drug and alcohol crash risk : traffic safety facts : research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While the extent of use of alcohol by drivers and the risks posed by alcohol use have been well known for many decades, relatively little has been known about the use of other drugs by drivers and the associated risks. However, drug-impaired driving ...

  6. Ethical issues in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Rose, Scott M; Metzger, David

    2014-04-01

    Injection drug use continues to significantly contribute to new infections with HIV. Moreover, conducting HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs (PWIDs) can be complicated for an array of practical, social, legal, and ethical reasons. It is critical that these research efforts are sensitive to the particular vulnerabilities associated with injection drug use as well as those related to being at risk of acquiring HIV so as to minimize harm to participants in research. To describe how we addressed some of these ethical challenges during the course of a large-scale multinational randomized HIV prevention trial involving PWIDs, which was successfully completed. The ethical issues encountered during the life cycle of the trial were cataloged by the principal investigator, study coordinator, and ethicist working on the trial. Relevant study documents were then reviewed to provide pertinent details. The ethical issues unique to the trial were then described. Before implementation, the trial faced particularly complex challenges related to the vulnerability of PWIDs, where HIV seroincidence rates in the population were high and legal policies and stigma regarding injection drug use was severe. Accordingly, a rapid policy assessment was commissioned, and a series of community engagement activities were conducted. During the trial, in addition to using careful standard operating procedures regarding all aspects of trial conduct and extensive staff training, the trial standardized informed consent procedures and assessed them. Furthermore, social harms were monitored along with physical harms and adverse events. Following the decision to close the study, it was critical to develop an orderly and safe process for closing it. The issue of post-trial access to the study medication and a complex intervention also surfaced for consideration. The issues described in this article are necessarily limited to how they manifested themselves within the context of a

  7. Guidelines for the review research reactor safety. Reference document for IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the IAEA published new safety standards for research reactors as part of the set of publications considered by its Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP). This set also includes publications giving guidance for all safety aspects related to the lifetime of a research reactor. In addition, the IAEA has also revised the Safety Standards for radiation protection. Consequently, it was considered advisable to revise the Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) procedures to incorporate the new requirements and guidance as well as to extend the scope of the safety reviews to currently operating research reactors. The present report is the result of this revision. The purpose of this report is to give guidance on the preparation, execution, reporting and follow-up of safety review mission to research reactors as conducted by the IAEA under its INSARR missions safety service. However, it will also be of assistance to operators and regulators in conducting: (a) ad hoc safety assessments of research reactors to address individual issues such as ageing or safety culture; and (b) other types of safety reviews such as internal and peer reviews and regulatory inspections

  8. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (Bertrand); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); F. Rodeghiero (Francesco); G. Salles (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa (Jan Jacob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European

  9. Derivation of Performance Statements for the Automotive Mechanics Basic Trade Course: Research Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. P.; Kuhl, D. H.

    A project was conducted to derive a comprehensive list of the performances of a competence mechanic to satisfy the planning needs of automotive engineering lecturers, curriculum committees, researchers, course designers, and staff developers. A list of 127 tasks together with information about their relative importance and the frequency with which…

  10. Using community-based participatory research principles to develop more understandable recruitment and informed consent documents in genomic research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlyn G Skinner

    Full Text Available Heart Healthy Lenoir is a transdisciplinary project aimed at creating long-term, sustainable approaches to reduce cardiovascular disease risk disparities in Lenoir County, North Carolina using a design spanning genomic analysis and clinical intervention. We hypothesized that residents of Lenoir County would be unfamiliar and mistrustful of genomic research, and therefore reluctant to participate; additionally, these feelings would be higher in African-Americans.To test our hypothesis, we conducted qualitative research using community-based participatory research principles to ensure our genomic research strategies addressed the needs, priorities, and concerns of the community. African-American (n = 19 and White (n = 16 adults in Lenoir County participated in four focus groups exploring perceptions about genomics and cardiovascular disease. Demographic surveys were administered and a semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate discussions. The discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti.From our analysis, key themes emerged: transparent communication, privacy, participation incentives and barriers, knowledge, and the impact of knowing. African-Americans were more concerned about privacy and community impact compared to Whites, however, African-Americans were still eager to participate in our genomic research project. The results from our formative study were used to improve the informed consent and recruitment processes by: 1 reducing misconceptions of genomic studies; and 2 helping to foster participant understanding and trust with the researchers. Our study demonstrates how community-based participatory research principles can be used to gain deeper insight into the community and increase participation in genomic research studies. Due in part to these efforts 80.3% of eligible African-American participants and 86.9% of eligible White participants enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Genomics

  11. Article Commentary: Researching Prescription Drug Misuse among First Nations in Canada: Starting from a Health Promotion Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Anne Dell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intentional misuse of psychotropic drugs is recognized as a significant public health concern in Canada, although there is a lack of empirical research detailing this. Even less research has been documented on the misuse of prescription drugs among First Nations in Canada. In the past, Western biomedical and individual-based approaches to researching Indigenous health have been applied, whereas First Nations’ understandings of health are founded on a holistic view of wellbeing. Recognition of this disjuncture, alongside the protective influence of First Nations traditional culture, is foundational to establishing an empirical understanding of and comprehensive response to prescription drug misuse. We propose health promotion as a framework from which to begin to explore this. Our work with a health promotion framework has conveyed its potential to support the consideration of Western and Indigenous worldviews together in an ‘ethical space’, with illustrations provided. Health promotion also allots for the consideration of Canada's colonial history of knowledge production in public health and supports First Nations’ self-determination. Based on this, we recommend three immediate ways in which a health promotion framework can advance research on prescription drug misuse among First Nations in Canada.

  12. Performing Drug Safety Research During Pregnancy and Lactation: Biomedical HIV Prevention Research as a Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Richard H; Noguchi, Lisa; Brown, Gina; Piper, Jeanna; Watts, D Heather

    2016-07-01

    Evidence-based guidance regarding use of nearly all pharmaceuticals by pregnant and lactating women is limited. Models for performing research may assist in filling these knowledge gaps. Internationally, reproductive age women are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Susceptibility to HIV infection may be increased during pregnancy, and risk of maternal-child transmission is increased with incident HIV infection during pregnancy and lactation. A multidisciplinary meeting of experts was convened at the United States National Institutes of Health to consider paradigms for drug research in pregnancy and lactation applicable to HIV prevention. This report summarizes the meeting proceedings and describes a framework for research on candidate HIV prevention agent use during pregnancy and lactation that may also have broader applications to other pharmaceutical products.

  13. Documenting the invisible – on the ‘how’ of process research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Eva Holdflod

    2017-01-01

    scholars, this has been an occasion for deeming the discipline of methodology ‘dead’ or ‘emptied’. In contrast to such claims, this article argues that the scholar doing empirical research from approaches drawing on process philosophy to no less extent than other scholars must deal with problems...... to think from. The article suggests that process philosophy may open up a methodological thinking that has room for a more connotative, playful way of relating to research material – which does not demand from a method to overcome the gap between what is there and what is captured but makes use of this gap......Currently, there is a growing field in organization studies, reflecting a stream in social science more broadly, which seeks to encompass a process philosophical view of the world as multiple and in constant becoming. However, this raises new questions and challenges to the field of methodology...

  14. Electronic Engineering Notebook: A software environment for research execution, documentation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerder, Dan

    1994-01-01

    The electronic engineering notebook (EEN) consists of a free form research notebook, implemented in a commercial package for distributed hypermedia, which includes utilities for graphics capture, formatting and display of LaTex constructs, and interfaces to the host operating system. The latter capability consists of an information computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool and a means to associate executable scripts with source objects. The EEN runs on Sun and HP workstations. The EEN, in day-to-day use can be used in much the same manner as the sort of research notes most researchers keep during development of projects. Graphics can be pasted in, equations can be entered via LaTex, etc. In addition, the fact that the EEN is hypermedia permits easy management of 'context', e.g., derivations and data can contain easily formed links to other supporting derivations and data. The CASE tool also permits development and maintenance of source code directly in the notebook, with access to its derivations and data.

  15. The ethics of HIV research with people who inject drugs in Africa: a desk review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole

    2012-03-01

    Injecting drug use is a growing problem in Africa and a growing risk factor for contracting HIV in the region. It is imperative that HIV research includes injecting drug users so that they too are able to benefit from safe and effective behavioural interventions and biomedical HIV prevention and treatment products. This article relates a critical review of the findings of a desk review of previously published literature. The article examines injecting drug use in relation to HIV-related risk and research in Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania. The ethical challenges of including people who inject drugs in HIV research in Africa are also presented. The review found injecting drug use to be on the increase in all the countries reviewed. HIV-risk behaviour among people who inject drugs, such as needle-sharing and higher-risk sexual behaviour, was also found to be widespread. Furthermore, criminalisation of drug use and strict anti-drug laws are common in the countries reviewed, while harm-reduction programmes for people who inject drugs were found to be limited. The review identified a number of ethical challenges to the involvement of people who inject drugs in HIV research in Africa. This includes the illegal status and stigma surrounding injecting drug use, which may complicate participant recruitment, enrolment and retention. In addition, a lack of funding for supportive programmes to help injecting drug users may hinder the provision of appropriate standards of prevention and care and treatment for those who seroconvert.

  16. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Ouest Africain de Pharmacologie et de Recherche sur les Médicaments) Papers on all aspects of drug action and related topics including chemotherapy and toxicology will be considered for publication.

  17. Research Article Antimalarial Drugs for Pediatrics - Prescribing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-03-23

    Mar 23, 2011 ... is a need to institute measures to ensure rational prescribing, dispensing and use of antimalarial drugs in pediatrics. ... facilities, strategies to control behaviour in the private sector are ..... changes were implemented in 2006 in.

  18. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom: a discussion document. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for the future planning of United Kingdom research and development in energy technologies. It contains the first steps in the formulation of a national energy R and D strategy. Decision on energy R and D must be taken in the light of the overall aims of energy policies. The main objectives of energy policy are to meet the energy needs of the country at minimum cost in real resources over time, while paying due regard to security of supply, to public safety, to protection of the environment and, where major change is in prospect, to the social consequences of change.

  19. Research and nuclear wastes. An interdisciplinary reflection, document collective risk and crisis situation, no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, C.

    2006-01-01

    During the year 2005, scientists discussed and exchanged their point of view on the forecast of the nuclear wastes. Then a seminar took place during summer 2005 on the ''contribution to the debate on the nuclear wastes management future''. This synthesis aims to present the exchanges of this seminar, grouped around 8 main questions: Have the spent fuel to be reprocessing? Is the geological disposal imperative? The reversibility? The transmutation? Is ''the open research'' on wastes, a necessity, an alibi or a problem? The public anxiety or the anxiety of the public? Can we debate on the nuclear wastes regardless of the nuclear program choice? (A.L.B.)

  20. Synthesized research report in the second mid-term research phase. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project, Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project and geo-stability project (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Katsuhiro; Sasao, Eiji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Onoe, Hironori; Sato, Toshinori; Yasue, Kenichi; Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Osawa, Hideaki; Nagae, Isako; Natsuyama, Ryoko; Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nakayama, Masashi; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ito, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Takuya; Senba, Takeshi; Amano, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We have synthesized the research results from the Mizunami/Horonobe Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) and geo-stability projects in the second mid-term research phase. This report can be used as a technical basis for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan/Regulator at each decision point from siting to beginning of disposal (Principal Investigation to Detailed Investigation Phase). High-quality construction techniques and field investigation methods have been developed and implemented, which will be directly applicable to the National Disposal Program (together with general assessments of hazardous natural events and processes). Acquisition of technical knowledge on decisions of partial backfilling and final closure from actual field experiments in the Mizunami/Horonobe URLs will be crucial as the main theme for the next phases. (author)

  1. Documenting the emergence of bio-ontologies: or, why researching bioinformatics requires HPSSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects on the analytic challenges emerging from the study of bioinformatic tools recently created to store and disseminate biological data, such as databases, repositories, and bio-ontologies. I focus my discussion on the Gene Ontology, a term that defines three entities at once: a classification system facilitating the distribution and use of genomic data as evidence towards new insights; an expert community specialised in the curation of those data; and a scientific institution promoting the use of this tool among experimental biologists. These three dimensions of the Gene Ontology can be clearly distinguished analytically, but are tightly intertwined in practice. I suggest that this is true of all bioinformatic tools: they need to be understood simultaneously as epistemic, social, and institutional entities, since they shape the knowledge extracted from data and at the same time regulate the organisation, development, and communication of research. This viewpoint has one important implication for the methodologies used to study these tools; that is, the need to integrate historical, philosophical, and sociological approaches. I illustrate this claim through examples of misunderstandings that may result from a narrowly disciplinary study of the Gene Ontology, as I experienced them in my own research.

  2. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  3. Structured clinical documentation in the electronic medical record to improve quality and to support practice-based research in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Jaishree; Dobrin, Sofia; Choi, Janet; Rubin, Susan; Pham, Anna; Patel, Vimal; Frigerio, Roberta; Maurer, Darryck; Gupta, Payal; Link, Lourdes; Walters, Shaun; Wang, Chi; Ji, Yuan; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2017-01-01

    Using the electronic medical record (EMR) to capture structured clinical data at the point of care would be a practical way to support quality improvement and practice-based research in epilepsy. We describe our stepwise process for building structured clinical documentation support tools in the EMR that define best practices in epilepsy, and we describe how we incorporated these toolkits into our clinical workflow. These tools write notes and capture hundreds of fields of data including several score tests: Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items, Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-10 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment/Short Test of Mental Status, and Medical Research Council Prognostic Index. The tools summarize brain imaging, blood laboratory, and electroencephalography results, and document neuromodulation treatments. The tools provide Best Practices Advisories and other clinical decision support when appropriate. The tools prompt enrollment in a DNA biobanking study. We have thus far enrolled 231 patients for initial visits and are starting our first annual follow-up visits and provide a brief description of our cohort. We are sharing these EMR tools and captured data with other epilepsy clinics as part of a Neurology Practice Based Research Network, and are using the tools to conduct pragmatic trials using subgroup-based adaptive designs. © 2016 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. An Integrated Management System (IMS) for JM-1 SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor in Jamaica: experiences in documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first criticality in March 1984, the Jamaica SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor at the University of the West Indies, Mona located in the department of the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS) has operated for approximately 52% of the lifetime of the existing core configuration. The 20kW pool type research reactor has been primarily used for neutron activation analysis in environmental, agricultural, geochemical, health-related studies and mineral exploration in Jamaica. The involvement of the JM-1 reactor for research and teaching activities has segued into commercial applications which, coupled with the current core conversion programme from HEU to LEU, has demanded the implementation of management systems to satisfy regulatory requirements and assure compliance with internationally defined quality standards. At ICENS, documentation related to the Quality Management System aspect of an Integrated Management System (IMS) is well underway. The quality system will incorporate operational and nuclear safety, training, maintenance, design, utilization, occupational health and safety, quality service, and environmental management for its Nuclear Analytical Laboratory, NAL. The IMS is being designed to meet the requirements of the IAEA GS-R-3 with additional controls from international standards including: ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007. This paper reports on the experiences of the documentation process in a low power reactor facility characterized by limited human resource, where innovative mechanisms of system automation and modeling are included to increase productivity and efficiency. (author)

  5. An Integrated Management System (IMS) for JM-1 SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor in Jamaica: experiences in documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, T., E-mail: traceyann.warner02@uwimona.edu.jm [Univ. of West Indies, Mona (Jamaica)

    2014-07-01

    Since the first criticality in March 1984, the Jamaica SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor at the University of the West Indies, Mona located in the department of the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS) has operated for approximately 52% of the lifetime of the existing core configuration. The 20kW pool type research reactor has been primarily used for neutron activation analysis in environmental, agricultural, geochemical, health-related studies and mineral exploration in Jamaica. The involvement of the JM-1 reactor for research and teaching activities has segued into commercial applications which, coupled with the current core conversion programme from HEU to LEU, has demanded the implementation of management systems to satisfy regulatory requirements and assure compliance with internationally defined quality standards. At ICENS, documentation related to the Quality Management System aspect of an Integrated Management System (IMS) is well underway. The quality system will incorporate operational and nuclear safety, training, maintenance, design, utilization, occupational health and safety, quality service, and environmental management for its Nuclear Analytical Laboratory, NAL. The IMS is being designed to meet the requirements of the IAEA GS-R-3 with additional controls from international standards including: ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007. This paper reports on the experiences of the documentation process in a low power reactor facility characterized by limited human resource, where innovative mechanisms of system automation and modeling are included to increase productivity and efficiency. (author)

  6. Experimental conditions and monitoring items of the prototype repository project (PRP). Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Kawakami, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    Various experiments are ongoing in the underground research facility 'the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL)' of SKB in Sweden for the geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste. International joint project Prototype Repository Project (PRP) is one of the experiments in the HRL which has some engineered barrier systems and to study the coupled behavior happening in and around the engineered barrier system. JNC has joined this international joint project PRP to obtain the information of the coupled behavior on such systematic engineered barrier system and to apply the JNC's coupled THMC analytical code to the prediction and back analysis of the PRP. The analytical code will be verified through these analyses in this project. JNC can apply the verified analytical code to assess the coupled behavior in Japan. This report summarizes the experimental conditions and monitoring items of the PRP. (author)

  7. Directory of guidance documents relating to biodiversity and cultural knowledge research and prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churcher, T. [comp.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geography]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Biodiversity in both developing and developed countries has been accessed for a long time by local communities as well as by outside researchers and corporate prospectors. Such activities are carried out for various purposes. Sometimes plants, animals and habitats are merely described, other times the goal is to extract for profit. These activities have helped to advance knowledge and create awareness of how precious biodiversity is. These activities have also generated many products that contribute to the health and well-being of global consumers, but may not necessarily provide benefits to their original stewards. Research has also focused attention on particular features of biodiversity. Biodiversity has been conserved, both by local community traditions, and by more formal means, with varying degree of effectiveness. One recently proposed means is the Convention on Biological Diversity. That convention has been ratified by large number of countries and has stimulated global concern over this issue. It has provided a framework for conserving biodiversity. At the same time many local communities, NGOs and people`s organizations are advancing alternative ways to conserve biodiversity and cultural diversity. In many places, the conservation of biodiversity and the protection of cultural diversity are inescapably intertwined. Despite strong links between biodiversity and the land and the water management traditions of the 6000 linguistically distinct cultures, the Convention on Biological Diversity focuses on nation-state sovereignty over biodiversity. We believe that local communities should have greater say in whether and how biodiversity is studied, extracted and commercialized. We consider prior informed consent to be a necessary requirement of such explorations, as is equitable sharing of any benefits arising from them.

  8. Mídia e drogas: análise documental da mídia escrita brasileira sobre o tema entre 1999 e 2003 Media and drugs: a documental analysis of the Brazilian writing media between 1999 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Mota Ronzani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca analisar os conteúdos que a mídia escrita brasileira apresenta sobre drogas. Foram pesquisados artigos sobre drogas em uma revista de circulação nacional, entre 1999 e 2003, através de análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados 481 artigos. A subcategoria "consumo" foi a mais abordada, sendo as drogas mais citadas: cocaína (21%, maconha (19%, álcool (12% e cigarro (12%. Quanto à categoria "saúde", o cigarro apresentou 57% dos artigos relacionados aos "malefícios do uso", enquanto o álcool foi caracterizado pela ambivalência (ocorrências iguais para benefícios e malefícios e associado à dependência (23%; no tocante à cocaína, mais ocorrências relacionaram-se ao tráfico (30%. De modo geral, a cocaína e a maconha receberam destaque da mídia, enquanto o álcool e solventes tiveram pouco destaque em comparação aos dados epidemiológicos de uso. Percebe-se que existe uma incompatibilidade entre o enfoque da mídia e o consumo de drogas no Brasil, fato que pode influenciar as crenças das pessoas sobre determinadas substâncias e as políticas públicas sobre drogas no Brasil.This paper aims to analyze the kind of information published by the Brazilian "written media" about drugs. It was examined articles about drugs in a national circulation magazine between 1999 and 2003, through an analysis of content. A total of 481 articles were found. "Consumption" was the most appeared topic. The most quoted drugs were: cocaine (21%, marijuana (19%, alcoholic beverages (12% and cigarettes (12%. This research also showed that 57% of the articles were related to cigarettes, its harmful effects, whereas alcohol had the same amount of articles showing it as a good or a bad substance for the human being and considered the most addictive drug (23%. On the other hand, cocaine was related to drug dealing (30%. In general, cocaine and marijuana were in focus in the media while alcohol and solvents had less prominence considering

  9. Beyond 'Doing Gender': Incorporating Race, Class, Place, and Life Transitions into Feminist Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jody; Carbone-Lopez, Kristin

    2015-05-01

    This essay draws from our research with US rural women methamphetamine users in 2009 to offer strategies for "revisioning" the drug use(r) field to better understand the impact of gender on drug use and drug market participation. We highlight the insights and limitations of a popular strategy in feminist research that conceptualizes gender as performance- commonly referred to as "doing gender"-using illustrations from our research. We encourage scholars to move beyond a primarily normative orientation in studying gender, and investigate gendered organizational features of social life including their intersections with other aspects of social inequality such as those of race, class, and place. In addition, we suggest that feminist scholars can integrate gender in a rigorous way into theoretical perspectives that are typically inattentive to its import, as a means of challenging, enriching, and refining research on drug use, drug users, and drug market participation.

  10. Preparation of computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics (2) (Contract research, translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaki, Hiroshi; Sanda, Toshio; Ohashi, Masahisa

    2008-10-01

    To develop nuclear design of LMFBR cores, they are important subjects of research and development to improve the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores and to design highly efficient core more rationally. The adjusted nuclear cross-sections library has been made by being reflected the result of critical experiment of the JUPITER, etc. effectively as much as possible. And the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores has been achieved. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only nuclear characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. Therefore, it is thought to improve the prediction accuracy for burnup characteristics using many burnup data of 'Joyo' effectively. It is thought the best way to adjust cross sections using sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics to utilize burnup data of 'Joyo'. It is able to know the accuracy quantitatively for burnup characteristics of large LMFBR by analyzing the sensitivity coefficients. Therefore in this work computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics had been prepared since 1992. In 1992 cross-section adjustment was done by using the data of 'Joyo' and the effect was studied. In this year the adequacy of the codes was studied with a view of applying of design of large LMFBR cores. The results are as follows: (1) The computer codes which could analyze sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics taking into consideration plural cycles and refueling were prepared, therefore it came of be able to adjust cross sections using burnup data and to estimate the accuracy for design of large LMFBR cores. The characteristics are not only burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio but also number density, criticality, reactivity worth, reaction rate ratio, and reaction rate

  11. Automatic de-identification of textual documents in the electronic health record: a review of recent research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    South Brett R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA protects the confidentiality of patient data and requires the informed consent of the patient and approval of the Internal Review Board to use data for research purposes, but these requirements can be waived if data is de-identified. For clinical data to be considered de-identified, the HIPAA "Safe Harbor" technique requires 18 data elements (called PHI: Protected Health Information to be removed. The de-identification of narrative text documents is often realized manually, and requires significant resources. Well aware of these issues, several authors have investigated automated de-identification of narrative text documents from the electronic health record, and a review of recent research in this domain is presented here. Methods This review focuses on recently published research (after 1995, and includes relevant publications from bibliographic queries in PubMed, conference proceedings, the ACM Digital Library, and interesting publications referenced in already included papers. Results The literature search returned more than 200 publications. The majority focused only on structured data de-identification instead of narrative text, on image de-identification, or described manual de-identification, and were therefore excluded. Finally, 18 publications describing automated text de-identification were selected for detailed analysis of the architecture and methods used, the types of PHI detected and removed, the external resources used, and the types of clinical documents targeted. All text de-identification systems aimed to identify and remove person names, and many included other types of PHI. Most systems used only one or two specific clinical document types, and were mostly based on two different groups of methodologies: pattern matching and machine learning. Many systems combined both approaches for different types of PHI, but the

  12. Automatic de-identification of textual documents in the electronic health record: a review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephane M; Friedlin, F Jeffrey; South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Samore, Matthew H

    2010-08-02

    In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects the confidentiality of patient data and requires the informed consent of the patient and approval of the Internal Review Board to use data for research purposes, but these requirements can be waived if data is de-identified. For clinical data to be considered de-identified, the HIPAA "Safe Harbor" technique requires 18 data elements (called PHI: Protected Health Information) to be removed. The de-identification of narrative text documents is often realized manually, and requires significant resources. Well aware of these issues, several authors have investigated automated de-identification of narrative text documents from the electronic health record, and a review of recent research in this domain is presented here. This review focuses on recently published research (after 1995), and includes relevant publications from bibliographic queries in PubMed, conference proceedings, the ACM Digital Library, and interesting publications referenced in already included papers. The literature search returned more than 200 publications. The majority focused only on structured data de-identification instead of narrative text, on image de-identification, or described manual de-identification, and were therefore excluded. Finally, 18 publications describing automated text de-identification were selected for detailed analysis of the architecture and methods used, the types of PHI detected and removed, the external resources used, and the types of clinical documents targeted. All text de-identification systems aimed to identify and remove person names, and many included other types of PHI. Most systems used only one or two specific clinical document types, and were mostly based on two different groups of methodologies: pattern matching and machine learning. Many systems combined both approaches for different types of PHI, but the majority relied only on pattern matching, rules, and

  13. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhenrich, L B; Reich, A; Bellach, J; Trendelenburg, V; Sprikkelman, A B; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K E C; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M L; Papadopoulos, N G; Quirce, S; Dubakiene, R; Niggemann, B; Fernández-Rivas, M; Ballmer-Weber, B; van Ree, R; Schnadt, S; Mills, E N C; Keil, T; Beyer, K

    2017-03-01

    The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid comparisons between studies. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic toolbox to capture and report clinical observations in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). A group of experienced allergists, paediatricians, dieticians, epidemiologists and data managers developed generic case report forms and standard operating procedures for DBPCFCs and piloted them in three clinical centres. The follow-up of the EuroPrevall/iFAAM birth cohort and other iFAAM work packages applied these methods. A set of newly developed questionnaire or interview items capture the history of FA. Together with sensitization status, this forms the basis for the decision to perform a DBPCFC, following a standardized decision algorithm. A generic form including details about severity and timing captures signs and symptoms observed during or after the procedures. In contrast to the commonly used dichotomous outcome FA vs no FA, the allergy status is interpreted in multiple categories to reflect the complexity of clinical decision-making. The proposed toolbox sets a standard for improved documentation and harmonized interpretation of DBPCFCs. By a detailed documentation and common terminology for communicating outcomes, these tools hope to reduce the influence of subjective judgment of supervising physicians. All forms are publicly available for further evolution and free use in clinical and research settings. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  15. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  16. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Journal Ouest Africain de Pharmacologie de Recherche sur les Medicaments). Papers on all aspects of drug action and related topics including chemotherapy and toxicology will be considered for publication. Vol 31, No 1 (2016). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  17. From research on rare diseases to new orphan drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases have a prevalence of lower than 5 in 10,000 inhabitants and are life-threatening or chronically debilitating. It is estimated that worldwide more than 5000 rare diseases exist, which account for over 55 million patients in the EU and the US together. However, the development of drugs

  18. Non-profit Drug Research and Development at a Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher; Auquier, Pascal; Dussart, Claude

    2018-02-07

    In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply. Overall, the non-profits face ethical challenges - due to the lack of resources, they are unable to independently commercialize their products on a large scale; however, the antitrust law does not permit them to impose prices on potential licensees. Also, reduced prices for the innovative products may result in drying the for-profit R&D in the area.

  19. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  20. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  1. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, B; Nair, D; Ramalingam, S; Perez-Velez, C M; Becerra, M C; Swaminathan, S

    2015-12-21

    Numerous knowledge gaps hamper the prevention and treatment of childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Identifying research priorities is vital to inform and develop strategies to address this neglected problem. To systematically identify and rank research priorities in childhood drug-resistant TB. Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology, we compiled 53 research questions in four research areas, then classified the questions into three research types. We invited experts in childhood drug-resistant TB to score these questions through an online survey. A total of 81 respondents participated in the survey. The top-ranked research question was to identify the best combination of existing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Highly ranked treatment-related questions centred on the reasons for and interventions to improve treatment outcomes, adverse effects of drugs and optimal treatment duration. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB was the highest-ranked question in the epidemiology area. The development type questions that ranked highest focused on interventions for optimal diagnosis, treatment and modalities for treatment delivery. This is the first effort to identify and rank research priorities for childhood drug-resistant TB. The result is a resource to guide research to improve prevention and treatment of drug-resistant TB in children.

  2. Measuring the impact of pharmacoepidemiologic research using altmetrics: A case study of a CNODES drug-safety article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, J M; Traynor, Robyn L; Gruzd, Anatoliy; Mai, Philip; Dormuth, Colin R; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2018-03-24

    To provide an overview of altmetrics, including their potential benefits and limitations, how they may be obtained, and their role in assessing pharmacoepidemiologic research impact. Our review was informed by compiling relevant literature identified through searching multiple health research databases (PubMed, Embase, and CIHNAHL) and grey literature sources (websites, blogs, and reports). We demonstrate how pharmacoepidemiologists, in particular, may use altmetrics to understand scholarly impact and knowledge translation by providing a case study of a drug-safety study conducted by the Canadian Network of Observational Drug Effect Studies. A common approach to measuring research impact is the use of citation-based metrics, such as an article's citation count or a journal's impact factor. "Alternative" metrics, or altmetrics, are increasingly supported as a complementary measure of research uptake in the age of social media. Altmetrics are nontraditional indicators that capture a diverse set of traceable, online research-related artifacts including peer-reviewed publications and other research outputs (software, datasets, blogs, videos, posters, policy documents, presentations, social media posts, wiki entries, etc). Compared with traditional citation-based metrics, altmetrics take a more holistic view of research impact, attempting to capture the activity and engagement of both scholarly and nonscholarly communities. Despite the limited theoretical underpinnings, possible commercial influence, potential for gaming and manipulation, and numerous data quality-related issues, altmetrics are promising as a supplement to more traditional citation-based metrics because they can ingest and process a larger set of data points related to the flow and reach of scholarly communication from an expanded pool of stakeholders. Unlike citation-based metrics, altmetrics are not inherently rooted in the research publication process, which includes peer review; it is unclear to

  3. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control (MCQC), National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and. Development ..... Anticancer. Cannabis sativa L. ... National Cancer Research Institute (NCI) at Frederick,.

  4. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  5. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco Company Efforts to Influence the Food and Drug Administration-Commissioned Institute of Medicine Report Clearing the Smoke: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco “harm reduction,” leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes (“substantial equivalence”) without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Conclusions Tobacco companies

  7. Web document engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources

  8. Development of electronic document management system for scientific and technical design administration automation (evidence from European Organization for Nuclear Research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The new principles and methods of electronic document management system construction are developed. The software package for electronic document handling is made, it provides automation of work flow management and permits to trace and correct on-line the flow of documents. The formal models of electronic documents describing complex hierarchic structures of data with the use of XML-trees are considered. On the base of investigations conducted the CERN electronic document management system has been upgraded, it allowed to shorten more than twofold the time for automation of new business processes [ru

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Genetic analysis of drug-metabolizing phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) (http://sift.bii.a-star.edu.sg/) and .... science and technology research projects of Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region ..... color schemes, with bright red for very strong LD (LOD > 2, D'= 1), pink red (LOD >.

  10. A new look at lipid-membrane structure in relation to drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    1998-01-01

    Lipid-bilayer membranes are key objects in drug research in relation to (i) interaction of drugs with membrane-bound receptors, (ii) drug targeting, penetration, and permeation of cell membranes, and (iii) use of liposomes in micro-encapsulation technologies for drug delivery. Rational design...... of new drugs and drug-delivery systems therefore requries insight into the physical properties of lipid-bilayer membranes. This mini-review provides a perspective on the current view of lipid-bilayer structure and dynamics based on information obtained from a variety of recent experimental...... and theoretical studies. Special attention is paid to trans-bilayer structure, lateral molecular organization of the lipid bilayer, lipid-mediated protein assembly, and lipid-bilayer permeability. It is argued that lipids play a major role in lipid membrane-organization and functionality....

  11. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Williams, Leslie D.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or co...

  12. Document Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Malykh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of locally simple models is considered. Locally simple models are arbitrarily complex models built from relatively simple components. A lot of practically important domains of discourse can be described as locally simple models, for example, business models of enterprises and companies. Up to now, research in human reasoning automation has been mainly concentrated around the most intellectually intensive activities, such as automated theorem proving. On the other hand, the retailer business model is formed from ”jobs”, and each ”job” can be modelled and automated more or less easily. At the same time, the whole retailer model as an integrated system is extremely complex. In this paper, we offer a variant of the mathematical definition of a locally simple model. This definition is intended for modelling a wide range of domains. Therefore, we also must take into account the perceptual and psychological issues. Logic is elitist, and if we want to attract to our models as many people as possible, we need to hide this elitism behind some metaphor, to which ’ordinary’ people are accustomed. As such a metaphor, we use the concept of a document, so our locally simple models are called document models. Document models are built in the paradigm of semantic programming. This allows us to achieve another important goal - to make the documentary models executable. Executable models are models that can act as practical information systems in the described domain of discourse. Thus, if our model is executable, then programming becomes redundant. The direct use of a model, instead of its programming coding, brings important advantages, for example, a drastic cost reduction for development and maintenance. Moreover, since the model is well and sound, and not dissolved within programming modules, we can directly apply AI tools, in particular, machine learning. This significantly expands the possibilities for automation and

  13. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  14. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    money was used, including a description of the aims and outcomes of the public involvement activities. The purpose of this study was to analyse the content of these reports. We aimed to find out what researcher views and experiences of public involvement activities were, and what lessons might be learned. Methods We used an innovative method of data analysis, drawing on group participatory approaches, qualitative content analysis, and Framework Analysis to sort and label the content of the reports. We developed a framework of categories and sub-categories (or themes and sub-themes) from this process. Results Twenty five documents were analysed. Four main themes were identified in the data: the added value of public involvement; planning and designing involvement; the role of public members; and valuing public member contributions. Within these themes, sub-themes related to the timing of involvement (prior to the research study/intended during the research study), and also specific benefits of public involvement such as: validating ideas; ensuring appropriate outcomes; ensuring the acceptability of data collection methods/tools and advice regarding research processes. Other sub-themes related to: finding and approaching public members; timing of events; training/support; the format of sessions; setting up public involvement panels: use of public contributors in analysis and interpretation of data; and using public members to assist with dissemination and translation into practice. Conclusions The analysis of reports submitted by researchers following involvement events provides evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding, and details a method for involving members of the public in data analysis which could be of value to other researchers The findings of the analysis indicate recognition amongst researchers of the variety in potential roles for public members in research, and also an acknowledgement of how

  15. 78 FR 55728 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...) Modernizing FDA's Clinical Trials/BIMO Programs; (3) What FDA Expects in a Pharmaceutical Clinical Trial; (4) Medical Device Aspects of Clinical Research; (5) Adverse Event Reporting--Science, Regulation, Error, and...

  16. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  17. CHOICE, PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF DRUGS: SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Ткаченко

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of pharmaceutical market’s sociological research are representing in the paper. Determinate the basic agents influenced on pharmaceuticals choice and purchase such as a doctor, experience of individual, information from advertisement. Physician competency is of secondary importance to advertisement messages. Experience of individual prepotency of the pharmaceuticals choice raises a point of a level attention of pharmaceuticals consumer behavior. We can describe it in a low level both base on respondents self-conception and in accordance with data research of drug’s advertisement and patient package inserts «content-analysis».DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-53

  18. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and research...

  19. Age and impulsive behavior in drug addiction: A review of past research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug utilization research in primary health care as exemplified by physicians' quality assessment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J

    1992-11-01

    Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.

  1. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  2. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944

  3. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Recommendations to bridge rural/urban drug-use(r) research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Edwards, R W

    1999-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed by a group of United States drug-use(r) researchers interested in rural and urban research and practice who met in Lexington, Kentucky, in October 1996. Overall, there was consensus about the importance of better understanding the urban/rural drug and alcohol use/dependency continuum. It was emphasized that drug and alcohol use/dependency are chronic and relapsing disorders. Definitions of rural and urban are most important, and different definitions may be associated with factors that are masked by population density. Specific recommendations are presented in the following areas: Rural Factors, Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, Treatment and Other Services, Migration, Youth, Protective Factors, Systems Perspective, Measurement, Confidentiality, Criminal Justice, Research, Policy Research, Economic Factors, Service Providers, and Managed Care.

  5. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  6. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  7. «Dallas Buyers Club (2013» clinical research with drugs for the AIDS epidemic 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian de HAAN-BOSCH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dallas Buyers Club (2013, inspired by true events, tells the story of Ron Woodroof, a middle?aged elec? trician from Dallas (Texas, who is diagnosed with AIDS in 1985. With few treatment options, he estab? lishes the Dallas Buyers Club in order to provide unapproved drugs to the AIDS community. This results in constant business travels, disputes with the FDA and problems with the law and the IRS. The article analyzes the buyers’ clubs phenomenon in the US, the drugs cited in the film and the clinical trial with zidovudine shown in the movie. The film could be useful as a teaching tool providing an introduction to the AIDS epidemic, clinical research and drug development, bioethics of human research and the agen? cies that regulate drug approval and their availability. Finally, the article presents a possible guideline for the use of the film in a teaching environment.

  8. Natural products against cancer: A comprehensive bibliometric study of the research projects, publications, patents and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze multi-source data including awards, publications, patents and drugs, and try to draw the whole landscape of the research and development community in the area of natural products (NPs against cancer. Materials and Methods: Awards, publications, patents and drugs data from National Institute of Health/Natural Science Foundation of China (NIH/NSFC, PubMed, Derwent Innovation Index and Cortellis were collected. Bibliometric methodologies and technology are used to investigate publications/patents/drugs, their contents and relationships. Results: NIH and NSFC respectively demonstrated a stable and sustained expenditure growth in this area. The number of publications is continuously increasing. Yet the annual patent applications worldwide and FDA drug approvals were little changed or not obviously fluctuated in 2003-2013. USA and several Asia-pacific countries/territories are important contributing powers. We described the evolution of major research topics by those MeSH Major Topics indexed in PubMed with the largest growth range in three intervals, and analyzed hot research topics in the recent 10 years which include NPs or NPs derivatives, cell line/animal model, laboratory technologies and activation mechanisms. Conclusions: China published the most publications and received the most patent applications, but drug discovery performance is no better than USA and Japan. Research on anti-neoplastic structures and compounds originated from Chinese traditional medicine (TCM, medicinal plants, herbal medicine and marine NPs are major research topics in the recent 10 years. There still exits translational gap between basic research and drug discovery. Translational research should be undertaken to strengthen the applicability of NPs.

  9. BZP-party pills: a review of research on benzylpiperazine as a recreational drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce M Z; Butler, Rachael

    2011-03-01

    BZP-party pills are yet another 'designer drug' which mimics the stimulant qualities of amphetamines and MDMA/Ecstasy. As legal markets for the substance have developed in the last decade (especially amongst young people) so has public and governmental concern. This article provides a summary of the available international research on benzylpiperazine (BZP) and its popular use in the compound form known as 'party pills'. Through performing an analysis of the available medical and social scientific literature, the review outlines current knowledge on the compound, the prevalence of usage of BZP-party pills, as well as the associated harms, risks and rationales for use of the drug. Despite moves towards legislative control of BZP-party pills, the evidence presented suggests limited social and health harms associated with the drug, although research on long term effects is a significant gap in the literature. It also remains inconclusive as to whether BZP-party pills act as a 'gateway' to illegal drugs or, conversely, play a role in harm reduction with illegal drug users turning to legal alternatives; there is some evidence for both positions. With increasing controls of BZP-party pills, and with the increasing numbers of 'legal highs' and new designer drugs on the market, we conclude that new legal alternatives will continue to surface to replace the drug in the future. Considering a harm reduction approach to drug taking, it is suggested that policy makers consider the creation of a legal holding category which restricts and regulates the market in legal highs whilst the social and health harms associated with each drug can be thoroughly investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interrupted time series analysis in drug utilization research is increasing: systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandoc, Racquel; Burden, Andrea M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use and reporting of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and reference lists to identify English language articles through to December 2013 that used interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We tabulated the number of studies by publication year and summarized methodological detail. We identified 220 eligible empirical applications since 1984. Only 17 (8%) were published before 2000, and 90 (41%) were published since 2010. Segmented regression was the most commonly applied interrupted time series method (67%). Most studies assessed drug policy changes (51%, n = 112); 22% (n = 48) examined the impact of new evidence, 18% (n = 39) examined safety advisories, and 16% (n = 35) examined quality improvement interventions. Autocorrelation was considered in 66% of studies, 31% reported adjusting for seasonality, and 15% accounted for nonstationarity. Use of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research has increased, particularly in recent years. Despite methodological recommendations, there is large variation in reporting of analytic methods. Developing methodological and reporting standards for interrupted time series analysis is important to improve its application in drug utilization research, and we provide recommendations for consideration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 44593 - Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Science and Research Needs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... research needs outlined in the report, CDER hopes to stimulate research and foster collaborations with... research needs, CDER hopes to stimulate research and foster collaborations with external partners and... issues across teams, divisions, or offices; and (3) emerging scientific challenges. A comprehensive set...

  12. Development of anti-inflammatory drugs - the research and development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Richard Graham

    2014-01-01

    The research and development process for novel drugs to treat inflammatory diseases is described, and several current issues and debates relevant to this are raised: the decline in productivity, attrition, challenges and trends in developing anti-inflammatory drugs, the poor clinical predictivity of experimental models of inflammatory diseases, heterogeneity within inflammatory diseases, 'improving on the Beatles' in treating inflammation, and the relationships between big pharma and biotechs. The pharmaceutical research and development community is responding to these challenges in multiple ways which it is hoped will lead to the discovery and development of a new generation of anti-inflammatory medicines. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  14. Beyond post-marketing research and MedWatch: Long-term studies of drug risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2007-10-01

    Critics of the drug safety system have discussed many different potential reforms, ranging from mandatory registration of clinical trials to increasing the power of regulatory agencies, but few have discussed one of the most important ways of enhancing safety: increasing the number of long-term studies of medications. Long-term studies of the risks and benefits of drugs can provide useful information for regulators, healthcare professionals, and patients. Government funding agencies should lead the effort to conduct long-term studies of drugs, but private companies should also be required to lend financial support. Because cost-effectiveness is likely to be an important consideration in conducting this research, funding agencies should focus, at first, on drugs that are used to treat common, chronic conditions.

  15. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma: its research progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Han Guohong; Bai Wei; Fan Daiming

    2012-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been the main treatment for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical application of TACE is limited due to the technical deficiencies, such as uncontrolled local drug delivery and systemic toxicity. Recently, the new drug-eluting beads (DEB), loading with doxorubicin, have be used in the TACE procedures. This new technique can not only maintain the local drug level for quite a long time and thus get a higher objective response, but also decrease the systemic toxicity. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) have already been widely used abroad, and more related clinical trials are underway to clarify its advantages. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review in the respects of its characteristics and the latest research progress in DEB-TACE. (authors)

  16. A Bibliographic Study of Drug Abuse Research during last 30 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Rahimi Movaghar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the produced science has been significantly increased in the field of drug abuse, globally. The objective of this study was to assess the bibliographic aspects of the science produced in Iran on drug abuse in the last 30 years. All scientific papers published from Iran in a 30-year period (1973-2002 in national as well as international scientific journals were assessed for this study. These papers are indexed in the database for Iranian Mental Health Researches, called IranPsych. The total number of 218 papers on drug and drug abuse were found and assessed by six psychiatrists and psychologists with good inter-rater reliability. About half of these papers were published in the last two years. About half of the papers have been published in the Persian medical journals. One-third have been published in international journals. Overall, 449 authors contributed to the 218 published papers from whom 80 percent had only one paper. Half of the papers were written by only 15 authors (3.3 percent. Most of the authors were Medical Doctors and from Medical Universities. None of the researches was received financial support from pharmacologic industries. This study shows that in recent years, the increase in the publication of the researches conducted on drug abuse has been significant. Nevertheless, according to the high prevalence of drug abuse problem in Iran and improvements in the scientific, as well as executive structures, the whole scientific output is insignificant. The findings guide us to a more systematic approach toward training of researchers and promotion of resaerch in this area. Moreover, more active involvement of social scientists and publication of their research findings are recommended.

  17. Precision-cut intestinal slices: alternative model for drug transport, metabolism, and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2016-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-tox) processes of drugs are of importance and require preclinical investigation intestine in addition to the liver. Various models have been developed for prediction of ADME-tox in the intestine. In this review, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) are discussed and highlighted as model for ADME-tox studies. This review provides an overview of the applications and an update of the most recent research on PCIS as an ex vivo model to study the transport, metabolism and toxicology of drugs and other xenobiotics. The unique features of PCIS and the differences with other models as well as the translational aspects are also discussed. PCIS are a simple, fast, and reliable ex vivo model for drug ADME-tox research. Therefore, PCIS are expected to become an indispensable link in the in vitro-ex vivo-in vivo extrapolation, and a bridge in translation of animal data to the human situation. In the future, this model may be helpful to study the effects of interorgan interactions, intestinal bacteria, excipients and drug formulations on the ADME-tox properties of drugs. The optimization of culture medium and the development of a (cryo)preservation technique require more research.

  18. Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

  19. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy.

  20. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  1. Research Costs Investigated : A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    BACKGROUND: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2)

  2. Health physics documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stablein, G.

    1980-01-01

    When dealing with radioactive material the health physicist receives innumerable papers and documents within the fields of researching, prosecuting, organizing and justifying radiation protection. Some of these papers are requested by the health physicist and some are required by law. The scope, quantity and deposit periods of the health physics documentation at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are presented and rationalizing methods discussed. The aim of this documentation should be the application of physics to accident prevention, i.e. documentation should protect those concerned and not the health physicist. (H.K.)

  3. Student-Centered Pedagogy and Real-World Research: Using Documents as Sources of Data in Teaching Social Science Skills and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrefitte, Magali; Lazar, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    This teaching note describes the design and implementation of an activity in a 90-minute teaching session that was developed to introduce a diverse cohort of first-year criminology and sociology students to the use of documents as sources of data. This approach was contextualized in real-world research through scaffolded, student-centered tasks…

  4. Impact of National Physical Activity and Health Guidelines and Documents on Research on Teaching K-12 Physical Education in U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan; Shen, Bo; Yin, Zhihua; Kong, Qingtao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of published national physical activity (PA) and health guidelines, documents, and initiatives on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 physical education (PE) in U.S.A. from 1996 to October 2013. Methods: A total of 262 peer-reviewed, data-based journal articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion…

  5. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  7. Analysis of Strategic Plan Dimensions for Research Development in Organization of Libraries, Museums and Documentation Center of Astan Quds Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Fattahi

    2015-02-01

    Results: The data showed that there is a relative satisfaction of the research development programs (with regard to four dimensions: attitude, policy, management, staffing in the AQ organization. The positive attitude of AQ organization's senior professionals is an opportunity for research development. The data also showed that one of the more important challenges for AQ research development is a weakness in policy making dimension. Although there have been management issues in AQ organization research development, experts relative satisfaction of the quantity and quality of research projects could be promising for the possibility of changes in the research structure. However, some problems and challenges are: lack of research funding and low research fees, poor research facilities and conditions, necessity of encouraging researchers to select and implement appropriate research projects, challenges about research findings advertisement, research administrative structure ineffectiveness, problems related to the publication of research findings and their implementation, failure to allocate adequate facilities for the research advancement and the lack of a suitable environment for the research development. The findings also showed that there is a good level of satisfaction about AQ organization interaction with other research organizations and researchers. There is unsatisfactory about low impact of research activities in staff gradation.

  8. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RESEARCH OF CONDITION OF PUBLIC DRUG ASSISTANCE DURING INDEPENDENCE YEARS OF UKRAINE - FORMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Boryshchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the correspondence of existing legislative and regulatory requirements of the pharmaceutical industry development, the analysis of the formation of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the condition of drug assistance according to European requirements and recommendations of the WHO. For the study archival materials, publications in scientific journals, and mass media were used, laws and provisions regulating pharmaceutical activity were studied and a survey among citizens was conducted. Systematic and logical methods, analytical and comparative analysis were applied, and own researches were performed. For 22 years of Ukrainian statehood formation the following institutes were created: Pharmacological College, Pharmacopoeia Committee and State Service for Quality Control of Drugs which were transported to other institutes. Important laws were adopted: the Law of Ukraine «On Medicines», the Law of Ukraine «On small-scale privatization», the Law of Ukraine «On large-scale privatization» and others, which contributed to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical market. In comparison with 1990 the amount of drugstore chains increased two and a half times and in 2013 in the country already worked 15 566 drugstores, including 3 025 in villages. Specific peculiarity of pharmaceutical market formation in Ukraine was the creation of powerful own regional and all-Ukrainian drugstore chains, that is greatly different from such situation in EU countries, where the legislation allows to have only one or two drugstores. As the result of pharmaceutical market formation the drugs nomenclature increased eight times and now makes up more than 20 000 names, including 92.4 % generic drugs. According to publications, Ukraine lacks about 40 % of drug molecules needed for medical treatment, and 30 % of studied drugs are not proved. There is the problem of uncontrollable turnover and drugs consumption in Ukraine

  10. Description and Methods of the Automated Document Management System Usage in Scientific Organizational Activities of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (ADS SOA JINR)

    CERN Document Server

    Borisovsky, V F; Kekelidze, M G; Nikonov, E G; Senchenko, V A

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the structure description and user guide for Information program system for automation of a document flow for support of scientific arrangement planning (ADS SOA) which can be used for planning and carrying out seminars, workshops, conferences and other arrangements of research management. This work is intended for automation of scientific research management in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The complex of programs represents the CDS Agenda system used in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which is adapted to the conditions of JINR.

  11. Drug-eluting stents: from bench-top to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basalus, Mounir Welson Zakhary

    2013-01-01

    The development of drug-eluting stents (DES) has improved the invasive treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease by reducing both, restenosis rate and need for reinterventions. This success resulted in a widespread utilization of DES in clinical practice and entailed many clinical research

  12. Review on research of suppression male fertility and male contraceptive drug development by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-08-01

    Male contraceptive development in the present scenario is most viable aspect of research due to uncontrolled population growth in the world. In this respect investigators are busy to find out a safe male contraceptive drug. Researchers have started their finding for a suitable drug from natural sources because these are safe and easily acceptable for common man, most of natural sources are plants and their products. In this review 137 plants and their effects on reproduction and reproductive physiology are summarized. Some of them have intense effect on male reproductive system and do not produce any side effects. Reproductive toxicological studies are also important aspects of these kinds of researches, so it is important that drugs are safe and widely acceptable. An ideal male contraceptive can influence semen, testes, hormone level, accessory reproductive organs and general physiology of animals and produced some alterations. Many plants in this review are showing antifertility as well as antispermatogenic effects, so these may be used for further study for contraceptives development but it is important to find out the mechanism of reaction and further laboratory and clinical research on some plants are needed for final male contraceptive drug development. In conclusion this review will help for finding suitable plant products for male contraceptive clinical and laboratory studies.

  13. Alcohol and Other Drug Use: The Connection to Youth Suicide. Abstracts of Selected Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kathy; Turner, Amy

    This publication provides the reader with an overview of the research done on the connection between the use of alcohol and other drugs and the ideation and/or completion of suicide among adolescents. It also provides information and resources on how to develop a youth suicide prevention program. The introduction gives a brief overview of the…

  14. Cryopreservation of Precision-cut Tissue Slices for Application in Drug Metabolism Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Inge Anne Maria de

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis had two important aims. The first was to determine whether tissue slices could be used as an in vitro tool to predict the in vivo metabolism of new drugs. The second aim was to find a manner to store tissue slices for longer time periods by cryopreservation.

  15. Mass Spectrometry for Research and Application in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring or Clinical and Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hans H

    2018-04-30

    This paper reviews current applications of various hyphenated low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques in the field of therapeutic drug monitoring and clinical/forensic toxicology in both research and practice. They cover gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or paper spray ionization coupled to quadrupole, ion trap, time-of-flight, or Orbitrap mass analyzers.

  16. Scaling Up Research on Drug Abuse and Addiction Through Social Media Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Das, Amarendra K

    2017-10-31

    Substance use-related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of substance use-related communications on social media are largely unknown. Understanding these aspects can help researchers effectively leverage social media big data and platforms for observation and health communication outreach for people with substance use problems. The objective of this critical review was to determine how social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioral patterns of problematic use of prescription drugs. We elaborate on theoretical applications, ethical challenges and methodological considerations when using social media big data for research on drug abuse and addiction. Based on a critical review process, we propose a typology with key initiatives to address the knowledge gap in the use of social media for research on prescription drug abuse and addiction. First, we provided a narrative summary of the literature on drug use-related communication on social media. We also examined ethical considerations in the research processes of (1) social media big data mining, (2) subgroup or follow-up investigation, and (3) dissemination of social media data-driven findings. To develop a critical review-based typology, we searched the PubMed database and the entire e-collection theme of "infodemiology and infoveillance" in the Journal of Medical Internet Research / JMIR Publications. Studies that met our inclusion criteria (eg, use of social media data concerning non-medical use of prescription drugs, data informatics-driven findings) were

  17. Illegal Drugs Laws: Clearing a 50-Year-Old Obstacle to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations drug control conventions of 1960 and 1971 and later additions have inadvertently resulted in perhaps the greatest restrictions of medical and life sciences research. These conventions now need to be revised to allow neuroscience to progress unimpeded and to assist in the innovation of treatments for brain disorders. In the meantime, local changes, such as the United Kingdom moving cannabis from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2, should be implemented to allow medical research to develop appropriately. PMID:25625189

  18. Illegal drugs laws: clearing a 50-year-old obstacle to research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nutt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations drug control conventions of 1960 and 1971 and later additions have inadvertently resulted in perhaps the greatest restrictions of medical and life sciences research. These conventions now need to be revised to allow neuroscience to progress unimpeded and to assist in the innovation of treatments for brain disorders. In the meantime, local changes, such as the United Kingdom moving cannabis from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2, should be implemented to allow medical research to develop appropriately.

  19. Illegal drugs laws: clearing a 50-year-old obstacle to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations drug control conventions of 1960 and 1971 and later additions have inadvertently resulted in perhaps the greatest restrictions of medical and life sciences research. These conventions now need to be revised to allow neuroscience to progress unimpeded and to assist in the innovation of treatments for brain disorders. In the meantime, local changes, such as the United Kingdom moving cannabis from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2, should be implemented to allow medical research to develop appropriately.

  20. Research as an event: a novel approach to promote patient-focused drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai JH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Hua Tsai, Ellen Janssen, John FP Bridges Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Patient groups are increasingly engaging in research to understand patients’ preferences and incorporate their perspectives into drug development and regulation. Several models of patient engagement have emerged, but there is little guidance on how to partner with patient groups to engage the disease community. Our group has been using an approach to engage patient groups that we call research as an event. Research as an event is a method for researchers to use a community-centered event to engage patients in their own environment at modest incremental cost. It is a pragmatic solution to address the challenges of engaging patients in research to minimize patients’ frustration, decrease the time burden, and limit the overall cost. The community, the event, and the research are the three components that constitute the research as an event framework. The community represents a disease-specific community. The event is a meeting of common interest for patients and other stakeholders, such as a patient advocacy conference. The research describes activities in engaging the community for the purpose of research. Research as an event follows a six-step approach. A case study is used to demonstrate the six steps followed by recommendations for future implementation. Keywords: patients’ perspectives, decision making, drug approval, patient engagement, patient organization, patients’ preference

  1. Six-Month Market Exclusivity Extensions To Promote Research Offer Substantial Returns For Many Drug Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Maury Documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  3. Documentation Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C.

    1998-01-01

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute's library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc

  4. An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Sobia; Us Sahar, Najam

    2014-01-01

    Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the influence of parental involvement, and communication styles in youth's drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug addicts (age range 18-28 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family. Case profiles of the participants were also taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the significant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society.

  5. A practical approach to risk-benefit estimation in pediatric drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in pediatric drug research is in exposing children to risk, often without a balanced chance of benefits. While the concept of risk is similar in adult research, the adult patient can decide for himself/herself on an acceptable level of risk, whereas children have to accept the decisions of their guardians. This paper attempts to put the complexities of estimating risk in pediatric drug research into their practical perspective, and to familiarize the reader with the way such processes are conducted in different parts of the world. Although there are regional differences, all authorities typically quantify risks of pediatric research in general, and drug research in particular, in three levels: those experienced in day-to-day life; risks slightly above this 'baseline' risk; and risks substantially above 'baseline risk'. Proportionally, the diligence of the ethics process depends on these levels, as well as on the potential benefits (or lack of) to the child involved in the research. Importantly, risk is context dependent, and a particular intervention may be effective or safe in one setting but not in another, based on local experience, staffing levels, and similar variabilities.

  6. Scaling Up Research on Drug Abuse and Addiction Through Social Media Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Das, Amarendra K

    2017-01-01

    Background Substance use–related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of substance use–related communications on social media are largely unknown. Understanding these aspects can help researchers effectively leverage social media big data and platforms for observation and health communication outreach for people with substance use problems. Objective The objective of this critical review was to determine how social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioral patterns of problematic use of prescription drugs. We elaborate on theoretical applications, ethical challenges and methodological considerations when using social media big data for research on drug abuse and addiction. Based on a critical review process, we propose a typology with key initiatives to address the knowledge gap in the use of social media for research on prescription drug abuse and addiction. Methods First, we provided a narrative summary of the literature on drug use–related communication on social media. We also examined ethical considerations in the research processes of (1) social media big data mining, (2) subgroup or follow-up investigation, and (3) dissemination of social media data-driven findings. To develop a critical review-based typology, we searched the PubMed database and the entire e-collection theme of “infodemiology and infoveillance” in the Journal of Medical Internet Research / JMIR Publications. Studies that met our inclusion criteria (eg, use of social media data concerning non-medical use of prescription drugs, data

  7. Reactive documentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, Thomas R.; Kramb, Victoria

    2018-04-01

    Proper formal documentation of computer acquired NDE experimental data generated during research is critical to the longevity and usefulness of the data. Without documentation describing how and why the data was acquired, NDE research teams lose capability such as their ability to generate new information from previously collected data or provide adequate information so that their work can be replicated by others seeking to validate their research. Despite the critical nature of this issue, NDE data is still being generated in research labs without appropriate documentation. By generating documentation in series with data, equal priority is given to both activities during the research process. One way to achieve this is to use a reactive documentation system (RDS). RDS prompts an operator to document the data as it is generated rather than relying on the operator to decide when and what to document. This paper discusses how such a system can be implemented in a dynamic environment made up of in-house and third party NDE data acquisition systems without creating additional burden on the operator. The reactive documentation approach presented here is agnostic enough that the principles can be applied to any operator controlled, computer based, data acquisition system.

  8. Computerising documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear power generation industry is faced with public concern and government pressures over safety, efficiency and risk. Operators throughout the industry are addressing these issues with the aid of a new technology - technical document management systems (TDMS). Used for strategic and tactical advantage, the systems enable users to scan, archive, retrieve, store, edit, distribute worldwide and manage the huge volume of documentation (paper drawings, CAD data and film-based information) generated in building, maintaining and ensuring safety in the UK's power plants. The power generation industry has recognized that the management and modification of operation critical information is vital to the safety and efficiency of its power plants. Regulatory pressure from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to operate within strict safety margins or lose Site Licences has prompted the need for accurate, up-to-data documentation. A document capture and management retrieval system provides a powerful cost-effective solution, giving rapid access to documentation in a tightly controlled environment. The computerisation of documents and plans is discussed in this article. (Author)

  9. Incentives for orphan drug research and development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Szeinbach, Sheryl L; Visaria, Jay

    2008-12-16

    The Orphan Drug Act (1983) established several incentives to encourage the development of orphan drugs (ODs) to treat rare diseases and conditions. This study analyzed the characteristics of OD designations, approvals, sponsors, and evaluated the effective patent and market exclusivity life of orphan new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in the US between 1983 and 2007. Primary data sources were the FDA Orange Book, the FDA Office of Orphan Drugs Development, and the US Patent and Trademark Office. Data included all orphan designations and approvals listed by the FDA and all NMEs approved by the FDA during the study period. The FDA listed 1,793 orphan designations and 322 approvals between 1983 and 2007. Cancer was the main group of diseases targeted for orphan approvals. Eighty-three companies concentrated 67.7% of the total orphan NMEs approvals. The average time from orphan designation to FDA approval was 4.0 +/- 3.3 years (mean +/- standard deviation). The average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life was 11.7 +/- 5.0 years for orphan NME. OD market exclusivity increased the average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life of ODs by 0.8 years. Public programs, federal regulations, and policies support orphan drugs R&D. Grants, research design support, FDA fee waivers, tax incentives, and orphan drug market exclusivity are the main incentives for orphan drug R&D. Although the 7-year orphan drug market exclusivity provision had a positive yet relatively modest overall effect on effective patent and market exclusivity life, economic incentives and public support mechanisms provide a platform for continued orphan drug development for a highly specialized market.

  10. Hope Amidst Horror: Documenting the Effects of the "War On Drugs" Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Mittal, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war. Drawing on a critical phenomenology framework, which links political economy with phenomenological concern for subjective experience, we explore the ways in which couples try to find hope amidst the horrors of the drug war. Critical visual scholarship may provide a powerful alternative to dominant media depictions of violence, and ultimately clarify why this drug war must end.

  11. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  12. Use of comparative effectiveness research in drug coverage and pricing decisions: a six-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has assumed an increasing role in drug coverage and, in some cases, pricing decisions in Europe, as decision-makers seek to obtain better value for money. This issue brief comparatively examines the use of CER across six countries--Denmark, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. With CER gaining traction in the United States, these international experiences offer insights and potential lessons. Investing in CER can help address the current gap in publicly available, credible, up-to-date, and scientifically based comparative information on the effectiveness of drugs and other health interventions. This information can be used to base coverage and pricing decisions on evidence of value, thereby facilitating access to and public and private investment in the most beneficial new drugs and technologies. In turn, use of CER creates incentives for more efficient, high-quality health care and encourages development of innovative products that offer measurable value to patients.

  13. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, Robert F; Castells, M

    2017-01-01

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the ......This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...... and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying...

  14. PBPK Modeling - A Predictive, Eco-Friendly, Bio-Waiver Tool for Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Mukherjee, Ranjan; Katakam, Prakash; Adiki, Shanta K; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2017-01-01

    The world has witnessed growing complexities in disease scenario influenced by the drastic changes in host-pathogen- environment triadic relation. Pharmaceutical R&Ds are in constant search of novel therapeutic entities to hasten transition of drug molecules from lab bench to patient bedside. Extensive animal studies and human pharmacokinetics are still the "gold standard" in investigational new drug research and bio-equivalency studies. Apart from cost, time and ethical issues on animal experimentation, burning questions arise relating to ecological disturbances, environmental hazards and biodiversity issues. Grave concerns arises when the adverse outcomes of continued studies on one particular disease on environment gives rise to several other pathogenic agents finally complicating the total scenario. Thus Pharma R&Ds face a challenge to develop bio-waiver protocols. Lead optimization, drug candidate selection with favorable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, toxicity assessment are vital steps in drug development. Simulation tools like Gastro Plus™, PK Sim®, SimCyp find applications for the purpose. Advanced technologies like organ-on-a chip or human-on-a chip where a 3D representation of human organs and systems can mimic the related processes and activities, thereby linking them to major features of human biology can be successfully incorporated in the drug development tool box. PBPK provides the State of Art to serve as an optional of animal experimentation. PBPK models can successfully bypass bio-equivalency studies, predict bioavailability, drug interactions and on hyphenation with in vitro-in vivo correlation can be extrapolated to humans thus serving as bio-waiver. PBPK can serve as an eco-friendly bio-waiver predictive tool in drug development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: An agenda for operations research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nerges; Tolani, Monica; Osrin, David

    2012-01-01

    Operations research (OR) is well established in India and is also a prominent feature of the global and local agendas for tuberculosis (TB) control. India accounts for a quarter of the global burden of TB and of new cases. Multidrug-resistant TB is a significant problem in Mumbai, India’s most populous city, and there have been recent reports of totally resistant TB. Much thought has been given to the role of OR in addressing programmatic challenges, by both international partnerships and India’s Revised National TB Control Programme. We attempt to summarize the major challenges to TB control in Mumbai, with an emphasis on drug resistance. Specific challenges include diagnosis of TB and defining cure, detecting drug resistant TB, multiple sources of health care in the private, public and informal sectors, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a concurrent epidemic of non-communicable diseases, suboptimal prescribing practices, and infection control. We propose a local agenda for OR: modeling the effects of newer technologies, active case detection, and changes in timing of activities, and mapping hotspots and contact networks; modeling the effects of drug control, changing the balance of ambulatory and inpatient care, and adverse drug reactions; modeling the effects of integration of TB and HIV diagnosis and management, and preventive drug therapy; and modeling the effects of initiatives to improve infection control. PMID:24501697

  16. Models of policy-making and their relevance for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Bammer, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are often frustrated by their inability to influence policy. We describe models of policy-making to provide new insights and a more realistic assessment of research impacts on policy. We describe five prominent models of policy-making and illustrate them with examples from the alcohol and drugs field, before drawing lessons for researchers. Policy-making is a complex and messy process, with different models describing different elements. We start with the incrementalist model, which highlights small amendments to policy, as occurs in school-based drug education. A technical/rational approach then outlines the key steps in a policy process from identification of problems and their causes, through to examination and choice of response options, and subsequent implementation and evaluation. There is a clear role for research, as we illustrate with the introduction of new medications, but this model largely ignores the dominant political aspects of policy-making. Such political aspects include the influence of interest groups, and we describe models about power and pressure groups, as well as advocacy coalitions, and the challenges they pose for researchers. These are illustrated with reference to the alcohol industry, and interest group conflicts in establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Finally, we describe the multiple streams framework, which alerts researchers to 'windows of opportunity', and we show how these were effectively exploited in policy for cannabis law reform in Western Australia. Understanding models of policy-making can help researchers maximise the uptake of their work and advance evidence-informed policy.

  17. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  18. Registration document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  19. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs

  20. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ascenzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on teachers’ memories and intend to dwell on the heuristic potential of this source category, comparing it with the traditional sources of theoretical-regulatory and educational type. After a presentation on the state of art of historical and historical-educational studies on teachers’ memories, it will offer an overview of the different kinds of memories preserved in the centres of documentation and research of historical and educational interest, examining the books and documentary heritage of the Centre for documentation and research on the history of schoolbooks and children’s literature of Macerata University. Finally, through the analysis of a case study, the Memorie (Memoirs of the teacher and pedagogist Lorenzo Bettini (1855-1917, we will offer an exemplification of a possible integrated use of sources, for a plural reconstruction of teachers’ history. How to reference this article Ascenzi, A., & Patrizi, E. (2016. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 343-362. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.16

  1. Documenting research with transgender and gender diverse people: protocol for an evidence map and thematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Marshall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information about how transgender, gender diverse, and Two-Spirit (trans people have been represented and studied by researchers. The objectives of this study are to (1 map and describe trans research in the social sciences, sciences, humanities, health, education, and business, (2 identify evidence gaps and opportunities for more responsible research with trans people, (3 assess the use of text mining for study identification, and (4 increase access to trans research for key stakeholders through the creation of a web-based evidence map. Methods Study design was informed by community consultations and pilot searches. Eligibility criteria were established to include all original research of any design, including trans people or their health information, and published in English in peer-reviewed journals. A complex electronic search strategy based on relevant concepts in 15 databases was developed to obtain a broad range of results linked to transgender, gender diverse, and Two-Spirit individuals and communities. Searches conducted in early 2015 resulted in 25,242 references after removal of duplicates. Based on the number of references, resources, and an objective to capture upwards of 90% of the existing literature, this study is a good candidate for text mining using Latent Dirichlet Allocation to improve efficiency of the screening process. The following information will be collected for evidence mapping: study topic, study design, methods and data sources, recruitment strategies, sample size, sample demographics, researcher name and affiliation, country where research was conducted, funding source, and year of publication. Discussion The proposed research incorporates an extensive search strategy, text mining, and evidence map; it therefore has the potential to build on knowledge in several fields. Review results will increase awareness of existing trans research, identify evidence gaps, and inform

  2. Mykobiota of the air of depositories and documents of V. I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (Historical aspect, the research since 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbota A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first in Ukraine systematic monitoring research of the mycological state of the air of depositories and documents of V. I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine are retrospectively generalized and presented. Since 1992, in a comparative aspect, the species composition of the mycobiota of air has been studied in its quiescent state and in the process of sanitary-hygienic processing of fonds, as well as the seasonal dynamics of micromycetes. About 15,000 strains of microscopic fungi (micromycetes belonging to 81 species of 26 genera, 3 departments of Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina i Mytosporic fungi (Deuteromycotina were isolated and identified from the air of depositories and documents. The dependence of the quantitative and taxonomic characteristics of the mycobiota of air on the storage conditions and the physical state of the documents was determined, and the mycological index of the ecological state of the storages and documents was clarified. The destructive properties of micromycetes isolated from mycobiota of the depositories have been studied.

  3. Documentation of pediatric drug safety in manufacturers' product monographs: a cross-sectional evaluation of the canadian compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navjeet K; Dupuis, Lee L; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    To describe the provision of pediatric drug safety information in a national formulary of manufacturers' drug product monographs. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of comprehensive product monographs contained in the 2005 Canadian Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialities (CPS). We abstracted data describing indications for prescription, statements about pediatric safety, available preparations, and provision of dosing guidelines. For each monograph we classified pediatric safety data as either present, present but limited or absent. We then described the pediatric safety data in CPS monographs for drugs listed in the published formulary of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 2232 product monographs were screened; 684 were excluded and 1548 (66%) were further analyzed. 1462 (94%) had indications that did not exclude children. Pediatric safety information was present in 592 (38%), present but limited in 148 (10%), and absent in 808 (52%) drug monographs. Safety statements were absent in 224 (14%) drug monographs that provided both dosing guidelines and formulations suitable for administration to children, and in 214 (52%) of 411 drugs in the pediatric hospital formulary. We evaluated a widely available national source of pediatric prescribing information. Safety data for children was not mentioned in more than half of the product monographs. Moreover, the provision of safety data was discordant with indications for prescription, the availability of pediatric formulations, and dosing guidelines within the monographs, and with inclusion in a pediatric hospital formulary. Our study suggests that the presentation of pediatric safety data in drug product monographs can be improved to better inform prescribing and to optimize pharmacotherapy in children.

  4. Family physicians' suggestions to improve the documentation, coding, and billing system: a study from the residency research network of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Bayles, Bryan; Hill, Jason H; Kumar, Kaparabonya A; Burge, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    The study's aim was to ascertain family physicians' suggestions on how to improve the commonly used US evaluation and management (E/M) rules for primary care. A companion paper published in Family Medicine's May 2014 journal describes our study methods (Fam Med 2014;46(5):378-84). Study subjects supported preserving the overall SOAP note structure. They especially suggested eliminating bullet counting in the E/M rules. For payment reform, respondents stated that brief or simple work should be paid less than long or complex work, and that family physicians should be paid for important tasks they currently are not, such as spending extra time with patients, phone and email clinical encounters, and extra paperwork. Subjects wanted shared savings when their decisions and actions created system efficiencies and savings. Some supported recent payment reforms such as monthly retainer fees and pay-for-performance bonuses. Others expressed skepticism about the negative consequences of each. Aligned incentives among all stakeholders was another common theme. Family physicians wanted less burdensome documentation requirements. They wanted to be paid more for complex work and work that does not include traditional face-to-face clinic visits, and they wanted the incentives of other stakeholders in the health care systems to be aligned with their priorities.

  5. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  6. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  7. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  8. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  9. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  10. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  11. THE RESEARCH RESULTS OF TENDER PROCUREMENTS OF THE DRUGS FOR CANCER PATIENTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Panfilova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 2002, the pharmaceutical care of the cancer patients in Ukraine is carried out centrally by public funds in the framework of the target program "Oncology." In a chronic shortage of funds in the national health care system, as well as taking into account the perspectives of the introduction of the social model of obligatory medical insurance (OMI, enhanced the importance of research on the development of rational mechanisms for the use of public funds, which are sent to drug purchases. Given the high mortality rate among cancer patients, especially in children in Ukraine, these works are of particular socio-economic importance. The aim of work. To study drug purchases that are made for cancer patients in Ukraine in order to identify the main problems and directions of rational scientific basis for the use of public funds in terms of lack of resources in health care, as well as from the perspectives of the introduction of the social model of OMI in Ukraine. Materials and methods. Objects of research: data from the National Cancer Registry, annual plans and registers of public drug procurement Ministry of Ukraine. The paper used data from national legislative and regulatory framework governing the organization of pharmaceutical support cancer patients, standard methods of statistical processing of the dynamics of the clinic-economic analysis. Results and discussion. During 2010-2013 marked increase in the amounts of permanent drug purchases for cancer patients, which is on the growth rate did not meet the dynamics of changes in the relevant during epidemiological indicators. The results integrated ABC/VEN-analysis found no drug purchasing products from the group N and with the status A/V, and the dominance of the number of agents with the status items C/V. The main volume of financial resources was directed to the purchase of drugs from the group E (84.8% - 92.4% and the status of A/E (78,9% -79,8%, as well as drug belonging to

  12. Drug research methodology. Volume 3, The detection and quantitation of drugs of interest in body fluids from drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on the chemical analysis of human body fluids for drugs of interest in highway safety. A cross-disciplinary panel of experts reviewed the list of drugs of interest developed in a previous workshop and d...

  13. Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Schaaf, H Simon; Furin, Jennifer J; Marais, Ben J; Tebruegge, Marc; Detjen, Anne; Hesseling, Anneke C; Shah, Sarita; Adams, Lisa V; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-01

    Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and stakeholders in childhood DR-TB. An early priority was to establish standardized definitions for key parameters in order to facilitate study comparisons and the development of an evidence base to guide future clinical management. This consensus statement proposes standardized definitions to be used in research. In particular, it suggests consistent terminology, as well as definitions for measures of exposure, drug resistance testing, previous episodes and treatment, certainty of diagnosis, site and severity of disease, adverse events, and treatment outcome. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  14. Comprehensive Psychopathological Assessment Based on the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System: Development, Methodological Foundation, Application in Clinical Routine, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Haug, Achim; Fähndrich, Erdmann; Rösler, Michael; Trabert, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The documentation of psychopathology is core to the clinical practice of the psychiatrist and clinical psychologist. However, both in initial as well as further training and specialization in their fields, this particular aspect of their work receives scanty attention only. Yet, for the past 50 years, the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System has been in existence and available as a tool to serve precisely the purpose of offering a systematic introduction to the terminology and documentation of psychopathology. The motivation for its development was based on the need for an assessment procedure for the reliable documentation of the effectiveness of newly developed psychopharmacological substances. Subsequently, the AMDP-System began to be applied in the context of investigations into a number of methodological issues in psychiatry (e.g., the frequency and specificity of particular symptoms, the comparison of rating scales). The System then became increasingly important also in clinical practice and, today, represents the most used instrument for the documentation of psychopathology in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This paper intends to offer an overview of the AMDP-System, its origins, design, and functionality. After an initial account of the history and development of the AMDP-System, the discussion will in turn focus on the System’s underlying methodological principles, the transfer of clinical skills and competencies in its practical application, and its use in research and clinical practice. Finally, potential future areas of development in relation to the AMDP-System are explored. PMID:28439242

  15. Updated standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: The Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); S.J. Head (Stuart); P. Généreux (Philippe); N. Piazza (Nicolo); N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); E.H. Blackstone (Eugene); T.G. Brott (Thomas); D.J. Cohen (David J.); D.E. Cutlip (Donald); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); R.T. Hahn (Rebecca); A.J. Kirtane (Ajay); M. Krucoff (Mitchell); S. Kodali (Susheel); M.J. Mack (Michael); R. Mehran (Roxana); J. Rodés-Cabau (Josep); P. Vranckx (Pascal); J.G. Webb (John); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.B. Leon (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The aim of the current Valvular Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 initiative was to revisit the selection and definitions of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)- clinical endpoints to make them more suitable to the present and future needs of clinical trials.

  16. When Soda Is a Social Justice Issue: Design and Documentation of a Participatory Action Research Project with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    Schools are increasingly seen as having a promising role to play in reducing adverse health and wellness outcomes among young people. This paper uses a collaborative action research approach to examine the effects of one school's efforts to change its students' eating habits by implementing a "junk-food free campus." By engaging school…

  17. A Model of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials for Academic Writing Course: "Needs & Documents Analysis and Model Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghufron, M. Ali; Saleh, Mursid; Warsono; Sofwan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a model of instructional materials for Academic Writing Course focusing on research paper writing. The model was designed based on the Curriculum at the English Education Study Program, Faculty of Language and Art Education of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. This model was developed in order to improve…

  18. Call document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... It works with researchers as they confront contemporar y challenges .... The type of study and method of systematic review of evidence must be ... of sources valuing rigorous qualitative and quantitative research; and should be ...

  19. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts

  20. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  1. Why Antidiabetic Vanadium Complexes are Not in the Pipeline of "Big Pharma" Drug Research? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Thomas; Guevara-Garcia, Jose Antonio; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Laufer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Public academic research sites, private institutions as well as small companies have made substantial contributions to the ongoing development of antidiabetic vanadium compounds. But why is this endeavor not echoed by the globally operating pharmaceutical companies, also known as "Big Pharma"? Intriguingly, today's clinical practice is in great need to improve or replace insulin treatment against Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Insulin is the mainstay therapeutically and economically. So, why do those companies develop potential antidiabetic drug candidates without vanadium (vanadium- free)? We gathered information about physicochemical and pharmacological properties of known vanadium-containing antidiabetic compounds from the specialized literature, and converted the data into explanations (arguments, the "pros and cons") about the underpinnings of antidiabetic vanadium. Some discoveries were embedded in chronological order while seminal reviews of the last decade about the Medicinal chemistry of vanadium and its history were also listed for further understanding. In particular, the concepts of so-called "noncomplexed or free" vanadium species (i.e. inorganic oxido-coordinated species) and "biogenic speciation" of antidiabetic vanadium complexes were found critical and subsequently documented in more details to answer the question.

  2. Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The drug Amprolinsyl is a is a mixture of hydrochloric amprolium (12.5 g and milled fruits of the milk thistle (up to 100 g, designed to prevent and treat protozoonoses in birds, especially when mixed associative invasions occur. The fruits of the milk thistle contain the natural vitamins (A, C, E, B and the minerals (copper, iron, cobalt and other factors that significantly expand and enhance the pharmacological effect of the drug Amprolinsyl. We found that when the drug Amprolinsyl was administered intra gastrically to white rats at a dose of 5000 mg/kg and higher clinical signs of toxicity occurred after 4–5 hours. Damage to motor activity and tremors of individual muscles of these animals was observed. The rats died after 1–4 days. A direct relationship was found between the drug at a specific dosage and the death of rats. After intra gastric administration of the drug Amprolinsyl to white rats clinical signs of toxicity appeared after 5–6 hours at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. These animals attempted to gather in groups and to hide in the bedding. The death of the mice occured in 1–3 days. Thus, LD50 drug of Amprolinsyl following intra gastric administration to white rats (5917 mg/kg and for white mice (5167 mg/kg. After studying the cumulative properties of Amprolinsyl, it was found that the total drug administered in avarage doses was 831 mg/kg, and the cumulative rate – 8.31. Long-term daily intragastric administration of Amprolinsyl over 24 days affected the functional state of the liver and kidneys. The magnitude of weight ratios of lungs, heart and spleen during the research period was the same as in the control group of rats. Significant changes were found only after analyzing the leukocyte profile. A reduction was observed in the number of neutrophils to 54.7% and an increase in the number of lymphocytes to 9.2%. Following prolonged daily administration of increasing doses Amprolinsyl causes a slight degradation of the

  3. Guidelines for the Review of Research Reactor Safety: Revised Edition. Reference Document for IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) is an IAEA safety review service available to Member States with the objective of supporting them in ensuring and enhancing the safety of their research reactors. This service consists of performing a comprehensive peer review and an assessment of the safety of the respective research reactor. The reviews are based on IAEA safety standards and on the provisions of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors. The INSARR can benefit both the operating organizations and the regulatory bodies of the requesting Member States, and can include new research reactors under design or operating research reactors, including those which are under a Project and Supply Agreement with the IAEA. The first IAEA safety evaluation of a research reactor operated by a Member State was completed in October 1959 and involved the Swiss 20 MW DIORIT research reactor. Since then, and in accordance with its programme on research reactor safety, the IAEA has conducted safety review missions in its Member States to enhance the safety of their research reactor facilities through the application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors and the relevant IAEA safety standards. About 320 missions in 51 Member States were undertaken between 1972 and 2012. The INSARR missions and other limited scope safety review missions are conducted following the guidelines presented in this publication, which is a revision of Guidelines for the Review of Research Reactor Safety (IAEA Services Series No. 1), published in December 1997. This publication details those IAEA safety standards and guidance publications relevant to the safety of research reactors that have been revised or published since 1997. The purpose of this publication is to give guidance on the preparation, implementation, reporting and follow-up of safety review missions. It is also intended to be of assistance to operators and regulators in conducting

  4. The Ef fects of Technology Usabilitiy and Individual Technology Readiness on Utilization of Electronic Document Management System (EDMS: A Research on Employee of University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Atilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Document Management System (EDMS is software which is utilized for writing, sending and storing, briefly managing the processes and operations of the corporations and institutions. In this empirical research, the statistical differences are investigated between users’ concerns about usability of mentioned technology, users’ technological readiness levels and users’ utilization status of EDMS sample is formed by 189 administrative staff of a university hospital in Ankara. According to findings, significant statistical differences are found between some dimensions of technology usability (usability effectiveness, learnability,helpfulness satisfaction, some dimensions of technology readiness (discomfort and insecurity and the utilization status (user, nonuser of EDMS.

  5. Orbitmpi Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication

  6. CNEA's quality system documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.M.; Garonis, O.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: To obtain an effective and coherent documentation system suitable for CNEA's Quality Management Program, we decided to organize the CNEA's quality documentation with : a- Level 1. Quality manual. b- Level 2. Procedures. c-Level 3. Qualities plans. d- Level 4: Instructions. e- Level 5. Records and other documents. The objective of this work is to present a standardization of the documentation of the CNEA's quality system of facilities, laboratories, services, and R and D activities. Considering the diversity of criteria and formats for elaboration the documentation by different departments, and since ultimately each of them generally includes the same quality management policy, we proposed the elaboration of a system in order to improve the documentation, avoiding unnecessary time wasting and costs. This will aloud each sector to focus on their specific documentation. The quality manuals of the atomic centers fulfill the rule 3.6.1 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, and the Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They are designed by groups of competent and highly trained people of different departments. The normative procedures are elaborated with the same methodology as the quality manuals. The quality plans which describe the organizational structure of working group and the appropriate documentation, will asses the quality manuals of facilities, laboratories, services, and research and development activities of atomic centers. The responsibilities for approval of the normative documentation are assigned to the management in charge of the administration of economic and human resources in order to fulfill the institutional objectives. Another improvement aimed to eliminate unnecessary invaluable processes is the inclusion of all quality system's normative documentation in the CNEA intranet. (author) [es

  7. National Institute on Drug Abuse International Program: improving opioid use disorder treatment through international research training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Steven W; McCormally, Judy

    2018-07-01

    For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD). Studies in several countries have demonstrated the effectiveness of physician office-based opioid substitution therapies. Other research has demonstrated the effectiveness of different formulations and doses of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, as well as different approaches to providing naloxone to treat opioid overdose. Continuing research into implementation of evidence-based treatment in international settings with limited resources is applicable to US regions that face similar structural, legal, and fiscal constraints. The current review describes international research on OUD treatment and opioid overdose, most coauthored by former NIDA fellows. The findings from outside the United States have important implications for best practices domestically and in other countries that are experiencing increases in OUD prevalence and related overdose deaths.

  8. Use of existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments and their modification: the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Evaluating and Documenting Content Validity for the Use of Existing Instruments and Their Modification PRO Task Force Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Margaret; Burke, Laurie; Erickson, Pennifer; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Patrick, Donald L; Petrie, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are used to evaluate the effect of medical products on how patients feel or function. This article presents the results of an ISPOR task force convened to address good clinical research practices for the use of existing or modified PRO instruments to support medical product labeling claims. The focus of the article is on content validity, with specific reference to existing or modified PRO instruments, because of the importance of content validity in selecting or modifying an existing PRO instrument and the lack of consensus in the research community regarding best practices for establishing and documenting this measurement property. Topics addressed in the article include: definition and general description of content validity; PRO concept identification as the important first step in establishing content validity; instrument identification and the initial review process; key issues in qualitative methodology; and potential threats to content validity, with three case examples used to illustrate types of threats and how they might be resolved. A table of steps used to identify and evaluate an existing PRO instrument is provided, and figures are used to illustrate the meaning of content validity in relationship to instrument development and evaluation. RESULTS & RECOMMENDATIONS: Four important threats to content validity are identified: unclear conceptual match between the PRO instrument and the intended claim, lack of direct patient input into PRO item content from the target population in which the claim is desired, no evidence that the most relevant and important item content is contained in the instrument, and lack of documentation to support modifications to the PRO instrument. In some cases, careful review of the threats to content validity in a specific application may be reduced through additional well documented qualitative studies that specifically address the issue of concern. Published evidence of the content

  9. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  10. Neuroproteases in peptide neurotransmission and neurodegenerative diseases: applications to drug discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Vivian Y H

    2006-01-01

    The nervous system represents a key area for development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent research has demonstrated the critical importance of neuroproteases for the production of specific peptide neurotransmitters and for the production of toxic peptides in major neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer, Huntington, and Parkinson diseases. This review illustrates the successful criteria that have allowed identification of proteases responsible for converting protein precursors into active peptide neurotransmitters, consisting of dual cysteine protease and subtilisin-like protease pathways in neuroendocrine cells. These peptide neurotransmitters are critical regulators of neurologic conditions, including analgesia and cognition, and numerous behaviors. Importantly, protease pathways also represent prominent mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer, Huntington, and Parkinson diseases. Recent studies have identified secretory vesicle cathepsin B as a novel beta-secretase for production of the neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide of Alzheimer disease. Moreover, inhibition of cathepsin B reduces Abeta peptide levels in brain. These neuroproteases potentially represent new drug targets that should be explored in future pharmaceutical research endeavors for drug discovery.

  11. Research progress of PARP-1 inhibitors in antitumor drugs and radionuclide markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lingzhou; Zhang Huabei

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) is a new target in the cancer treatment nowadays. PARP not only can repair DNA damage, regulate and control transcription, maintain the stability of intracellular environment and genome, regulate the process of cell survival and death, but also is the main transcription factor in the development of inflammation and the process of cancer. To inhibit PARP activity can reduce the DNA repair function in tumor cells, and increase the sensibility to DNA damage agents, so as to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for tumor. A number of studies have suggested that, whether used alone or combination with other chemotherapy drugs, PARP inhibitors show the potential in the anti-tumor therapeutic areas. In this paper, PARP-1 inhibitors were reviewed in antitumor research progress. According to the stage of development , PARP-1 inhibitors are classified. Several representative PARP-1 inhibitors, in clinical trials, with potential clinical value were introduced. Positron emission tomography (PET), uses the main short half-life elementary in human body as tracer, and at the molecular level, achieve the no wound, quantitative and dynamic observation about the different changes of metabolites or drugs in the body. PET is the most advanced contemporary video diagnostic technology, and this paper simply introduce the research progress of PARP-1 inhibitors labeled with radioactive nuclides. (authors)

  12. Chiral drug analysis using mass spectrometric detection relevant to research and practice in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-12-21

    This paper reviews analytical approaches published in 2002-2012 for chiral drug analysis and their relevance in research and practice in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Separation systems such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electromigration, and supercritical fluid chromatography, all coupled to mass spectrometry, are discussed. Typical applications are reviewed for relevant chiral analytes such as amphetamines and amphetamine-derived designer drugs, methadone, tramadol, psychotropic and other CNS acting drugs, anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs, and some other drugs. Usefulness of chiral drug analysis in the interpretation of analytical results in clinical and forensic toxicology is discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing a Research Instrument to Document Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitudes Regarding Breast Cancer and Early Detection Techniques for Pakistani Women: The Breast Cancer Inventory (BCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Zehra, Fatima; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz

    2016-12-09

    There is a general hesitation in participation among Pakistani women when it comes to giving their responses in surveys related to breast cancer which may be due to the associated stigma and conservatism in society. We felt that no research instrument was able to extract information from the respondents to the extent it was needed for the successful execution of our study. The need to develop a research instrument tailored for Pakistani women was based upon the fact that most Pakistani women come from a conservative background and sometimes view this topic as provocative and believe discussing publicly about it as inappropriate. Existing research instruments exhibited a number of weaknesses during literature review. Therefore, using them may not be able to extract information concretely. A research instrument was, thus, developed exclusively. It was coined as, "breast cancer inventory (BCI)" by a panel of experts for executing a study aimed at documenting awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Pakistani women regarding breast cancer and early detection techniques. The study is still in the data collection phase. The statistical analysis involved the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure and Bartlett's test for sampling adequacy. In addition, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were, also employed. This concept paper focuses on the development, piloting and validation of the BCI. It is the first research instrument which has high acceptability among Pakistani women and is able to extract adequate information from the respondents without causing embarrassment or unease.

  14. Developing a Research Instrument to Document Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitudes Regarding Breast Cancer and Early Detection Techniques for Pakistani Women: The Breast Cancer Inventory (BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abbas Naqvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a general hesitation in participation among Pakistani women when it comes to giving their responses in surveys related to breast cancer which may be due to the associated stigma and conservatism in society. We felt that no research instrument was able to extract information from the respondents to the extent it was needed for the successful execution of our study. The need to develop a research instrument tailored for Pakistani women was based upon the fact that most Pakistani women come from a conservative background and sometimes view this topic as provocative and believe discussing publicly about it as inappropriate. Existing research instruments exhibited a number of weaknesses during literature review. Therefore, using them may not be able to extract information concretely. A research instrument was, thus, developed exclusively. It was coined as, “breast cancer inventory (BCI” by a panel of experts for executing a study aimed at documenting awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Pakistani women regarding breast cancer and early detection techniques. The study is still in the data collection phase. The statistical analysis involved the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO measure and Bartlett’s test for sampling adequacy. In addition, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA were, also employed. This concept paper focuses on the development, piloting and validation of the BCI. It is the first research instrument which has high acceptability among Pakistani women and is able to extract adequate information from the respondents without causing embarrassment or unease.

  15. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  16. Omega documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  18. Development of a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Introduce Drug-Receptor Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie I. Swanson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Course-based research experiences (CUREs are currently of high interest due to their potential for engaging undergraduate students in authentic research and maintaining their interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors. As part of a campus-wide initiative called STEMCats , which is a living learning program offered to freshman STEM majors at the University of Kentucky funded by a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we have developed a CURE for freshmen interested in pursuing health care careers. Our course, entitled “Drug–Drug Interactions in Breast Cancer,” utilized a semester-long, in-class authentic research project and instructor-led discussions to engage students in a full spectrum of research activities, ranging from developing hypotheses and experimental design to generating original data, collaboratively interpreting results and presenting a poster at a campus-wide symposium. Student's feedback indicated a positive impact on scientific understanding and skills, enhanced teamwork and communication skills, as well as high student engagement, motivation, and STEM belonging. STEM belonging is defined as the extent to which a student may view the STEM fields as places where they belong. The results obtained from this pilot study, while preliminary, will be useful for guiding design revisions and generating appropriate objective evaluations of future pharmacological-based CUREs.

  19. Pushing the accelerator - speeding up drug research with accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, R.C. E-mail: colin.garner@cbams.co.uk; Leong, D

    2000-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive analytical method yet developed for elemental isotope analysis and has a broad range of applications. The measurement of {sup 14}C is of most interest to biomedical researchers but few studies have been reported using AMS in drug discovery and development. For biomedical use, {sup 14}C is incorporated into organic molecules by either radiosynthesis or biosynthetically and the isotope is used as a surrogate for the distribution of the radiolabelled molecule either in animal or human studies. The majority of users of {sup 14}C quantitate the radioactivity using decay counting usually with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). Our Centre over the past 12 months has been evaluating and validating the use of AMS as an alternative detection method. In vitro spiking studies of human plasma with {sup 14}C-Fluconazole, a prescription antifungal drug has demonstrated an excellent correlation between AMS and LSC (correlation coefficient 0.999). Human Phase I clinical studies have been conducted with radioactive doses ranging from 120 Bq (7000 dpm) to 11 kBq (300 nCi) to provide mass balance, plasma concentration and radioactive metabolite profiling data. Limits of detection of 0.00022 Bq {sup 14}C-labelled drug/ml plasma have been accurately quantitated in a plasma background of 0.0078 Bq/ml (0.013 dpm/ml in a plasma background of 0.47 dpm/ml or 2.72 pMC in a background of 90.19 pMC)

  20. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  1. Compliance revisited: pharmaceutical drug trials in the era of the contract research organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvallen, Petra

    2009-12-01

    Over the past decade, the management of clinical trials of pharmaceuticals has become a veritable industry, as evidenced by the emergence and proliferation of contract research organizations (CROs) that co-ordinate and monitor trials. This article focuses on work performed by one CRO involved in the introduction of new software, modelled on industrial production processes, into clinical trial practices. It investigates how this new management technique relates to the work performed in the clinic to ensure that trial participants comply with the protocol. Using an analytical distinction between 'classical' management work and invisible work, the article contextualizes the meaning of compliance in the clinic and suggests that the work involved in producing compliance should be taken into consideration by those concerned with validity of trials, as clinical trials are put under private industrial management. The article builds on participant observation at a Swedish university hospital and interviews the nurses, dieticians, doctors and a software engineer, all part of a team involved in pharmaceutical drug trials on a potential obesity drug.

  2. Student Problems with Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimer, Gloria R.; Perry, Margaret M.

    1986-01-01

    Interviews with faculty, a survey of 20 students, and examination of style manuals revealed that students are confused by inconsistencies in and multiplicity of styles when confronted with writing and documenting a research paper. Librarians are urged to teach various citation formats and work for adoption of standardization. (17 references) (EJS)

  3. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  4. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  5. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C

    2017-07-01

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Research on the Pathological Mechanism and Drug Treatment Mechanism of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guo-jiang; Tian, Jun-sheng; Gao, Xiao-xia; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the prevalent and persistent psychiatric illnesses. It brings heavy socioeconomic burden such as healthcare expenditures and even higher suicide rates. Despite many hypotheses about its mechanism have been put forward, so far it is still unclear, not to mention the precise and effective diagnostic or therapeutic methods. In this paper, the current conditions of pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were reviewed systematically. Firstly, the most recent hypotheses and metabolomics based research including hereditary, neurotransmitter systems, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory as well as metabolomics were summarized. Secondly, the present situation and development on antidepressant drugs at home and abroad were reviewed. Finally, a conclusion and prospect on the pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were provided primarily.

  7. Ethical conflicts in public health research and practice: antimicrobial resistance and the ethics of drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Allison E; King, Nicholas B; Foxman, B

    2006-11-01

    Since the 1960s, scientists and pharmaceutical representatives have called for the advancement and development of new antimicrobial drugs to combat infectious diseases. In January 2005, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-TN), MD, introduced a biopreparedness bill that included provisions for patent extensions and tax incentives to stimulate industry research on new antimicrobials. Although government stimulus for private development of new antimicrobials is important, it does not resolve long-standing conflicts of interest between private entities and society. Rising rates of antimicrobial resistance have only exacerbated these conflicts. We used methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a case study for reviewing these problems, and we have suggested alternative approaches that may halt the vicious cycle of resistance and obsolescence generated by the current model of antimicrobial production.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Nand Deepak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. METHODS: 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais, unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists. RESULTS: Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and

  10. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  11. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  12. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  13. [Moderation-integrated-balance presupposition of Chinese medicine compound and pharmacological problems in traditional Chinese drug research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. REXIC project: retrospective cross-sectional study of documentation of informed consent for research biobanking in a public research and teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nobile

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Center for Transfusion Medicine, Cell Therapy and Cryobiology, Milan, Northern Italy, is the headquarter of the POLI-MI biobank. It co-ordinates the biobank activities of the Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan. Such activities require specific safeguarding of donors’ rights and protection of sensitive and genetic data. The Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico has set up a project on informed consent with the aim of developing awareness and understanding of this issue. Within this project, it has been decided to evaluate how consent for biobanking material is expressed. Design and methods. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and completeness of consent to biobanking in the POLI-MI biobank. This was a retrospective study carried out in 2012 on samples of consent declarations collected by biobank units in 2011. Some units used a single, standard consent model available from a previous POLI-MI biobank workgroup. Other units used models which had been previouly formulated. Evaluation was made using a form that indicated the essential elements of consent. Results. A total of 48 consent declarations were collected using the single, standard model and 84 were collected using other models. The consent declarations that used the single, standard model were found to be the most complete and were filled in better than other models. Conclusions. Progressive adoption of a simple, standard consent model is expected to improve the quality of consent acquisition. Regular audit of the compliance of consent practices with ethical and legal requirements is mandatory to improve the quality of research biobanking.

  15. The role of progestins in the behavioral effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse: human and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from human and animal research investigating the influence of progesterone and its metabolites allopreganolone and pregnanolone (progestins) on the effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. Since a majority of these studies have used cocaine, this will be the primary focus; however, the influence of progestins on other drugs of abuse will also be discussed. Collectively, findings from these studies support a role for progestins in (1) attenuating the subjective and physiological effects of cocaine in humans, (2) blocking the reinforcing and other behavioral effects of cocaine in animal models of drug abuse, and (3) influencing behavioral responses to other drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in animals. Administration of several drugs of abuse in both human and nonhuman animals significantly increased progestin levels, and this is explained in terms of progestins acting as homeostatic regulators that decrease and normalize heightened stress and reward responses which lead to increased drug craving and relapse. The findings discussed here highlight the complexity of progestin-drug interactions, and they suggest a possible use for these agents in understanding the etiology of and developing treatments for drug abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  17. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  18. Improving collaborative documentation in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila-Perini, Kati; Salmi, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Complete and up-to-date documentation is essential for efficient data analysis in a large and complex collaboration like CMS. Good documentation reduces the time spent in problem solving for users and software developers. The scientists in our research environment do not necessarily have the interests or skills of professional technical writers. This results in inconsistencies in the documentation. To improve the quality, we have started a multidisciplinary project involving CMS user support and expertise in technical communication from the University of Turku, Finland. In this paper, we present possible approaches to study the usability of the documentation, for instance, usability tests conducted recently for the CMS software and computing user documentation.

  19. Functional genetic research for radiation and drug resistant adenocarcinoma and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Chul, Shin Byung; Kook, Park Hyo; Lee, Hee Min

    2012-01-15

    The work scope of 'Functional genetic research for radiation and drug resistant adenocarcinoma and its application' had contained the research about effect of transgelin(SM22a), neurotensin, metallothionein-1G transgelin-2 genes on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation, cisplatin, MMS, luteolin and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents), which are highly expressed in radiation-induced mutant cells. In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (toxic chemicals)-induced cell death, we utilized sensed (or antisense, small interference RNA) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic chemicals. We also investigated the functions of downstream target genes of transgelin such as IGF-1Rβ/PI3K/AKT pathway and transgelin/metallothioneine in A-549 and HepG2 cells because such target genes are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects against radiation.

  20. Functional genetic research for radiation and drug resistant adenocarcinoma and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Chul, Shin Byung; Kook, Park Hyo; Lee, Hee Min

    2012-01-01

    The work scope of 'Functional genetic research for radiation and drug resistant adenocarcinoma and its application' had contained the research about effect of transgelin(SM22a), neurotensin, metallothionein-1G transgelin-2 genes on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation, cisplatin, MMS, luteolin and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents), which are highly expressed in radiation-induced mutant cells. In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (toxic chemicals)-induced cell death, we utilized sensed (or antisense, small interference RNA) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic chemicals. We also investigated the functions of downstream target genes of transgelin such as IGF-1Rβ/PI3K/AKT pathway and transgelin/metallothioneine in A-549 and HepG2 cells because such target genes are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects against radiation

  1. Drug research methodology. Volume 1, The alcohol-highway safety experience and its applicability to other drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop concerning the alcohol and highway safety experience, which includes research efforts to define the drinking-driving problem and societal responses to reduce the increased highway safety risk attributab...

  2. RHODIOLA ROSEA: STATUS OF RESEARCH AND POSSIBILITIES FOR COSMECEUTICAL AND DERMATOLOGICAL DRUGS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Stepanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea is one of the most popular adaptogene agents. Apart from adaptogene, it has the whole range of other pharmaceutical properties: antioxidant, nootropic, antidepressant, immunomodulatory, and other. Russian industry manufactures liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea, as well as food BAS based on the Rhodiola rosea, but there are no dosage forms for external use.The purpose of this work is to analyze scientific information about general characteristics of the pharmacological activity and possible use of Rhodiola rosea in external drugs and cosmetics.Methods. The following resources were used for general characteristic of Rhodiola rosea, its pharmacological properties, particularly the usage of Rhodiola rosea in medical and cosmetic practices, as well prospects of its external use: eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, ResearchGate, information from manufacturers and dealers web-pages.Results. Rhodiola drugs are considered prospective agents for depressions therapy, Parkinson disease treatment, memory, attention defects, for arrhythmia prevention, stamina increase, and stress level decrease in sport and space medicine, for acceptability and efficiency improvement of chemo- and radiotherapy, as immunostimulatory agent. Nowadays in the Russian Federation Rhodiola rosea liquid extract is used as a tonic agent and is prescribed for over-fatigue in healthy persons, and for the sick, weakened as the result of a long-term treatment. Literature has sufficient amount of data about possible effect of biologically active substances of Rhodiola rosea at external use: antioxidant and antimicrobial, bleaching, UV-protective, metabolism stimulating.Conclusion. Thus, the data obtained give evidence about the prospect of Rhodiola use in cosmeceutics and prove the experience of its traditional use for withering and fat skin treatment, as well as acne.

  3. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.

  4. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The impact of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act on the recruitment of children for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharav, Vera Hassner

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that contrary to the claims made by research stakeholders in industry, academia and government, the shift in public policy since the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997 and its financial incentives to industry to test drugs on children, has had a deleterious impact on children's dignity, health and welfare. Those lucrative incentives offered an opportunity to accelerate the pace of FDA approval for pediatric drug marketing. FDAMA resulted in a radical shift in federal policy to accommodate an expansion of pediatric trials. Children who are precluded from exercising a human adult's right to informed consent to research are increasingly sought as test subjects even when the trials offer no potential benefit for them. Prior to FDAMA children were protected under federal regulations that prohibited their recruitment for experiments that were not in their best interest. This article discusses eight cases and controversies demonstrating that children have been subjected to experiments that exposed them to pain, discomfort, and serious risks of harm. Babies have died testing a lethal heartburn drug; children have been subjected to "forced dose titration" in antidepressant drug trials that resulted in several suicide attempts. Toddlers are currently being subjected to methylphenidate dose tolerance tests without evidence of any pathological condition. Healthy teenagers are being exposed to antipsychotic drugs known to induce severe pathological side effects in speculative "schizophrenia prevention" experiments.

  6. Integrated health outcomes research strategies in drug or medical device development, pre- and postmarketing: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, Xavier; Guyver, Alice; Magaz, Sol; Bigorra, Juan

    2002-06-01

    The implementation of health outcomes research as a healthcare decision-making tool has expanded rapidly in the last decade. Drugs and medical devices are increasingly being required to demonstrate not only their efficacy and safety characteristics, but also their performance in at least three core dimensions of health outcomes research: clinical effectiveness, patient-reported outcomes and economic outcomes. However, the current integration of health outcomes research lacks coordination and communication and as a result, money and time is being spent on the generation of health outcomes research data which can be both insufficient and fail to satisfy the information demands of all the relevant stakeholders. In response to this, a new paradigm is evolving which involves the implementation of health outcomes research strategies that encompass the development, pre- and postmarketing stages of a drug or medical device.

  7. Research review. Interactions between environmental chemicals and drug biotransformation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, A P

    1978-01-01

    Many factors influence the metabolism of drugs in man. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors may play a significant role in explaining the variation observed in the rates of drug metabolism between different individuals. Intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals could enhance or inhibit the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases that metabolise drugs and other foreign chemicals, as well as endogenous substrates such as steroid hormones. A major source of such exposure may be occupational. Exposure to the heavy metal, lead, has been shown to inhibit drug metabolism; whereas intensive exposure to chlorinated insecticides, and other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls, has been shown to enhance the metabolism of test drugs such as antipyrine and phenylbutazone. An intentional source of exposure to foreign chemicals is cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains polycyclic hydrocarbons, which are known inducers of hepatic mixed function oxidases. A number of studies have shown that cigarette smoking can alter the pharmacological action and/or the metabolism of some drugs. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that cigarette smoking decreases the bioavailability of phenacetin and increases dosage requirements of theophylline by enhancing their rate of metabolism. Data, which are not very conclusive, indicate that heavy marijuana use may have an inhibitory effect on metabolism of some drugs and an inducing effect on others such as theophylline. Dietary factors may also play a significant role in the regulation of drug metabolism. Charcoal broiling which introduces polycyclic hydrocarbons into foods has been shown to enhance the metabolism of the test drug, antipyrine, and of such commonly used drugs as phenacetin and theophylline. Such intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals which may alter the rates of drug metabolism in man indicates the importance of individualisation of drug therapy.

  8. Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, James A.; Perez-Velez, Carlos M.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Furin, Jennifer J.; Marais, Ben J.; Tebruegge, Marc; Detjen, Anne; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Shah, Sarita; Adams, Lisa V.; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and st...

  9. Strategy and programs of the research on high-level and long-living radioactive wastes (by right of article L542 of the environment code from December 30, 1991 law). Conjuncture document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gives, in a first part, a brief insight on the main results of the researches carried out in 2002 on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes according to the three research ways defined by the December 30, 1991 law: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep geologic underground, wastes conditioning and storage. The second part of the document is an executive summary of the 2003 edition of the document 'strategy and programs of the researches on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes - SPR 2003'. It presents the content of the different chapters: 1 - researches methodology and implementation of coordinated studies; 2 - researches status 10 years after the enforcement of the law; 3 - the main goals and steps to reach before the 2006 date-line; 4 - the description and analysis of the programs under consideration; 5 - the coordination between French programs; 6 - the international cooperation. (J.S.)

  10. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... consistent, predictable communication of medical policy decisions to the public through guidance, notice and... protection, (6) bioresearch monitoring, (7) good clinical practice, (8) counter-terrorism drug development...

  11. Advances in research of targeting delivery and controlled release of drug-loaded nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhonghua

    2003-01-01

    Biochemistry drug, at present, is still the main tool that human struggle to defeat the diseases. So, developing safe and efficacious technique of drug targeting delivery and controlled release is key to enhance curative effect, decrease drug dosage, and lessen its side effect. Drug-loaded nanoparticles, which is formed by conjugate between nanotechnology and modern pharmaceutics, is a new fashioned pharmic delivery carrier. Because of advantages in pharmic targeting transport and controlled or slow release and improving bioavailability, it has been one of developing trend of modern pharmaceutical dosage forms

  12. [Between scientific management and research-action: the problem of overconsumption of drugs in Kasongo (Zaire)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, V; Van Lerberghe, W; Criel, B; Van Dormael, M

    1996-01-01

    A Primary Health Care (PHC) system may be effective and efficient to the extent that essential drugs are available in health services and financially accessible to the population. In developing countries, besides the difficulties related to supplying health services with adequate amounts of drugs, the control of drug consumption is one of the frequent problems encountered by health authorities. Literature is relatively abundant in the field of rationalization of the diagnosis and drug prescription processes, and also in the field of drug financing mechanisms; publications are however rather scarce when topics related to corruption or drug misappropriation are concerned. The case study submitted hereafter reports a drug overconsumption problem in the health centres (HC) of the Kasongo district (Zaire). Despite the existence of direct control mechanisms as well as indirect ones (monitoring of drug consumption by HC), the problem has been identified belatedly. The district staff then used a step-by-step analysis of the HC drug consumption profiles; this analysis allowed to demonstrate that misappropriation would be the most plausible hypothesis. In order to solve the misappropriation problem-the consequences of which jeopardized the functioning of the very health system-the district staff chose to involve the nurses, in charge of the HC, in the entire problem-solving process. This participative approach, involving different actors as partners, allowed to deepen the situation analysis and to elaborate solutions congruent with PHC principles and acceptable to all concerned.

  13. Why Research Design and Methods Is So Crucial to Understanding Drug Use/Abuse: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Lawrence M

    2018-06-01

    The collection of articles in this special issue both raise the bar and inspire new thinking with regard to both design and methodology concerns that influence drug use/abuse research. Thematically speaking, the articles focus on issues related to missing data, response formats, strategies for data harmonization, propensity scoring methods as an alternative to randomized control trials, integrative data analysis, statistical corrections to reduce bias from attrition, challenges faced from conducting large-scale evaluations, and employing abductive theory of method as an alternative to the more traditional hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Collectively, these issues are of paramount importance as they provide specific means to improve our investigative tools and refine the logical framework we employ to examine the problem of drug use/abuse. Each of the authors addresses a specific challenge outlining how it affects our current research efforts and then outlines remedies that can advance the field. To their credit, they have included issues that affect both etiology and prevention, thus broadening our horizons as we learn more about developmental processes causally related to drug use/abuse and intervention strategies that can mitigate developmental vulnerability. This is the essential dialogue required to advance our intellectual tool kit and improve the research skills we bring to bear on the important questions facing the field of drug use/abuse. Ultimately, the goal is to increase our ability to identify the causes and consequences of drug use/abuse and find ways to ameliorate these problems as we engage the public health agenda.

  14. Structured evaluation of rodent behavioral tests used in drug discovery research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of rodent behavioral tests are currently being used to evaluate traits such as sensory-motor function, social interactions, anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, substance dependence and various forms of cognitive function. Most behavioral tests have an inherent complexity, and their use requires consideration of several aspects such as the source of motivation in the test, the interaction between experimenter and animal, sources of variability, the sensory modality required by the animal to solve the task as well as costs and required work effort. Of particular importance is a test’s validity because of its influence on the chance of successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings. High validity may, however, have to be balanced against practical constraints and there are no behavioral tests with optimal characteristics. The design and development of new behavioral tests is therefore an ongoing effort and there are now well over one hundred tests described in the contemporary literature. Some of them are well established following extensive use, while others are novel and still unproven. The task of choosing a behavioral test for a particular project may therefore be daunting and the aim of the present review is to provide a structured way to evaluate rodent behavioral tests aimed at drug discovery research.

  15. Center for Cancer Research plays key role in first FDA-approved drug for treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research’s ability to rapidly deploy integrated basic and clinical research teams at a single site facilitated the rapid FDA approval of the immunotherapy drug avelumab for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer. Learn more...  

  16. Overview of 3D Documentation Data and Tools available for Archaeological Researches: case study of the Romanesque Church of Dugny-sur-Meuse (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, H.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Kraemer, C.; Guillemin, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the 3D documentation of the full structure of the Romanesque church of Dugny-sur-Meuse is discussed. In 2012 and 2013, a 3D recording project was carried out under the supervision of the Photogrammetry and Geomatics Research Group from INSA Strasbourg (France) in cooperation with C. Kraemer, archaeologist from Nancy (France). The goal of the project was on one hand to propose new solutions and tools to the archaeologists in charge of the project especially for stone by stone measurements. On the other hand, a simplified 3D model was required by the local authorities for communication purposes. To achieve these goals several techniques were applied namely GNSS measurements and accurate traverse networks, photogrammetric recordings and terrestrial laser scanning acquisitions. The various acquired data are presented in this paper. Based on these data, several deliverables are also proposed. The generation of orthoimages from plane as well as cylindrical surfaces is considered. Moreover, the workflow for the creation of a 3D simplified model is also presented.

  17. Overview of 3D Documentation Data and Tools available for Archaeological Researches: case study of the Romanesque Church of Dugny-sur-Meuse (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Macher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the 3D documentation of the full structure of the Romanesque church of Dugny-sur-Meuse is discussed. In 2012 and 2013, a 3D recording project was carried out under the supervision of the Photogrammetry and Geomatics Research Group from INSA Strasbourg (France in cooperation with C. Kraemer, archaeologist from Nancy (France. The goal of the project was on one hand to propose new solutions and tools to the archaeologists in charge of the project especially for stone by stone measurements. On the other hand, a simplified 3D model was required by the local authorities for communication purposes. To achieve these goals several techniques were applied namely GNSS measurements and accurate traverse networks, photogrammetric recordings and terrestrial laser scanning acquisitions. The various acquired data are presented in this paper. Based on these data, several deliverables are also proposed. The generation of orthoimages from plane as well as cylindrical surfaces is considered. Moreover, the workflow for the creation of a 3D simplified model is also presented.

  18. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction in the Research Interview and Drug-Related Disclosures among Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Interviewers and respondents judged interview interactions during a survey of drug-related sentiments. Pronounced variability in interviewer-respondent judgements occurred in unanticipated ways related to gender, role, and ethnicity of participants. Positive interaction yielded different respondent cognitions and reports of illicit drug ingestion…

  1. Traceability Method for Software Engineering Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Adila Azram; Rodziah Atan

    2012-01-01

    Traceability has been widely discussed in research area. It has been one of interest topic to be research in software engineering. Traceability in software documentation is one of the interesting topics to be research further. It is important in software documentation to trace out the flow or process in all the documents whether they depends with one another or not. In this paper, we present a traceability method for software engineering documentation. The objective of this research is to fac...

  2. Muons, soap, and drug delivery - an invitation to enter a new field of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roduner, E

    2003-02-01

    Based on a recent report on an avoided-level-crossing {mu}SR study of cosurfactant partitioning in lamellar phase systems, it is proposed that the same technique can be used to determine the partitioning of drug molecules between aqueous environments such as cell fluids and lipid-like environments of a cell membrane, or of polymer or model-lipid based liposomes. The latter serve as drug carriers and play an important role in drug delivery. Understanding the biodistribution of drugs and their partitioning in model systems is essential for the design of drug delivery concepts, but it is often difficult or impossible to obtain such information by conventional methods. It is outlined here how the muon can be used as a novel probe for such investigations.

  3. Indicators of prescribing quality in drug utilisation research : report of a European meeting (DURQUIM, 13-15 May 2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, JL; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Vander Stichele, RH

    An invitational expert meeting on indicators of prescribing quality was held on 13-15 May 2004, bringing together-from 19 European countries, the US, Canada, and Australia-40 researchers specialized in the development and application of indicators. The meeting was organized by the European Drug

  4. Non human primate models for Alzheimer's disease-related research and drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain insufficiently documented for the identification of accurate diagnostic markers and purposeful target discovery and development. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) have important translational value given their close

  5. Magnetic fusion program summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This document outlines the current and planned research, development, and commercialization (RD and C) activities of the Offic of Fusion Energy under the Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this document is to explain the Office of Fusion Energy's activities to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public

  6. Skin too thin? The developing utility of zebrafish skin (neuro)pharmacology for CNS drug discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-09-01

    Skin coloration can be affected by many genetic, environmental and pharmacological factors. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful and versatile model organism in biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, physiological homology to mammals, low cost, reproducibility and high throughput. Zebrafish coloration is mediated by chromatophores - the skin color pigment cells largely controlled by endocrine and neural mechanisms. The characteristic darkening of zebrafish skin is caused by the dispersion (and paling - by aggregation) of melanosomes (pigment-containing organelles), which show high homology to mammalian structures. Various pharmacological agents potently affect zebrafish coloration - the phenotype that often accompanies behavioral effects of the drugs, and may be used for drug discovery. Although zebrafish behavior and skin responses are usually not directly related, they share common regulatory (neural, endocrine) mechanisms, and therefore may be assessed in parallel during psychotropic drug screening. For example, some psychoactive drugs can potently affect zebrafish skin coloration. Can we use this knowledge to refine phenotype-driven psychotropic drug discovery? Here, we present current models using zebrafish skin coloration assays, and discuss how these models may be applied to enhance in vivo CNS drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-market drug evaluation research training capacity in Canada: an environmental scan of Canadian educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew O; Soon, Judith A; MacLeod, Stuart M; Sharma, Sunaina; Patel, Anik

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts by Health Canada intended to modernize the legislation and regulation of pharmaceuticals will help improve the safety and effectiveness of drug products. It will be imperative to ensure that comprehensive and specialized training sites are available to train researchers to support the regulation of therapeutic products. The objective of this educational institution inventory was to conduct an environmental scan of educational institutions in Canada able to train students in areas of post-market drug evaluation research. A systematic web-based environmental scan of Canadian institutions was conducted. The website of each university was examined for potential academic programs. Six core programmatic areas were determined a priori as necessary to train competent post-market drug evaluation researchers. These included biostatistics, epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, health economics or pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics and patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Twenty-three academic institutions were identified that had the potential to train students in post-market drug evaluation research. Overall, 23 institutions taught courses in epidemiology, 22 in biostatistics, 17 in health economics/pharmacoeconomics, 5 in pharmacoepidemiology, 5 in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, and 3 in patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Of the 23 institutions, only the University of Ottawa offered six core courses. Two institutions offered five, seven offered four and the remaining 14 offered three or fewer. It is clear that some institutions may offer programs not entirely reflected in the nomenclature used for this review. As Heath Canada moves towards a more progressive licensing framework, augmented training to increase research capacity and expertise in drug safety and effectiveness is timely and necessary.

  8. [Evaporation of selected cytotoxic drugs and permeation of protective gloves--research into the occupational risks of health care personnel handling hazardous cytotoxic drugs (CYTO project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalová, L; Odráska, P; Gorná, L; Prudilová, M; Vejpustková, R; Bláha, L

    2009-01-01

    The CYTO project studies an important aspect of healthcare provision -long-term occupational exposure, both threshold and below-threshold, to chemical agents with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, with the major focus on antineoplastic drugs.This contribution presents experimental results from the first stages of the project's experimental work, i.e. an evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristics of cytostatic agents (evaporation) and an investigation into protective glove permeation. In co-operation with IUTA (Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V., Duisburg, Germany), the vapour pressure of paclitaxel, doxorubicin and dacarbazine was measured following OECD guideline No. 104: Vapour pressure curve--vapour pressure balance. Furthermore, the evaporation of cytostatic drugs was examined in actual laboratory conditions by monitoring the airborne concentration using the passive sampling technique. Besides the evaporation of selected drugs, the permeation of cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel through different types of gloves (vinyl, latex, nitrile) was assessed. Although our experiments showed relatively slow evaporation of the evaluated cytostatic drugs (the highest pressure in paclitaxel was 0.024 Pa), equilibrium concentrations may go up to milligrams per cubic metre. Nevertheless, analytical measurements of airborne contamination did not confirm these concentration levels. The glove permeation experiments with cytostatics showed good resistance of nitrile gloves (which were impermeable to all five drugs). Other materials should be avoided while handling cytostatic agents (e.g. maximum permeation of cyclophosphamide through latex was 19 microg/sq cm/hr). Although the volatility of cytostatic agents is low, it cannot be neglected considering the chronic character of exposure. However, in order to estimate actual occupational exposure, future research should focus on the development of sensitive analytical

  9. Toward Omics-Based, Systems Biomedicine, and Path and Drug Discovery Methodologies for Depression-Inflammation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Nowak, Gabriel; Caso, Javier R; Leza, Juan Carlos; Song, Cai; Kubera, Marta; Klein, Hans; Galecki, Piotr; Noto, Cristiano; Glaab, Enrico; Balling, Rudi; Berk, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Meta-analyses confirm that depression is accompanied by signs of inflammation including increased levels of acute phase proteins, e.g., C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-6. Supporting the translational significance of this, a meta-analysis showed that anti-inflammatory drugs may have antidepressant effects. Here, we argue that inflammation and depression research needs to get onto a new track. Firstly, the choice of inflammatory biomarkers in depression research was often too selective and did not consider the broader pathways. Secondly, although mild inflammatory responses are present in depression, other immune-related pathways cannot be disregarded as new drug targets, e.g., activation of cell-mediated immunity, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, autoimmune responses, bacterial translocation, and activation of the toll-like receptor and neuroprogressive pathways. Thirdly, anti-inflammatory treatments are sometimes used without full understanding of their effects on the broader pathways underpinning depression. Since many of the activated immune-inflammatory pathways in depression actually confer protection against an overzealous inflammatory response, targeting these pathways may result in unpredictable and unwanted results. Furthermore, this paper discusses the required improvements in research strategy, i.e., path and drug discovery processes, omics-based techniques, and systems biomedicine methodologies. Firstly, novel methods should be employed to examine the intracellular networks that control and modulate the immune, O&NS and neuroprogressive pathways using omics-based assays, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, immunoproteomics and metagenomics. Secondly, systems biomedicine analyses are essential to unravel the complex interactions between these cellular networks, pathways, and the multifactorial trigger factors and to delineate new drug targets in the cellular

  10. Areva - 2011 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having indicated the person responsible of this document and the legal account auditors, and provided some financial information, this document gives an overview of the different risk factors existing in the company: law risks, industrial and environmental risks, operational risks, risks related to large projects, market and liquidity risks. Then, after having recalled the history and evolution of the company and the evolution of its investments over the last five years, it proposes an overview of Areva's activities on the markets of nuclear energy and renewable energies, of its clients and suppliers, of its strategy, of the activities of its different departments. Other information are provided: company's flow chart, estate properties (plants, equipment), an analysis of its financial situation, its research and development policy, the present context, profit previsions or estimations, management organization and operation

  11. Coffee shops and clinics: the give and take of doing HIV/AIDS research with injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, A; Loxley, W

    1992-06-01

    We discuss recruiting and interviewing injecting drug users and using research as health promotion in the context of collecting information related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) from a convenience sample of 200 injecting drug users, half in treatment and half not, in 1989 and 1990 in Perth, Western Australia. A variety of recruiting methods were used including advertising, referral by agency staff, 'snowballing' and approaches to personal contacts and others known to inject by the interviewer. Snowballing and personal contacts were the most successful means of recruiting those not in treatment, while advertising was comparatively unsuccessful with this group because of the importance of establishing the credibility of the study and the interviewer among injecting drug users before they will volunteer to be involved. The promotion of behavioural risk reduction among respondents during the interview is detailed. We argue that the traditionally rigid separation between research and intervention is inappropriate in the HIV/AIDS context. When lives are potentially at stake, any contact with injecting drug users, especially those not in treatment (where may receive HIV/AIDS education), must be used as an HIV/AIDS prevention opportunity, and the interview is an ideal opportunity. The employment of research as community intervention is also discussed.

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. [Frontiers in Live Bone Imaging Researches. Novel drug discovery by means of intravital bone imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in intravital bone imaging technology has enabled us to grasp the real cellular behaviors and functions in vivo , revolutionizing the field of drug discovery for novel therapeutics against intractable bone diseases. In this chapter, I introduce various updated information on pharmacological actions of several antibone resorptive agents, which could only be derived from advanced imaging techniques, and also discuss the future perspectives of this new trend in drug discovery.

  14. Acquiring and disseminating unpublished economic and social development materials in Africa: The case of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwafo-Akoto, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Generally in Africa, the identification and acquisition of both published and unpublished documents can be an extremely difficult task due, among other factors, to the unsatisfactory state of the publishing industry and the poor state of bibliographic control. This paper analyzes the various problems involved in the acquisition of documents in Africa and illustrates them with the author's personal experience as an acquisitions librarian working on an information project which necessitated travel to about 15 African countries.

  15. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Southwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions.

  16. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-01-16

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. Moral Stress, Moral Practice, and Ethical Climate in Community-Based Drug-Use Research: Views From the Front Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie; Fried, Adam L

    2013-01-01

    The role of front-line researchers, those whose responsibilities include face-to-face contact with participants, is critical to ensuring the responsible conduct of community-based drug use research. To date, there has been little empirical examination of how front-line researchers perceive the effectiveness of ethical procedures in their real-world application and the moral stress they may experience when adherence to scientific procedures appears to conflict with participant protections. This study represents a first step in applying psychological science to examine the work-related attitudes, ethics climate, and moral dilemmas experienced by a national sample of 275 front-line staff members whose responsibilities include face-to-face interaction with participants in community-based drug-use research. Using an anonymous Web-based survey we psychometrically evaluated and examined relationships among six new scales tapping moral stress (frustration in response to perceived barriers to conducting research in a morally appropriate manner); organizational ethics climate; staff support; moral practice dilemmas (perceived conflicts between scientific integrity and participant welfare); research commitment; and research mistrust. As predicted, front-line researchers who evidence a strong commitment to their role in the research process and who perceive their organizations as committed to research ethics and staff support experienced lower levels of moral stress. Front-line researchers who were distrustful of the research enterprise and frequently grappled with moral practice dilemmas reported higher levels of moral stress. Applying psychometrically reliable scales to empirically examine research ethics challenges can illuminate specific threats to scientific integrity and human subjects protections encountered by front-line staff and suggest organizational strategies for reducing moral stress and enhancing the responsible conduct of research.

  18. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  19. Extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in antimicrobial drug development research: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Bird, Emma; Gibson, Andy; Grier, Sally; Chin, Teh Li; Stoddart, Margaret; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognized as bringing a range of benefits to clinical and health services research. Recent systematic reviews have identified and synthesized many benefits (eg higher recruitment rates) and some costs (eg extra time need). Much of the literature focuses on PPI in long-term conditions rather than more acute health care in which the majority of microbiological research is undertaken. The aim was to identify the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. Objectives were to identify any relevant reporting of PPI in antimicrobial research; appraise the quality of reporting on PPI using recognized PPI reporting and critical appraisal tools; and extract and synthesize data on the impact of PPI. A systematic review was undertaken with a search strategy based on four word groups (PPI, patients, antimicrobial drug development and outcomes). Eight online databases were searched. English language publication, publication between 1996 and 2016 and studies describing PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. No studies were found through online searching that met the search strategy and inclusion criteria. One relevant protocol paper with a brief mention of PPI was identified through expert recommendation. Commentary papers recommending PPI were identified through website searching and expert opinion. Despite strong policy guidance encouraging PPI at the international and national levels, and anecdotal accounts of PPI taking place, evidence for the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research has not yet appeared in the peer-reviewed literature. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Leachables and Extractables Working Group Initiatives for Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Product (PODP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiet, Diane; Jenke, Dennis; Ball, Douglas; Houston, Christopher; Norwood, Daniel L; Markovic, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium of organizations working together to generate and share timely, relevant, and impactful information that advances drug product quality and development. The collaborative activities of PQRI participants have, in the case of orally inhaled and nasal drug products (OINDPs), resulted in comprehensive and widely-accepted recommendations for leachables assessments to help ensure patient safety with respect to this class of packaged drug products. These recommendations, which include scientifically justified safety thresholds for leachables, represent a significant milestone towards establishing standardized approaches for safety qualification of leachables in OINDP. To build on the success of the OINDP effort, PQRI's Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products (PODP) Leachables and Extractables Working Group was formed to extrapolate the OINDP threshold concepts and best practice recommendations to other dosage forms with high concern for interaction with packaging/delivery systems. This article considers the general aspects of leachables and their safety assessment, introduces the PODP Work Plan and initial study Protocol, discusses the laboratory studies being conducted by the PODP Chemistry Team, outlines the strategy being developed by the PODP Toxicology Team for the safety qualification of PODP leachables, and considers the issues associated with application of the safety thresholds, particularly with respect to large-volume parenterals. Lastly, the unique leachables issues associated with biologics are described. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium involving industry organizations, academia, and regulatory agencies that together provide recommendations in support of regulatory guidance to advance drug product quality. The collaborative activities of the PQRI Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products Leachables and Extractables Working Group resulted in a

  1. Aspects of physicians' attitudes towards the rational use of drugs at a training and research hospital: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz Basaran, Nesrin; Akici, Ahmet

    2013-08-01

    The rational use of drugs (RUD) is primarily the responsibility of physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physicians are aware of RUD principles and how they apply them in daily medical practice. A total 136 physicians working at the Kartal Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul were enrolled in the study between February and March 2012. A face-to-face interview was conducted with physicians to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding RUD. A large majority of the physicians declared that consultation time was insufficient (84 %). The data obtained from the survey indicate that 54 % of the enrolled physicians monitored the therapeutic outcome and that 27 % found the information given to the patient to be sufficient. Participating physicians stated that the less known characteristics of the drugs they prescribed were drug interactions, traceability in market, and price. The most preferred reference source was Vademecum (a drug guideline prepared by the private sector). Two major factors contributing to prescribing patterns were "self study" and "observation of teachers" at clinical training. There was a significant difference between internists-surgeons and residents-specialists in the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p change in managerial practices within the healthcare system. The other, more essential explanation is education; consequently, serious consideration should be given to including effective clinical pharmacotherapy training and RUD courses in the medical education curriculum.

  2. On the Potential Implications of Reports of Fictitious Drug Use for Survey Research on Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-08-01

    A variety of methodological issues have been raised over self-reports of delinquency and its correlates. In this study, we call attention to the provision of untruthful information and provide an investigation of this issue using a survey item that assesses a respondent's use of a fictitious drug in relation to reports of delinquency and traditional criminological correlates. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted based on data drawn from a probability sample of middle and high school students in Florida. Results show (a) there are important differences on key criminological variables between respondents who report use of a fictitious drug and those who do not; (b) the internal consistency of a variety index of delinquency is particularly sensitive to the inclusion of respondents reporting the use of a fictitious drug; and (c) the effect size of some criminological variables on delinquency may be sensitive to controlling for reports of fictitious drug use. Overall, the inclusion of fictitious drug use items within etiological models may serve as a useful approach to further establishing the reliability and validity of information provided by survey respondents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, India--a profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Research and development of anti-Alzheimer's disease drugs: an update from the perspective of technology flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunmeng; Lin, Hui-Heng; Pi, Rongbiao; Mak, Shinghung; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia

    2018-04-01

    Today, over 20 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide. AD has become a critical issue to human health, especially in aging societies, and therefore it is a research hotspot in the global scientific community. The technology flow method differs from traditional reviews generating an informative overview of the research and development (R&D) landscape in a specific technological area. We need such an updated method to get a general overview of the R&D of anti-AD drugs in light of the dramatic developments in this area in recent years. Areas covered: This study collects patent data from the Integrity database. A total of 399 patents with 821 internal citation pairs in the US from 1978 to 2017 were analyzed. Patent citation network analysis was used to visualize the technology relationship. Expert opinion: For better production of anti-AD drugs, governments should emphasize the multi-target drug design, provide policy support for private companies, and encourage multilateral cooperation. The β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) theory leaves much to be desired; neurotransmitter and tau protein hypotheses are worth further examination. The use of old drugs for new indications is promising, as are traditional herbal medicines.

  5. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  6. Mother-infant consultation during drug treatment: Research and innovative clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Barry M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper details a model for consulting with mothers and infants, and drug treatment staff used in a residential drug treatment program and relevant to other treatment settings. The role of parent-infant consultation based on the Neonatal Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS was evaluated. Methods A sequential cohort model was used to assign participants to 1. NNNS consultation versus 2. standard care. The effects of NNNS consultation were evaluated using the Parenting Stress Index and NNNS summary scores. Results Participants in the NNNS consultation condition had significantly less stress overall, and less stress related to infant behavior than participants in standard care. There were no differences in infant behavior on the NNNS Summary scores. Conclusion The implications for NNNS consultation in drug treatment programs is outlined. The importance of prevention/intervention to establish satisfactory mother-infant interaction in recovery programs which include a central parenting component is indicated.

  7. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  8. Commercial speech and off-label drug uses: what role for wide acceptance, general recognition and research incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    approval. Distributions of information about unapproved uses should not be acceptable unless experts consider the expanded use to be generally recognized as safe and effective based on adequate studies. The last part of this paper considers the need to develop better research incentives to encourage more testing and post-market risk surveillance by drug makers on off-label uses of their drugs. Violations of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) can be considered violations of the False Claims Act, which opens the way to fraud and abuse suits. The scale of penalties involved in these suits may lead to more examination of the scope of FDA regulation and commercial speech protections. Thus this symposium's consideration of these issues is timely and important.

  9. Semiconductor technology in protein kinase research and drug discovery: sensing a revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Estrela, Pedro; Pula, Giordano

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of protein kinase activity in 1954, close to 600 kinases have been discovered that have crucial roles in cell physiology. In several pathological conditions, aberrant protein kinase activity leads to abnormal cell and tissue physiology. Therefore, protein kinase inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments for several diseases, including dementia, diabetes, cancer and autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. Modern semiconductor technology has recently been applied to accelerate the discovery of novel protein kinase inhibitors that could become the standard-of-care drugs of tomorrow. Here, we describe current techniques and novel applications of semiconductor technologies in protein kinase inhibitor drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Double pharmacological challenge on repolarization opens new avenues for drug safety research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2007-01-01

    pointes (TdP) arrhythmia. Both the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory bodies are neglecting the available proarrhythmia models. In vitro studies have suggested that combined pharmacological hits on repolarization will produce a superior substrate for in vivo proarrhythmia, compared to the single......-drug assessment. By using consecutive pharmacological challenges, a simple model is proposed, in which combinatorial pharmacology is employed to provoke TdP in the conscious dog. The pharmaceutical industry interested in evaluating the proarrhythmic potential of their present and future drugs now has a simple...

  11. [Fritz hauschild (1908-1974) and drug research in the 'German Democratic Republic' (GDR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U

    2005-06-01

    The chemist and pharmacologist Fritz Hauschild developed the sympathomimetic agent Pervitin (metamphetamin) in the 1930s. Not only because of the abuse of the stimulant during the Second World War ("pilot's chocolate") it is one of the most controversial substances in drug history. Nearly forgotten are Hauschild's contributions to build up the drug system in the GDR. Although he was a convinced communist, the skilful pharmacologist gave very early warning of the imminent lack of innovation in the GDR pharmaceutical industry. A letter which he addressed to the Minister of Health, Max Sefrin (born 1913), did not lack explicitness.

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Alcohol & Drug Abuse Research Unit at the South African Medical Research Council - strengthening substance abuse research and policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Morojele, Neo; Myers, Bronwyn; Plüddemann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit (ADARU) was established at the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) at the beginning of 2001, although its origins lie in the activities of the Centre for Epidemiological Research in Southern Africa and other MRC entities. Initial challenges included attracting external funding, recruiting new staff, developing the skills of junior staff, publishing in international journals and building national and international collaborative networks. ADARU currently comprises a core staff of 33 members who work on 22 projects spanning substance use epidemiology and associated consequences, intervention studies with at-risk populations and services research. A large component of this portfolio focuses on the link between alcohol and other drug use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour, with funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Junior staff members are encouraged to develop independent research interests and pursue PhD studies. Research outputs, such as the 20 papers that were published in 2010 and the 35 conference presentations from that year, form an important part of the unit's research translation activities. We engage actively with policy processes at the local, provincial, national and international levels, and have given particular attention to alcohol policy in recent years. The paper includes an analysis of major challenges currently facing the unit and how we are attempting to address them. It ends with some thoughts on what the unit intends doing to enhance the quality of its research, the capacity of its staff and its international standing. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Gaining Access to Hidden Populations: Strategies for Gaining Cooperation of Drug Sellers/Dealers and Their Families in Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This article examines strategies for gaining the cooperation of drug sellers and their families in order to conduct ethnographic research. The strategies were developed during an eight year study of drug dealers in New York City. A key element in gaining the ability to talk with and observe drug dealers and their family members was the availability of funds to compensate respondents for interviews and other expenses associated with building and maintaining rapport. Access to more successful crack sellers and dealers rested upon the right contacts. The “right contact” is a critical element. Locating a trusted “go-between” was adapted from strategies employed by cocaine sellers to arrange transactions involving large quantities of drugs. Such transactions rely upon a trusted associate of a dealer, the “go-between,” who performs various roles and assumes risks the dealer wishes to avoid. The role of the go-between became important when ethnographers attempted to reach drug dealers for research purposes. Favors and trust are central components in the equation of access to the dealer and his family. Favors are a part of drug dealers' interaction patterns: everyone owes someone else a favor. Such reciprocity norms exist independently of the amount of drugs involved and outlast any particular transaction. Reputations and favors are related. This framework of favors, trust, and reciprocity provides a basis for the ethnographer to gain an introduction to dealers and sellers. The “go-between” is critical because he/she explains the ethnographer's role to the dealer and helps arrange an initial meeting between the ethnographer and the seller. Once the go-between has provided an initial introduction, the ethnographer marshals the communication skills necessary to convince the dealer to allow further contact and conversations. This article examines the ritual of initial conversation within its cultural framework. Developing rapport requires showing

  14. An Analysis of Televised Public Service Advertising. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; And Others

    Government regulations state that broadcasters are obligated to allot program time to matters of public interest, but neither law nor precedent have determined their commitment to present messages on social problems. To determine the amount of public service advertising (PSA) that is broadcast, particularly anti-drug appeals, a content analysis…

  15. 75 FR 34452 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Plan; Availability for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane... sources. This wealth of data holds great potential to advance CDER's regulatory and scientific work, but... improvements requires careful analysis, advanced planning, project management, expert input, and effective...

  16. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  17. New trial evaluates investigational drug for endometrial and breast cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial is testing ONC201, an investigational drug that in laboratory studies has been shown to kill breast and endometrial cancer cells most likely by destroying mitochondria within the tumor cells. Mitochondria are the “powerhouse” of the cell, and blocking its activity may kill tumor cells and shrink tumors in human patients.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  19. Engineering Documentation and Data Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Michael J.; Bramley, Craig; Ciaruffoli, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    Mississippi Space Services (MSS) the facility services contractor for NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), is utilizing technology to improve engineering documentation and data control. Two identified improvement areas, labor intensive documentation research and outdated drafting standards, were targeted as top priority. MSS selected AutoManager(R) WorkFlow from Cyco software to manage engineering documentation. The software is currently installed on over 150 desctops. The outdated SSC drafting standard was written for pre-CADD drafting methods, in other words, board drafting. Implementation of COTS software solutions to manage engineering documentation and update the drafting standard resulted in significant increases in productivity by reducing the time spent searching for documents.

  20. The "War on drugs" in Nigeria: How effective and beneficial is it in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since drugs became both a public and social issue in Nigeria, fear about both the real ... research literature, published documents and media reports on drug policy matters. ... The shift will provide far more cost-effective drug control results and ...

  1. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  3. From Recreational to Functional Drug Use: The Evolution of Drugs in American Higher Education, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Ross D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over…

  4. Neuromarketing techniques in pharmaceutical drugs advertising. A discussion and agenda for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzan, G; Zara, I A; Purcarea, V L

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an "explosion" in the abilities of scientists to use neuroscience in new domains. Unfortunately, it is little known and reported on how advertising companies make more effective pharmaceutical drugs commercials. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how neuromarketing techniques may impact the consumer response to pharmaceutical advertising campaigns. The result shows that using neuromarketing methods a pharmaceutical company can better understand the conscious and unconscious consumer's thoughts and tailor specific marketing messages.

  5. Scaling Up Research on Drug Abuse and Addiction Through Social Media Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Das, Amarendra K

    2017-01-01

    Background Substance use–related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outco...

  6. A quest for antipsychotic drug actions in the brain: personal experiences from 50 years of neuropsychiatric research at Karolinska Institutet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedvall, Göran

    2007-09-10

    The exploration of physiological and molecular actions of psychoactive drugs in the brain represents a fundamental approach to the understanding of emerging psychological phenomena. The author gives a personal account of his medical training and research career at Karolinska Institutet over the past 50 years. The paper aims at illustrating how a broad medical education and the integration of basic and clinical neuroscience research is a fruitful ground for the development of new methods and knowledge in this complicated field. Important aspects for an optimal research environment are recruitment of well-educated students, a high intellectual identity of teachers and active researchers, international input and collaboration in addition to good physical resources. In depth exploration of specific signaling pathways as well as an integrative analysis of genes, molecules and systems using multivariate modeling, and bioinformatics, brain mechanisms behind mental phenomena may be understood at a basic level and will ultimately be used for the alleviation and treatment of mental disorders.

  7. Benchtop-NMR and MRI--a new analytical tool in drug delivery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Hendrik; Mäder, Karsten

    2008-12-08

    During the last years, NMR spectroscopy and NMR imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) have been increasingly used to monitor drug delivery systems in vitro and in vivo. However, high installation and running costs of the commonly used superconducting magnet technology limits the application range and prevents the further spread of this non-invasive technology. Benchtop-NMR (BT-NMR) relaxometry uses permanent magnets and is much less cost intensive. BT-NMR relaxometry is commonly used in the food and chemical industry, but so far scarcely used in the pharmaceutical field. The paper shows on several examples that the application field of BT-NMR relaxometry can be extended into the field of drug delivery, including the characterisation of emulsions and lipid ingredients (e.g. the amount and physicochemical state of the lipid) and the monitoring of adsorption characteristics (e.g. oil binding of porous ingredients). The most exciting possibilities of BT-NMR technology are linked with the new development of BT-instruments with imaging capability. BT-MRI examples on the monitoring of hydration and swelling of HPMC-based monolayer and double-layer tablets are shown. BT-MRI opens new MRI opportunities for the non-invasive monitoring of drug delivery processes.

  8. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  9. Orphan drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...

  10. 智慧型文件與智慧型系統整合之研究 A Research on the Integration of Intelligent Document and Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文首先從系統智慧化與文件智慧化兩個領域逐漸匯流的角度切入,探討電子文件的智慧化程度實是影響智慧型檢索系統性能的重要因素;接著,從XML發展趨勢觀之,我們認為以XML為核心的技術已經逐漸扮演了提升文件智能的重要角色;再者,藉由一系列的實作,我們以XML為核心,建置了XML資料交換系統、XML新聞管理與出版系統、XML/CMARC編目系統和WAPOPAC行動公用目錄系統,分別驗證了XML在資料交換方面、在內文語意描述方面、在圖書館自動化的編目系統方面和行動資訊檢索方面,皆有著不可忽視的應用潛力。This study focuses on the integration of intelligent documents and intelligent systems.First, the paper defines the intelligent document as an electronic document that has extra self-description information, semantically. We believe that the intelligence of the document would be an important factor that impacts the performance of information retrieval systems. Next, by exploring the development of XML, we find that the XMLbased technologies already became the principle of intelligent documents. Moreover, a series of system implementations have been done in this paper, they are a data exchange system, a news publication system, an XML-based CMARC cataloging system and a WAP-based OPAC system. These experiments demonstrate the application potentials of XML in many fields, such as electronic data exchange, electronic publication, library automation and mobile information service of library.

  11. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  13. AREVA 2010 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this document, and of statutory auditors, this report proposes some selected financial information. Then, it addresses, presents and comments the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risks related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risk. Then, after a presentation of the issuer, it proposes a business overview (markets for nuclear and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, strategy, activities), a presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of AREVA properties, plants and equipment (sites, environmental issues), an analysis and comment of the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of its capital resources, an overview of its research and development activities, programs, patents and licenses. It indicates profit forecast and estimates, presents the administrative, management and supervisory bodies, and compensation and benefits amounts, reports of the functioning of corporate bodies. It describes the human resource company policy, indicates the main shareholders and transactions with related parties. It proposes financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. This document contains its French and its English versions

  14. IDENTIDAD FEMENINA Y CONSUMO DE DROGAS: UN ESTUDIO CUALITATIVO / FEMININE IDENTITY AND DRUG USE: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pérez Gómez* y Marcela Correa Muñoz**

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste estudio examina la relación entre identidad femenina (IF y consumo de drogas. Setenta y seis mujeres de tresgrupos de edades (jóvenes, adultas jóvenes y adultas mayores, de tres niveles socioeconómicos (alto, medio y bajo y trescircunstancias de consumo (consumidoras, no consumidoras y ex consumidoras fueron entrevistadas sobre seis aspectos:la definición de ser mujer y las diferencias con ser hombre; la autovaloración femenina; los factores que influyen en laconstrucción de la IF; la evolución de la IF; IF y consumo de drogas; factores protectores y de riesgo.Las entrevistadas consideraron que la mayor parte de los cambios recientes dentro de la sociedad occidental hanmejorado sustancialmente la condición de la mujer, aun cuando algunos de esos cambios también han incrementado suvulnerabilidad y están asociados al notable aumento del consumo de drogas entre las mujeres. Varios de los factoresmencionados no suelen aparecer en los estudios sobre este tema ("mal uso de la libertad", "abandono de responsabilidades","conducta sexual inadecuada" probablemente porque sus autores temen que se les acuse de estar censurando a las mujerescontemporáneas; en este estudio se presentan las percepciones de las mujeres, no las interpretaciones de los autores.ABSTRACTThis study examines the relationship between feminine identity and drug use. Seventy-six women in three ages groups(young, young adults, and mature adults, in three socio-economic levels (upper, medium, low and three drug use conditions(non users, users and ex users were interviewed on six aspects: definition of being a woman; and difference with being amale, women’s self-evaluation, factors influencing the development of FI; FI and drug use; and risk and protective factors.The results showed that the interviewees think that most of the changes that occurred in West society have substantiallyimproved women’s condition; nevertheless, some of those changes have also

  15. Neuromarketing techniques in pharmaceutical drugs advertising. A discussion and agenda for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzan, G; Zara, IA; Purcarea, VL

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen an “explosion" in the abilities of scientists to use neuroscience in new domains. Unfortunately, it is little known and reported on how advertising companies make more effective pharmaceutical drugs commercials. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how neuromarketing techniques may impact the consumer response to pharmaceutical advertising campaigns. The result shows that using neuromarketing methods a pharmaceutical company can better understand the conscious and unconscious consumer’s thoughts and tailor specific marketing messages. PMID:23346245

  16. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  17. Towards a 21st-century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: consensus report and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gillian R; Adcock, Ian M; Busquet, François; Crofton, Kevin M; Csernok, Elena; Giese, Christoph; Heinonen, Tuula; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Landesmann, Brigitte; Marshall, Lindsay J; McIvor, Emily; Muotri, Alysson R; Noor, Fozia; Schutte, Katrin; Seidle, Troy; van de Stolpe, Anja; Van Esch, Hilde; Willett, Catherine; Woszczek, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies, and the corporate and non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors, in this consensus report, we analyse, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of genome-wide association studies for cancer research and drug repositioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhun Zhang

    Full Text Available Although genome-wide association studies have identified many risk loci associated with colorectal cancer, the molecular basis of these associations are still unclear. We aimed to infer biological insights and highlight candidate genes of interest within GWAS risk loci. We used an in silico pipeline based on functional annotation, quantitative trait loci mapping of cis-acting gene, PubMed text-mining, protein-protein interaction studies, genetic overlaps with cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes, and functional enrichment analysis to prioritize the candidate genes at the colorectal cancer risk loci. Based on these analyses, we observed that these genes were the targets of approved therapies for colorectal cancer, and suggested that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study highlights the use of publicly available data as a cost effective solution to derive biological insights, and provides an empirical evidence that the molecular basis of colorectal cancer can provide important leads for the discovery of new drugs.

  19. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  20. Enterprise Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The function of the operation is to provide e-Signature and document management support for Acquisition and Assisitance (A&A) documents including vouchers in...

  1. WIPP documentation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plung, D.L.; Montgomery, T.T.; Glasstetter, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Publications and Procedures Section developed a documentation plan that provides an integrated document hierarchy; further, this plan affords several unique features: 1) the format for procedures minimizes the writing responsibilities of the technical staff and maximizes use of the writing and editing staff; 2) review cycles have been structured to expedite the processing of documents; and 3) the numbers of documents needed to support the program have been appreciably reduced

  2. Intestinal Stem Cells to Advance Drug Development, Precision, and Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift in Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochel, Jonathan P; Jergens, Albert E; Kingsbury, Dawn; Kim, Hyun Jung; Martín, Martín G; Allenspach, Karin

    2017-12-12

    Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies. Importantly, because they are derived from individuals with different genotypes, environmental risk factors and drug sensitivity profiles, organoids are a highly relevant screening system for personalized therapy in both human and veterinary medicine. Lastly, and in the context of patient-specific congenital diseases, orthotopic transplantation of engineered organoids could repair and/or replace damaged epithelial tissues reported in various GI diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, and tuft enteropathy. Ongoing translational research on organoids derived from dogs with naturally occurring digestive disorders has the potential to improve the predictability of preclinical models used for optimizing the therapeutic management of severe chronic enteropathies in human patients.

  3. [Threshold value for reimbursement of costs of new drugs: cost-effectiveness research and modelling are essential links].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Severens, Johan L; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing discussion in the Netherlands about the introduction of a threshold value for the costs per extra year of life when reimbursing costs of new drugs. The Medicines Committee ('Commissie Geneesmiddelen'), a division of the Netherlands National Healthcare Institute ('Zorginstituut Nederland'), advises on reimbursement of costs of new drugs. This advice is based upon the determination of therapeutic value of the drug and the results of economic evaluations. Mathematical models that predict future costs and effectiveness are often used in economic evaluations; these models can vary greatly in transparency and quality due to author assumptions. Standardisation of cost-effectiveness models is one solution to overcome the unwanted variation in quality. Discussions about the introduction of a threshold value can only be meaningful if all involved are adequately informed, and by high quality in cost-effectiveness research and, particularly, economic evaluations. Collaboration and discussion between medical specialists, patients or patient organisations, health economists and policy makers, both in development of methods and in standardisation, are essential to improve the quality of decision making.

  4. Documenting Employee Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  5. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  6. Common single nucleotide variants underlying drug addiction: more than a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Calleja-Conde, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Drug-related phenotypes are common complex and highly heritable traits. In the last few years, candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with drug use, abuse or dependence, mainly related to alcohol or nicotine. Nevertheless, few of these associations have been replicated in independent studies. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the SNPs that have been most significantly associated with alcohol-, nicotine-, cannabis- and cocaine-related phenotypes in humans between the years of 2000 and 2012. To this end, we selected CGAS, GWAS, family-based association and case-only studies published in peer-reviewed international scientific journals (using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Addiction GWAS Resource databases) in which a significant association was reported. A total of 371 studies fit the search criteria. We then filtered SNPs with at least one replication study and performed meta-analysis of the significance of the associations. SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes, in the cholinergic gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes, are, to date, the most replicated and significant gene variants associated with alcohol- and nicotine-related phenotypes. In the case of cannabis and cocaine, a far fewer number of studies and replications have been reported, indicating either a need for further investigation or that the genetics of cannabis/cocaine addiction are more elusive. This review brings a global state-of-the-art vision of the behavioral genetics of addiction and collaborates on formulation of new hypothesis to guide future work. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Application of drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy. Basic research toward clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons ( 10 B+ 1 n → 7 Li+ 4 He (α) +2.31 MeV (93.7%)/2.79 MeV (6.3%)). The resulting lithium ions and αparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5-9 μm) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma etc, recently. Sodium borocaptate (Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH; BSH) and borono-phenylalanine ( 10 BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. To achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, drug delivery system (DDS) becomes an attractive intelligent technology as targeting and controlled release of drugs. We have firstly reported that 10 B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes are cytotoxic to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) after thermal neutron irradiation in vitro. The intra-tumoural injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10 B atoms in tumour cells, causing suppression of tumour growth in vivo following thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared polyethylene-glycol binding liposomes (PEG-liposomes) as an effective 10 B carrier to obviate phagocytosis by reticuloendotherial systems. We had prepared 10 BSH entrapped Water-in-Oil-in-Water (WOW) emulsion. The 10 B concentration in VX-2 tumour after intra-arterial injection of 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion was superior to the groups of 10 BSH entrapped conventional Lipiodol mix emulsion. 10 Boron entrapped WOW emulsion is one of the most useful for intra-arterial boron delivery carrier on BNCT to hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  8. Computerized clinical decision support systems for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise-Kelly Lorraine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some drugs have a narrow therapeutic range and require monitoring and dose adjustments to optimize their efficacy and safety. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs may improve the net benefit of these drugs. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve processes of care or patient outcomes for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. Studies from our previous review were included, and new studies were sought until January 2010 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and Inspec databases. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of a CCDSS on process of care or patient outcomes were selected by pairs of independent reviewers. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were identified, assessing the effect of a CCDSS on management of vitamin K antagonists (14, insulin (6, theophylline/aminophylline (4, aminoglycosides (3, digoxin (2, lidocaine (1, or as part of a multifaceted approach (3. Cluster randomization was rarely used (18% and CCDSSs were usually stand-alone systems (76% primarily used by physicians (85%. Overall, 18 of 30 studies (60% showed an improvement in the process of care and 4 of 19 (21% an improvement in patient outcomes. All evaluable studies assessing insulin dosing for glycaemic control showed an improvement. In meta-analysis, CCDSSs for vitamin K antagonist dosing significantly improved time in therapeutic range. Conclusions CCDSSs have potential for improving process of care for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, specifically insulin and vitamin K antagonist dosing. However, studies were small and generally of modest quality, and effects on patient outcomes were uncertain, with no convincing

  9. 78 FR 15953 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Regulatory Research Related to Food and Drug Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... enacted in 1992, has provided FDA with the resources and process enhancements to enable a transformation... performance goals and procedures outlined within PDUFA V will require a high degree of leadership, research...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft PowerPoint documents require the free ...

  11. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  12. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  13. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  14. Recording the Personal: The Benefits in Maintaining Research Diaries for Documenting the Emotional and Practical Challenges of Fieldwork in Unfamiliar Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Ciaran Browne PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of personal research diaries maintained during a prolonged period spent working in Palestine, this article analyses the importance of maintaining research diaries when on fieldwork. The evidence produced stems from a content analysis of fieldwork diaries kept while researching commemorative events in the West Bank, Palestine, during a period of global uncertainty and at a time of much change in the region. In espousing the benefits of the fieldwork diary it is shown that diaries assume a more important role than acting as a mere logging device; they have the capacity to allow for personal reflection and to help with the development of strategic responses to the inevitable challenges one would expect to face when working far from the relative comfort of home. The research diary as a cathartic tool for researchers to record fears and shortcomings in their work is discussed and personal insights into some of the challenges this researcher faced when engaged in ethnographic work in Ramallah, Palestine are provided. In summarising the benefits of maintaining research diaries, the author, lamenting the lack of transparency in the literature to date on the practicalities of fieldwork, calls for more open and honest reflection on the challenges associated with conducting fieldwork, particularly that which takes place in volatile or unstable regions.

  15. The Role of Knowledge Brokers: Lessons from a Community Based Research Study of Cultural Safety in Relation to People Who Use Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jane; Mollison, Ashley; Browne, Annette; Parker, Joanne; Pauly, Bernie

    2017-01-01

    The study explored cultural safety as a strategy to address the stigma of substance use in acute care settings. Two research team members took on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in order to liaise between the research team and two distinct research advisory groups: one with people who use drugs and the other nurses. The KBs were instrumental…

  16. Cognitive-enhancing drugs in the healthy population: Fundamental drawbacks and researcher roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsee Leng Choy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs in the healthy population is a controversial topic with numerous and expansive repercussions. By outlining common proponent arguments on the current PCE state of affairs, the definition of normality, and the complex regulation of PCEs, this article addresses why the mainstream use of PCEs in the healthy population is still disadvantageous overall. In this respect, the influence and roles of researchers to the society are emphasized in bringing the focus back to the fundamental issues, which is crucial in deciphering its controversy and avoiding costly societal, research credibility and ethical implications.

  17. New and investigational antiretroviral drugs for HIV infection: mechanisms of action and early research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Numerous investigational antiretroviral agents are in clinical development. Among them are festinavir (BMS986001), a thymidine analogue similar to stavudine with reduced potential for toxicity; GS-7340, a prodrug of tenofovir that achieves greater intracellular concentrations; MK-1439, a nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that retains activity against common NNRTI-associated resistance mutations; and albuvirtide, a long-acting parenteral fusion inhibitor. Investigational integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) include elvitegravir, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as part of a once-daily, single-tablet formulation with cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine; dolutegravir, which maintains some activity against raltegravir- and elvitegravir-resistant mutants; and S/GSK1265744, which also maintains some activity against resistance mutations in the integrase gene and is being developed as a long-lasting parenteral agent. Novel 2-(quinolin-3-yl)acetic acid derivatives (LEDGINs), agents that were originally thought to inhibit the interaction of integrase with its cofactor lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), be active against InSTI-resistant mutants and to have additive activity when combined with InSTIs. This article summarizes a presentation by Michael S. Saag, MD, at the IAS-USA live Improving the Management of HCV Disease continuing medical education program held in New York in October 2012.

  18. Research Perspective: Potential Role of Nitazoxanide in Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Old Drug, New Purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Ehrisman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among gynecological malignancies epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death. Despite improvements in conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate has remained mostly stable over the years, and only 10%–15% of patients maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. To improve the efficacy of ovarian cancer chemotherapy it is essential to develop drugs with new mechanisms of action. Compared to normal tissues, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PDI is a cellular enzyme in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of eukaryotes or the periplasmic region of prokaryotes. This protein catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, which affects protein folding. Selective inhibition of PDI activity has been exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity in human ovarian cancer models. PDI inhibition caused accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which led to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR, and in turn resulted in cell death. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolylbenzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. In this article, we propose that NTZ, acting as PDI inhibitor, may be a new and potent addition to the chemotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  19. Research Perspective: Potential Role of Nitazoxanide in Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Old Drug, New Purpose?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Santo, Nicola, E-mail: nico.disanto@duke.edu; Ehrisman, Jessie [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Among gynecological malignancies epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death. Despite improvements in conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate has remained mostly stable over the years, and only 10%–15% of patients maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. To improve the efficacy of ovarian cancer chemotherapy it is essential to develop drugs with new mechanisms of action. Compared to normal tissues, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PDI is a cellular enzyme in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes or the periplasmic region of prokaryotes. This protein catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, which affects protein folding. Selective inhibition of PDI activity has been exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity in human ovarian cancer models. PDI inhibition caused accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which led to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), and in turn resulted in cell death. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. In this article, we propose that NTZ, acting as PDI inhibitor, may be a new and potent addition to the chemotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  20. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  1. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  2. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  3. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS i

  4. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal

  5. Paleofaunal and Environmental Research on Miocene Fossil Sites TVOR SE and TVOR S on Fort Polk, Louisiana, with Continued Survey, Collection, Processing, and Documentation of other Miocene Localities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiebout, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Focus of paleontological research on the Miocene of Fort Polk is currently the marine locality TVOR SE, which also has yielded large and small terrestrial Miocene vertebrates, and a single Cretaceous...

  6. Just how multi-level is leadership research? A document co-citation analysis 1980–2013 on leadership constructs and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, M.; Vogel, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in both leadership phenomena and leadership outcomes, and which informal research networks drove this evolution, remain vastly unexplored. In this study, the extent of literature published between 19...

  7. Providing an Authentic Research Experience for University of the Fraser Valley Undergraduate Students by Investigating and Documenting Seasonal and Longterm Changes in Fraser Valley Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, S. L.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Bourdages, M.; Paulson, D.; Groeneweg, A.; Bogaerts, P.; Robertson, K.; Clemence, E.; Smith, S.; Yakemchuk, A.; Faber, A.

    2017-12-01

    Undergraduate students in the Geography and Biology Departments at the University of the Fraser Valley (UFV) have been provided the opportunity to participate in the time series sampling of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and Fraser Valley tributaries as part of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Student research has focussed on Clayburn, Willband and Stoney Creeks that flow from Sumas Mountain northwards to the Fraser River. These watercourses are increasingly being impacted by anthropogenic activity including residential developments, industrial activity, and agricultural landuse. Students are instructed in field sampling protocols and the collection of water chemistry data and the care and maintenance of the field equipment. Students develop their own research projects and work in support of each other as teams in the field to collect the data and water samples. Students present their findings as research posters at local academic conferences and at UFV's Student Research Day. Through their involvement in our field research our students have become more aware of the state of our local streams, the methods used to monitor water chemistry and how water chemistry varies seasonally.

  8. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Relevant abstracts were classified as data or non-data based research. Data-based studies were further classified as measurement, descriptive or intervention and their trends examined by country and drug type. Intervention studies were classified by type and their evaluation designs classified using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. There was a statistically significant increase from 1993 to 2014 in the percentage of total publications that were data-based (P Indigenous drug and alcohol field are required. The dominance of descriptive research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field is less than optimal for generating evidence to inform Indigenous drug and alcohol policy and programs. [Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:509-522]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Research Article. Kinetics and Mechanism of Drug Release from Loratadine Orodispersible Tablets Developed without Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciurba Adriana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to develop lactose-free orodispersible tablets with loratadine for patients with lactose intolerance. Materials and methods: Seven compositions (F1-F7 of 10 mg loratadine were prepared in form of orally disintegrating tablets, by direct compression, using croscarmellose sodium and pre-gelatinized starch in various concentrations as superdisintegrants, diluted with microcrystalline cellulose and combined with mannitol and maltodextrin as binder agents. The tablets had been studied in terms of their pharmacotechnical characteristics, by determining: the weight uniformity of the tablets, their friability, breaking strength and disintegration time, drug content and the dissolution profile of loratadine. The statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism Software Inc. As dependent variables, both the hardness of the tablets and their disintegration ability differ between batches due to their compositional differences (as independent variables. DDSolver were used for modeling the kinetic of the dissolution processes by fitting the dissolution profiles with time-dependent equations (Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Peppas-Sahlin. Results: All proposed formulas shows rapid disintegration, in less than 15 seconds, and the dissolution loratadine spans a period of about 10 minutes. Akaike index as well as R2 adjusted parameter have demonstrated that the studied dissolution profiles are the best fitted by Zero-order kinetic. Conclusion: In conclusion, association of croscarmellose sodium (7.5% with pre-gelatinized starch (6% as superdisintegrants and mannitol as the binder agent (35%, positively influences the dissolution properties of loratadine from orally fast dispersible tablets.

  10. The entropic brain:A theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Lester Carhart-Harris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neural dynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of ‘primary states’ is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. It is noted that elevated entropy in this sense, is a characteristic of systems exhibiting ‘self-organised criticality’, i.e., a property of systems that gravitate towards a ‘critical’ point in a transition zone between order and disorder in which certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. This implies that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organised activity within the default-mode network (DMN and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled. These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as REM sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with non-primary states such as normal waking consciousness and the anaesthetised state.

  11. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J.; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R.; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of “primary states” is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit “criticality,” i.e., the property of being poised at a “critical” point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing

  12. [Incentives and disincentives for research and development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Pasqualina Curcio

    2008-10-01

    The authors present a model with factors that influence research and development decisions by the pharmaceutical industry: risk of disease transmission and possibility of control; case-fatality and the presence of cure or treatments; income; number of persons who demand the medicine; and opportunity costs for the company. Companies tend to invest in markets with inelastic demand (highly contagious diseases with no possibility of controlling transmission and/or very lethal diseases without treatment) and/or where there is a large population or high per capita income. Companies tend not to invest in markets where marginal costs exceed marginal income, particularly when costs increase permanently as a consequence of rising opportunity costs generated by foregoing profit in other markets. In such cases, policies to subsidize R&D are not effective, and policies must be orientated towards strengthening basic and applied research by public institutions.

  13. Ethical issues in funding research and development of drugs for neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, L; Braunack-Mayer, A; Gericke, C A

    2009-05-01

    Neglected and tropical diseases, pervasive in developing countries, are important contributors to global health inequalities. They remain largely untreated due to lack of effective and affordable treatments. Resource-poor countries cannot afford to develop the public health interventions needed to control neglected diseases. In addition, neglected diseases do not represent an attractive market for pharmaceutical industry. Although a number of international commitments, stated in the Millennium Development Goals, have been made to avert the risk of communicable diseases, tropical diseases still remain neglected due to delays in international assistance. This delay can be explained by the form international cooperation has generally taken, which is limited to promoting countries' national interests, rather than social justice at a global level. This restricts the international responsibility for global inequalities in health to a humanitarian assistance. We propose an alternative view, arguing that expanding the scope of international cooperation by promoting shared health and economic value at a global level will create new opportunities for innovative, effective and affordable interventions worldwide. It will also promote neglected diseases as a global research priority. We build our argument on a proposal to replace the patenting system that currently regulates pharmaceutical research with a global fund to reward this research based on actual decreases in morbidity and mortality at a global level. We argue that this approach is beneficent because it will decrease global health inequalities and promote social justice worldwide.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Lease of Land for the Development of a Research Park at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-10-07

    As part of its initiative to fulfill its responsibilities to provide support for the incorporated County of Los Alamos (the County) as an Atomic Energy Community, while simultaneously fulfilling its obligations to enhance the self-sufficiency of the County under authority of the Atomic Energy Community Act of 1955 and the Defense Authorization Act, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease undeveloped land in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to the County for private sector use as a research park. The Proposed Action is intended to accelerate economic development activities within the County by creating regional employment opportunities through offering federal land for private sector lease and use. As a result of the proposed land lease, any government expenditures for providing infrastructure to the property would be somewhat supplemented by tenant purchase of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) expertise in research and development activities. The presence of a research park within LANL boundaries is expected to allow private sector tenants of the park to be able to quickly and efficiently call upon LANL scientific expertise and facility and equipment capabilities as part of their own research operations and LANL research personnel, in turn, would be challenged in areas complementary to their federally funded research. In this way a symbiotic relationship would be enjoyed by both parties while simultaneously promoting economic development for the County through new job opportunities at the Research Park and at LANL, new indirect support opportunities for the community at large, and through payment of the basic building space leases. A ''sliding-scale'' approach (DOE 1993) is the basis for the analysis of effects in this Environmental Assessment (EA). That is, certain aspects of the Proposed Action have a greater potential for creating adverse environmental effects than others; therefore, they are discussed in greater detail in this EA

  15. Big reorganisation at the CEA; [structural reorganisation and reform of management methods within the CEA; CEA document on civil nuclear energy policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Following the recommendations of a report prepared by the Director General, CEA is to be reorganised to clarify the division of responsibility within the CEA and to increase its adaptability and openness to the outside world. The management structures have been simplified and two large institutes of the Commissariat, the Institute of Industrial Research and Development and the Institute of Fundamental Research have been disbanded and their activities reallocated to six smaller operational directorates. Seven functional directorates have been created to cover communications, finance, defence issues, manpower, international relations, planning and secretariat. An outline of the new structure is given and explained. (UK)

  16. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  17. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  18. CFO Payment Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Paperless management will enable the CFO to create, store, and access various financial documents electronically. This capability will reduce time looking for...

  19. Current knowledge from experimental works with radioprotective drugs from the viewpoint of latest scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalka, J.

    2008-01-01

    The protection of both human and animal population against a radiation impairment proves to be an impulse for continuous intensive searching for plants with radioprotective properties, identification of their radioprotective components and examination of their effects both in vivo an in vitro. I am presenting the results as well as knowledge of a latest scientific research in this field with testing the following plants: Vigna radiata, Mentha piperita, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Syzygium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus amarus, Aloe vera, Angelica sinensis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Panax ginseng, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Crataegus microphylla. (authors)

  20. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  1. Just how multi-level is leadership research? : A document co-citation analysis 1980–2013 on leadership constructs and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, Matej; Vogel, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in

  2. Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslewood, S.; Leung, E.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events are encouraged. (orig.)

  3. Cell line with endogenous EGFRvIII expression is a suitable model for research and drug development purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Wojciech J; Rosiak, Kamila; Siejka, Paulina; Peciak, Joanna; Popeda, Marta; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Pawlowska, Roza; Treda, Cezary; Hulas-Bigoszewska, Krystyna; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-05-31

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor, characterized by high cellular heterogeneity. About 50% of glioblastomas are positive for EGFR amplification, half of which express accompanying EGFR mutation, encoding truncated and constitutively active receptor termed EGFRvIII. Currently, no cell models suitable for development of EGFRvIII-targeting drugs exist, while the available ones lack the intratumoral heterogeneity or extrachromosomal nature of EGFRvIII.The reports regarding the biology of EGFRvIII expressed in the stable cell lines are often contradictory in observations and conclusions. In the present study, we use DK-MG cell line carrying endogenous non-modified EGFRvIII amplicons and derive a sub-line that is near depleted of amplicons, whilst remaining identical on the chromosomal level. By direct comparison of the two lines, we demonstrate positive effects of EGFRvIII on cell invasiveness and populational growth as a result of elevated cell survival but not proliferation rate. Investigation of the PI3K/Akt indicated no differences between the lines, whilst NFκB pathway was over-active in the line strongly expressing EGFRvIII, finding further supported by the effects of NFκB pathway specific inhibitors. Taken together, these results confirm the important role of EGFRvIII in intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of tumor behavior. Moreover, the proposed models are stable, making them suitable for research purposes as well as drug development process utilizing high throughput approach.

  4. Magnetic fusion: Environmental Readiness Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Environmental Readiness Documents are prepared periodically to review and evaluate the environmental status of an energy technology during the several phases of development of that technology. Through these documents, the Office of Environment within the Department of Energy provides an independent and objective assessment of the environmental risks and potential impacts associated with the progression of the technology to the next stage of development and with future extensive use of the technology. This Environmental Readiness Document was prepared to assist the Department of Energy in evaluating the readiness of magnetic fusion technology with respect to environmental issues. An effort has been made to identify potential environmental problems that may be encountered based upon current knowledge, proposed and possible new environmental regulations, and the uncertainties inherent in planned environmental research

  5. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  6. INFCE plenary conference documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of the reports to the First INFCE Plenary Conference (November 1978) by the Working Groups a Plenary Conference of its actions and decisions, the Communique of the Final INFCE Plenary Conference (February 1980), and a list of all documents in the IAEA depository for INFCE

  7. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Manz, A; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project‿ is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly

  8. Documentation: Records and Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with documentation to include the beginning of documentation, the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice reports and records, and the steps that can be taken to minimize Good Manufacturing Practice documentation problems. It is important to remember that documentation for 503a compounding involves the Formulation Record, Compounding Record, Standard Operating Procedures, Safety Data Sheets, etc. For 503b outsourcing facilities, compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices is required, so this article is applicable to them. For 503a pharmacies, one can see the development and modification of Good Manufacturing Practice and even observe changes as they are occurring in 503a documentation requirements and anticipate that changes will probably continue to occur. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Regulatory considerations concerning IND radiopharmaceutical drug products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissel, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is charged by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as presently amended, to assure that any drug introduced into interstate commerce is safe and effective for the purposes for which it is labeled. A radiopharmaceutical is, by definition, a new drug unless there is in effect an approved New Drug Application (NDA) for it. Before the data for the NDA are compiled, investigative studies have to be done. Before such studies can be performed in humans, an exemption from the Act is necessary. This exemption, technically the Claimed Exemption for an Investigational New Drug, is termed the IND. Both the scientific and the administrative requirements for an IND are discussed. For radiopharmaceutical drug products (RDP's), the radiation hazards, as well as the pharmacological ones, must be documented. Should the early studies demonstrate a potential for efficacy in a certain condition or disease state, an investigative protocol for an extended clinical trial is presented. The necessary requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and consent forms are discussed. For certain research purposes, uniquely for radioactive drugs, an IND is not required for certain specific studies; the requirements for such a research study, conducted under the auspices of an approved radioactive drug research committee, are outlined

  10. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  11. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Yirmyia, Raz; Noraberg, Jens; Brene, Stefan; Hibbeln, Joe; Perini, Giulia; Kubera, Marta; Bob, Petr; Lerer, Bernard; Maj, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressant drugs, which mainly target serotonin, less than two thirds of depressed patients achieve remission. There is now evidence that inflammatory and neurodegenerative (I&ND) processes play an important role in depression and that enhanced neurodegeneration in depression may-at least partly-be caused by inflammatory processes. Multiple inflammatory-cytokines, oxygen radical damage, tryptophan catabolites-and neurodegenerative biomarkers have been established in patients with depression and these findings are corroborated by animal models of depression. A number of vulnerability factors may predispose towards depression by enhancing inflammatory reactions, e.g. lower peptidase activities (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, DPP IV), lower omega-3 polyunsaturated levels and an increased gut permeability (leaky gut). The cytokine hypothesis considers that external, e.g. psychosocial stressors, and internal stressors, e.g. organic inflammatory disorders or conditions, such as the postpartum period, may trigger depression via inflammatory processes. Most if not all antidepressants have specific anti-inflammatory effects, while restoration of decreased neurogenesis, which may be induced by inflammatory processes, may be related to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Future research to disentangle the complex etiology of depression calls for a powerful paradigm shift, i.e. by means of a high throughput-high quality screening, including functional genetics and genotyping microarrays; established and novel animal and ex vivo-in vitro models for depression, such as new transgenic mouse models and endophenotype-based animal models, specific cell lines, in vivo and ex vivo

  12. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-01-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society’s values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents’ profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments

  13. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.boissy@usherbrooke.ca [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada); Cloarec, Jean-Pierre [Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystèmes (LN2), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Canada); Patenaude, Johane [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society’s values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents’ profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  14. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  16. Numerate Intends to Join ATOM Consortium to Rapidly Accelerate Preclinical Drug Development | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO – Computational drug design company Numerate has signed a letter of intent to join an open consortium of scientists staffed from two U.S. national laboratories, industry, and academia working to transform drug discovery and developmen

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... allopathic drugs, especially for chronic conditions also makes TMPs popular ..... sodium benzoate as a preservative in food is established [33]. Tamarindus ... drug-drug interactions since the herbalists did not object to the.

  18. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  19. [Orphan drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  20. The innovative use of a large-scale industry biomedical consortium to research the genetic basis of drug induced serious adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Arthur L

    2007-01-01

    The International Serious Adverse Event Consortium (SAEC) is a pharmaceutical industry and FDA led international (501 c3 non-profit) consortium, focused on identifying and validating DNA-variants useful in predicting the risk of drug induced, rare serious adverse events (SAEs). As such, it functions with the explicit purpose of enhancing the 'public good'. Its members are (i) organizations engaged principally in the business of discovering, developing and marketing pharmaceutical products, or (ii) a charitable, governmental, or other non-profit organization with an interest in researching the molecular basis of drug response.Drug-induced, rare SAEs present significant health issues for patients; and pose challenges for the safe use of approved drugs and the development of new drugs. Examples of drug-induced, rare SAEs include hepatotoxicity, QT prolongation, rhabdomyolosis, serious skin rashes (e.g. SJS), edema, acute renal failure, acute hypersensitivity, anemias/neutropenias, excessive weigh gain, retinopathy, vasculitis, among others. The rarity of such drug induced SAEs and the absence of effective government surveillance/research networks, makes it extremely difficult for any one company or research entity to accrue enough SAE cases and controls to conduct effective whole genome studies. Central to the notion of the SAEC is industry, government and health care providers can join forces to make use of a variety of sample and data resources in researching the genetic basis of these events.The purpose of the SAEC is threefold:•To carry out research directed toward the discovery of DNA-variants clinically useful in understanding and predicting the risk of drug induced serious adverse events and similar scientific research.•To ensure the widespread availability of the results of such research to the scientific research community and the public at large for no charge through publication and web-based methods; and•To educate the scientific research and medical

  1. Development of novel, 384-well high-throughput assay panels for human drug transporters: drug interaction and safety assessment in support of discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaping; Shen, Ding Ren; Han, Yong-Hae; Kong, Yan; Balimane, Praveen; Marino, Anthony; Gao, Mian; Wu, Sophie; Xie, Dianlin; Soars, Matthew G; O'Connell, Jonathan C; Rodrigues, A David; Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities.

  2. The method of quality marker research and quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine based on drug properties and effect characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Bai, Gang; Han, Yanqi; Xu, Jun; Gong, Suxiao; Li, Yazhuo; Zhang, Hongbing; Liu, Changxiao

    2018-05-15

    Quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in industry of TCM. Rapid development of TCM pharmaceutical areas is, however, greatly limited, since there are many issues not been resolved, concerning the quality study of TCM. Core concept of TCM quality as well as the characteristics of TCM was discussed, in order to guide the quality research and evaluation of TCM, further improve the level of TCM quality control. In this review, on the basis of systematic analysis of fundamental property and features of TCM in clinical application, the approaches and methods of quality marker (Q-marker) study were proposed through combination of transitivity and traceability of essentials of quality, correlation between chemical ingredients and drug property/efficacy, as well as analysis of endemicity of ingredients sharing similar pharmacophylogenetic and biosynthetic approaches. The approaches and methods of Q-marker study were proposed and the novel integrated pattern for quality assessment and control of TCM was established. The core concept of Q-marker has helped to break through the bottleneck of the current fragmented quality research of TCM and improved the scientificity, integrity and systematicness of quality control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The creativity of Crumb: research on the effects of psychedelic drugs on the comic art of Robert Crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew T

    2007-09-01

    This article investigates the influence of perception that is altered by psychedelic drugs on processes of creativity through a case study of the work of well-known comic artist Robert Crumb. Samples of Crumb's work before, during, and after the period of his use of psychedelic drugs are content analyzed and compared according to the categorization offered by Janiger and Dobkin de Rios (1989). The results of the comparison indicate that Robert Crumb's drug use significantly altered the stylistic approach of his artwork not only during the period of his drug use, but long after he had stopped using drugs.

  4. Applications for electronic documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) programs being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are underway to upgrade our document system using electronic format. To satisfy external requirements (DOE, State, and Federal), ER ampersand WM programs generate a complement of internal requirements documents including a SAR and Technical Safety Requirements along with procedures and training materials. Of interest, is the volume of information and the difficulty in handling it. A recently prepared ER ampersand WM SAR consists of 1,000 pages of text and graphics; supporting references add 10,000 pages. Other programmatic requirements documents consist of an estimated 5,000 pages plus references

  5. Informational system. Documents management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladut Iacob

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity growing, as well as reducing of operational costs in a company can be achieved by adopting a document management solutions. Such application will allow management and structured and efficient transmission of information within the organization.

  6. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  7. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  8. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and current)....

  9. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ribera Turró

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  10. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  11. DRUG POLICY AND DRUG ADDICTION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İLHAN, Mustafa Necmi

    2018-01-01

    The NationalStrategy Document on Drugs and Emergency Action Plan started with thecontributions of all the relevant institutions within the year of 2014 wasprepared and after that in accordance with the Prime Ministry Notice entitledFight Against Drugs published within this scope, the committees for FightAgainst Drugs were established (under the presidency of Deputy Prime Ministerand with the help of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Laborand Social Security, Ministry of Fam...

  12. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Abeed Sarker; Diego Molla; Cecile Paris

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medic...

  13. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  14. Documentation of spectrom-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Fossum, A.F.; Svalstad, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    SPECTROM-32 is a finite element program for analyzing two-dimensional and axisymmetric inelastic thermomechanical problems related to the geological disposal of nuclear waste. The code is part of the SPECTROM series of special-purpose computer programs that are being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. to address many unique rock mechanics problems encountered in analyzing radioactive wastes stored in geologic formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical models, the finite element formulation and solution procedure of the program, a description of the input data for the program, verification problems, and details about program support and continuing documentation. The computer code documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in the document entitled Final Technical Position on Documentation of Computer Codes for High-Level Waste Management. The principal component models used in the program involve thermoelastic, thermoviscoelastic, thermoelastic-plastic, and thermoviscoplastic types of material behavior. Special material considerations provide for the incorporation of limited-tension material behavior and consideration of jointed material behavior. Numerous program options provide the capabilities for various boundary conditions, sliding interfaces, excavation, backfill, arbitrary initial stresses, multiple material domains, load incrementation, plotting database storage and access of results, and other features unique to the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. Numerous verification problems that exercise many of the program options and illustrate the required data input and printed results are included in the documentation

  15. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC

  16. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  17. Thematic Analysis of Persian Documents in the Field of Quran Study and Medicine in National Scientific-Research Journals from 1992 to 2013 "An Opportunity for Evidence Based Decision Making".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Pezhman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nematollah

    2017-06-01

    Several documents have investigated the area of Quran study and medicine from different points of view; the present study has been assessing all the documents about Quran study and medicine, published in Iranian scientific-research journals, to create an opportunity of revising the interventions executed in this areas and targeting the decisions in order to draw a clear and more realistic vision. In this simple review study, scientific-research and general informative websites in the period of 1992-2013 were explored by taking advantage of critical keywords such as Islamic medicine and Islamic lifestyle. After the initial retrieval, 348 articles were finally ready for the evaluation process. Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of patterns differences between years of study. Minimum and maximum numbers of articles were published in 1992 (0.28 %) and 2011 (12.35 %), respectively. The level of execution of studies by using different methods was as follows: about 3.44 % qualitative, 29.59 % cross-sectional descriptive-analytical, 30.45 % review, 1.14 % case-control, 17.52 % experimental, 3.73 % cohort methods and 12.93 % were performed by other methods. The most common subject study was "The effects of fasting and Ramadan on health" (21.83 %). The most important journals hosting this field articles were the journals of medicine and refinement (27.01 %), as well as the Quran and medicine (12.64 %), respectively. Chi-square test showed significant thematic differences during the 21 years of study. Based on the available evidences, the number of descriptive papers was yet more than the analytical, interventional and scientific-comparative articles. Also, the most studies had been reviewing the medical-Islamic documents. This reflects the need for revising the search strategies of Quran study and medicine.

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  19. Report on the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting on The Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 188Re and 90Y for Radionuclide. Working Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is practiced for the treatment of malignant disorders of various organs and tissues as well as for treating certain other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in understanding tumor biology as well as developments in peptide chemistry and monoclonal antibody technology are opening new opportunities for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, thereby widening the scope of radionuclide therapy. In addition, particulate based radiopharmaceuticals are useful for treating hepatocarcinoma as well as in radiation synovectomy. With the establishment of new products the demand and application of therapeutic nuclear medicine is expected to grow rapidly. While there are a large number of radioisotopes proposed for targeted therapy, practical considerations had been limiting the number of usable isotopes. Generator-produced radionuclides are an attractive option for the large scale on-site availability of therapeutic isotopes. The IAEA’s CRP on the ‘Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides’ (2004-2007) was successful in developing technologies for the preparation of 188 W/ 188 Re and 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators for eluting 188 Re and 90 Y of high radionuclidic and chemical purity usable for research applications in the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The IAEA’s CRP on ‘The development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188 Re and 90 Y for radionuclide therapy’ was formulated to focus on enhancing the capacity of the 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator; to develop and validate quality control methods for the generator eluate; and to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188 Re and 90 Y. The first RCM of the CRP was held in Polatom, Warsaw, Poland from 30 June to 4 July 2008. The meeting reviewed the work going on in the different participating laboratories, and the facilities, expertise and capabilities of the different participating groups, and formulated the work plan of

  20. Report on the 2{sup nd} Research Coordination Meeting on The Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y for Radionuclide. Working Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is practiced for the treatment of malignant disorders of various organs and tissues as well as for treating certain other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in understanding tumor biology as well as developments in peptide chemistry and monoclonal antibody technology are opening new opportunities for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, thereby widening the scope of radionuclide therapy. In addition, particulate based radiopharmaceuticals are useful for treating hepatocarcinoma as well as in radiation synovectomy. With the establishment of new products the demand and application of therapeutic nuclear medicine is expected to grow rapidly. While there are a large number of radioisotopes proposed for targeted therapy, practical considerations had been limiting the number of usable isotopes. Generator-produced radionuclides are an attractive option for the large scale on-site availability of therapeutic isotopes. The IAEA’s CRP on the ‘Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides’ (2004-2007) was successful in developing technologies for the preparation of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generators for eluting {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y of high radionuclidic and chemical purity usable for research applications in the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The IAEA’s CRP on ‘The development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y for radionuclide therapy’ was formulated to focus on enhancing the capacity of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator; to develop and validate quality control methods for the generator eluate; and to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y. The first RCM of the CRP was held in Polatom, Warsaw, Poland from 30 June to 4 July 2008. The meeting reviewed the work going on in the different participating laboratories, and the facilities, expertise and capabilities of the different