The WHO recommendation on essential drugs for cancer chemotherapy has been updated. General principles on the proper role of cancer chemotherapeutic agents in relation to efficacy and on the classification of tumours with respect to their curative potential are discussed. Curable cancers and those cancers where the cost-benefit ratio clearly favours drug treatment can be managed appropriately based on only 24 drugs. Fourteen of them should ideally be available for the treatment of the ten mos...
To assess the availability of essential drugs and the perceptions of clients on drugs situation in the primary health centres of Tafa Local Government Area, north central Nigeria. Checklist consisting ofminimum drugs expected in a generic primary health centre developed by the National Primary Health Care Development ...
Essential drugs for cancer chemotherapy were reviewed in a consultation convened by WHO in Geneva. General principles regarding the proper role of cancer chemotherapeutic agents in relation to other established treatment modalities and the classification of tumours with respect to curative potential are discussed. Curable cancers and those cancers where the cost-benefit ratio clearly favours drug treatment can be managed appropriately using only 14 drugs.
Naven, R T; Louise-May, S
Predictive toxicology plays a critical role in reducing the failure rate of new drugs in pharmaceutical research and development. Despite recent gains in our understanding of drug-induced toxicity, however, it is urgent that the utility and limitations of our current predictive tools be determined in order to identify gaps in our understanding of mechanistic and chemical toxicology. Using recently published computational regression analyses of in vitro and in vivo toxicology data, it will be demonstrated that significant gaps remain in early safety screening paradigms. More strategic analyses of these data sets will allow for a better understanding of their domain of applicability and help identify those compounds that cause significant in vivo toxicity but which are currently mis-predicted by in silico and in vitro models. These 'outliers' and falsely predicted compounds are metaphorical lighthouses that shine light on existing toxicological knowledge gaps, and it is essential that these compounds are investigated if attrition is to be reduced significantly in the future. As such, the modern computational toxicologist is more productively engaged in understanding these gaps and driving investigative toxicology towards addressing them. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wang, Xiujuan; Thijssen, Bram; Yu, Haiyuan
Author Summary The ultimate goal of medical research is to develop effective treatments for disease with minimal side effects. Currently, about 20% of drug candidates failed at clinical trial phases II and III due to safety issues. Therefore, understanding the determining factors of drug side effects is of paramount importance to human health and the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we present the first systematic study to uncover key factors leading to drug side effects within the framework of...
Squizzato, A.; Romualdi, E.; Middeldorp, S.
BACKGROUND: Polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia are chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders, which increase the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis as well as bleeding. In addition to the different therapeutic strategies available, aspirin is often used to prevent
Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of
Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L
This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-α-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall Ross S
Full Text Available Abstract Background New drug targets are urgently needed for parasites of socio-economic importance. Genes that are essential for parasite survival are highly desirable targets, but information on these genes is lacking, as gene knockouts or knockdowns are difficult to perform in many species of parasites. We examined the applicability of large-scale essentiality information from four model eukaryotes, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to discover essential genes in each of their genomes. Parasite genes that lack orthologues in their host are desirable as selective targets, so we also examined prediction of essential genes within this subset. Results Cross-species analyses showed that the evolutionary conservation of genes and the presence of essential orthologues are each strong predictors of essentiality in eukaryotes. Absence of paralogues was also found to be a general predictor of increased relative essentiality. By combining several orthology and essentiality criteria one can select gene sets with up to a five-fold enrichment in essential genes compared with a random selection. We show how quantitative application of such criteria can be used to predict a ranked list of potential drug targets from Ancylostoma caninum and Haemonchus contortus - two blood-feeding strongylid nematodes, for which there are presently limited sequence data but no functional genomic tools. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the utility of using orthology information from multiple, diverse eukaryotes to predict essential genes. The data also emphasize the challenge of identifying essential genes among those in a parasite that are absent from its host.
Ridde, Valéry; Nitièma, Abdoulaye P; Dadjoari, Moussa
Despite the formulation of the Bamako initiative in 1992 in Burkina Faso, not until 2001 and the launching of a project by a nongovernmental organization was the policy really implemented in a region of the country. One of the goals of this policy is to improve access to health care by using generic essential drugs. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of the evaluation of the project's ability to improve the population's access to drugs. The project lasted three years (2001-2003) and the interventions took place in 41 basic health centres of three districts. According to WHO, improving access to drugs requires consideration of four essential factors: rational use, affordable prices, financial viability, and effectiveness of the distribution. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription sheet (n = 1061) was 2.4; 93% of the drugs were prescribed by their generic name (international non-proprietary names); 44% of infant diarrheas were treated with oral rehydration salt. National drug prices were respected but not the directives aiming at exempting from payment or subsidizing certain population sub-groups (children, indigents). The average annual cash flow of the basic health centres was 1.2 million F CFA and it increased by 854% compared to the beginning of the project. The cost-recovery scheme for administrative expenses was 106%. The average annual availability of the 10 essential drugs was 89%. Utilization rates increased (0.13 in 1999 to 0.21 in 2003) but not significantly differently than in other basic health centres of the area not supported by the project (p = 0.084). The project succeeded in improving access to these drugs for the overall population but not for the worst-off. The drugs are now geographically available for all and financially accessible for those who can afford to pay. The intervention strategy supported the sustainability of the project's activities but much remains to be done to provide the poorest with
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.
The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.
Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb maintains metabolic equilibrium to survive during infection and upon exposure to antimycobacterial drugs are poorly characterized. Ergothioneine (EGT and mycothiol (MSH are the major redox buffers present in Mtb, but the contribution of EGT to Mtb redox homeostasis and virulence remains unknown. We report that Mtb WhiB3, a 4Fe-4S redox sensor protein, regulates EGT production and maintains bioenergetic homeostasis. We show that central carbon metabolism and lipid precursors regulate EGT production and that EGT modulates drug sensitivity. Notably, EGT and MSH are both essential for redox and bioenergetic homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses of EGT and MSH mutants indicate overlapping but distinct functions of EGT and MSH. Last, we show that EGT is critical for Mtb survival in both macrophages and mice. This study has uncovered a dynamic balance between Mtb redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, which critically influences Mtb drug susceptibility and pathogenicity.
Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J; Larsen, T A
Eighteen patients with essential tremor were treated for 2 days with a non-selective adrenergic beta-blocking drug (dl-propranolol, 80 mg X 3), a beta-2-selective blocker (ICI-118.551, 50 mg X 3) and placebo (X 3) in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Postural hand tremor was recorded with an accelerometer before administration of the drugs and at the end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, both the beta-blocking drugs caused a statistically significant decrease in tremor intensity and they possessed approximately similar antitremor potency. Subjective benefit was reported by 12 of the 18 patients receiving ICI-118.551, 13 when on propranolol and 3 when on placebo.
Full Text Available We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression.
Full Text Available Background: Development of resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics is an impetus for further attempts to search for new antimicrobial agents. Objectives: In the present study, the antibacterial activity of Saturejahortensis essential oil against multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from the urinary tract infections was investigated. Materials and Methods: During the years 2011 to 2012 a total of 36 strains of pathogenic bacteria including 12 Klebsiellapneumoniae, 12 Escherichia coli and 12 Staphylococcus aureus species were isolated from urine samples of hospitalized patients (Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, South-eastern Iran suffering from urinary tract infections. After bacteriological confirmatory tests, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil of Saturejahortensis were determined using micro-dilution method. Results: The antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli isolates were as follows: ceftazidime (50% cefixime (41.6%, tetracycline (75%, erythromycin (58.3%. However K. pneumoniae isolates showed resistance to ceftazidime (33.3%, cefixime (58.3%, erythromycin (75% and S. aureus isolates were resistant to cefixime (33.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.66%, penicillin (50%, oxacillin (83.3%, ceftazidime (66.6% and vancomycin (8.3%. The essential oil of this plant had inhibitory effect against most isolates. More than 1/3 of the E. coli isolates showed the lowest MIC (10 ppm whereas more than 1/3 of the K. pneumoniae isolates showed the highest (250 ppm MIC values. In contrast ,equal number of S. aureus isolates showed the low MIC values (10 and 50 ppm, while the heighest MIC (250 ppm was seen in 1/3 of isolates and moderate MIC (100 ppm was seen in one isolate only. Conclusions: The Saturejahortensis essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The present study confirms the usefullness of this essential oil as antibacterial agent but further research is
Shao, Hui; Li, Shixue; Xu, Lingzhong; Yang, Shuang; Thomas, Nicholas J; Mir, Mohammed Umer; Guo, Zhen; Ning, Bo; Shi, Lizheng
To predict the prospects of the essential drug system by using the Stakeholder Impact Index (SII) and evaluate the current performance of each main stakeholder and suggested dangerous stakeholders and dormant stakeholders. A Delphi method was used, involving 36 experts with experience in implementation and evaluation of the essential drug policy, to construct the circular model as well as evaluate the performance of each stakeholder. The central government was a dominant stakeholder of the whole essential drug system. The provincial governments were definitive stakeholders, whereas local governments and medical institutions were dependent stakeholders. Furthermore, media and drug stores were dormant stakeholders and pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders. Patients, community residents, and medical insurance programs were discretionary stakeholders. The SII for the essential drug system was positive (SII proj ⁎ = 2.72). The overall anticipation of the essential drug policy is optimistic. Letting definitive stakeholders (provincial governments) having more autonomy can efficiently accelerate the pace of implementation of the essential drug policy in the current situation. Central government, however, also needs to construct an experience exchange platform with the aim of building versatile methods for running the essential drug system in all provinces. Pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders for the essential drug policy. Because of their potential threat to the implementation of the policy, the central government should motivate them to support the construction of the essential drug system spontaneously. In that case, provincial governments need to construct a fair, balanced, and self-stabilized bidding platform. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M; Jennings, Gareth; Zhou, Wenxu; Aksenov, Alexander; Luth, Madeline R; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W David; McKerrow, James H; Podust, Larissa M
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.
Full Text Available Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51 target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.
... Treatment There is no definitive cure for essential tremor. Symptomatic drug therapy may include propranolol or other beta blockers and primidone, an anticonvulsant drug. Eliminating tremor "triggers" ...
Morgan, Steven G; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav
Canada's universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians' pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the supply of essential drugs and the fully filled-in prescription level in the Units Specialized in the Treatment of Chronic Diseases (UNEMES-EC in Mexico. Materials and methods. The supply and prescription indicators were measured in 30 of the 86 existing UNEMES-EC. The supply of drugs was recorded using a list of 17 essential drugs related to the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity. The information on fully filled-in prescriptions was obtained through a questionnaire applied to 1 200 health care users. Results. Only 13.3% of these units showed a complete supply of the 17 essential drugs: Supply levels were higher in units with external drugstore service. 35% of the interviewed patients reported out-of-pocket expenditures in medicines. Conclusion. UNEMES-EC should improve their levels of drug supply and fully filled-in prescriptions to reduce out-of-pocket expenditures.
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the transmission and regulation of oncogenic signals that are essential to cellular proliferation and survival, and thus represent potential targets for anti-cancer therapeutic discovery. Despite their significance, there is no method to experimentally disrupt and interrogate the essentiality of individual endogenous PPIs. The ability to computationally predict or infer PPI essentiality would help prioritize PPIs for drug discovery and help advance understanding of cancer biology.
Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils are influenced by the strain origin (wild, reference, drug sensitive or resistant and it should be taken into consideration whenever investigating the plants’ potential for developing new antimicrobials. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 212-218
Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem
Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for
Raúl E. Molina-Salazar
Full Text Available Para la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS la accesibilidad y la disponibilidad de los medicamentos es un tema central al cual le ha dedicado una gran atención. Si bien la política de medicamentos esenciales ha tenido una acogida favorable por parte de las organizaciones sanitarias, la industria farmacéutica, especialmente sus filiales asentadas en los países menos desarrollados, no ha brindado una respuesta adecuada a los planteamientos de la OMS de proporcionar medicamentos esenciales a precios accesibles. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el precio de los medicamentos esenciales de marca en México en relación al precio de los medicamentos esenciales genéricos disponibles en el mercado internacional. Se estudió una muestra de especialidades farmacéuticas líderes de ventas en su categoría terapéutica y se compararon los precios, por unidades farmacéuticas, de los medicamentos de marca y los medicamentos genéricos a precio internacional. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de precios de los medicamentos esenciales en México es muy elevado. La venta per cápita no se ha reducido, a pesar de la caída del producto interno bruto que se produjo en México a partir del año de 1995. Se discuten las razones de este sobreprecio y se proponen algunas medidas para solucionar este problema.Accessibility and availability of drugs has been a matter of great concern for health services all over the world, especially for less developed countries. The World Health Organization has devoted considerable time to this matter. Although the essential drug policy has been well-accepted by health agencies and NGOs, the pharmaceutical industry has not proven willing to produce essential drugs at affordable prices. The purpose of this study is to examine price levels of essential drugs in Mexico. The evaluation was performed through a comparison of international and national prices for leading drugs in the respective therapeutic categories and
O. G. Smalyuh
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop the method for identification and assay of essential oils of mint and turmeric in complex medicinal product in capsule form. Materials and method.The paper used samples of turmeric and mint essential oils and complex drug, in the form of capsules containing oil of peppermint, oil of Curcuma longa, a mixture of extracts sandy everlasting (Helichrysumarenarium (L. Moench, marigold (Caléndulaofficinális L, wild carrot (Daucussarota and Curcuma longa (Curcuma longa. Results and discussion. The structure of the complex drug is dry extract sand everlasting flowers, wild carrot extract of marigold flowers and fruits thick, dry extract of Curcuma longa and essential oils of peppermint and turmeric. According to the research of different samples of peppermint oil, and given the need for its identification and quantification of the finished medicinal product, we have decided to choose menthol as analytical marker. In order to establish the identity of complex drug its main components - Ar- turmeric, α-and β- turmeric, and their total content must meet the quantitative indicators "content turmerics" in the specifications for turmeric oil. Past studies of sample preparation conditions allowed to offer 96% ethanol to extract oil components from the sample; ultrasonic and centrifugation to improve removal of the capsule weight. Cromatographiccharacteristics of substances was obtained by column firm Agilent, HP-Innowax. It has been established that other active pharmaceutical ingredients capsule (placebo did not affect the quantification of the components of essential oils of mint and turmeric. Conclusions. 1. Chromatographic conditions of identification and assay of essential oils of mint and turmeric in a complex drug and optimal conditions for sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatographyhave been studied. 2. Methods for identification and assay of menthol, α-, β- and Ar- turmerics in complex drug based on
Monzote,Lianet; Montalvo,Ana Margarita; Scull,Ramón; Miranda,Migdalia; Abreu,Juan
To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...
Hercules Sakkas; Panagiota Gousia; Vangelis Economou; Vassilios Sakkas; Stefanos Petsios; Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneum...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively, as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory
Bate, Roger; Tren, Richard; Mooney, Lorraine; Hess, Kimberly; Mitra, Barun; Debroy, Bibek; Attaran, Amir
Background India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively), as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively). Conclusions/Significance In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory system in India needs
Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika
The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.
Millions of people worldwide suffer a range of health and socio-economic related problems because of inadequate availability and use of controlled essential medicines like morphine and codeine for pain treatment. As a result, millions of people, often living in lesser-advanced conditions, suffer in
Shivaraj B Warad
Full Text Available Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.
Warad, Shivaraj B.; Kolar, Sahana S.; Kalburgi, Veena; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.
Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy. PMID:24991068
Drs. R. Pandjaitan
Full Text Available National Quality Control Laboratory of Drugs and Food (NQCL DF is a central quality control laboratory for pharmaceuticals and food commodities under the supervision of the Director General of Drug and Food Control, Ministry of Health.Based on the Ministry of Health Act.No. 145/Menkes/SK/IV/1978, in 1978, NQCL DF was established. In the same year 27 Provincial Quality Control Laboratory of Drug and Food (PQCL DF, in each province in Indonesia were also established based on the Ministry of Health Act.No. 146/Menkes/ SK/IV/1978. The objective of NQCL DF are: To protect the consumers from adulterated or misbranded pharmaceutical and food commodities.To evaluated and to accrediate the quality control laboratories of pharmaceuticals and food commoditities.To control and give guidance to all quality control laboratories of drug and food.To stimulate the quality of domestic products of pharmaceuticals and food commodities to promote the volume of exports.
Dib, Leila; Hayek, Peter; Sadek, Helen; Beyrouthy, Berna; Khalaf, Roy A
Candida albicans is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus that causes mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans pathogenicity is attributed to its ability to exist in different morphologic states and to respond to stress by up regulating several key genes. DDR48 is a stress-associated gene involved in DNA repair and in response to antifungal drug exposure. One allele of DDR48 was knocked out by homologous recombination that inserted a marker cassette in its position. Furthermore, reintroducing DDR48 on a plasmid created a revertant strain. Strains were grown on filamentation inducing and noninducing media, subjected to an oxidative stress challenge, injected into mice to assess virulence, and assayed for antifungal susceptibility by the E-test method. DDR48 was found to be haploid insufficient and possibly essential, since only a heterozygote, but not a homozygous, null mutant was generated. The mutant was filamentation defective on all hyphal media tested including serum and corn meal agar. Discrepancies in drug resistance profiles also were present: compared with the parental strain, DDR48/ddr48 heterozygote strain was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to itraconazole and fluconazole and susceptible to ketoconazole. The mutant also appeared to be hypersensitive to a potentially lethal hydrogen peroxide challenge. However, no reduction in virulence of the mutant was observed. The present findings provide evidence that DDR48 is essential for filamentation, stress response, and possibly viability of C. albicans, making it a prime target for antifungal drug design.
Wallace, Bret D.; Roberts, Adam B.; Pollet, Rebecca M.; Ingle, James D.; Biernat, Kristen A.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Venkatesh, Madhu Kumar; Guthrie, Leah; ONeal, Sara K.; Robinson, Sara J.; Dollinger, Makani; Figueroa, Esteban; McShane, Sarah R.; Cohen, Rachel D.; Jin, Jian; Frye, Stephen V.; Zamboni, William C.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Mani, Sridhar; Kelly, Libusha; Redinbo, Matthew (Einstein); (UNC); (Cornell)
The selective inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidases was recently shown to alleviate drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice, including the damage caused by the widely used anticancer drug irinotecan. Here, we report crystal structures of representative β-glucuronidases from the Firmicutes Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium perfringens and the Proteobacterium Escherichia coli, and the characterization of a β-glucuronidase from the Bacteroidetes Bacteroides fragilis. While largely similar in structure, these enzymes exhibit marked differences in catalytic properties and propensities for inhibition, indicating that the microbiome maintains functional diversity in orthologous enzymes. Small changes in the structure of designed inhibitors can induce significant conformational changes in the β-glucuronidase active site. Finally, we establish that β-glucuronidase inhibition does not alter the serum pharmacokinetics of irinotecan or its metabolites in mice. Together, the data presented advance our in vitro and in vivo understanding of the microbial β-glucuronidases, a promising new set of targets for controlling drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.
Raza, A.; Beg, M.A.
Plasmodium (P.) vivax is the prevalent malarial species accounting for 70% of malaria cases in Pakistan. However, baseline epidemiological data on P. vivax population structure and drug resistance are lacking from Pakistan. For population structure studies, molecular genetic markers, circumsporozoite protein (csp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) are considered useful as these play an important role in P. vivax survival under immune and environmental pressure. Furthermore, these genes have also been identified as suitable candidates for vaccine development. While efforts for effective vaccine are underway, anti-malarial agents remain the mainstay for control. Evidence of resistance against commonly used anti-malarial agents, particularly Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) is threatening to make this form of control defunct. Therefore, studies on drug resistance are necessary so that anti-malarial treatment strategies can be structured and implemented accordingly by the Malaria Control Program, Pakistan. This review aims to provide information on genetic markers of P. vivax population structure and drug resistance and comment on their usefulness in molecular surveillance and control. (author)
Sikora, Magdalena; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zajdel, Joanna; Jastrzębska, Kamila; Cieślak, Przemysław Eligiusz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Engblom, David; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan
Plasticity of the brain's dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1(D1CreERT2) mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1(D1CreERT2) mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general.
Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard
Abstract Plasticity of the brain’s dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1D1CreERT2 mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1D1CreERT2 mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general. PMID:27294197
Kisała, Joanna; Heclik, Kinga I; Pogocki, Krzysztof; Pogocki, Dariusz
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex system controlling two-way substances traffic between circulatory (cardiovascular) system and central nervous system (CNS). It is almost perfectly crafted to regulate brain homeostasis and to permit selective transport of molecules that are essential for brain function. For potential drug candidates, the CNS-oriented neuropharmaceuticals as well as for those of primary targets in the periphery, the extent to which a substance in the circulation gains access to the CNS seems crucial. With the advent of nanopharmacology the problem of the BBB permeability for drug nano-carriers gains new significance. Compare to some other fields of medicinal chemistry, the computational science of nanodelivery is still prematured to offer the black-box type solutions, especially for the BBB-case. However, even its enormous complexity can be spell out the physical principles, and as such subjected to computation. Basic understanding of various physico-chemical parameters describing the brain uptake is required to take advantage of their usage for the BBB-nanodelivery. This mini-review provides a sketchy introduction into essential concepts allowing application of computational simulation to the BBB-nanodelivery design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CPA is widely associated with antiangiogenesis; however, recent studies implicate other immune-based mechanisms, including antitumor innate immunity, which can induce major tumor regression in implanted brain tumor models. This study demonstrates the critical importance of drug schedule: CPA induced a potent antitumor innate immune response and tumor regression when administered intermittently on a 6-day repeating metronomic schedule but not with the same total exposure to activated CPA administered on an every 3-day schedule or using a daily oral regimen that serves as the basis for many clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy. Notably, the more frequent metronomic CPA schedules abrogated the antitumor innate immune and therapeutic responses. Further, the innate immune response and antitumor activity both displayed an unusually steep dose-response curve and were not accompanied by antiangiogenesis. The strong recruitment of innate immune cells by the 6-day repeating CPA schedule was not sustained, and tumor regression was abolished, by a moderate (25% reduction in CPA dose. Moreover, an ~20% increase in CPA dose eliminated the partial tumor regression and weak innate immune cell recruitment seen in a subset of the every 6-day treated tumors. Thus, metronomic drug treatment must be at a sufficiently high dose but also sufficiently well spaced in time to induce strong sustained antitumor immune cell recruitment. Many current clinical metronomic chemotherapeutic protocols employ oral daily low-dose schedules that do not meet these requirements, suggesting that they may benefit from optimization designed to maximize antitumor immune responses.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines.We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu, co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC. For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine.The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6% passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4% gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and
Kaale, Eliangiringa; Manyanga, Vicky; Chambuso, Mhina; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Embrey, Martha; Layloff, Thomas; Johnson, Keith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine. The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and likely due to
Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Severens, Johan L; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Schellens, Jan H M
There is increasing discussion in the Netherlands about the introduction of a threshold value for the costs per extra year of life when reimbursing costs of new drugs. The Medicines Committee ('Commissie Geneesmiddelen'), a division of the Netherlands National Healthcare Institute ('Zorginstituut Nederland'), advises on reimbursement of costs of new drugs. This advice is based upon the determination of therapeutic value of the drug and the results of economic evaluations. Mathematical models that predict future costs and effectiveness are often used in economic evaluations; these models can vary greatly in transparency and quality due to author assumptions. Standardisation of cost-effectiveness models is one solution to overcome the unwanted variation in quality. Discussions about the introduction of a threshold value can only be meaningful if all involved are adequately informed, and by high quality in cost-effectiveness research and, particularly, economic evaluations. Collaboration and discussion between medical specialists, patients or patient organisations, health economists and policy makers, both in development of methods and in standardisation, are essential to improve the quality of decision making.
Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio
The use of aromatic plants to relief different illness is not a new therapy. Actually aromatic plants have been used for many centuries by different cultures around the world. Pharmacological studies provide scientific support to the traditional use of aromatic medicinal plants and aromatherapy; nevertheless, more clinical trials are required regarding to their effectiveness in order to establish a guidance for their use in routine healthcare. Moreover, modern medicine in studies about olfactory function has attained great achievements and got Nobel Prize in 2004. These new searches have obviously fueled interest in the essential oils and volatile compounds of natural origin. Several reviews on the newly discovered AChEi obtained from plants, fungus and marine organisms have also been published over the last years. The majority of these AChEi belong to the alkaloid group, including indole, isoquinoline, quinolizidine, piperidine and steroidal alkaloids. Probably the interest in the essential oils and volatile compounds will be fueled from the new available scientific data about receptor on olfactory mucosa of nasal cavity. It can receive and distinguish different odor molecules, which produce nerve impulse and transmit into olfactory bulb via olfactory nerves. The nerve cells in the olfactory bulb transmit the signals into hippocampus. Because hippocampus is closely related with learning and memory functions, the volatile compounds can be potential drugs in AD therapies.
Augusto Afonso Guerra Jr
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a disponibilidade de medicamentos essenciais em localidades com índice de desenvolvimento humano OBJECTIVE: To investigate the availability of essential drugs in municipalities with a human development index < 0.699. METHODS: We surveyed 69 institutions, including municipal pharmacies, public clinics, private and philanthropic health units, and commercial pharmacies, in 19 municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The municipalities were chosen according to the following selection criteria: (1 a human development index (HDI < 0.699 (the HDI for the entire state of Minas Gerais in 1991 in the microregion where the municipality was located; (2 the municipality had to be the seat of government for the microregion where it was located; (3 there had to be at least two eligible institutions (belonging to the public, private, or philanthropic sectors in full functioning in the municipality during the survey period. Health professionals who were directly responsible for stock control and drug dispensation at the institutions surveyed were interviewed. Institutional documents and records were also reviewed. A list of 21 tracer essential drugs, which were selected among the drugs most widely employed in the State of Minas Gerais’ Basic Pharmacy Program, was used to measure availability. The availability of each tracer drug was calculated at the time of the site visit and for the 12-month period immediately before the survey. In addition, the availability of tracer drugs was calculated for each type of institution surveyed. RESULTS: The availability of essential drugs in municipal pharmacies was 52.0%; in public health clinics, 46.9%; and in philanthropic and private health units, 41.0% and 38.1%, respectively. In commercial pharmacies, the availability of essential drugs reached 81.2%. CONCLUSION: The availability of essential drugs in public facilities is low and varies widely, with the result that persons who need such
Chao, Jianqian; Gu, Jiangyi; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Huanghui; Wu, Zhenchun
Essential medicine policy is a successful global health policy to promote rational drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) on the rational drug use in primary care institutions in Jiangsu Province of China. In this exploratory study, a multistage, stratified, random sampling was used to select 3400 prescriptions from 17 primary care institutions who implemented the NEMP before (Jan 2010) and after the implementation of the NEMP (Jan 2014). The analyses were performed in SPSS 18.0 and SPSS Clementine client. After the implementation of the NEMP, the percentage of prescribed EML (Essential Medicines List) drugs rose significantly, the average number of drugs per prescription and average cost per prescription were declined significantly, while the differences of the prescription proportion of antibiotics and injection were not statistically significant. BP (Back Propagation) neural network analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription, the number of using antibiotics and hormone, regional differences, size of institutions, sponsorship, financial income of institutions, doctor degree, outpatient and emergency visits person times were important factors affecting the prescription costs, among these the average number of drugs per prescription has the greatest effect. The NEMP can promote the rational use of drugs in some degree, but its role is limited. We should not focus only on the EML but also make comprehensive NEMP.
Duarte, Antonia Eliene; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Bezerra Morais Braga, Maria Flaviana; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Pessoa da Silva, Maria Arlene; Boligon, Aline; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Escobar Burger, Marilise
Rhaphiodon echinus is a weed plant used in the Brazilian folk medicinal for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, the essential oil of R. echinus leaf was investigated for its antimicrobial properties. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were characterized by GC-MS. The antimicrobial properties were determined by studying by the microdilution method the effect of the oil alone, and in combination with antifungal or antibiotic drugs against the fungi Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis and the microbes Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. In addition, the iron (II) chelation potential of the oil was determined. The results showed the presence of β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene in major compounds, and revealed a low antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil, but a strong modulatory effect on antimicrobial drugs when associated with the oil. The essential oil showed iron (II) chelation activity. The GC-MS characterization revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the essential oil and metal chelation potential, which may be responsible in part for the modulatory effect of the oil. These findings suggest that essential oil of R. echinus is a natural product capable of enhancing the antibacterial and antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs.
Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Kraisriwattana, Kairin; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Boonsam, Kraisorn; Narachai, Panchaporn
In this study, we determined the antibacterial and synergistic activities of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar against the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The antibacterial and synergistic properties of the essential oil from Z. cassumunar were examined by agar disc diffusion tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by broth microdilution using the resazurin assay. The in vitro time-kill antibacterial kinetics was analyzed using the plate count technique. We found that the essential oil from Z. cassumunar had antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, with MIC and MBC ranging from 7.00 to 9.24mg/ml. The essential oil could completely inhibit A. baumannii at 1h, and coccoid-shaped bacteria were found after treatment. In addition, the essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics, e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and folate pathway inhibitors. Thus, the essential oil from Z. cassumunar has strong antibacterial and synergistic activities against XDR A. baumannii, which may provide the basis for the development of a new therapy against drug-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Knezevic, Petar; Aleksic, Verica; Simin, Natasa; Svircev, Emilija; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Mimica-Dukic, Neda
Traditional herbal medicine has become an important issue on the global scale during the past decade. Among drugs of natural origin, special place belongs to essential oils, known as strong antimicrobial agents that can be used to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves are traditional herbal remedy used for various purposes, including treatment of infections. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial potential of two E. camaldulensis essential oils against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates and to examine possible interactions of essential oils with conventional antimicrobial agents. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). MIC values of essential oils against A. baumannii strains were estimated by modified broth microdilution method. The components responsible for antimicrobial activity were detected by bioautographic analysis. The potential synergy between the essential oils and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B) was examined by checkerboard method and time kill curve. The dominant components of both essential oils were spatulenol, cryptone, p-cimene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol and β-pinene. The detected MICs for the E. camaldulensis essential oils were in range from 0.5 to 2 μl mL(-1). The bioautographic assay confirmed antibacterial activity of polar terpene compounds. In combination with conventional antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B), the examined essential oils showed synergistic antibacterial effect in most of the cases, while in some even re-sensitized MDR A. baumannii strains. The synergistic interaction was confirmed by time-kill curves for E. camaldulensis essential oil and polymyxin B combination which reduced bacterial count under detection limit very fast, i.e. after 6h of incubation. The detected anti-A. baumannii activity of E. camaldulensis essential oils
Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng
At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.
drug resistant clinical and soil bacterial strains. Cinnamaldehyde was identified as the most active antimicrobial component present in the cinnamon essential oil which acted as a strong inhibitory agent in MIC assay against the tested bacteria. The results indicate that essential oils from Pakistani spices can be pursued against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:24119438
We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...
Otávio de Tolêdo Nóbrega
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Price is a key obstacle for consumer access to essential drugs, especially in developing countries. This study sought to compare the retail prices of essential drugs on the private market in Brazil with that of two international pricing standards. METHODS: The retail price of all drugs on Brazil's Essential Drugs List, July 2000 edition, were compared to the retail price of the same drugs on the Swedish market and on a referential bulk-price indicator from low-cost suppliers on the international market. Ratios of Brazil's prices to Sweden's prices and Brazil's prices to the international bulk mean price-per-unit for each drug were calculated. Using linear regression analysis, the ratios were also studied in relation to the number of manufacturers. RESULTS: For the 132 drugs that were listed on both Brazil's and Sweden's lists, unitary retail prices in Brazil were 1.9 times higher. Of the 94 drugs found on both Brazil's list and the international unit-price indicator, Brazil's national mean unit prices were 13.1 more expensive. No relationship was found between the number of manufacturers for each product and the ratios of prices. CONCLUSIONS: Average retail prices of essential drugs in Brazil are significantly higher than in Sweden. Furthermore, international bulk prices indicate that drugs are brought to market by Brazil's private pharmacies at prices that may be excessively high in relation to production costs, creating high profit margins. The expected price-lowering effects of competition were not identified.OBJETIVO: Los precios constituyen un obstáculo clave para el acceso del consumidor a los medicamentos esenciales, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los precios minoristas de los medicamentos esenciales en el mercado privado de Brasil con los de dos estándares internacionales de precios. MÉTHODS: Se compararon los precios minoristas de todos los medicamentos de la Lista de
Since 2004, the Subcommittee for Development of the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED) has embarked upon an historical evolution of applying evidence to the revision, inclusion and exclusion of medicines into and from the list. Then, the revision of the 2008 NLED was the first time in Thai history where the drug selection process in Thailand formally incorporated pharmacoeconomics. At present, the lack of a standard methodology for conducting economic evaluation is a major barrier that diminishes the potential use of economic evidence. The development of national economic evaluation guidelines by a group of national experts was subsequently endorsed by members in the Subcommittee as useful tools for future NLED revision. They emphasize that these guidelines should be applied not only to those evaluations conducted by public institutions but also by private pharmaceutical companies that often use this evidence for their marketing, or even for future requirements of economic information from industry, as complementary evidence for inclusion of health technology.
Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer
The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients.
Yao, Qiang; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Ju
To assess the impact of the National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) with respect to urban-rural inequalities regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities. A stratified two-stage random sampling strategy was used to sample 23,040 prescriptions from 192 primary care facilities from 2009 to 2010. Difference-in-Difference (DID) analyses were performed to test the association between NEMS and urban-rural gaps in prescription patterns. Between-Group Variance and Theil Index were calculated to measure urban-rural absolute and relative disparities in drug prescriptions. The use of the Essential Medicines List (EML) achieved a compliance rate of up to 90% in both urban and rural facilities. An overall reduction of average prescription cost improved economic access to drugs for patients in both areas. However, we observed an increased urban-rural disparity in average expenditure per prescription. The rate of antibiotics and glucocorticoids prescription remained high, despite a reduced disparity between urban and rural facilities. The average incidence of antibiotic prescription increased slightly in urban facilities (62 to 63%) and reduced in rural facilities (67% to 66%). The urban-rural disparity in the use of parenteral administration (injections and infusions) increased, albeit at a high level in both areas (44%-52%). NEMS interventions are effective in reducing the overall average prescription costs. Despite the increased use of the EML, indicator performances with respect to rational drug prescribing and use remain poor and exceed the WHO/INRUD recommended cutoff values and worldwide benchmarks. There is an increased gap between urban and rural areas in the use of parenteral administration and expenditure per prescription.
de Medeiros, Vivianne Marcelino; do Nascimento, Yuri Mangueira; Souto, Augusto Lopes; Madeiro, Sara Alves Lucena; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Silva, Suellen Maria P M; Falcão Silva, Vivyanne Dos Santos; Agra, Maria de Fátima; de Siqueira-Júnior, José Pinto; Tavares, Josean Fechine
The essential oil from leaves of Croton grewioides Baill was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS, where 18 compounds were identified, mostly as monoterpenes (55.56%) and sesquiterpenes (44.44%), in which the major constituent was the α-pinene (47.43%). The essential oil of Croton grewioides (EOCg) and its major compound (α-pinene) were evaluated as modulators of antibiotic resistance in strain SA-1199B and IS-58 of Staphylococcus aureus that overexpresses efflux protein. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics were determined by the microdilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration of EOCg and α-pinene. Although the EOCg and α-pinene did not indicate relevant antibacterial activity in vitro, they acted as antibiotic resistance modulators, i.e., EOCg in combination with norfloxacin, reducted its MIC, by 64× whereas in combination with tetracycline it was observed a reduction of 4×. Additionally, it was observed a MIC reduction of tetracycline by 32×, when combined with α-pinene. The results suggest that EOCg and α-pinene modulate or even reverse bacterial resistance as a putative efflux pump inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem
Full Text Available Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GeMMs of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1, choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5 metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.
Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.
Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1), choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5) metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.
An emerging trend in the biotechnology industry is the utilization of plastic components in manufacturing systems for the production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or a finished drug product (FDP). If the API, the FDP, or any solution used to generate them (for example, process streams such as media, buffers, and the like) come in contact with a plastic at any time during the manufacturing process, there is the potential that substances leached from the plastic may accumulate in the API or FDP, affecting safety and/or efficacy. In this article the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the article outlines the safety assessment process for manufacturing systems, specifically addressing the topics of risk management and the role of compendial testing. Finally, the proper use of vendor-supplied extractables information is considered. Manufacturing suites used to produce biopharmaceuticals can include components that are made out of plastics. Thus it is possible that substances could leach out of the plastics and into manufacturing solutions, and it is further possible that such leachables could accumulate in the pharmaceutical product. In this article, the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the author proposes a process by which the impact on product safety of such leached substances can be assessed.
Brandt, L.; Anderson, H. [University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Southern Swedish Regional Rumour Registry, Lund (Sweden)
For 366 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythaemia (ET) diagnosed 1971-1990, oral administration of 32-P was used as myelosuppressive treatment. Retreatment was not restricted to any defined interval and the number of treatments or the total dose were not limited. For 107 patients, follow-up was > 10 years. 15 of these presented with life-threatening occlusive vascular symptoms and their survival was short. For the remaining 92 patients 5-yr survival was not significantly worse than for a Swedish population matched for age and sex. Survival at 10 yr was lower, 51% versus 66% expected. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was diagnosed in 11 of the 107 patients (10.3%). In the whole material of 366 patients, 17 have developed AML with a median time of 8.5 yr from start of treatment. There was a maximum incidence of 4% per yr after 8-12 yr. Later, the incidence decreased. The median annual dose of 32-P for the AML patients was 100 MBq and was not significantly larger than for a matched control group surviving without AML, 95 MBq. The results are compared with reports on PV or ET patients treated with busulphan (Bu) or hydroxyurea (HU). With comparable periods of follow-up there are no indications that an adequate myelosuppression with oral 32-P will be associated with shorter survival or higher incidence of AML than treatment with Bu or HU. It is concluded that, for the time being, oral administration of 32-P is an acceptable standard treatment in PV and ET. (au) (20 refs.).
Wang, Junyong; Liu, Xia; Wang, Suzhen; Chen, Heli; Wang, Xun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yanchen; Zheng, Xianping; Hao, Mo
China's 2009 national essential medicine system (NEMS) was designed to reduce prices through a zero-markup policy and a centralized bidding system. To analyze NEMS's short-term impact on drug prices, we estimated the retail and wholesale prices before and after the reform at health institutions in rural Jiangxi Province. We undertook two cross-sectional surveys of prices of 39 medicines in November 2008 and May 2010, calculated inflation adjusted prices, and used the Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests to examine price changes at different health institutions. Retail prices at pilot (P health centers decreased significantly, whereas the declines at retail pharmacies (P = 0.57) and village clinics (P = 0.29) were insignificant. The decline at pilot township health centers was the largest, compared with other kinds of health institutions (P health institutions, the centralized bidding system was insufficient to lower wholesale prices. A drug price management system should be constructed to control medicine prices and a long-term price information system is needed to monitor price changes.
Evaluation of the use of partition coefficients and molecular surface properties as predictors of drug absorption: a provisional biopharmaceutical classification of the list of national essential medi
Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Partition coefficients (log D and log P and molecular surface area (PSA are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators. Methods: Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0, and PSA. Results: Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0 and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0, and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81% with Caco-2 permeability (Papp. Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS. Of these, 57 (42.2%, 28 (20.7%, 44 (32.6%, and 6 (4.4% were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion: Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol.
Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan
With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms.
Full Text Available With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China.Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments.In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits.Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms.
Essencialidade e assistência farmacêutica: considerações sobre o acesso a medicamentos mediante ações judiciais no Brasil Essential drugs and pharmaceutical care: reflection on the access to drugs through lawsuits in Brazil
João Maurício Brambati Sant'Ana
Full Text Available A garantia do direito à assistência farmacêutica no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro a partir da Constituição de 1988 deu vazão a um aumento das demandas judiciais para efetivação desse direito. Esse fenômeno vem sendo chamado de judicialização da assistência farmacêutica. Estudos sobre o tema têm revelado tanto deficiências no acesso dos usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde aos medicamentos das listas oficiais de assistência farmacêutica como dificuldades do sistema de justiça e do próprio procedimento judicial para lidar com a temática. Este artigo discute essas questões considerando o arcabouço conceitual que informa a política de medicamentos e a política de assistência farmacêutica brasileiras, sobretudo os conceitos de medicamentos essenciais e de alocação de recursos escassos.The guarantee of pharmaceutical care as a legal right established by the Brazilian federal constitution of 1988 led to an increase in lawsuits to put that right into practice. This phenomenon has been dubbed the judicialization of pharmaceutical care. Studies on this topic have revealed, on the one hand, deficiencies in the access of Unified Health Care (SUS users to drugs included in Ministry of Health pharmaceutical care lists, and, on the other hand, limitations of the legal system to deal with the situation. The present article addresses these issues in the context of the conceptual framework that supports the Brazilian drug policy and pharmaceutical care policy, especially the notions of essential drugs and allocation of scarce resources.
Gupta, Anamika; Pal, Sudhir K; Pandey, Divya; Fakir, Najneen A; Rathod, Sunita; Sinha, Dhiraj; SivaKumar, S; Sinha, Pallavi; Periera, Mycal; Balgam, Shilpa; Sekar, Gomathi; UmaDevi, K R; Anupurba, Shampa; Nema, Vijay
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. However it is not known if this target remains conserved in otherwise resistant isolates from clinical origin. The present study describes the conservation analysis of sequences covering the inhibitor binding domain of PknB to assess if it remains conserved in susceptible and resistant clinical strains of mycobacteria picked from three different geographical areas of India. A total of 116 isolates from North, South and West India were used in the study with a variable profile of their susceptibilities towards streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin. Isolates were also spoligotyped in order to find if the conservation pattern of pknB gene remain consistent or differ with different spoligotypes. The impact of variation as found in the study was analyzed using Molecular dynamics simulations. The sequencing results with 115/116 isolates revealed the conserved nature of pknB sequences irrespective of their susceptibility status and spoligotypes. The only variation found was in one strains wherein pnkB sequence had G to A mutation at 664 position translating into a change of amino acid, Valine to Isoleucine. After analyzing the impact of this sequence variation using Molecular dynamics simulations, it was observed that the variation is causing no significant change in protein structure or the inhibitor binding. Hence, the study endorses that PknB is an ideal target for drug development and there is no pre-existing or induced resistance with respect to the sequences involved in inhibitor binding. Also if the mutation that we are reporting for the first time is found again in subsequent work, it should be checked with phenotypic profile before drawing the conclusion that it would affect the activity in any way. Bioinformatics analysis in our study
Harding, Richard; Simms, Victoria; Penfold, Suzanne; Downing, Julia; Powell, Richard A; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Namisango, Eve; Moreland, Scott; Gikaara, Nancy; Atieno, Mackuline; Kataike, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Clare; Munene, Grace; Banga, Geoffrey; Higginson, Irene J
World Health Organization's essential drugs list can control the highly prevalent HIV-related pain and symptoms. Availability of essential medicines directly influences clinicians' ability to effectively manage distressing manifestations of HIV. To determine the availability of pain and symptom controlling drugs in East Africa within President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded HIV health care facilities. Directly observed quantitative health facilities' pharmacy stock review. We measured availability, expiration and stock-outs of specified drugs required for routine HIV management, including the World Health Organization pain ladder. A stratified random sample in 120 President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded HIV care facilities (referral and district hospitals, health posts/centres and home-based care providers) in Kenya and Uganda. Non-opioid analgesics (73%) and co-trimoxazole (64%) were the most commonly available drugs and morphine (7%) the least. Drug availability was higher in hospitals and lower in health centres, health posts and home-based care facilities. Facilities generally did not use minimum stock levels, and stock-outs were frequently reported. The most common drugs had each been out of stock in the past 6 months in 47% of facilities stocking them. When a minimum stock level was defined, probability of a stock-out in the previous 6 months was 32.6%, compared to 45.5% when there was no defined minimum stock level (χ (2) = 5.07, p = 0.024). The data demonstrate poor essential drug availability, particularly analgesia, limited by facility type. The lack of strong opioids, isoniazid and paediatric formulations is concerning. Inadequate drug availability prevents implementation of simple clinical pain and symptom control protocols, causing unnecessary distress. Research is needed to identify supply chain mechanisms that lead to these problems.
Leung, Ngai-Hang Z; Chen, Ana; Yadav, Prashant; Gallien, Jérémie
To characterize the impact of widespread inventory management policies on stock-outs of essential drugs in Zambia's health clinics and develop related recommendations. Daily clinic storeroom stock levels of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) products in 2009-2010 were captured in 145 facilities through photography and manual transcription of paper forms, then used to determine historical stock-out levels and estimate demand patterns. Delivery lead-times and estimates of monthly facility accessibility were obtained through worker surveys. A simulation model was constructed and validated for predictive accuracy against historical stock-outs, then used to evaluate various changes potentially affecting product availability. While almost no stock-outs of AL products were observed during Q4 2009 consistent with primary analysis, up to 30% of surveyed facilities stocked out of some AL product during Q1 2010 despite ample inventory being simultaneously available at the national warehouse. Simulation experiments closely reproduced these results and linked them to the use of average past monthly issues and failure to capture lead-time variability in current inventory control policies. Several inventory policy enhancements currently recommended by USAID | DELIVER were found to have limited impact on product availability. Inventory control policies widely recommended and used for distributing medicines in sub-Saharan Africa directly account for a substantial fraction of stock-outs observed in common situations involving demand seasonality and facility access interruptions. Developing central capabilities in peripheral demand forecasting and inventory control is critical. More rigorous independent peer-reviewed research on pharmaceutical supply chain management in low-income countries is needed.
KNIME Essentials is a practical guide aimed at getting the results you want, as quickly as possible.""Knime Essentials"" is written for data analysts looking to quickly get up to speed using the market leader in data processing tools, KNIME. No knowledge of KNIME is required, but we will assume that you have some background in data processing.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la asociación entre apoyo familiar (AF y apego al tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial esencial (HAS. Material y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles al que se integraron 80 sujetos con diagnóstico establecido de HAS, con 40 pacientes en cada grupo. Se consideró como casos a los pacientes con apego y como controles a los pacientes sin apego al tratamiento. El estudio se realizó de mayo a diciembre de 1999, en el Hospital Regional del IMSS, en la ciudad de Durango, Durango, México. La edad, género, duración de la HAS, escolaridad y estado civil fueron criterios de pareamiento. Las diferencias se establecieron con las pruebas ji cuadrada y t de student. Se calculó la razón de momios para estimar la fuerza de asociación. El diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial secundaria, o de otras enfermedades crónicas fueron criterios de exclusión. Resultados. No hubo diferencias entre los grupos respecto a las variables sociodemográficas, modalidad de tratamiento ni conocimiento que el enfermo tenía sobre su enfermedad. Tenían control de la presión arterial 31 (77.5% pacientes con apego y 11 (27.5% sin apego, p= 0.003. El AF se asoció de manera independiente con apego al tratamiento, RM 6.9, IC 95% 2.3-21.1. Conclusiones. El apego se vincula de forma significativa con el apoyo que los familiares otorgan al enfermo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To assess the relationship between family support and drug therapy compliance in essential hypertension. Material and methods. A case-control study was conducted between May and December 1999, at Mexican Institute of Social Security Regional Hospital in Durango, among 80 hypertensive subjects; 40 were cases and 40 controls. Cases were subjects who complied with drug therapy and controls were those who did not, matched by age, gender, schooling, hypertensive disease duration, and marital status
Brass, Charles O
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'
Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis
Lianet Monzote; Ana Margarita Montalvo; Ramón Scull; Migdalia Miranda; Juan Abreu
To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...
Full Text Available Background. Essential thrombocythemia (ET is a chronic myeloproliferative disease with a platelet count within the range of 400–2000 × 109/L. Higher percentage of platelets in the circulation of patients with ET express also activation markers on their membranes. Two of such markers are P-selectin and activated fibrinogen on platelet membranes. Because of frequent thrombembolic and also bleeding related complications, treatment of ET is mandatory. Patients whose platelet count is less than 1000 × 109/L and who did not suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease, are ussually treated with an antiaggregation drug, acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally. Clopidogrel is an adenosyn-di-phosphate (ADP receptor antagonist in platelets. There is no routine clinical data about clopidogrel treatment in the patients with ET and only sporadic case reports can be find in the literature.Patients and methods. In our clinical study we compared antiaggregational effects of acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, by measuring the P-selectin level and activated fibrinogen expression on platelet membranes.There were 35 ET patients included, within the age range between 21 and 78 years and with platelet counts within 451–952 × 109/L. None of the patients did suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease. During the sequential 14 day periods, patients received acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally, followed by clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally and ultimativelly, together acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally plus clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally. After each fourteen days period the level of P-selectin and activated fibrinogen activated platelets were determined with monoclonal antibodies on flow cytometer. Statistical evaluation was calculated on the difference of average values between the two small, independent pair groups with the t-test.Results. When the patients stopped with acetylsalicylic acid and
De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario
Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept...
Whether you are a seasoned Objective-C developer or new to the Xcode platform, Swift Essentials will provide you with all you need to know to get started with the language. Prior experience with iOS development is not necessary, but will be helpful to get the most out of the book.
Comiskey, Catherine Maria; O'Sullivan, Karin; Milnes, Jennie
The objective was to assess need, evaluate projects, and devise a roadmap for future provision given budget cuts. The analysis of 30 substance misuse services in towns and rural areas of Ireland was conducted in 2010. Analysis revealed that 24,315 (95% CI 12,928-40,629) individuals were using illegal drugs in 2006, 893 individuals were using opiates, opiate and cocaine use was increasing as was drug use amongst females. Evaluations demonstrated that not all services were meeting emerging needs, services lacked administrative support, and funding needed to be redirected. The RAR approach was useful for policy decisions and budget cuts in times of economic restraint.
Iwasa, Megumi; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Ono, Toshirou; Miyazawa, Mitsuo
The chemical composition of the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (Japanese name: Hange), the dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata, was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The oil obtained from Pinellia tuber was revealed the presence of 114 compounds, representing 90.6% of the total oil identified. This colorless oil had a spicy and woody odor. The main components of the oil were β-cubebene (8.8%), atractylon (7.8%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and δ-cadinene (5.3%). Fifteen major odor-active compounds were identified in the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER by the GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among these, safrole (spicy) and β-vatirenene (woody) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (128), followed by paeonol (FD = 64; woody, spicy), α-humulene (FD = 64; woody), and β-phenylnaphthalene (FD = 64; spicy).
The CTD2 Center at Emory University has developed a computational methodology to combine high-throughput knockdown data with known protein network topologies to infer the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for the survival of cancer cells. Applying these data to the Achilles shRNA results, the CCLE cell line characterizations, and known and newly identified PPIs provides novel insights for potential new drug targets for cancer therapies and identifies important PPI hubs.
Chetan S. Urade
Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines. 58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed. Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively. No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication.
Smith, Roderick W
A unique, full-color introduction to Linux fundamentals Serving as a low-cost, secure alternative to expensive operating systems, Linux is a UNIX-based, open source operating system. Full-color and concise, this beginner's guide takes a learning-by-doing approach to understanding the essentials of Linux. Each chapter begins by clearly identifying what you will learn in the chapter, followed by a straightforward discussion of concepts that leads you right into hands-on tutorials. Chapters conclude with additional exercises and review questions, allowing you to reinforce and measure your underst
Essential SQLAlchemy introduces a high-level open-source code library that makes it easier for Python programmers to access relational databases such as Oracle, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. SQLAlchemy has become increasingly popular since its release, but it still lacks good offline documentation. This practical book fills the gap, and because a developer wrote it, you get an objective look at SQLAlchemy's tools rather than an advocate's description of all the "cool" features. SQLAlchemy includes both a database server-independent SQL expression language and an object-relational mappe
If you want to learn Prezi, and specifically design within Prezi, this is the book for you. Perhaps you already know a bit about Prezi but have never used it, or perhaps you have used Prezi before but want to learn how to incorporate your own custom design elements. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic design concepts and the use of Prezi, but prior experience is not essential.
Jensen, Mette; Groth, L.; Holmer, G.
were fed with a fat-free diet lacking linoleic acid. The EFAD condition was established within 8 weeks. In order to ensure that this condition had been established, several parameters were measured and observed, i.e. animal weight, water consumption, transepidermal water loss, clinical skin symptoms...... with calcipotriol. Dithranol and its coal tar-containing vehicle also showed a reductive effect on epidermal thickness. EFAD hairless rats possess various histological changes resembling psoriasis. These histological changes normalise during treatment with anti-psoriatic drugs as calcipotriol, dithranol and coal...
Lang, Kenneth R
Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...
Birdi, K S
Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx] increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on the relative risk (RR of cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs were derived from meta-analyses of randomised trials and controlled observational studies. Listing of individual NSAIDs on Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs was obtained from the World Health Organization. NSAID sales or prescription data for 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were obtained from Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health (IMS Health or national prescription pricing audit (in the case of England and Canada. Three drugs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib ranked consistently highest in terms of cardiovascular risk compared with nonuse. Naproxen was associated with a low risk. Diclofenac was listed on 74 national EMLs, naproxen on just 27. Rofecoxib use was not documented in any country. Diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage across the 15 countries (median 33.2%, range 14.7-58.7%. This proportion did not vary between low- and high-income countries. Diclofenac was by far the most commonly used NSAID, with a market share close to that of the next three most popular drugs combined. Naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Listing of NSAIDs on national EMLs should take account of cardiovascular risk, with preference given to low risk drugs. Diclofenac has a risk very similar to rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from worldwide markets owing to cardiovascular toxicity. Diclofenac should be removed from EMLs.
Disponibilidad de medicamentos esenciales en unidades de primer nivel de la Secretaría de Salud de Tamaulipas, México Availability of essential drugs in Ministry of Health first level healthcare units in Tamaulipas, Mexico
medicamentos en el país, en general, y la disponibilidad de medicamentos esenciales en las unidades de primer nivel, en particular. Dos iniciativas de reciente puesta en marcha permiten ser optimistas al respecto: la descentralización de los servicios de salud para población no asegurada y el Programa de Medicamentos Genéricos Intercambiables, implantado en el ámbito nacional en 1998.OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of some essential drugs at the primary health care units of the Ministry of Health of Tamaulipas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between September and October 1998, all first level healthcare units of Tamaulipas' three sanitary jurisdictions were surveyed. Drug availability was assessed. The measurement instrument was a checklist of 56 drugs and 10 different supplies. For each drug and input the absolute number and the proportion of units with this drug or input was calculated. In the units where the drugs were available, the medians were calculated. The median of the total number of drugs available in all units was used as a global indicator. This same exercise was developed for each unit. Comparisons between the availability of these inputs in the units and stockrooms were also done. Stata 5.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: None of the inspected units had full availability of all checklist drugs. The highest percentage of drug availability was 84% and the lowest was 32%. There was limited availability of antibiotics, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, and iron deficiency drugs. The availability of oral rehydration salts and contraceptive and vaccine agents was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare organizations must find alternative ways to improve access to drugs nationwide, in general, and availability of essential drugs in first level healthcare units, in particular. Two recent initiatives provide an optimistic outlook: decentralization of health services for the uninsured and the Generic Exchangeable Drugs Program, established nationwide in
Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis
Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.
Proyecto Grannacional ALBASALUD para Centro Regulador de Medicamentos Esenciales de los países del ALBA-TCP Grand-national Project ALBASALUD for Regulatory Center of Essential Drugs for the ALBA-TCP countries
Celeste Aurora Sánchez González
countries. It will provide a Grand-national Register that will be valid for all the member states to facilitate the access to quality essential drugs. The objective of this research work was to design and to conduct a project from the technical viewpoint in order to lay down the legal and methodological basis of the future center and its main functions. Some techniques like nominal group, points of reference and expert consultation were used, and the specific methodologies to plan and to prepare the required documents were devised. The guidelines of international regulatory bodies, the basic groups of drugs and the pharmaceutical regulations of the participating countries were reviewed. Several documents and strategies for the project work in the pre-investment stage were developed, the first listing of essential drugs for the ALBA countries was defined and the main legal provisions and the regulation that states the functions of registering, surveillance, supervision, lab work and release of batches of the new entity were approved. The Grand-national Project ALBASALUD " Regulatory Center of Drugs for the ALBA-TCP" has proved its efficiency and capacities to achieve the set objectives through collective involvement-supported scientific and technical work that has guaranteed the required provisions and guidelines for the basic functions and the legal endorsement of the center.
José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto
Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs
... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...
Duong, Mai; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty; Chen, Timothy F
To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML) concept functions in a high income country context. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach. Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain. This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of what stakeholders
Full Text Available To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML concept functions in a high income country context.In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach.Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain.This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of
REA, Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph
REA, Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.
Milewski, Emil G
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics I covers include frequency distributions, numerical methods of describing data, measures of variability, parameters of distributions, probability theory, and distributions.
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration
REA, Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.
REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.
REA, Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica
Lutfiyya, Lutfi A
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science I includes fundamental computer concepts, number representations, Boolean algebra, switching circuits, and computer architecture.
Coleman, Michael D
.... Completely revised and updated throughout, the new edition focuses only on essential chemical detail and includes patient case histories to illustrate the clinical consequences of changes in drug...
Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...
herbal forms of medicine and relaxation (such as aromatherapy), and .... (Flower bud, aerial part, cell suspension) α-farnesene 0-91, 3-OH .... (Leaf, stem); camphor 32, pulegone 15, 1,8-cineole 13. n.s. ..... Volatile oil-containing drugs and essential oils have ...... Achillea asplenifolia Vent. through multiple shoot regeneration.
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physics I includes vectors and scalars, one-dimensional motion, plane motion, dynamics of a particle, work and energy, conservation of energy, dynamics of systems of particles, rotation
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
Ackermann, Ernest C
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. C Programming Language discusses fundamental notions, data types and objects, expressions, statements, declarations, function and program structure, the preprocessor, and the standar
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics I covers fundamentals of semiconductor devices, junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, power supplies, multitransistor circuits, small signals, low-frequency anal
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl
Milewski, Emil G
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.
Solomon, Alan D
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.
Milewski, Emil G
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se
REA, Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric
REA, The Editors of
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con
Smolarski, Dennis C
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly
Smolarski, Dennis C
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures I includes scalar variables, arrays and records, elementary sorting, searching, linked lists, queues, and appendices of binary notation and subprogram parameter passi
Milewski, Emil G
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.
Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...
Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M
... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...
... the same for many years; and, in rare cases, improve spontaneously. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Related ... Definition Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological ...
Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.
'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze
Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.
'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze
Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i
Beazley, David M
Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.
Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter
This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...
Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...
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Full Text Available Steven Okoli, Claire HarrisonDepartment of Haematology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, London, UKAbstract: In 1934, Epstein and Goedel used the term hemorrhagic thrombocythemia to describe a disorder characterized by permanent elevation of a platelet count to more than three times normal, hyperplasia of megakaryocytes, and the tendency for venous thrombosis and spontaneous hemorrhage. Over the last 75 years, and particularly in the past 6 years, major progress has been made in our understanding of essential thrombocythemia (ET and its pathogenesis with the identification of the highly prevalent JAK-2 V617F and other mutations. Current management of this condition is based upon historical data and with treatments that have not changed significantly for nearly two decades. This study discusses this and recent progress, highlighting exciting new data with old and new drugs, as well as which patients in particular should be evaluated for these new therapies.Keywords: essential thrombocythemia, interferon, JAK inhibitor
For students who just need to know the vital concepts of physics, whether as a refresher, for exam prep, or as a reference, Physics Essentials For Dummies is a must-have guide. Free of ramp-up and ancillary material, Physics Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in an introductory physics course, from force and motion to momentum and kinetics. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical physics concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as we
Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin
AMADEI, A; LINSSEN, ABM; BERENDSEN, HJC
Analysis of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lysozyme in vacuo and in aqueous solution reveals that it is possible to separate the configurational space into two subspaces: (1) an ''essential'' subspace containing only a few degrees of freedom in which anharmonic motion occurs that
Bhuwan Raj Pandey
Full Text Available Introduction: Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition presenting with clicking sound in ear or muscle tremor in pharynx. There are two varieties: essential and symptomatic. Various treatment options exists ranging from watchful observation to botulinum toxin injection. We have not found any reported case of palatal myoclonus from our country. Here we present a case of essential palatal myoclonus managed with clonazepam. Case report: A young female presented in Ear Nose and Throat clinic with complain of auditory click and spontaneous rhythmic movement of throat muscles for eight months. On examination, there was involuntary, rhythmic contraction of bilateral soft-palate, uvula, and base of tongue. Neurological, eye, and peripheral examination were normal. A diagnosis of essential palatal myoclonus was made. It was managed successfully with clonazepam; patient was still on low dose clonazepam at the time of making this report. Conclusion: Essential palatal myoclonus can be clinically diagnosed and managed even in settings where MRI is not available or affordable.
This document presents the essential activities of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader. This group proposes technological solutions to produce the nuclear energy and to transport the electric power. It develops connection systems for the telecommunication, the computers and the automotive industry. Key data on the program management, the sustainable development activities and the different divisions are provided. (A.L.B.)
Roeser, S.; Hillerbrand, R.; Sandin, P.; Peterson, M.B.
Risk has become one of the main topics in fields as diverse as engineering, medicine and economics, and it is also studied by social scientists, psychologists and legal scholars. This Springer Essentials version offers an overview of the in-depth handbook and highlights some of the main points
Julia Dutra Rossetto
Full Text Available The present study reports two cases of symptomatic essential trichomegaly. Trichomegaly may develop in various diseases, including anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, pretibial myxedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and uveitis. The exact incidence trichomegaly is unknown, and the condition remains sporadically reported. Two cases of symptomatic trichomegaly without any associated systemic disorder are presented in this paper.
Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand
If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.
Holtzman DJ, et al. Quality of root-end preparations using ultrasonic and rotary instrumentation in cadavers. J Endod 2000;26:281. 39. Peters CI...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... Endodontic Program,Harvard School of Dental Medicine,Boston,MA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND
Persse, James R
Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.
IPv6 Essentials, Second Edition provides a succinct, in-depth tour of all the new features and functions in IPv6. It guides you through everything you need to know to get started, including how to configure IPv6 on hosts and routers and which applications currently support IPv6. Aimed at system and network administrators, engineers, network designers, and IT managers, this book will help you understand, plan for, design, and integrate IPv6 into your current IPv4 infrastructure
Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.
A step-by-step and interactive approach explaining the Rake essentials along with code examples and advanced features. If you are a developer who is acquainted with the Ruby language and want to speed up writing the code concerned with files, then this book is for you. To start reading this book, basic Ruby knowledge is required; however, a huge amount of experience with the language is not necessary.
Derrida, in the interview Rhetoric of Drugs (1993), following on from the explication of the notion of pharmakon (both poison and beneficial drug, at the same time), outlines a possible ï¿½theoryï¿½ of drugs and addiction. It has several key features:\\ud ï¿½ there are no drugs in nature: the definition of ï¿½drugï¿½ is an institutionalised one\\ud ï¿½ the concept of drugs is non-scientific, non-positive\\ud ï¿½ drugs are a parasitism ï¿½at once accidental and essentialï¿½; and are thus a topic ...
Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith
There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)
Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...
... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...
Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.
Ramina, Ricardo; Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, Curitiba; Pires Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Sao Paulo Univ.; Hospital Santa Paula, Sao Paulo; Tatagiba, Marcos
'Samii's Essentials in Neurosurgery' contains selected papers written by internationally recognized contributors who were trained by Professor Madjid Samii in Hannover, Germany. The main topics deal with cutting-edge technology in neurosurgery, skull-base surgery, and specific peripheral nerve, spine, and vascular surgeries. The texts and a wealth of illustrations review and reinforce guidelines on the diagnosis and management of situations that readers are likely to encounter in everyday practice. This book will be of great interest to neurosurgeons, neurologists, ENT surgeons, neuroradiologists, and neurophysiotherapists. (orig.)
Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque
ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact
The premiere book on getting started with Maya 2014 Whether you're just beginning, or migrating from another 3D application, this step-by-step guide is what you need to get a good working knowledge of Autodesk Maya 2014. Beautifully illustrated with full-color examples and screenshots, Autodesk Maya 2014 Essentials explains the basics of Maya as well as modeling, texturing, animating, setting a scene, and creating visual effects. You'll absorb important concepts and techniques, and learn how to confidently use Maya tools the way professionals do. Each chapter includes fun and cha
O'Donnell, Peter J
Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b
The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim
Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s
There are few scientists of the twentieth century whose life's work has created more excitement and controversy than that of physicist David Bohm (1917-1992). For the first time in a single volume, The Essential David Bohm offers a comprehensive overview of Bohm's original works from a non-technical perspective. Including three chapters of previously unpublished material, and a forward by the Dalai Lama, each reading has been selected to highlight some aspect of the implicate order process, and to provide an introduction to one of the most provocative thinkers of our time.
Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,
The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.
An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour
Lawless, Laura K
Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y
Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c
This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y
Martínez de Victoria, Emilio
Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.
Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas
Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research(CDER) performs an essential public health task by making sure that safe and effective drugs are available to improve the...
Johnson, Michael L
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...
In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.
This paper distinguishes between Jung's theoretical discourse regarding the archetypes and his phenomenological account of numinous experience. For this author, the initial attraction of 'my Jung' came from both the vivid Romanticism of his descriptions of the anima and the apparent 'ground of being' offered by his theory of archetypes. However, the essentialism inherent to archetypal theory in general and the anima in particular has necessitated a re-evaluation of Jung's theory in terms of emergence theory. My own version of this emphasises the role of symbols in the constitution of affect through collective human action in the world. In this reconfiguration, the visceral energy of numinous experience is retained while the problematic theory of archetypes is no longer needed. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings. Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.
Murti, Y V G S
Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.
This book provides a rigorous introduction to the techniques and results of real analysis, metric spaces and multivariate differentiation, suitable for undergraduate courses. Starting from the very foundations of analysis, it offers a complete first course in real analysis, including topics rarely found in such detail in an undergraduate textbook such as the construction of non-analytic smooth functions, applications of the Euler-Maclaurin formula to estimates, and fractal geometry. Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching and research experience, the exposition is guided by carefully chosen examples and counter-examples, with the emphasis placed on the key ideas underlying the theory. Much of the content is informed by its applicability: Fourier analysis is developed to the point where it can be rigorously applied to partial differential equations or computation, and the theory of metric spaces includes applications to ordinary differential equations and fractals. Essential Real Analysis will appeal t...
Chambers, D W
This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.
... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...
... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...
Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...
Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on ... Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...
... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...
Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)
... of pharmacogenetics with substance dependence and brain imaging, and consider the impact of pharmacogenetics on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This book deﬁnes the young ﬁeld of pharmacogenetics as it applies to psychotropic drugs and is, therefore, an essential reference for all clinicians and researchers working in this ﬁndings ﬁeld. Bernard ...
Stein, Ross L
... field. Beginning with the most basic principles pertaining to simple, one-substrate enzyme reactions and their inhibitors, and progressing to a thorough treatment of two-substrate enzymes, Kinetics of Enzyme Action...
Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...
... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...
Full Text Available ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...
Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...
... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...
... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...
Setzer, William N
A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.
Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo
Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...
Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E
The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Full Text Available Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing.
Yehoda M. Martei
Full Text Available Purpose: Stock outs of cancer drugs are potentially fatal but have not been systematically studied in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the availability and alignment of the Botswana National Essential Medicines List (NEML for cancer drugs with the WHO’s Essential Medicines List (EML. Methods: The availability and cost of cancer drugs were analyzed using data from a weekly stock catalog sent by Botswana’s Central Medical Store to all pharmacy departments in government hospitals. Comparative data were extracted from the WHO EML and the “International Drug Price Indicator Guide-2014” from the Management Sciences for Health. Interviews with key informants were used to collect data on the Botswana NEML and the drug supply chain in the public sector. Results: The 2015 Botswana NEML for cancer had 80.5% alignment with the WHO EML. At least 40% of essential drugs were out of stock for a median duration of 30 days in 2015. Stock outs affected chemotherapy drugs included in first-line regimens for treating potentially curable diseases such as cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer and were not associated with buyer price of therapy. Analyses showed that the median price ratio for procured drugs was greater than 1 for 61% of the NEML drugs, which suggests inefficiency in procurement in the public sector. Conclusions: Botswana has one of the highest alignments of NEML to the WHO EML in the sub-Saharan African region, which is consistent with investment in the health care system evident in other clinical spheres. Better quantification of chemotherapy requirements using data from the National Cancer Registry and resource-sensitive treatment guidelines can help reduce stock outs and facilitate more effective and efficient procurement processes.
Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R Roy
The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10-20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary.
Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R. Roy
Objective: The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. Materials and Methods: A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10–20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Results: Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. Conclusion: About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary. PMID:20871765
Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...
Full Text Available ... 4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from drugs. But she's afraid ...
Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...
Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article. Availability and Expiry of Essential Medicines and. Supplies During the 'Pull' and 'Push' Drug Acquisition. Systems in a Rural Ugandan Hospital.
The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed
Full Text Available Essential thrombocytosis (ET is clonal chronic myeloproliferative disorder which originates from abnormality of a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell.It is characterized by an increased platelet count, megakaryocytic hyperplasia and by hemorrhagic or thrombotic tendency. Symptoms and signs may include weakness, headaches, paresthesias, bleeding, splenomegaly, and digital ischemia. ET patients showed equal or slightly shorter survival than age- and sex-matched healthy population. Major causes of death were thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications or malignant progression due to both the natural history of the disease and, possibly, the use of chemotherapeutic agents.Diagnostic criteria for essential thrombocythemia were proposed in 2005 by the PVSG and demand diagnosis of exclusion.Myelosuppressive therapy to lower the platelet count usually consists of hydroxyurea, interferon alpha or anagrelide. Hydroxyurea is the most commonly used treatment, because of its efficacy, low cost and rare acute toxicity. Interferon alpha is a biological response modifier. It is not known to be teratogenic and does not cross the placenta, and is often the treatment of choice during pregnancy. Anagrelid suppresses bone marrow megakaryocytes by interfering with the maturation process and decreasing platelet production without affecting other blood cell lines. Low-dose aspirin may be used to control microvascular symptoms.Recommendations for management of patients with essential thrombocythemia were given by ASH. From a treatment standpoint, hydroxyurea is now confirmed to be the drug of choice for high-risk patients with essential thrombocythemia. Interferon alpha and anagrelide are reasonable second-line agents. Low-risk patients should receive low-dose aspirin alone. For the intermediate-risk patients, a consensus could not be reached on a recommendation for platelet-lowering treatment.
Full Text Available Background. Essential palatal tremor is a disorder of unknown etiology involving involuntary movement of the uvula and soft palate. Treatment attempts including drugs or surgery have been conducted to cease the rhythmical movement. Case Report. A 55-year-old female visited our department complaining of a sudden, noticeable, intermittent, and rhythmical clicking noise in her throat for five years. Oral examination revealed rhythmical contractions of the soft palate with clicking at the frequency of 120 per min. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain performed after consulting with the department of neuropathic internal medicine showed no abnormalities. Thus, essential palatal tremor was diagnosed. The symptoms improved with cognitive behavioral therapy without drugs or surgical treatments. The patient is now able to stop the rhythmical movement voluntarily. Discussion. Cognitive behavioral therapy might be suitable as first-line therapy for essential palatal tremor because the therapy is noninvasive.
Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.
Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...
Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M
To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain
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Leviton, Harvey S.
This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)
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Essentials of 3D Biofabrication and Translation discusses the techniques that are making bioprinting a viable alternative in regenerative medicine. The book runs the gamut of topics related to the subject, including hydrogels and polymers, nanotechnology, toxicity testing, and drug screening platforms, also introducing current applications in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction. Leaders in clinical medicine and translational science provide a global perspective of the transformative nature of this field, including the use of cells, biomaterials, and macromolecules to create basic building blocks of tissues and organs, all of which are driving the field of biofabrication to transform regenerative medicine. Provides a new and versatile method to fabricating living tissue Discusses future applications for 3D bioprinting technologies, including use in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction Describes current approaches and future challenges for translation...
Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir
Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...
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Bratzke, H; Albers, C
In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.
The focus of this study was to assess the quality of commercially packaged moringa tea brands available in the retail markets in Nigerian cities on the basis of the essential and nonessential elemental content in their tissues. Four different brands of moringa tea comprising two locally processed teas and two imported teas ...
INTRODUCTION. Plants have been ... plant metabolism and biosynthesis and act as cofactors for ... plant body. 3 . Some metals are essential nutrients (zinc, iron, copper, and chromium), ... non-destructive analysis, increased total speed, ... oleifera play both a curative and preventive ... maintenance of cardiac rhythm. 16.
Prince, Jeffrey P.; Heiser, Lisa J.
This book is a quick reference source to guide the career professional through the essentials of using the most popular career interest tools. It summarizes important technical aspects of each inventory, and offers step-by-step guidance in the interpretation and use of the various inventories. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2)…
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The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF
Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.
Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans
Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006
Edley, Christopher Jr.
Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…
The book is an introduction to the subject of fluid mechanics, essential for students and researchers in many branches of science. It illustrates its fundamental principles with a variety of examples drawn mainly from astrophysics and geophysics as well as from everyday experience. Prior familiarity with basic thermodynamics and vector calculus is assumed.
Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the
Hugos, Michael H
The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.
Every profession has a set of essential tools for carrying out its work. Airplane mechanics cannot repair engines without sophisticated diagnostics, wrenches, and pliers. Surgeons cannot operate without scalpels and clamps. In contrast, teaching has often been perceived as a profession requiring only students, chalk, and a blackboard in order for…
Diversity is an essential quality for success in agronomy because agronomy touches everyone, everywhere in some way, and food production is crucial for every society around the world. Consider, for example, our membership, which is diverse in almost every way imaginable. This diversity brings differ...
a in various deployment scenarios.Hyper-V Replica Essentials is for Windows Server administrators who want to improve their system availability and speed up disaster recovery. You will need experience in Hyper-V deployment because Hyper-V Replica is built in the Hyper-V platform.
Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.
Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J
A beta 2-selective adrenergic-receptor-blocking drug, ICI 118.551, 150 mg/day, prevented almost as effectively as the nonselective antagonist propranolol, 240 mg/day, the isoprenaline enhancement of essential tremor amplitude.
Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. Methods: We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Results: Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective, has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. Discussion: To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials.
The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective), has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...
Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir
Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.
D. A. Konovalov
Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and geographical factors, plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.
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Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...
This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advance organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tool, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategies for communication for change processes, whether large or small. Intentional planning and development of a communication strategy alongside, not as an afterthought, to change initiatives are essential.
Mettler, Fred A. Jr
Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.
In this paper are presented essential themes in the subject of personnel economics. In the first part analysis has been conducted on the impact of peer pressure on workplace behaviour. Then again models for compensation structures within firms, and their influence on the utility of work by employees. In the final section of the paper the productivity spillover effect has been analyzed, and the causes of existence of spillovers and their impact on workers’ productivity
Boicea, Valentin A
Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor
Mosquitoes carry diseases than can lead to serious illness and death. According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue Fever, two life threatening diseases vectored by mosquitoes. Although insecticides are the most effective way to control mosquitoes, they are not always environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative tactics should be considered. In this study, we looked at the repellency of various essential oils on female Aedes aegypti through a series of laboratory assays.
Full Text Available Miriam Boeri, Thor Whalen, Benjamin Tyndall, Ellen BallardKennesaw State University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Kennesaw GA, USAAbstract: To better understand patterns of drug use trajectories over time, it is essential to have standard measures of change. Our goal here is to introduce measures we developed to quantify change in drug use behaviors. A secondary goal is to provide effective visualizations of these trajectories for applied use. We analyzed data from a sample of 92 older drug users (ages 45 to 65 to identify transition patterns in drug use trajectories across the life course. Data were collected for every year since birth using a mixed methods design. The community-drawn sample of active and former users were 40% female, 50% African American, and 60% reporting some college or greater. Their life histories provided retrospective longitudinal data on the diversity of paths taken throughout the life course and changes in drug use patterns that occurred over time. Bayesian analysis was used to model drug trajectories displayed by innovative computer graphics. The mathematical techniques and visualizations presented here provide the foundation for future models using Bayesian analysis. In this paper we introduce the concepts of transition counts, transition rates and relapse/remission rates, and we describe how these measures can help us better understand drug use trajectories. Depicted through these visual tools, measurements of discontinuous patterns provide a succinct view of individual drug use trajectories. The measures we use on drug use data will be further developed to incorporate contextual influences on the drug trajectory and build predictive models that inform rehabilitation efforts for drug users. Although the measures developed here were conceived to better examine drug use trajectories, the applications of these measures can be used with other longitudinal datasets.Keywords: drug use, trajectory patterns
Nielsen, F.C.; Borregaard, N.
Pharmacogenetics traditionally designates the study of genetically determined variation in metabolism of drugs and toxins from the environment. The concept of phamacogenetics has been widened to encompass how essential genetic alterations central to the development of diseases may by used to target...
Marianna Vieira Sobral
Full Text Available Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.
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Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud
The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).
... Survey Results Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 View All NIDA Home ...
Koch, Gilbert; Jusko, William J; Schropp, Johannes
Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) describes drug binding with high affinity to a target such as a receptor. In application TMDD models are often over-parameterized and quasi-equilibrium (QE) or quasi-steady state (QSS) approximations are essential to reduce the number of parameters. However, implementation of such approximations becomes difficult for TMDD models with drug-drug interaction (DDI) mechanisms. Hence, alternative but equivalent formulations are necessary for QE or QSS approximations. To introduce and develop such formulations, the single drug case is reanalyzed. This work opens the route for straightforward implementation of QE or QSS approximations of DDI TMDD models. The manuscript is the first part to introduce DDI TMDD models with QE or QSS approximations.
Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G
Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).
Frijlink, Henderik W
Adequate dosage forms are essential for achieving successful pharmacotherapy. Innovative dosage forms or delivery systems may direct a drug to its specific site of action, optimize the timing of the drug release, or increase comfort or convenience for the patient. Thus, such innovations may improve
Every year, thousands of computer systems in the UK are compromised. The majority fall victim to easily preventable cyber attacks, carried out with tools which are freely available on the Internet. Cyber Essentials is the UK Government's reaction to the proliferation of these attacks. It requires that organisations put basic security measures in place, enabling them to reliably counter the most common tactics employed by cyber criminals. From 1 October 2014, all suppliers bidding for a range of government ICT contracts - in particu
A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi
Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials is a detailed, practical primer on the leading rapid prototyping tool. Short on jargon and high on concepts, real-life scenarios and step-by-step guidance through hands-on examples, this book will show you how to integrate Axure into your UX workflow. This book is written for UX practitioners, business analysts, product managers, and anyone else who is involved in UX projects. The book assumes that you have no or very little familiarity with Axure. It will help you if you are evaluating the tool for an upcoming project or are required to quickly get up to spee
Haidekker, Mark A
The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos
The essential tools needed for the analysis of HEP experiments are software, networking, data handling, and CPU power. Leaving most software topics to other papers, this paper describes how we can use today's hardware effectively for HEP data analysis. It describes a new but viable model for HEP computing and data handling on a single site, and outlines the challenge of extending this environment to the wider university-based community. Finally it touches on the revolution in software design that may be triggered by the revolution in computing technology. (orig.)
de Wolf, David A.
Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.
Zhou, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ping; Kong, De-Xin
Given the high risk and lengthy procedure of traditional drug development, drug repurposing is gaining more and more attention. Although many types of drug information have been used to repurpose drugs, drug-drug interaction data, which imply possible physiological effects or targets of drugs, remain unexploited. In this work, similarity of drug interaction was employed to infer similarity of the physiological effects or targets for the drugs. We collected 10,835 drug-drug interactions concerning 1074 drugs, and for 700 of them, drug similarity scores based on drug interaction profiles were computed and rendered using a drug association network with 589 nodes (drugs) and 2375 edges (drug similarity scores). The 589 drugs were clustered into 98 groups with Markov Clustering Algorithm, most of which were significantly correlated with certain drug functions. This indicates that the network can be used to infer the physiological effects of drugs. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of this drug association network to predict drug targets. The results show that the method is effective for 317 of 561 drugs that have known targets. Comparison of this method with the structure-based approach shows that they are complementary. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Giansanti, Andrea
Essential genes constitute the core of genes which cannot be mutated too much nor lost along the evolutionary history of a species. Natural selection is expected to be stricter on essential genes and on conserved (highly shared) genes, than on genes that are either nonessential or peculiar to a single or a few species. In order to further assess this expectation, we study here how essentiality of a gene is connected with its degree of conservation among several unrelated bacterial species, each one characterised by its own codon usage bias. Confirming previous results on E. coli, we show the existence of a universal exponential relation between gene essentiality and conservation in bacteria. Moreover, we show that, within each bacterial genome, there are at least two groups of functionally distinct genes, characterised by different levels of conservation and codon bias: i) a core of essential genes, mainly related to cellular information processing; ii) a set of less conserved nonessential genes with prevalent functions related to metabolism. In particular, the genes in the first group are more retained among species, are subject to a stronger purifying conservative selection and display a more limited repertoire of synonymous codons. The core of essential genes is close to the minimal bacterial genome, which is in the focus of recent studies in synthetic biology, though we confirm that orthologs of genes that are essential in one species are not necessarily essential in other species. We also list a set of highly shared genes which, reasonably, could constitute a reservoir of targets for new anti-microbial drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos
Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.
Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan
The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available Background: Essential tremor (ET is one of the most common neurological disorders among adults, and is the most common of the many tremor disorders. It has classically been viewed as a benign monosymptomatic condition, yet over the past decade, a growing body of evidence indicates that ET is a progressive condition that is clinically heterogeneous, as it may be associated with a spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and non‐motor elements. In this review, I will describe the most significant emerging milestones in research which, when taken together, suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative condition.Methods: A PubMed search conducted in June 2014 crossing the terms “essential tremor” (ET and “neurodegenerative” yielded 122 entries, 20 of which included the term “neurodegenerative” in the article title. This was supplemented by articles in the author's files that pertained to this topic.Results/Discussion: There is an open and active dialogue in the medical community as to whether ET is a neurodegenerative disease, with considerable evidence in favor of this. Specifically, ET is a progressive disorder of aging associated with neuronal loss (reduction in Purkinje cells as well as other post‐mortem changes that occur in traditional neurodegenerative disorders. Along with this, advanced neuroimaging techniques are now demonstrating distinct structural changes, several of which are consistent with neuronal loss, in patients with ET. However, further longitudinal clinical and neuroimaging longitudinal studies to assess progression are required.
Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H; Calne, D B
The beta-1 selective, hydrophilic adrenoceptor blocking drug atenolol (100 mg daily) was compared to the non-selective, lipid-soluble beta-blocker propranolol (240 mg daily), and to placebo, in a double-blind cross-over study in 24 patients with essential tremor. Atenolol and propranolol caused a similar decrease in heart rate. Both beta-blockers also suppressed the tremor intensity; there was no significant difference between them, but both were significantly better than placebo. These drugs did not affect tremor frequency. Twelve of the patients preferred propranolol subjectively, one preferred atenolol and none preferred placebo. No marked side-effects were observed. It was concluded that atenolol and other cardio-selective blockers offer an alternative for patients unable to tolerate the non-selective drugs. The site of action and receptor sub-type involved have still to be determined.
Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels
This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....
Cremers, Serge; Aronson, Jeffrey K
Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases. Relatively few rare disorders have specific pharmacological treatments (so-called orphan drugs), partly because of difficulties in designing trials large enough to determine benefits and harms alike. Incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of orphan drugs, including tax credits and research aids, simplification of marketing authorization procedures and exemption from fees, and extended market exclusivity. Consequently, the number of applications for orphan drugs has grown, as have the costs of using them, so much so that treatments may not be cost-effective. It has therefore been suggested that not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce those costs should be tasked with producing them. A growing role for patient organizations, improved clinical and translational infrastructures, and developments in genetics have also contributed to successful drug development. The translational discipline of clinical pharmacology is an essential component in drug development, including orphan drugs. Clinical pharmacologists, skilled in basic pharmacology and its links to clinical medicine, can be involved at all stages. They can contribute to the delineation of genetic factors that determine clinical outcomes of pharmacological interventions, develop biomarkers, design and perform clinical trials, assist regulatory decision
Bhargava, Anurag; Kalantri, S P
The government is planning to introduce free generic and essential medicines in public health facilities. Most people in India buy healthcare from the private sector, a compulsion that accounts for a high proportion of healthcare-related expenditure. To reduce the burden of healthcare costs, the government must improve availability and affordability of generic and essential medicines in the market. It can do so because India's large pharmaceutical industry is a major source of generic medicines worldwide. In this article, we discuss three factors that have impeded access to generic and essential medicines: (1) mistaken notions among policymakers, prescribers and patients about branded drugs and generic drugs in India; (2) high prices of medicines due to the progressive dismantling of the system of regulation of medicine prices, and (3) a drug approval and regulatory system that allows medicines (including fixed dose combinations) of doubtful efficacy, rationale, safety and public health relevance to dominate the market at the cost of access to affordable generic and essential medicines. The consequences of ill-health and wasted expenditure on drugs raise issues of public health ethics.Improving access to essential medicines in India is an urgent public health and ethical imperative. This should include improved public provisioning, a system of regulation of drug prices, and an evidence-based drug approval process.
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Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...
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behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.
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Full Text Available ... 800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my ... is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't ...
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Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...
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Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...
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... as hearing colors Impulsive behavior Rapid shifts in emotions Permanent mental changes in perception Rapid heart rate ... Drug use can negatively affect academic performance and motivation to excel in school. Legal issues. Legal problems ...
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De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario
Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept......-oriented code. Two well-known pointcut categories, call and execution, are commonly considered similar.We formally expose their differences, and resolve the associated soundness problem. Our calculus includes type ranges, an intuitive and concise alternative to explicit type variables that allows advice...... to be polymorphic over intercepted methods. We use calculus parameters to cover type safety for a wide design space of other features. Type soundness is verified in Coq....
Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Nakayama, Masamichi; Okano, Teruo
Nanotechnology has attracted great attention all over the world in recent several years and has led to the establishment of the novel technical field of "nanomedicine" through collaboration with advanced medical technology. Particularly, site-specific drug targeting using particle drug carrier systems has made substantial progress and been actively developed. This review explains the essential factors (size and chemical character) of drug carriers to allow long circulation in the bloodstream avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, and shows the present status and future perspective of several types of nano-carrier systems (water-soluble polymer, liposome and polymeric micelle). We also introduce the novel concept of multi-targeting system (combination of two or more targeting methodologies) for ideal drug therapies.
Brockow, Knut; Aberer, Werner; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M
The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical...... history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed...... a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed...
Deniz, Usha K.
In the present day world, drugs play a very important role in medicine and it is necessary to understand their mode of action at the molecular level, in order to optimise their use. Studies of drug-biomembrane interactions are essential for gaining such as understanding. However, it would be prohibitively difficult to carry out such studies, since biomembranes are highly complex systems. Hence, model membranes (made up of these lipids which are important components of biomembranes) of varying degrees of complexity are used to investigate drug-membrane interactions. Bio- as well as model-membranes undergo a chain melting transition when heated, the chains being in a disordered state above the transition point, T CM . This transition is of physiological importance since biomembranes select their components such that T CM is less than the ambient temperature but not very much so, so that membrane flexibility is ensured and porosity, avoided. The influence of drugs on the transition gives valuable clues about various parameters such as the location of the drug in the membrane. Deep insights into drug-membrane interactions are obtained by observing the effect of drugs on membrane structure and the mobilities of the various groups in lipids, near T CM . Investigation of such changes have been carried out with several drugs, using techniques such as DSC, XRD and NMR. The results indicate that the drug-membrane interaction not only depends on the nature of drug and lipids but also on the form of the model membrane - stacked bilayer or vesicles. The light that these results shed on the nature of drug-membrane interactions is discussed. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab
Xiong, X J; Li, S J; Zhang, Y Q
Massage, an ancient Chinese healing art, is widely practiced for symptom relief in hypertensive patients with anxiety, depression, headache, vertigo, chronic pain in neck, shoulder and back. A large number of case series and clinical trials have been published. However, it is still unclear whether massage can be recommended as an effective therapy for essential hypertension (EH). We estimated the current clinical evidence of massage for EH. Articles published before 10 December 2013 were searched using Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials comparing massage with any type of control intervention were included. Trials testing massage combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included as well. Meta-analysis was performed on the effects on blood pressure (BP). Twenty-four articles involving 1962 patients with EH were selected. Methodological quality of most trials was evaluated as generally low. Meta-analyses demonstrated that massage combined with antihypertensive drugs may be more effective than antihypertensive drugs alone in lowering both systolic BP (SBP; mean difference (MD): -6.92 (-10.05, -3.80); Phypertensive patients as compared with antihypertensive drugs. Safety of massage is still unclear. There is some encouraging evidence of massage for EH. However, because of poor methodological quality, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to validate the use of massage in future.
Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry
ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...
Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica
The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...
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Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso
Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)
Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica
Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)
Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk
In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...
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Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.
Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502
Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B
A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.
Background: The availability of drugs on a continuous basis is paramount to the success of any health care system. The Bamako Initiative (BI) had provision of essential drugs as one of its key thrusts in order to improve the utilization of health facilities. This study compared the perceived availability of essential drugs and ...
Full Text Available The growth of pharma industries has slowed in recent years because of various reasons such as patent expiries, generic competition, drying pipelines, and increasingly stringent regulatory guidelines. Many blockbuster drugs will loose their exclusivity in next 5 years. Therefore, the current economic situation plus the huge generic competition shifted the focus of pharmaceutical companies from the essential medicines to the new business model - niche busters, also called orphan drugs. Orphan drugs may help pharma companies to reduce the impact of revenue loss caused by patent expiries of blockbuster drugs. The new business model of orphan drugs could offer an integrated healthcare solution that enables pharma companies to develop newer areas of therapeutics, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and patient support. Incentives for drug development provided by governments, as well as support from the FDA and EU Commission in special protocols, are a further boost for the companies developing orphan drugs. Although there may still be challenges ahead for the pharmaceutical industry, orphan drugs seem to offer the key to recovery and stability within the market. In our study, we have compared the policies and orphan drug incentives worldwide alongwith the challenges faced by the pharmaceutical companies. Recent developments are seen in orphan drug approval, the various drugs in orphan drug pipeline, and the future prospectives for orphan drugs and diseases.
Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...
tests (LFTs) to monitor hepatotoxicity (liver [hepatic] damage) is uncommon in many resource-poor ... cholesterol ester storage disease. ... The problem with many patients is that they are taking several drugs often ... Urine, saliva and other body fluids may be coloured orange-red: this can be very alarming to patients.
Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.
Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure
preventing disease in human beings or in animals. In the process ... of requirement. In the process, they may cause toxic side effects. .... the liver to release the physiologically active drug. Similarly ... patients addicted to alcohol. However, it is a ...
Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...
... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...
Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira
Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307
G. P. Smoilovskaya
Full Text Available Pharmacologic effect of herbal drugs is associated with the availability in its composition the complex of biologically active substances, particularly, the essential oils, which are capable to suppress the multiplication of many microorganisms, fungi, viruses. Aim. To determine the bacteriostatic activity of essential oils of Millefolium subvulgare and Millefolium setaceum have been studied physic – chemical characters, identification and quantitative content of constituents of the essential oils obtained has been carried out by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. Methods and results. It has been identified in the composition of the essential oil from Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit 63 substances, 57 substances for Achillea submillefolium Klok. et Krytzka, azulene derivatives were predominant. The subsequent bacteriostatic studies for essential oils revealed their pronounced bacteriostatic activity for Staphylococcus aureus, mixt- flore1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli. Conclusion. The essential oil from Millefolium subvulgare demonstrated the more intensive activity associated with the predominance of azulene derivatives.
Zhang, Xue; Acencio, Marcio Luis; Lemke, Ney
Essential proteins/genes are indispensable to the survival or reproduction of an organism, and the deletion of such essential proteins will result in lethality or infertility. The identification of essential genes is very important not only for understanding the minimal requirements for survival of an organism, but also for finding human disease genes and new drug targets. Experimental methods for identifying essential genes are costly, time-consuming, and laborious. With the accumulation of sequenced genomes data and high-throughput experimental data, many computational methods for identifying essential proteins are proposed, which are useful complements to experimental methods. In this review, we show the state-of-the-art methods for identifying essential genes and proteins based on machine learning and network topological features, point out the progress and limitations of current methods, and discuss the challenges and directions for further research. PMID:27014079
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Despite the vast production of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased and essential oils (EOs have been recognized to possess antimicrobial properties. Methods: In the present study, EOs obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Mentha piperita L., were evaluated for their single and binary combined antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The results exhibited that some of the tested essential oils revealed antibacterial activities against the examined pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of the testedessential oils was obtained from the combination of T. vulgaris and M. piperita essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC= 0.625 mg/mL. Conclusion: Combinations of the essential oils in this study showed synergic action against some pathogenic microorganisms which could be considered in medical and food industries as preservatives.
Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo
Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.
Full Text Available The most common honey bee diseases are American foulbrood (AFB caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, Chalkbrood caused by fungus Ascosphaera apis and diseases caused by parasitic mites such as Acarapis woodi, Varroa destructor. These diseases and pests not only cause economic loss but also cause ecological problems related to the role of honey bees, as the most important pollinators on Earth. Synthetic acaricides and antibiotics are used to keep the diseases and mites in control. Use of the drugs lead to the development of drug-resistant organisms, detrimental effect on non-target organisms and the residue problem in bee products. For this reasons, the need for alternative control methods has become compulsory in recent years. It has been known that some plant oils used widely in perfumery and food industry for flavor and smell have been used as repellent to certain insects, bactericide and fungicide. Therefore, intensive studies have been carried out on plants with anti-mites, antibacterial and antifungal potentials and these studies are still going on. Recently, studies in this area have shown that essential oils of plants such as thyme, cloves, mint, lemon grass, cinnamon, grapefruit, rosemary, marigold, are lethal to some mites, bacteria and fungi. In addition, it has been reported that some components, isolated from these plants such as sanguinarine, thymoquinone, capsaicin, carvacrol, citral, eugenol, thymol, show these effects on the organisms. As a result, in countries rich in biodiversity due to endemic plant species, the essential oils used in control of these diseases should be favored instead of or in combination with conventional drugs in integrated the disease management programs because of the lack of harmful effects of essential oils on non-target organisms and environment.
... This series is produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project sup- ported by grants from the Engelberg Foundation and the National Library of Medicine of ... Consumer and Prescriber Education Grant Program which is funded ...
Helena Lutéscia L. Coelho
Conclusion: The lack of age-appropriate formulations of essential medicines for children in Brazil includes important therapeutic groups and indispensable drugs for severe clinical conditions. Some of these products exist in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, but not in public facilities; others could be produced by national laboratories with commercial interest or stimulated by a specific governmental policy, as in other countries.
Fueloep, T. Jr.; Worum, I.; Csongor, J.; Ujhelyi, L.; Foeris, G.
The body composition of 30 elderly (22 females: 78,2+7,6; 8 males: 80,4+5,4 yrs) and 38 middle-aged (27 females: 45,5+10.3; 11 males: 42,3+8,7 yrs) people suffering of essential hypertension determined by complex clinical and biological examinations (BP: 160-180/100-200 Hgmm), was determined before and after treatment. Most of them (78%) could be reassessed after 3 month of treatment (beta-blocking drugs or diuretics). The authors also investigated a few numbers (n=10) of patients presenting a hypertensive crisis treated with vasodilatant drugs and diuretics during 1 week of period. The hormonal status of all of them was assessed at the same time. The body composition was determined by multiple-isotope method
Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and dual diagnosis.Key words: Legal, good drugs, illegal, bad drugs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for growth, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining growth rates and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and growth rate decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in growth rate (MTL(50. When applied to four growth essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL(50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. CONCLUSIONS: RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to growth. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement.
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available Drug is one of the essential elements in healthcare that should be effectively and efficiently managed. Following thedecentralization in 2001 in Indonesia, drug management has changed in district drug management units and also in District General Hospitals. Certainly this condition influences the sustainability of drug access in primary health care such as in Community Health Center and District General Hospital, especially in drug financing policy. A cross sectional descriptive study to obtain information on drug management in public healthcare in district had been carried out between July and December 2006 in 10 District Public Drug Management Units from 10 district health offices and 9 district general hospitals as samples. Data were collected by interviewing heads of Drug Section in District Health Offices and heads of Hospital Pharmacies using structured questionnaires and observing drug storage in District Drug Management Units, Community Health Centers, and Hospital Pharmacies. Results of the study show that drug planning in District Health Offices and General Hospitals did not meet the basic real need in some districts nor District Hospitals. The minimum health service standards had no been achieved yet. Furthermore, drug procurement, storage and recording as well as reporting was not good enough either, such as shown by the existence of expired drugs. Lead time for drug delivery to community health centers in some districts was longer than the average of lead time in the past 3 years.
Background Identifying essential genes in bacteria supports to identify potential drug targets and an understanding of minimal requirements for a synthetic cell. However, experimentally assaying the essentiality of their coding genes is resource intensive and not feasible for all bacterial organisms, in particular if they are infective. Results We developed a machine learning technique to identify essential genes using the experimental data of genome-wide knock-out screens from one bacterial organism to infer essential genes of another related bacterial organism. We used a broad variety of topological features, sequence characteristics and co-expression properties potentially associated with essentiality, such as flux deviations, centrality, codon frequencies of the sequences, co-regulation and phyletic retention. An organism-wise cross-validation on bacterial species yielded reliable results with good accuracies (area under the receiver-operator-curve of 75% - 81%). Finally, it was applied to drug target predictions for Salmonella typhimurium. We compared our predictions to the viability of experimental knock-outs of S. typhimurium and identified 35 enzymes, which are highly relevant to be considered as potential drug targets. Specifically, we detected promising drug targets in the non-mevalonate pathway. Conclusions Using elaborated features characterizing network topology, sequence information and microarray data enables to predict essential genes from a bacterial reference organism to a related query organism without any knowledge about the essentiality of genes of the query organism. In general, such a method is beneficial for inferring drug targets when experimental data about genome-wide knockout screens is not available for the investigated organism. PMID:20438628
Cuomo, Raphael E; Seidman, Robert L; Mackey, Tim K
Accessibility to essential cancer medications in low- and middle-income countries is threatened by insufficient availability and affordability. The objective of this study is to characterize variation in transactional prices for essential cancer medications across geographies, medication type, and time. Drug purchase prices for 19 national and international buyers (representing 29 total countries) between 2010 and 2014 were obtained from Management Sciences for Health. Median values for drug pricing were computed, to address outliers in the data. For comparing purchase prices across geographic units, medications, and over time; Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare two groups, Kruskal Wallis H tests were used to compare more than two groups, and linear regression was used to compare across continuous independent variables. During the five-year data period examined, the median price paid for a package of essential cancer medication was $12.63. No significant differences in prices were found based on country-level wealth, country-level disease burden, drug formulation, or year when medication was purchased. Statistical tests found significant differences in prices paid across countries, regions, individual medications, and medication categories. Specifically, countries in the Africa region appeared to pay more for a package of essential cancer medication than countries in the Latin America region, and cancer medications tended to be more expensive than anti-infective medications and cardiovascular medications. Though preliminary, our study found evidence of variation in prices paid by health systems to acquire essential cancer medications. Primarily, variations in pricing based on geographic location and cancer medication type (including when comparing to essential medicines that treat cardiovascular and infectious diseases) indicate that these factors may impact availability, affordability and access to essential cancer drugs. These factors should be taken into
Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized. Copyright 1997 by John Wiley
Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children’s attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes.
A number of authors have recently developed and defended various versions of ‘normative essentialism’ about the mental, i.e. the claim that propositional attitudes are constitutively or essentially governed by normative principles. I present two arguments to the effect that this claim cannot be r...... essentially normative, propositional attitude ascriptions could not support normative rationality judgments, which would remove the central appeal of normative essentialism....
Zuzana Bílková, Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, thesis author: PharmDr. Jan Martin, PhD., Hradec Králové, 2013, 72 pages. The thesis called "Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil" is interested in biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, specifically antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, nematicidal and repellency activit...
Kuroda, Y; Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H
We investigated the effect of arotinolol, a new peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, in 15 patients with essential tremor. The patients received 30 mg per day of arotinolol for 8 weeks. Accelerometer readings showed a significant reduction in amplitude of postural tremor after treatment. Action tremor also improved to essentially the same degree as postural tremor. The present findings support the view that the therapeutic effect of beta-blockers in essential tremor is mediated by peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.
Nagy, Viktor László
The diuretics are essential medicaments of antihypertensive therapy. They reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular events optimally. With increasing doses of thiazides and thiazide analogs do not come further powerful effect of reducing blood pressure or cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but clearly elevate the side effects. Because of it, the minimum effective dose level and the fixed-dose combination therapy should be preferred. The use these drugs leads to especially positive outcome in elder patients, isolated systolic hypertension, heart failure, after stroke and in black population. Loop diuretics as antihypertensive therapy can be used only by renal impairment. The use of aldosterone antagonists can have a good effect not only on heart failure but also on prevention of atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, using it in a combination therapy with thiazides, it reduces the risk of hypokalemia. Therefore, the diuretic treatment in hypertension is flourishing again. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 403-408.
Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.
BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:
Vasil'eva, L N
In biological literature, essentialism and typological thinking are believed to be incompatible with evolutionary ideas. At present, the same considerations underlay the claims to abandon the Linnaean hierarchy, or the fundamental classificatory structure rooted in essentialism. This paper suggests to reconsider the negative views of Plato's typology and Aristotle's essentialism following the narrow interpretations that have nothing to do with the classification of living beings. Plato's theory of 'ideas' (or 'forms') is the basis of classificatory theory; it provided such concepts as 'species', 'genus', 'essence', 'dichotomous division' but the development of this theory in the framework of moral and esthetic values could not be beneficial to biology. Aristotle's essentialism is more complicated and exists in two forms; one of these, or classificatory essentialism, is a modification of Plato's typology; another one, or organismal essentialism, represents the shift of 'essence' from the world of relations between objects to the realm of particular things, where the concept of essence lost its basic meaning. It is senseless to look for unreal 'type of an organism' ('essence of a thing') but precisely this kind of essentialism is attractive for biologists and philosophers. Organismal essentialism is the underlying basis of so-called 'individuality thesis' that is used as a weapon against classificatory essentialism. The same thesis is associated with an extensional vision of taxa that also explains the criticism of Linnaean hierarchy, while the latter is the intentional structure and the first tool suggested for the rank coordination of many unequal taxa.
California Natural Resource Agency — The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) commissioned the California Essential Habitat Connectivity...
Derakhshani, Randi L
Get a jump-start on Autodesk 3ds Max 2012 essentials-with the Essentials! The new Essentials books from Sybex are beautiful, task-based, full-color Autodesk Official Training Guides that help you get up to speed on Autodesk topics quickly and easily. Autodesk 3ds Max 2012 Essentials thoroughly covers the fundamentals of this popular 3D animation effects, and visualization software, teaching you what you need to become quickly productive. By following the book's clear explanations, practical tutorials, and step-by-step exercises, you'll cover all the bases. Topics include modeling, animation,
The medical significance of the essential biological metals such as zinc, copper and molybdenum as well as their nutritional and biochemical importance are reviewed. The following topics are treated: biochemical actions of the essential biological metals; the concept of essentiality; the development of knowledge about the essential biological metals. Data are given on zinc deficiency and hypogonadismi in humans, zinc and acrodermatitis enterophatica, zinc and the skin, zinc in diabetes mellitus, zinc and insulin, zinc and the liver; copper functions, copper deficiency - ''sway back'' in sheep, copper and haemopoiesis, copper and the function of blood vessels; molybdenum and dental caries in humans, oesophageal carcinoma and molybdenum deficiency in humans. (T.G.)
Anusuya, Shanmugam; Kesherwani, Manish; Priya, K Vishnu; Vimala, Antonydhason; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Gromiha, M Michael
Identifying the interactions between drugs and target proteins is a key step in drug discovery. This not only aids to understand the disease mechanism, but also helps to identify unexpected therapeutic activity or adverse side effects of drugs. Hence, drug-target interaction prediction becomes an essential tool in the field of drug repurposing. The availability of heterogeneous biological data on known drug-target interactions enabled many researchers to develop various computational methods to decipher unknown drug-target interactions. This review provides an overview on these computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions along with available webservers and databases for drug-target interactions. Further, the applicability of drug-target interactions in various diseases for identifying lead compounds has been outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Huang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong
Drug problems are reemerging in China since the nation implemented economic reform and an "open door" policy in the early 1980s. This is causing both national and international concern. However, knowledge and understanding of the Chinese drug problem is fairly limited because of the nation's unique social and political history. In response to this shortage of information, our study presents a profile of Chinese drug users. Data were collected from a survey of drug users attending mandatory treatment centres in a large city in 2009. We present a demographic profile of the drug users, describe their patterns of drug use, their access to drugs and their history of drug treatment. Chinese drug users, like those from the U.S., are likely to be unemployed and have a low level of education. However, they are more likely than those in the U.S. to use heroin, Bingdu (methamphetamine) and Maguo (a derivative of methamphetamine), and they pay less for their drugs. This profile of drug users is informative and valuable for drug prevention, intervention, and treatment in the Chinese setting because knowing and understanding the drug population is essential for effective control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
other species. Therefore, essential oils of these species are very promising source of antibacterial and antifungal drugs, especially in the treatment and prevention of skin diseases, upper respiratory tract inflammations and vaginitis. Conclusion. Obtained results indicate promising further study of antibacterial properties of essential oils of plants species L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis (Lamiaceae family. It was discovered that Gram-positive cocci, including S. aureus, and yeast Candida were the most sensitive to these oils. Along with the prospect of creating antimicrobial drugs which include essential oils of studied plants these oils can be recommended as active ingredients of preservatives in the composition of cosmetic products or dietary supplements also.
The Maintenance Optimization Plan (MOP) for Essential Equipment Reliability will furnish Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) management with a pro-active, forward-thinking process for maintaining essential structures, systems, and components (ESSC) at the Hanford Site tank farms in their designed condition, and to ensure optimum ESSC availability and reliability
Jensen, Mathias Fjællegaard
Quantitative methodology has a contested role in feminist scholarship which remains almost exclusively qualitative. Considering Irigaray’s notion of mimicry, Spivak’s strategic essentialism, and Butler’s contingent foundations, the essentialising implications of quantitative methodology may prove...... the potential to reconcile anti-essentialism and quantitative methodology, and thus, to make peace in the quantitative/qualitative Paradigm Wars....
Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.
physiological, psychological and spiritual. Our body uses the aromatic molecules (essential oils) in two ways: (1) through our olfactory system which is connected to the brain where our most primal feelings, urges and emotions reside, and (2) by absorp- tion of the low molecular weight compounds of essential oils through ...
Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…
Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming
The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...
... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...
Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...
Baugh, Loren; Gallagher, Larry A.; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Clifton, Matthew C.; Gardberg, Anna S.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Armour, Brianna; Begley, Darren W.; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Dranow, David M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; Fox, David; Staker, Bart L.; Phan, Isabelle; Gillespie, Angela; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa-Hewitt, Steve; Nguyen, Mary Trang; Napuli, Alberto; Barrett, Lynn; Buchko, Garry W.; Stacy, Robin; Myler, Peter J.; Stewart, Lance J.; Manoil, Colin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.
Background The genus Burkholderia includes pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that cause melioidosis, glanders, and pulmonary infections of patients with cancer and cystic fibrosis. Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally identified 406 putative essential genes in B. thailandensis, a low-virulence species phylogenetically similar to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, using saturation-level transposon mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq). We selected 315 protein products of these genes based on structure-determination criteria, such as excluding very large and/or integral membrane proteins, and entered them into the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infection Disease (SSGCID) structure determination pipeline. To maximize structural coverage of these targets, we applied an “ortholog rescue” strategy for those producing insoluble or difficult to crystallize proteins, resulting in the addition of 387 orthologs (or paralogs) from seven other Burkholderia species into the SSGCID pipeline. This structural genomics approach yielded structures from 31 putative essential targets from B. thailandensis, and 25 orthologs from other Burkholderia species, yielding an overall structural coverage for 49 of the 406 essential gene families, with a total of 88 depositions into the Protein Data Bank. Of these, 25 proteins have properties of a potential antimicrobial drug target i.e., no close human homolog, part of an essential metabolic pathway, and a deep binding pocket. We describe the structures of several potential drug targets in detail. Conclusions/Significance This collection of structures, solubility and experimental essentiality data
Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia includes pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that cause melioidosis, glanders, and pulmonary infections of patients with cancer and cystic fibrosis. Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite.We experimentally identified 406 putative essential genes in B. thailandensis, a low-virulence species phylogenetically similar to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, using saturation-level transposon mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq. We selected 315 protein products of these genes based on structure-determination criteria, such as excluding very large and/or integral membrane proteins, and entered them into the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infection Disease (SSGCID structure determination pipeline. To maximize structural coverage of these targets, we applied an "ortholog rescue" strategy for those producing insoluble or difficult to crystallize proteins, resulting in the addition of 387 orthologs (or paralogs from seven other Burkholderia species into the SSGCID pipeline. This structural genomics approach yielded structures from 31 putative essential targets from B. thailandensis, and 25 orthologs from other Burkholderia species, yielding an overall structural coverage for 49 of the 406 essential gene families, with a total of 88 depositions into the Protein Data Bank. Of these, 25 proteins have properties of a potential antimicrobial drug target i.e., no close human homolog, part of an essential metabolic pathway, and a deep binding pocket. We describe the structures of several potential drug targets in detail.This collection of structures, solubility and experimental essentiality data provides a resource for development of drugs against
Baugh, Loren; Gallagher, Larry A; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Clifton, Matthew C; Gardberg, Anna S; Edwards, Thomas E; Armour, Brianna; Begley, Darren W; Dieterich, Shellie H; Dranow, David M; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W; Fox, David; Staker, Bart L; Phan, Isabelle; Gillespie, Angela; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa-Hewitt, Steve; Nguyen, Mary Trang; Napuli, Alberto; Barrett, Lynn; Buchko, Garry W; Stacy, Robin; Myler, Peter J; Stewart, Lance J; Manoil, Colin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C
The genus Burkholderia includes pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that cause melioidosis, glanders, and pulmonary infections of patients with cancer and cystic fibrosis. Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite. We experimentally identified 406 putative essential genes in B. thailandensis, a low-virulence species phylogenetically similar to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, using saturation-level transposon mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq). We selected 315 protein products of these genes based on structure-determination criteria, such as excluding very large and/or integral membrane proteins, and entered them into the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infection Disease (SSGCID) structure determination pipeline. To maximize structural coverage of these targets, we applied an "ortholog rescue" strategy for those producing insoluble or difficult to crystallize proteins, resulting in the addition of 387 orthologs (or paralogs) from seven other Burkholderia species into the SSGCID pipeline. This structural genomics approach yielded structures from 31 putative essential targets from B. thailandensis, and 25 orthologs from other Burkholderia species, yielding an overall structural coverage for 49 of the 406 essential gene families, with a total of 88 depositions into the Protein Data Bank. Of these, 25 proteins have properties of a potential antimicrobial drug target i.e., no close human homolog, part of an essential metabolic pathway, and a deep binding pocket. We describe the structures of several potential drug targets in detail. This collection of structures, solubility and experimental essentiality data provides a resource for development of drugs against infections and diseases
Suzuki Érika Yoko
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis. The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6 %. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL-1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.
Thykær, Jette; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Baker, S. E.
with the reactions, we identified orthologous candidate essential genes in Aspergillus fumigatus. Our predictions are validated in part by the modes of action for some antifungal drugs and by molecular genetic studies of essential genes in A. fumigatus and other fungi. The use of metabolic models to predict...... of 1190 biochemically unique reactions that are associated with 871 open reading frames. Through a systematic in silico deletion of single metabolic reactions using this model, several essential metabolic pathways were identified for A. niger. A total of 138 reactions were identified as being essential...... biochemical reactions during growth on a minimal glucose medium. The majority of the reactions grouped into essential biochemical pathways covering cell wall biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism and purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Based on the A. niger open reading frames associated...
Damião Pergentino de Sousa
Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis, in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.
After more than 2 yr of operation of a drug testing program at the San Onofre nuclear power plant site, the Southern California Edison Co. has had a number of experiences and lessons considered valuable. The drug testing program at San Onofre, implemented in September of 1984, continues in essentially the same form today. Prior to describing the program, the paper reviews several underlying issues that believed to be simultaneously satisfied by the program: trustworthiness, fitness and safety, public trust, and privacy and search. The overall drug testing program, periodic drug monitoring program, and unannounced drug testing program are described. In addition to the obvious features of a good drug testing program, which are described in the EEI guide, it is essential to consider such issues as the stated program rationale, employee relations, and disciplinary action measures when contemplating or engaging in drug testing at nuclear power plants
Aćimović Milica G.
Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...
... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Sharifi, Iraj; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Rashidipour, Marzieh
This study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia vera essential oil and compare their efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). This essential oil (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against the intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica (MHOM/IR/2002/Mash2) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis of male BALB/c mice by Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). In the in vitro assay, it could be observed that P. vera essential oil significantly (p essential oil had potent suppression effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice (87.5% recovery), while 10 and 20 mg/mL of the essential oil represented the suppression effects as weak to intermediate. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.11 and 0.27 cm after the treatment of the subgroups with the essential oil concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, in the subgroup treated with the essential oil concentration of 30 mg/mL, the mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.56 cm. In the control subgroups, the mean diameter of the lesions increased to 1.01 cm. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), and α-thujene (9.31%). It was also found that P. vera essential oil had no significant cytotoxic effect on J774 cells. The present study found that P. vera essential oil showed considerable in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. tropica and L. major compared to the reference drug. These findings also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].
Pedro Raymundo Argüelles Osorio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of lemon grass, citronella grass, Mexican-tea and noni essential oils on urediniospore germination of Olivea neotectonae , the agent responsible for rust in Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.; to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of these essential oils on teak seedlings; and to evaluate the use of essential oils to control rust in teak plants when preventively and curatively applied. We found that the noni and lemon grass essential oils inhibited 100% of urediniospore germination. On the other hand, the essential oils from noni and lemon grass caused phytotoxicity when applied to seedlings at concentrations of 2000 and 1500 μL L-1, respectively. The major constituents found in lemon grass essential oil were Geranial and Neral, while Octanoic Acid was found in noni oil. Lower values in the area below the rust progress curve were observed with the preventive application of lemon grass and noni essential oils.
Oct 7, 2013 ... confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion: Our results ... Keywords: essential oils; rose geranium; citronellol; anti-inflammatory effect; skin inflammation; histopathology; carrageenan; croton ... acquiring synthetic drugs, their insufficient supplies, the side effects ...
Purpose: To investigate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of essential oil from Mentha pulegieum L. (EOMP) on multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates of A. baumannii, as well as its phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties and cytotoxic activity. Methods: The phytochemical composition of EOMP was ...
Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida
Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.
Julia Maimone Beatrice
Full Text Available Essential thrombocythemia is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the proliferation of megakaryocytes in bone marrow, leading to a persistent increase in the number of circulating platelets and thus increasing the risk for thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. The disease features leukocytosis, splenomegaly, vascular occlusive events, hemorrhages and vasomotor disorders. The intricate mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder are not completely understood and are still a matter of discussion. Essential thrombocythemia is an extremely rare disorder during childhood. We report on a case of essential thrombocythemia in a child and discuss the diagnostic approach and treatment strategy.
Luiz Marivando Barros
Full Text Available Drug resistance in the treatment of neglected parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, has led to the search and development of alternative drugs from plant origins. In this context, the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from Lantana camara leaves was tested against Leishmania braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. The results demonstrated that L. camara essential oil inhibited T. cruzi and L. braziliensis with IC50 of 201.94 μg/mL and 72.31 μg/mL, respectively. L. camara essential oil was found to be toxic to NCTC929 fibroblasts at 500 μg/mL (IC50 = 301.42 μg/mL. The composition of L. camara essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed large amounts of (E-caryophyllene (23.75%, biciclogermacrene (15.80%, germacrene D (11.73%, terpinolene (6.1%, and sabinene (5.92%, which might be, at least in part, responsible for its activity. Taken together, our results suggest that L. camara essential oil may be an important source of therapeutic agents for the development of alternative drugs against parasitic diseases.
Chahal, Harinder Singh; St Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa
. Inclusion of essential medications on the national formulary and working with organizations responsible for importing medications into Haiti, particularly drug donation agencies, are important first steps to increasing medication access.
Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (Pessential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice
This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…
Zhu, Jie; Cao, Guo-fen; Dang, Yong-hui; Chen, Teng
An essential feature of drug addiction is that an individual continues to use drug despite the threat of severely adverse physical or psychosocial consequences. Persistent changes in behavior and psychological function that occur as a function of drugs of abuse are thought to be due to the reorganization of synaptic connections (structural plasticity) in relevant brain circuits (especially the brains reward circuits). In this paper we summarized evidence that, indeed, exposure to amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine or morphine produced persistent changes in the structure of dendrites and dendritic spines on cells in relevant brain regions. We also approached the potential molecular mechanisms of these changes. It is suggested that structural plasticity associated with exposure to drugs of abuse reflects a reorganization of patterns of synaptic connectivity in these neural systems, a reorganization that alters their operation, thus contributing to some of the persistent sequela associated with drug use-including addiction.
Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 - Essentials is an excellent introduction to the essential features, functions, and workflows of Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional. Master the tools you will need to make Robot work for you: Go from zero to proficiency with this thorough and detailed introduction to the essential concepts and workflows of Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016. - Demystify the interface - Manipulate and manage Robot tables like a pro - Learn how to use Robot's modeling tools - Master loading techniques - Harness Robot automated load combinations - Decipher simplified seismic loading - Discover workflows for steel and concrete design - Gain insights to help troubleshoot issues Guided exercises are provided to help cement fundamental concepts in Robot Structural Analysis and drive home key functions. Get up to speed quickly with this essential text and add Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 to your analysis and design toolbox. New in 2016: AWC-NDS ...
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.
Full Text Available Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > ... Mild Hereditary Tremor No Big Deal Raving Fan Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving ...
... eyes, and eye irritation that is aggravated by wind, air pollution, sunlight, and other irritants. These symptoms ... find a genetics professional in my area? Other Names for This Condition essential blepharospasm eyelid twitching primary ...
Full Text Available ... More Than a Tremor Providing a voice for people with essential tremor means also reaching out to ... six-minute video tells the stories of six people living with ET. It goes beyond diagnosis and ...
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Nuclear power is the topic covered in this edition.
Hussain, A.I.; Anwar, A.; Iqbal, T.; Bhatti, I.A.
The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching beta-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications. (author)
Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Fuel cells is the topic covered in this edition.
Essential oils should be subjected to both qualitative and quan- ... Several methods are employed in modern perfumery. A perfume is a ... Three types of hydro- ..... Applied Research, Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on.
... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...
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Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B
Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Prins, Cláudia L; Vieira, Ivo J. C; Freitas, Silvério P
The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could resu...
Eisner, Howard S
The Third Edition of Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management enables readers to manage the design, development, and engineering of systems effectively and efficiently. The book both defines and describes the essentials of project and systems engineering management and, moreover, shows the critical relationship and interconnection between project management and systems engineering. The author's comprehensive presentation has proven successful in enabling both engineers and project managers to understand their roles, collaborate, and quickly grasp and apply all the basic princip
Nguyen Hai Dang
Full Text Available Background. Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an important factor to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Citrus essential oils (CEO are among the most widely used essential oils, and some of them exhibited promising antidiabetic effect. However, the α-glucosidase inhibition of CEO has not been investigated so far. The present work aims to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibition of essential oils from six Vietnamese Citrus peels. Methods. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from six Citrus peels was analyzed by GC-MS. All essential oils were tested for their inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase using p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Results. In Buddha’s hand and lime peels, the major components were limonene (59.0–61.31% and γ-terpinene (13.98–23.84% while limonene (90.95–95.74% was most abundant in pomelo, orange, tangerine, and calamondin peels. Among the essential oils, the Buddha’s hand oil showed the most significant α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 412.2 μg/mL. The combination of the Buddha’s hand essential oil and the antidiabetic drug acarbose increased the inhibitory effect. Conclusions. The results suggested the potential use of Buddha’s hand essential oil as an alternative in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are probably responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of DMEs. In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy.
Yolles, Stanley F.
This article emphasizes the need to prepare youth to make decisions about drug use. To do this it is essential to eliminate hypocrisy about the use of marihuana, to "infuse" the curriculum with drug information and to provide students with realistic learning experiences. (Author)
van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus
The majority of marketed drugs are metabolized through oxidation by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, thereby producing phase I metabolites. For pharmaceutical companies it is essential to thoroughly screen candidate drugs for potentially toxic metabolites, in order to avoid high costs
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.
... approved drugs Drugs@FDA Information on FDA-approved brand name and generic drugs including labeling and regulatory history Drugs with Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) REMS is a risk management plan required by FDA for certain prescription drugs, ...
Kelssering, G.; Aguiar, L.F.; Ribeiro, R.M.; Souza, A.Z. de
Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.) [pt
Guilherme Mariano Manfredini
Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.
Sep 3, 2013 ... Keywords: Hypertension, Insulin resistance, Homeostasis model assessment ... worldwide and its prevalence is predicted to increase by 60% by 2025, when a ... model is derived from a mathematical assessment .... Drug type.
Jónasson, Sævar Þór
Due to current limitations in control of pharmaceutical drug release in the body along with increasing medicine use, methods of externally-controlled drug release are of high interest. In this thesis, the use of microwaves is proposed as a technique with the purpose of externally activating...... setup, called the microwave activation system has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. The system presented in this thesis, operates unobtrusively, i.e. without physically interfering with the target (patient). The torso phantom is a simple dual-layered cylindrical...... the phantom is of interest for disclosing essential information about the limitations of the concept, the phantom and the system. For these purposes, a twofold operation of the microwave activation system was performed, which are reciprocal of each other. In the first operation phase, named mapping...
Celso Vataru Nakamura
Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.
Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Muruthi, Marvin M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; Fox, David; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Staker, Bart L.; Gardberg, Anna S.; Choi, Ryan
High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. Of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal s...
Ayodeji Olowu; Susan Olajoke Akinkurolere
This study identified and analyzed the visual and linguistic components associated with the selected advertisement of malaria drugs. This was with a view to describing the essential communication devices the advertisers of such drugs have employed. Data for the study were drawn from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source for the study comprised 4 purposively selected posters, stickers and drugs literature advertisement on malaria. Analysis of the data followed the framework of...
The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings and Support Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). Support Drawings: Are those drawings identified by facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems, or components shown on essential drawings. (HNF 1997a) The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered General drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report (Wilson 1998) is updated during fiscal year 1999. Trucks 1 and 2 drawings are not included in this revision of the essential drawing list due to uncertainty about future use
Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric
The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
García Pardo, María Pilar; Roger Sánchez, Concepción; De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Aguilar Calpe, María Asunción
The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In recent years these models have incorporated methodological modifications to study extinction, reinstatement and reconsolidation processes, or to model specific aspects of addictive behavior such as motivation to consume drugs, compulsive consumption or drug seeking under punishment situations. There are also models that link different reinforcement components or model voluntary motivation to consume (two-bottle choice, or drinking in the dark tests). In short, innovations in these models allow progress in scientific knowledge regarding the different aspects that lead individuals to consume a drug and develop compulsive consumption, providing a target for future treatments of addiction.
Center for Human Reliability Studies
The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.
... PDF Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP4 ...
Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...
Yusuff, K B; Tayo, F
The study set out to identify the strategies for public drug supply in Nigeria, assess its functionality, and recommend appropriate means to ensure regular availability of safe, efficacious, good quality and affordable essential drugs at public health facilities. The investigation was carried out at the Directorate of Pharmaceutical services, Federal Ministry of Health (F.M.O.H) Abuja and Federal Medical Stores, Oshodi, Lagos. Semi-structured interview was conducted with key informants at the Department of Food & Drugs, Drug procurement unit and Central Medical store using structured questionnaires and direct informants answers. Our study shows that public drug supply in Nigeria is governed by a National Drug Policy (NDP) which was introduced in 1990 and it is yet to be reviewed after ten years. We also identified the Central Medical Store (CMS) system as the current public drug supply strategy in Nigeria. Public drug supply is mainly financed by governments and this is inadequate to ensure sustained availability of essential drugs. The major procurement methods in use are open tender and direct procurement. These methods as presently operated suffer from late order placement, delay in payment and poor supplier lead-time mainly attributable to lateness in payment for previous drug supplies. These have contributed to stock out of essential drugs at public health facilities. Major losses due to expiration and spoilage are recorded at both central and peripheral storage points despite adequacy of storage facilities and personnel. Road transportation was the major mode of drug distribution from central to peripheral storage points and shortage of vehicle was a key factor affecting drug distribution. There was an apparent lack of a functioning drug management information system to effectively coordinate public drug supply and there are no definite systems that monitor and evaluate staff performance. The CMS strategy currently used for public drug supply in Nigeria has
This article invites you to a social constructionist view on the issue of drug-related death. Social constructionism is often misunderstood for denying plain facts. It sure is a fact that there are deadly doses of legal and illegal substances. In this sense it is a truism that drugs kill people. Nonetheless, it is argued that reducing the causes of death to a certain drug as the essential underlying cause of death is a social construction. A case is discussed to demonstrate that a drug-related death can just as well be seen as a free-market death. Free markets kill people at least as much as drugs do. It is argued that drug-related death is a social construction, because attributing a death to a drug is based on unfalsifiable counterfactual thinking. Counterfactual thoughts about what the world would look like if there were no drugs, are seen as expressing one's view of life.
Toosi, Negin R; Ambady, Nalini
As a social identity, religion is unique because it contains a spectrum of choice. In some religious communities, individuals are considered members by virtue of having parents of that background, and religion, culture, and ethnicity are closely intertwined. Other faith communities actively invite people of other backgrounds to join, expecting individuals to choose the religion that best fits their personal beliefs. These various methods of identification influence beliefs about the essentialist nature of religious identity. Essentialism is when social groups are considered to have deep, immutable, and inherent defining properties. In this study, college students (N=55) provided ratings of essentialism for eight religious identities: Atheist, Buddhist, Catholic, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant, and Spiritual-but-not-religious. Significant differences in essentialism were found between the target groups. Results and implications for intergroup relations are discussed.
With the evolution of nursing informatics (NI), the list of skills has advanced from the original definition that included 21 competencies to 168 basic competencies identified in the TIGER-based Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies (TANIC) and 178 advanced skills in the Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment (NICA) L3/L4 developed by Chamberlain College of Nursing, Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT). Of these competencies, project management is one of the most important essentials identified since it impacts all areas of NI skills and provides an organizing framework for processes and projects including skills such as design, planning, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. Examples of job roles that specifically require project management skills as an essential part of the NI functions include management, administration, leadership, faculty, graduate level master's and doctorate practicum courses. But first, better understanding of the NI essential skills is vital before adequate education and training programs can be developed.
Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao
Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be prov...
Woods, Hannah; Oronsaye, Efosa; Bali, Anjli; Rajakulasingam, Yathavan; Lee, Taehoon; Umali, Norman; Cohen, Eyal; Finkelstein, Yaron; Offringa, Martin; Persaud, Nav
Worldwide, many countries have developed a list of essential medicines for children to improve prescribing. We aimed to create an essential medicines list for children in Canada. We adapted the previously created preliminary list of essential medicines for adults in Canada and the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children to create a provisional list of essential medicines for children in Canada. Canadian clinicians made suggestions for changes. Literature relevant to each suggestion was presented to clinician-scientists, who used a modified nominal group technique to make recommendations on the suggestions. Ontario Public Drug Programs prescription data were reviewed to identify commonly prescribed medications missing from the list. Literature relevant to these medications was shared with a clinician-scientist review panel to determine which should be added, and a revised list was developed. A total of 76 items were removed from the list of essential medicines for adults in Canada because they were not indicated for use in children or were not relevant in the Canadian health care context; 7 medications were added to the child list based on Ontario Public Drugs Programs prescribing data and clinician-scientist review. Suggestions to add, remove or substitute medications were made by peer-reviewers and resulted in removal of 1 medication and replacement of 1 medication. The process produced a provisional list of 67 essential medications for children. A provisional list of 67 essential medicines for children was created through a peer-reviewed, multistep process based on current clinical evidence, Canadian clinical practice guidelines and historical prescribing data. It is publicly posted at http://cleanmeds.ca/. The list should be further developed based on wider input and should be continuously revised based on emerging evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these medicines in all pediatric age groups. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.
Ioannis L. Liakos
Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.
In The Essential Guide to Metadata for Books, you will learn exactly what you need to know to effectively generate, handle and disseminate metadata for books and ebooks. This comprehensive but digestible document will explain the life-cycle of book metadata, industry standards, XML, ONIX and the essential elements of metadata. It will also show you how effective, well-organized metadata can improve your efforts to sell a book, especially when it comes to marketing, discoverability and converting at the point of sale. This information-packed document also includes a glossary of terms
Many students worry about starting algebra. Pre-Algebra Essentials For Dummies provides an overview of critical pre-algebra concepts to help new algebra students (and their parents) take the next step without fear. Free of ramp-up material, Pre-Algebra Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical pre-algebra course, from fractions, decimals, and percents to scientific notation and simple variable equations. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical pre-algebra
Vesterli, Sten E
Developing Web Applications with Oracle ADF Essentials covers the basics of Oracle ADF and then works through more complex topics such as debugging and logging features and JAAS Security in JDeveloper as the reader gains more skills. This book will follow a tutorial approach, using a practical example, with the content and tasks getting harder throughout.""Developing Web Applications with Oracle ADF Essentials"" is for you if you want to build modern, user-friendly web applications for all kinds of data gathering, analysis, and presentations. You do not need to know any advanced HTML or JavaSc
Book review of: Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design: An international version / Joseph V. Valacich, Joey F. George and Jeffrey A. Hoffer. ( Pearson Education Int., 4th edition, 2009. 464 pages. ISBN: 978-0-13-506984-4; 0-13-506984-X)......Book review of: Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design: An international version / Joseph V. Valacich, Joey F. George and Jeffrey A. Hoffer. ( Pearson Education Int., 4th edition, 2009. 464 pages. ISBN: 978-0-13-506984-4; 0-13-506984-X)...
Farrell, Thomas S C
Essentials For Successful English Language Teaching is about how we teach English Language Learners (ELLs) and how our ELLs learn. Farrell and Jacobs encourage those involved in teaching English to develop, maintain and rediscover the reasons that led them to take up the profession. They focus on the essentials in teaching the English language that teachers can implement in their instruction so that their students can excel in their learning: Encourage learner autonomy Emphasize the social nature of learning Develop curricular integration, focus on meaning Celebrate diversity Expand thinking s
This is a concise introduction into optical fiber communication. It covers important aspects from the physics of optical wave propagation and amplification to the essentials of modulation formats and receivers. The combination of a solid coverage of necessary fundamental theory with an in-depth discussion of recent relevant research results enables the reader to design modern optical fiber communication systems. The book serves both graduate students and professionals. It includes many worked examples with solutions for lecturers. For the second edition, Reinhold Noé made many changes and additions throughout the text so that this concise book presents the essentials of optical fiber communication in an easy readable and understandable way.
Cooper, Alan; Cronin, David; Noessel, Christopher
The essential interaction design guide, fully revised and updated for the mobile ageAbout Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design, Fourth Edition is the latest update to the book that shaped and evolved the landscape of interaction design. This comprehensive guide takes the worldwide shift to smartphones and tablets into account. New information includes discussions on mobile apps, touch interfaces, screen size considerations, and more. The new full-color interior and unique layout better illustrate modern design concepts. The interaction design profession is blooming with the success o
Fan, Yetian; Tang, Xiwei; Hu, Xiaohua; Wu, Wei; Ping, Qing
Essential proteins are indispensable to the survival and development process of living organisms. To understand the functional mechanisms of essential proteins, which can be applied to the analysis of disease and design of drugs, it is important to identify essential proteins from a set of proteins first. As traditional experimental methods designed to test out essential proteins are usually expensive and laborious, computational methods, which utilize biological and topological features of proteins, have attracted more attention in recent years. Protein-protein interaction networks, together with other biological data, have been explored to improve the performance of essential protein prediction. The proposed method SCP is evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae datasets and compared with five other methods. The results show that our method SCP outperforms the other five methods in terms of accuracy of essential protein prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named SCP, which combines the ranking by a modified PageRank algorithm based on subcellular compartments information, with the ranking by Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) calculated from gene expression data. Experiments show that subcellular localization information is promising in boosting essential protein prediction.
Pirali Kheirabadi Khodadad
Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. In this study, the effects of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff essential oil on the promastigot form of Leishmania major were studied. Methods: In this study, the effects of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff essential oil on the promastigot form of Leishmania major were assessed by calculating the average number of surviving promastigots after exposure to different concentrations of essential oil, relative to the control Glucantime, at different time intervals. To achieve this, various essential oil concentrations (7.5 μl, 15 μl, 25 μl, 35.25 μl, 50 μl were added to parasites. Different groups in this study were kept in a 26°C incubator under identical conditions. 24, 48 and 72 hours after incubation, living promastigots were counted. Results: The effect of the essential oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff differed from the negative and positive controls and depended on the concentration: higher concentrations (35.25 μl, 50 μl had a stronger effect on promastigots, causing total mortality. Conclusion: This study showed that Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff essential oil had effects on promastigot form of Leishmania major. So it might be possible to use the essential oil of Kelussia odoratissima instead of chemical drugs.
Li, Min; Li, Wenkai; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi; Wang, Jianxin
Essential proteins are important participants in various life activities and play a vital role in the survival and reproduction of living organisms. Identification of essential proteins from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has great significance to facilitate the study of human complex diseases, the design of drugs and the development of bioinformatics and computational science. Studies have shown that highly connected proteins in a PPI network tend to be essential. A series of computational methods have been proposed to identify essential proteins by analyzing topological structures of PPI networks. However, the high noise in the PPI data can degrade the accuracy of essential protein prediction. Moreover, proteins must be located in the appropriate subcellular localization to perform their functions, and only when the proteins are located in the same subcellular localization, it is possible that they can interact with each other. In this paper, we propose a new network-based essential protein discovery method based on sub-network partition and prioritization by integrating subcellular localization information, named SPP. The proposed method SPP was tested on two different yeast PPI networks obtained from DIP database and BioGRID database. The experimental results show that SPP can effectively reduce the effect of false positives in PPI networks and predict essential proteins more accurately compared with other existing computational methods DC, BC, CC, SC, EC, IC, NC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poma, Paola; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Notarbartolo, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Sajeva, Maurizio; Zito, Pietro
The biological properties of essential oils have been demonstrated in the treatment of several diseases and to enhance the bioavailability of other drugs. In natural habitats the essential oils compounds may play important roles in the protection of the plants as antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, insecticides and also against herbivores by reducing their appetite for such plants or by repelling undesirable others. We analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry the chemical composition of the essential oil of aerial parts of Glandora rosmarinifolia (Ten.) D.C. Thomas obtained by hydrodistillation and verified some biological activities on a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HA22T/VGH, HepG2, Hep3B) and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (SUM 149, MDA-MB-231). In the essential oil we detected 35 compounds. The results of the biological assays indicate that essential oil of G. rosmarinifolia induces cell growth inhibition at concentration-dependent way in all cell line models. This oil does not seem to possess antioxidant activity, while the cytotoxicity of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil appeared to involve, at least in part, a pro-oxidant mechanism. Our results show for the first time the antitumoral and pro-oxidant activities of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil and suggest that it may represent a resource of pharmacologically active compounds.
Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey
The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…
McCain, Roger A.
Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…
Miller, Joan G.
This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.
North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015
In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…
A practical hands-on tutorial including multiple examples on application management using Citrix XenApp 6.5.Citrix XenApp Performance Essentials is intended for IT architects and system administrators who work with Citrix XenApp and who need an agile, practical guide to tune and optimize the performance.
The guidelines describe the essential parts of the quality management system to fulfil the requirements of the standard EN ISO 15 189. It includes mainly the organisation, the definition of responsibilities, training of personnel, the document control, the quality control, identification and control of nonconformities, corrective actions, preventive actions and evaluation, as audits and the management review.
This is a practical, hands-on guide that assists you in setting up and efficiently managing ITSM.ServiceDesk Plus 8.x Essentials is for IT helpdesk managers, administrators, and staff, serving as a compendium for service management concepts useful for them.
The religion of Islam is often portrayed with false and negative stereotypes. If we expect our students to understand and participate in the global world and to be informed and engaged citizens in a democratic America, then it is essential that they develop a basic and sound understanding of Islam. Furthermore, learning about Islam can facilitate…
ZOGHBI, Maria das G. B.; CUNHA, Emidio V. L. da; WOLTER FILHO, Wilson
The major constituents of the leaf essential oil of P. unifoliolatumare trans-caryophyllene (37.45%), limonene (24.23%) and α-humulene (9.94%). O óleo essencial obtido das folhas frescas de P. unifoliolatumapresentou como constituintes principais trans-cariofileno (37,45%), limoneno (24,23%) e α-humuleno (9,94%).
Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen
When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils....
, economic and social development and their impact on development of space. The structure of space or the territorial structure hereby plays an essential role in the options of further economic and social development and its sustainability. The focus is on support of livelihoods and enhancing human welfare...
Jonas, Mark E.
Patricia White ("Stud Philos Educ" 18:43-52, 1999) argues that the virtue gratitude is essential to a flourishing democracy because it helps foster universal and reciprocal amity between citizens. Citizens who participate in this reciprocal relationship ought to be encouraged to recognize that "much that people do does in fact help to make…
Maudet, Ludovic; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines have been updated in October 2015. The 2010 guidelines are reaffirmed: immediate call for help via the local dispatch center, high quality CPR (frequency between 100 and 120/min, compression depth between 5 and 6 cm) and early defibrillation improve patient's survival chances. This article reviews the essential elements of resuscitation and recommended advanced measures.
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)
Beek, van Teris A.; Joulain, Daniel
The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is - with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes - an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with
Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix
Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…
Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo
The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50 μM of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100 μg/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users.
Neurotransmitters are important in nervous and mental diseases because of their part in the pathogenesis of such diseases; at the same time, they play significant roles in the actions of effective therapeutic drugs. Studies of the mechanisms involved in the actions of such drugs not only generate useful methods to elucidate the pathogenesis of nervous and mental disorders but also serve as indispensable means of developing new drugs. In this field, investigations using both animal models of certain diseases and healthy animals are essential. Development of these animal models is urgently required. In this workshop, studies were presented of the mechanisms of action of major neuropsychotropic drugs such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, assessed in terms of the parts played by neurotransmitters and receptors. (Auth.)
Key words/phrases: Alcoholic beverage, Ethiopia, essential metal, non-essential metal, ouzo. * Author to whom all correspondence should ... ing the attention of scientists and policy makers as a vital part of food security strategies and ... Canadian Government indicated that it had detected ethyl carbamate, C3H7NO2, which ...
The objective of this study was to assess the levels of essential and toxic metals in leaf and stem of Rhamnus prinoides which are used for bitterness of local alcoholic beverages in Ethiopia and as traditional medicine in some African countries. Levels of essential metals (Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) and toxic ...
Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary
This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…
Jasmina M. Glamočlija
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.
... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search ... who aren't yet born. Drug use can hurt the body and the brain, sometimes forever. Drug use can also lead to addiction, a long-lasting brain disease in which people ...
Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...
Full Text Available Ed J Hendricks Center for Weight Management, Roseville and Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: The global pandemic of obesity and overweight now affects between 2.8 and 3.5 billion of the world population and shows no signs of abatement. Treatment for what is now recognized as a chronic disease includes pharmacotherapy, considered an essential component of comprehensive therapy. New drug discovery is robust, but the pace of the US Food and Drug Administration approval for obesity drugs has been glacial, and only a handful of approved drugs are available for treating obesity. In the last 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 208 drugs for cancer, 118 for cardiovascular diseases, 168 for neurological diseases, and 223 endocrinologic drugs, but only 6 for obesity, 2 of which have been taken off market. Currently, there are only 9 drugs approved by the FDA for obesity treatment. US physicians have turned to off-label drug use in their effort to care for increasing numbers of patients with excess adiposity. Phentermine is the most commonly used drug for treating obesity. Although approved only for short-term use, US physicians have used it successfully for long-term since its initial approval in 1959. This drug, used off-label for long-term, has proven to be safe and effective, far safer than the disease it is used to treat. Phentermine and diethylpropion, an equally safe but somewhat less effective drug, are both generic and therefore inexpensive. These drugs have been maligned inappropriately because their two-dimensional structure diagrams resemble amphetamine and also because of unproven presumptions about their potential adverse effects. In the face of an increasing epidemic, worldwide obese and overweight patients deserve effective treatment that prescribing these drugs could provide, if rehabilitated and used more frequently. US physicians will likely continue to use any drug proven useful off-label for this illness until
This thesis discusses the formulation method solid dispersion and how it works to resolve solubility-limited absorption of orally dosed anticancer drugs. Dissolution in water is essential for drug absorption because only dissolved drug molecules are absorbed. The problem is that half of the arsenal
Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott
Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
İLHAN, Mustafa Necmi
The NationalStrategy Document on Drugs and Emergency Action Plan started with thecontributions of all the relevant institutions within the year of 2014 wasprepared and after that in accordance with the Prime Ministry Notice entitledFight Against Drugs published within this scope, the committees for FightAgainst Drugs were established (under the presidency of Deputy Prime Ministerand with the help of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Laborand Social Security, Ministry of Fam...
Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K
The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.
Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support
Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias
Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...
Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A
The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.
Tonge, Peter J
The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.
Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E
The aim of this investigation was to examine illegal tablets and capsules seized in Jutland, the western part of Denmark, during the period 1995-1999. The drugs are described according to technical appearance (colour, logo, score, diameter) and content of synthetic drugs. All illegal tablets and capsules received during the period 1995-1999 (109 cases containing 192 different samples) were examined. MDMA was the most common drug and was seen during the entire period. Amphetamine was the second most common drug and has been frequently detected during the the last two years. Drugs like MDE, MBDB, BDB, and 2-CB were rarely seen and they disappeared quickly from the illegal market. MDA appeared on the market at the end of 1999. Only 53% of the tablets contained MDMA as the sole drug. Eighty-one percent of the tablets/capsules contained only one synthetic drug, whereas 13% contained a mixture of two or more synthetic drugs. Six per cent of the samples did not contain a euphoric drug/designer drug. The content of MDMA, MDE, and amphetamine in the tablets varied greatly. MDMA is apparently the drug preferred by the users, but still only half of the tablets contained MDMA as the only drug. The rest of the tablets contained either another synthetic drug or a mixture of drugs. In conclusion, the increasing supply of various drugs with different and unpredictable effects and of miscellaneous quality brings about the risk of serious and complicated intoxications.
Berkman Center for Internet and Society
"Copyright for Librarians" (CFL) is an online open curriculum on copyright law that was developed jointly with Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Re-designed as a brand new textbook, "Copyright for Librarians: the essential handbook" can be used as a stand-alone resource or as an adjunct to the online version which contains additional links and references for students who wish to pursue any topic in greater depth. Delve into copyright theory or explore enforcement. With a new index and a handy Glossary, the Handbook is essential reading for librarians who want to hone their skills in 2013, and for anyone learning about or teaching copyright law in the information field.
Essential power is a crosscutting technology area that addresses the efficient and practical management of electrical and thermal requirements on trucks. Essential Power Systems: any function on the truck, that is not currently involved in moving the truck, and requires electrical or mechanical energy; Truck Lights; Hotel Loads (HVAC, computers, appliances, lighting, entertainment systems); Pumps, starter, compressor, fans, trailer refrigeration; Engine and fuel heating; and Operation of power lifts and pumps for bulk fluid transfer. Transition from ''belt and gear driven'' to auxiliary power generation of electricity - ''Truck Electrification'' 42 volts, DC and/ or AC; All electrically driven auxiliaries; Power on demand - manage electrical loads; Benefits include: increased fuel efficiency, reduced emission both when truck is idling and moving down the road
Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N
Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
ADRIANO, C. M.
Full Text Available Digital annotation systems are usually based on partial scenarios and arbitrary requirements. Accidental and essential characteristics are usually mixed in non explicit models. Documents and annotations are linked together accidentally according to the current technology, allowing for the development of disposable prototypes, but not to the support of non-functional requirements such as extensibility, robustness and interactivity. In this paper we perform a careful analysis on the concept of annotation, studying the scenarios supported by digital annotation tools. We also derived essential requirements based on a classification of annotation systems applied to existing tools. The analysis performed and the proposed classification can be applied and extended to other type of collaborative systems.
Moreno, Lucas; Pearson, Andrew D J
Attrition is a major issue in anticancer drug development with up to 95% of drugs tested in Phase I trials not reaching a marketing authorisation making the drug development process enormously costly and inefficient. It is essential that this problem is addressed throughout the whole drug development process to improve efficiency which will ultimately result in increased patient benefit with more profitable drugs. The approach to reduce cancer drug attrition rates must be based on three pillars. The first of these is that there is a need for new pre-clinical models which can act as better predictors of success in clinical trials. Furthermore, clinical trials driven by tumour biology with the incorporation of predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers would be beneficial in drug development. Finally, there is a need for increased collaboration to combine the unique strengths between industry, academia and regulators to ensure that the needs of all stakeholders are met.
Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakan, Kanokkan
In Thailand, total drug expenditure has grown rapidly. Recently, the Thai government has addressed the issue of drug pricing, but the prices of single-source drugs remain a major challenge. To examine equitable prices of single-source drugs in Thailand. A total of 98 single-source and high-expenditure drugs were examined. Unit prices from the Drug and Medical Supplies Information Center (DMSIC) and National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) were used to represent drug prices at the provider level in Thailand and the U.S., respectively. Data for measuring drug affordability, e.g., dose and poverty line, were obtained from Micromedex online and the National Statistical Office (NSO). The U.S. drug prices were adjusted by the Human Development Index (HDI) to be equitable prices for Thailand. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was used to convert US currency into Thai baht. All prices in this study were based on the year 2012. Catastrophic, Impoverishment, and WHO/Health Action International (HAI) approaches were used to determine Thai citizens' ability to afford the study drugs. Finally, uncertainty analyses were conducted. From all study drugs, 55 single-source drugs were priced higher than their equitable prices, ranging from 0.38 to 422.36% higher. Among these, 28 items were antineoplastic drugs. The prices of drugs outside the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), as well as the country's newer drugs, tended to be higher than their calculated equitable prices. The majority of drugs in Thailand priced higher than equitable prices were unaffordable for most Thai citizens. The uncertainty analyses revealed that almost all results were relatively robust. Most single-source drug prices in Thailand were higher than their equitable prices, and were likely to be unaffordable to Thai citizens.
Steenhoek, Adri; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Franken, Margreet G; Rutten, Frans F H
When a new medical technology, for example a new drug, is introduced onto the market there should be a discussion of the balance between "uncertainty versus value to society and demand". The new technology is sometimes given the benefit of the doubt due to a lack of information. Follow-up investigation is actually essential but is seldom mandatory and hardly ever spontaneously initiated. Specific measures, based on stimulation or penalization, could reduce the degree of uncertainty concerning the efficacy, safety and efficiency of a new technology. A serious option when a new drug produces disappointing results is to pay the manufacturer less.
Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R
An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu
In my Master´s thesis I have researched teaching of creative writing for high school students. I have also created the concept called the Essential Understanding of Creative Writing, which I think is the base and the starting point of teaching creative writing. The term is hypothesis and it roughly means the subjectively understood essence of creative work and writing process, as well as the strengthening the inner motivation and author identity by writer. Collaboration seems to support the E...