WorldWideScience

Sample records for drug warning immune

  1. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  2. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  3. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  8. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  9. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, G.; Fischer, K. E.; Borch-Johnsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Methods Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany...

  10. An analysis of legal warnings after drug approval in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphiromya, Pakawadee; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai

    2015-02-01

    Drug risk management has many tools for minimizing risk and black-boxed warnings (BBWs) are one of those tools. Some serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) emerge only after a drug is marketed and used in a larger population. In Thailand, additional legal warnings after drug approval, in the form of black-boxed warnings, may be applied. Review of their characteristics can assist in the development of effective risk mitigation. This study was a cross sectional review of all legal warnings imposed in Thailand after drug approval (2003-2012). Any boxed warnings for biological products and revised warnings which were not related to safety were excluded. Nine legal warnings were evaluated. Seven related to drugs classes and two to individual drugs. The warnings involved four main types of predictable ADRs: drug-disease interactions, side effects, overdose and drug-drug interactions. The average time from first ADRs reported to legal warnings implementation was 12 years. The triggers were from both safety signals in Thailand and regulatory measures in other countries outside Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  12. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  13. Patients’ attention to and understanding of adverse drug reaction warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresa Muir McNeal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tresa Muir McNeal1, Colleen Y Colbert1, Christian Cable1, Curtis R Mirkes1, June G Lubowinski2, John D Myers11Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University System HSC College of Medicine, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA; 2RD Haynes Medical Library, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USAIntroduction: Medications are critical to the management of patient conditions, and they can have significant effects on the success or failure of medical interventions. Patient perceptions of drug warnings play an important role in medication compliance and ultimately disease management. Several factors may affect patients’ understanding of drug warnings and drug labeling, including health literacy and interactions with physicians and pharmacists.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings and drug labeling. Descriptive articles and studies regarding patient perceptions and knowledge of adverse drug reaction warnings were reviewed.Methods: The following databases were utilized to search the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings: PubMed, Academic Search Premiere, CINAHL, Medline, Psych Info, Business Source Complete, Alternative Healthwatch, Health Source (both Nursing/Academic and Consumer additions, JSTOR, and Master File Premiere. For the purpose of this review, any peer-reviewed article was eligible. Exclusionary criteria included: articles published in languages other than English, articles/studies on patient perceptions of vaccines and chemotherapy, and articles related to perceptions of medications administered in the inpatient setting. Forty-six articles were included in the review.Results: Health literacy has been shown to have a major impact on patients’ ability to understand potential adverse reactions and instructions on correct dosing of medications. Direct communication with physicians and pharmacists is one of the most important and

  14. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  15. 21 CFR 369.20 - Drugs; recommended warning and caution statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; recommended warning and caution statements. 369.20 Section 369.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... STIMULANTS. Warning—Do not use when abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting are present. Frequent or prolonged...

  16. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  17. Ten years after the FDA black box warning for antidepressant drugs: a critical narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA has warned about the increased suicidality risk associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and venlafaxine in children and adolescents. Objectives To critically appraise the available evidence supporting the FDA Black box warning concerning to the use of antidepressants in child and adolescents. Methods A critical review of articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases regarding the FDA Black box warning for antidepressants, and the impact of FDA warnings on antidepressant prescriptions and suicide rates. Results The warning was based on surveys that did not report either cases of suicide nor a significant difference supporting an increased suicidality rate. The concept was defined in an ambiguous way and there is currently more available evidence to support such definition. The use of SSRI and venlafaxine has been associated to lower suicidality rates, but the prescription fall due to the warning increased suicide rates. Discussion Suicidality is an inherent feature of depressive disorders so it would be desirable to consider how much of the phenomenon may be attributed to antidepressants per se. It would be appropriate to consider that suicide rates might increase also as a consequence of the warning.

  18. 21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1)(C). 369.3 Section 369.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... subject to the labeling requirements prescribed in § 310.201(a) of this chapter. Although, for convenience...

  19. Impact of the FDA warning of potential ceftriaxone and calcium interactions on drug use policy in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterly, John S; Steadman, Emily; Scheetz, Marc H

    2011-06-01

    In September 2007, the FDA issued an alert recommending that ceftriaxone and calcium-containing solutions should not be administered to any patient within 48 h of each other. Due to the widespread use of ceftriaxone, significant concern was expressed by the greater healthcare community about the warning, which the FDA eventually retracted in April of 2009. We sought to quantify the impact of the warning on healthcare institutions. A survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists to quantify perceived changes in ceftriaxone use among healthcare institutions across the United States. A survey of Infectious Diseases experts was conducted. Participants were queried for hospital policies/drug use statistics during two times: immediately after the FDA warning and approximately 13 months post warning (preceding the FDA retraction). Related changes in formulary, drug-use policy, and the number of employee hours that were devoted to addressing the FDA warning were assessed. Ninety-four surveys representing 94 hospital systems were included in the analysis. Approximately half (n = 49, 52%) of respondent institutions enacted at least one drug-use policy change based on the warning; one institution removed ceftriaxone from a clinical protocol. Institutions' final interpretations of the warning differed slightly from initial understanding of the warning, and there was an overall minor decrease in the perceived use of ceftriaxone. The majority of those surveyed (n = 70, 74%) estimated that their respective institutions devoted between 1 and 49 employee hours to address the warning. Hospitals with ID pharmacists had minimal changes to ceftriaxone use after the 2007 FDA warning. Specialized pharmacists may be uniquely situated to help hospitals interpret global recommendations locally.

  20. Food and Drug Administration warning on anesthesia and brain development: implications for obstetric and fetal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Baker, Byron Wycke; Belfort, Michael A; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2018-01-01

    There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, this warning recommends that health care professionals should balance the benefits of appropriate anesthesia in young children and pregnant women against potential risks, especially for procedures that may last >3 hours or if multiple procedures are required in children surgery in the second and third trimester; this exposure is typically longer than that for cesarean delivery. Very few studies address the effect of anesthetic exposure on the fetus in the second trimester when most nonobstetric and fetal surgical procedures are performed. It is also unclear how the plasticity of the fetal brain at this stage of development will modulate the consequences of anesthetic exposure. Strategies that may circumvent possible untoward long-term neurologic effects of anesthesia in the baby include: (1) use of nonimplicated (nongamma-aminobutyric acid agonist) agents for sedation such as opioids (remifentanil, fentanyl) or the alpha-2 agonist, dexmedetomidine, when appropriate; (2) minimizing the duration of exposure to inhalational anesthetics for fetal, obstetric, and nonobstetric procedures in the pregnant patient, as much as possible within safe limits; and (3) commencing surgery promptly and limiting

  1. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge C; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Mpoudi, Eitel N; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  2. Filtering big data from social media--Building an early warning system for adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kiang, Melody; Shang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    satisfactory performance in identifying ADR related posts for post-marketing drug surveillance. The overall design of our system also points out a potentially fruitful direction for building other early warning systems that need to filter big data from social media networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  4. Effect of warning placement on the information processing of college students reading an OTC drug facts panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Archita H; Sangani, Darshan S; Mhatre, Shivani K; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2018-01-01

    To compare three over-the-counter (OTC) Drug Facts panel versions for information processing optimization among college students. University of Houston students (N = 210) participated in a cross-sectional survey from January to May 2010. A current FDA label was compared to two experimental labels developed using the theory of CHREST to test information processing by re-positioning the warning information within the Drug Facts panel. Congruency was defined as placing like information together. Information processing was evaluated using the OTC medication Label Evaluation Process Model (LEPM): label comprehension, ease-of-use, attitude toward the product, product evaluation, and purchase intention. Experimental label with chunked congruent information (uses-directions-other information-warnings) was rated significantly higher than the current FDA label and had the best average scores among the LEPM information processing variables. If replications uphold these findings, the FDA label design might be revised to improve information processing.

  5. Purulent pericarditis in a dog administered immune-suppressing drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, T.; Takashima, K.; Yamane, T.; Sato, H.; Yamane, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year-old castrated mongrel dog was brought to our hospital with anorexia and vomiting. Laboratory testing revealed immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and so treatment was initiated with multiple immune-suppressing drugs, achieving partial remission from IMHA. However, cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis was identified as a secondary disease. Culture of pericardial fluid yielded numerous Candida albicans and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and the condition of the dog improved. However, the dog died the next day

  6. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosun Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background For the purpose of understanding the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s concerns regarding online promotion of prescription drugs advertised directly to consumers, this study examines notices of violations (NOVs and warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers. Methods The FDA’s warning letters and NOVs, which were issued to pharmaceutical companies over a 10-year period (2005 to 2014 regarding online promotional activities, were content-analyzed. Results Six violation categories were identified: risk information, efficacy information, indication information, product labeling, material information issues, and approval issues. The results reveal that approximately 95% of the alleged violations were found on branded drug websites, in online paid advertisements, and in online videos. Of the total 179 violations, the majority of the alleged violations were concerned with the lack of risk information and/or misrepresentation of efficacy information, suggesting that achieving a fair balance of benefit versus risk information is a major problem with regard to the direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription drugs. In addition, the character space limitations of online platforms, eg, sponsored links on search engines, pose challenges for pharmaceutical marketers with regard to adequately communicating important drug information, such as indication information, risk information, and product labeling. Conclusion Presenting drug information in a fair and balanced manner remains a major problem. Industry guidance should consider addressing visibility and accessibility of information in the web environment to help pharmaceutical marketers meet the requirements for direct-to-consumer promotion and to protect consumers from misleading drug information. Promotion via social media warrants further attention, as pharmaceutical manufacturers have already begun actively establishing a social media presence, and the

  7. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun

    2015-08-25

    For the purpose of understanding the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) concerns regarding online promotion of prescription drugs advertised directly to consumers, this study examines notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The FDA's warning letters and NOVs, which were issued to pharmaceutical companies over a 10-year period (2005 to 2014) regarding online promotional activities, were content-analyzed. Six violation categories were identified: risk information, efficacy information, indication information, product labeling, material information issues, and approval issues. The results reveal that approximately 95% of the alleged violations were found on branded drug websites, in online paid advertisements, and in online videos. Of the total 179 violations, the majority of the alleged violations were concerned with the lack of risk information and/or misrepresentation of efficacy information, suggesting that achieving a fair balance of benefit versus risk information is a major problem with regard to the direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs. In addition, the character space limitations of online platforms, eg, sponsored links on search engines, pose challenges for pharmaceutical marketers with regard to adequately communicating important drug information, such as indication information, risk information, and product labeling. Presenting drug information in a fair and balanced manner remains a major problem. Industry guidance should consider addressing visibility and accessibility of information in the web environment to help pharmaceutical marketers meet the requirements for direct-to-consumer promotion and to protect consumers from misleading drug information. Promotion via social media warrants further attention, as pharmaceutical manufacturers have already begun actively establishing a social media presence, and the FDA has thus begun to keep tabs on social media promotions of

  8. Analysis of Drug Development Paradigms for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Denis L; de Melo Gagliato, Débora; Giles, Francis J; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2018-04-15

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared with cytotoxic and gene-targeted anticancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the FDA website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared with that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents. As of June 2017, the FDA approved six checkpoint inhibitors for a variety of cancer types. All checkpoint inhibitors received a priority review status and access to at least two additional FDA special access programs, more often breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval. Median clinical development time (investigational new drug application to approval) was 60.77 months [avelumab had the shortest timeline (52.33 months)]. Response rates during early phase I trials (median = 16%) are higher than for phase I trials of other agents (with the exception of gene-targeted agents tested with a biomarker). Doses approved were usually not identical to doses recommended on phase I trials. Approximately 50% of types of immune-related and 43% of types of clinically relevant toxicities from later trials were identified in early-phase trials. Even so, treatment-related mortality remains exceedingly low in later studies (0.33% of patients). In conclusion, efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be reasonably predicted from the dose-finding portion of phase I trials, indicating that the fast-track development of these agents is safe and justified. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1785-94. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Procurement and Supply Management System for MDR-TB in Nigeria: Are the Early Warning Targets for Drug Stock Outs and Over Stock of Drugs Being Achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatau, Bolajoko; Avong, Yohanna; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Shah, Safieh; Tayler Smith, Katherine; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Zachariah, Rony; van Griensven, Johan; Ekong, Ernest; Dakum, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) introduced the twelve early warning indicators for monitoring and evaluating drug Procurement and Supply management (PSM) systems, intended to prevent drug stock-outs and overstocking. Nigeria--one of the high Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries, scaled-up treatment in 2012 with the concurrent implementation of a PSM system. We evaluated how well this system functioned using the WHO indicators, including all seven MDR-TB treatment centres in the country that were functional throughout 2013. The quantity of MDR-TB drugs ordered for 2013 matched the annual forecast and all central orders placed during the year were delivered in full and on time. Drug consumption was 81%-106% of the quantity allocated for routine consumption. Timely submission of complete inventory reports ranged from 86-100%, late submissions being 5-15 days late. Forty to 71% of treatment centres placed a drug order when stock was below the minimum level of three months. The proportion of drug orders received at the treatment centres in full and on time ranged from 29-80%, late orders being 1-19 days late. The PSM was found to be performing well in terms of forecasting and procurement of MDR-TB drugs, but there were shortcomings in drug distribution, reporting at treatment centre level and in drug order placements. Despite these gaps, there were no stock outs. These findings indicate that where it matters most, namely ensuring that no drug stock outs affect patient management, the PSM system is effective. Addressing the observed shortcomings will help to strengthen the existing PSM system in anticipation of a growing MDR-TB case burden in the country.

  10. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Mattson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional. Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN for prevalence of emergency department (ED visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA.

  11. To give or not to give: Parental experience and adherence to the Food and Drug Administration warning about over-the-counter cough and cold medicine usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Drug Administration (FDA warned against administering over-the-counter cough and cold medicines to children under 2. This study evaluated whether experienced parents show poorer adherence to the FDA warning, as safe experiences are predicted to reduce the impact of warnings, and how adherence can be improved. Participants included 218 American parents (mean age: 29.98 (SD = 6.16, 82.9% female with children age 2 or less who were aware of the FDA warning. We compared adherence among experienced (N=142; with other children > age 2 and inexperienced parents (N=76; only children 2 or yess. We also evaluated potential moderating variables (amount of warning-related information received, prevalence of side effects, trust in the FDA, frequency of coughs and colds, trust in drug packaging and quantified the impact of amount of information. Logistic regression assessed the ability of experience alone, and experience combined with amount of information, to predict adherence. 53.3% of inexperienced but 28.4\\% of experienced parents were adherent (p = 0.0003. The groups did not differ on potential moderating variables. Adherence was 39.5% among experienced parents receiving ``a lot of information'', but 15.4% for those receiving less (p = 0.002; amount of information did not affect adherence in inexperienced parents (p = 0.22 but uniquely predicted adherence compared to a model with experience alone (p = 0.0005. Experienced parents were also less likely to mistrust drug packaging (p = 0.03. Targeting FDA information to experienced parents, particularly via drug packaging, may improve their adherence.

  12. Ergotism in Thailand caused by increased access to antiretroviral drugs: a global warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ramautarsing, Reshmie A; Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Bowonwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Jirajariyavej, Supunnee; Kantipong, Patcharee; Tantipong, Hutsaya; Ohata, June Pirapon; Suankratay, Chusana; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Burger, David M

    2014-01-01

    Ergotism is a toxic condition resulting from overexposure to the ergot compounds produced by various fungi of the genus Claviceps. Traditionally, such exposure was due to ingestion of infected grains, but long-term or excessive use of medications containing ergot derivatives or drug-drug interactions between these medications can result in ergotism. Ergotamine, typically used to treat migraine, has less than 5% bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concurrent intake of ergotamine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), can lead to clinical ergotism. A total of 13 cases of clinical ergotism in HIV-infected patients has been published since 1997 (most recently reviewed by Frohlich et al).

  13. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Preventive Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Orsini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We examine how new medical information on drug safety impacts preventive health care use. We exploit the release of the findings of the Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHIS) – the largest randomized controlled trial of women’s health – which demonstrated in 2002 the health risks associated...... with the long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We first show that, after the release of the WHIS findings, HRT use dropped sharply among post-menopausal women. We then estimate the spillover effects of the WHIS findings on preventive care by means of a difference-in-differences methodology...... comparing changes in preventive care use among 60 to 69 year-old women (who have high rates of HRT use) with the change among women aged 75 and above (who have much lower rates of HRT use). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the period 1998–2007, we find that women aged 60...

  14. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Clotaire Billong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, especially in resource-limited settings (RLS. In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Methods Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites of Cameroon, within the “reporting period” of October 2013–November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%, fair (85–75%, poor (<75; and factors with p-value < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results Majority (74.4% of patients were in urban settings, and 50.9% were managed in reference treatment centres. Nationwide, retention on ART at 12 months was 60.4% (2023/3349; only six sites and one region achieved acceptable performances. Retention performance varied in reference treatment centres (54.2% vs. management units (66.8%, p < 0.0001; male (57.1% vs. women (62.0%, p = 0.007; and with WHO clinical stage I (63.3% vs. other stages (55.6%, p = 0.007; but neither for age (adults [60.3%] vs. children [58.8%], p = 0.730 nor for immune status (CD4351–500 [65.9%] vs. other CD4-staging [59.86%], p = 0.077. Conclusions Poor retention in care, within 12 months of ART initiation, urges active search for lost-to-follow-up targeting preferentially male and symptomatic patients, especially within reference ART clinics. Such sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  15. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  16. Intermittent Metronomic Drug Schedule Is Essential for Activating Antitumor Innate Immunity and Tumor Xenograft Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Sheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CPA is widely associated with antiangiogenesis; however, recent studies implicate other immune-based mechanisms, including antitumor innate immunity, which can induce major tumor regression in implanted brain tumor models. This study demonstrates the critical importance of drug schedule: CPA induced a potent antitumor innate immune response and tumor regression when administered intermittently on a 6-day repeating metronomic schedule but not with the same total exposure to activated CPA administered on an every 3-day schedule or using a daily oral regimen that serves as the basis for many clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy. Notably, the more frequent metronomic CPA schedules abrogated the antitumor innate immune and therapeutic responses. Further, the innate immune response and antitumor activity both displayed an unusually steep dose-response curve and were not accompanied by antiangiogenesis. The strong recruitment of innate immune cells by the 6-day repeating CPA schedule was not sustained, and tumor regression was abolished, by a moderate (25% reduction in CPA dose. Moreover, an ~20% increase in CPA dose eliminated the partial tumor regression and weak innate immune cell recruitment seen in a subset of the every 6-day treated tumors. Thus, metronomic drug treatment must be at a sufficiently high dose but also sufficiently well spaced in time to induce strong sustained antitumor immune cell recruitment. Many current clinical metronomic chemotherapeutic protocols employ oral daily low-dose schedules that do not meet these requirements, suggesting that they may benefit from optimization designed to maximize antitumor immune responses.

  17. Sex-dimorphic adverse drug reactions to immune suppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zelinkova (Zuzana); E. Bultman (Evelien); L. Vogelaar (Lauran); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To analyze sex differences in adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the immune suppressive medication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: All IBD patients attending the IBD outpatient clinic of a referral hospital were identifed through the electronic diagnosis

  18. Testing the warning signs of suicidal behavior among suicide ideators using the 2009 National survey on drug abuse and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John F; Lester, David; McSwain, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In order to help crisis counselors assess clients for their suicidal risk, in 2003 the American Association of Suicidology proposed ten warning signs, memorized through the acronym IS PATH WARM However, little research has been done investigating their effectiveness for predicting suicidal behavior The present study compared (1) suicide ideators with non-suicide ideator controls and (2) suicide ideators with suicide attempters on six of the IS PATH WARM warning signs, along with depression in the past year, marital status, and gender With regards to the comparison between suicide ideators and non-ideators, all variables but gender; abuse of alcohol in the past year, and anxiety in the past year were predictive of suicide ideation. However, when comparing suicide ideators who had not made a suicide attempt with those who had, only anger/aggression, depression in the past year, and marital status were predictive of a suicide attempt.

  19. A QRM Discussion of Microbial Contamination of Non-sterile Drug Products, Using FDA and EMA Warning Letters Recorded between 2008 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana M C; Doria, Mara S; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Almeida, António J; Menezes, José C

    2018-01-01

    Microbial quality control of non-sterile drug products has been a concern to regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry since the 1960s. Despite being an old challenge to companies, microbial contamination still affects a high number of manufacturers of non-sterile products. Consequences go well beyond the obvious direct costs related to batch rejections or product recalls, as human lives and a company's reputation are significantly impacted if such events occur. To better manage risk and establish effective mitigation strategies, it is necessary to understand the microbial hazards involved in non-sterile drug products manufacturing, be able to evaluate their potential impact on final product quality, and apply mitigation actions. Herein we discuss the most likely root causes involved in microbial contaminations referenced in warning letters issued by US health authorities and non-compliance reports issued by European health authorities over a period of several years. The quality risk management tools proposed were applied to the data gathered from those databases, and a generic risk ranking was provided based on a panel of non-sterile drug product manufacturers that was assembled and given the opportunity to perform the risk assessments. That panel identified gaps and defined potential mitigation actions, based on their own experience of potential risks expected for their processes. Major findings clearly indicate that the manufacturers affected by the warning letters should focus their attention on process improvements and microbial control strategies, especially those related to microbial analysis and raw material quality control. Additionally, the WLs considered frequently referred to failures in quality-related issues, which indicates that the quality commitment should be reinforced at most companies to avoid microbiological contaminations. LAY ABSTRACT: Microbial contamination of drug products affects the quality of non-sterile drug products produced

  20. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  1. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  2. Enhanced Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immunity over Time with Combined Drug and Immunotherapy Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha E. Larsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. This astounding statistic, in combination with costly and lengthy treatment regimens make the development of therapeutic vaccines paramount for controlling the global burden of tuberculosis. Unlike prophylactic vaccination, therapeutic immunization relies on the natural pulmonary infection with Mtb as the mucosal prime that directs boost responses back to the lung. The purpose of this work was to determine the protection and safety profile over time following therapeutic administration of our lead Mtb vaccine candidate, ID93 with a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, in combination with rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ drug treatment. We assessed the host inflammatory immune responses and lung pathology 7–22 weeks post infection, and determined the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment by enumeration of the bacterial load and survival in the SWR/J mouse model. We show that drug treatment alone, or with immunotherapy, tempered the inflammatory responses measured in brochoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma compared to untreated cohorts. RHZ combined with therapeutic immunizations significantly enhanced TH1-type cytokine responses in the lung over time, corresponding to decreased pulmonary pathology evidenced by a significant decrease in the percentage of lung lesions and destructive lung inflammation. These data suggest that bacterial burden assessment alone may miss important correlates of lung architecture that directly contribute to therapeutic vaccine efficacy in the preclinical mouse model. We also confirmed our previous finding that in combination with antibiotics therapeutic immunizations provide an additive survival advantage. Moreover, therapeutic immunizations with ID93/GLA-SE induced differential T cell immune responses over the course of infection that correlated

  3. Immunogenicity to Biotherapeutics – the role of Anti-drug Immune complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murli eKrishna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiologic molecules are increasingly becoming a part of the therapeutics portfolio that has been either recently approved for marketing or those that are in the pipeline of several biotech and pharmaceutical companies. This is largely based on their ability to be highly specific relative to small molecules. However by virtue of being a large protein, and having a complex structure with structural variability arising from production using recombinant gene technology in cell lines, such therapeutics run the risk of being recognized as foreign by a host immune system. Given the range of immune mediated adverse effects that have been documented to biologic drugs thus far, including infusion reactions, and the evolving therapeutic platforms in the pipeline that engineer different functional modules in a biotherapeutic, it is critical to understand the interplay of the adaptive and innate immune responses, the pathophysiology of immunogenicity to biologic drugs in instances where there have been immune mediated adverse clinical sequelae and address technical approaches for their laboratory evaluation. The current paradigm in immunogenicity evaluation has a tiered approach to the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs elicited in vivo to a biotherapeutic; alongside with the structural, biophysical and molecular information of the therapeutic, these analytical assessments form the core of the immunogenicity risk assessment. However many of the immune mediated adverse effects attributed to ADAs require the formation of a drug/ADA immune complex intermediate (ICs that can have a variety of downstream effects. This review will focus on the activation of potential immunopathological pathways arising as a consequence of circulating as well as cell surface bound drug bearing-ICs, risk factors that are either intrinsic to the therapeutic molecule or to the host which might predispose to IC mediated effects, and review the recent

  4. Compelled commercial speech: the Food and Drug Administration's effort to smoke out the tobacco industry through graphic warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Bryan M; Andrews, Anne Hampton; Jacob, C Reade

    2013-01-01

    FDA's proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette packages have been scrutinized for potentially violating the First Amendment's free speech clause. This article addresses the distinction between the commercial speech and compelled speech doctrines and their applicability in analyzing the constitutionality of the labels. The government's position is that the labels evoke an emotional response and educate consumers, while tobacco companies argue that the labels forcibly promote the government's message. Two federal appellate courts, applying different legal standards, have arrived at different conclusions. This article advocates that the Supreme Court, if faced with review of the labels, should apply strict scrutiny and declare the labels unconstitutional.

  5. Implications of central immune signaling caused by drugs of abuse: mechanisms, mediators and new therapeutic approaches for prediction and treatment of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2012-05-01

    In the past two decades a trickle of manuscripts examining the non-neuronal central nervous system immune consequences of the drugs of abuse has now swollen to a significant body of work. Initially, these studies reported associative evidence of central nervous system proinflammation resulting from exposure to the drugs of abuse demonstrating key implications for neurotoxicity and disease progression associated with, for example, HIV infection. However, more recently this drug-induced activation of central immune signaling is now understood to contribute substantially to the pharmacodynamic actions of the drugs of abuse, by enhancing the engagement of classical mesolimbic dopamine reward pathways and withdrawal centers. This review will highlight the key in vivo animal, human, biological and molecular evidence of these central immune signaling actions of opioids, alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Excitingly, this new appreciation of central immune signaling activity of drugs of abuse provides novel therapeutic interventions and opportunities to identify 'at risk' individuals through the use of immunogenetics. Discussion will also cover the evidence of modulation of this signaling by existing clinical and pre-clinical drug candidates, and novel pharmacological targets. Finally, following examination of the breadth of central immune signaling actions of the drugs of abuse highlighted here, the current known common immune signaling components will be outlined and their impact on established addiction neurocircuitry discussed, thereby synthesizing a common neuroimmune hypothesis of addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Penda, Calixte Ida; Amadou, Salmon; Kob, David Same; Billong, Edson-Joan; Colizzi, Vittorio; Ndjolo, Alexis; Bisseck, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani; Elat, Jean-Bosco Nfetam

    2016-11-15

    Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  7. Still the Great Debate - "Fair Balance" in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L

    2016-02-10

    The above titled paper examined the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) warning letters and notice of violations (NOV) over a 10-year period. Findings from this content analysis reinforced what has been the primary issue for prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) since its beginning, the fair balance of risk and benefit information. As opposed to another analysis in 2026 about this still being an issue, is there anything that can be done to prevent this problem from continuing? © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. Still the Great Debate – “Fair Balance” in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent L. Rollins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The above titled paper examined the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s warning letters and notice of violations (NOV over a 10-year period. Findings from this content analysis reinforced what has been the primary issue for prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA since its beginning, the fair balance of risk and benefit information. As opposed to another analysis in 2026 about this still being an issue, is there anything that can be done to prevent this problem from continuing?

  9. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better? Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Evan

    2016-02-21

    Hyosun Kim's report "Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters" aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better?; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Doran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyosun Kim’s report “Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it.

  11. Declining trends in early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon from 2008-2010: lessons and challenges for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Serge C; Bissek, Anne C Z K; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Abessouguie, Ibile; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Tsomo, Zephirin; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Ngute, Grace D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat, Jean B N

    2013-04-08

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and limited access to genotyping assays in low-resource settings (LRS) are inevitably accompanied by an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). The current study aims to evaluate early warning indicators (EWI) as an efficient strategy to limit the development and spread of preventable HIVDR in these settings, in order to sustain the performance of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout programmes. Surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 within 10 Cameroonian ART clinics, based on five HIVDR EWIs: (1) Good prescribing practices; (2) Patient lost to follow-up; (3) Patient retention on first line ART; (4) On-time drug pick-up; (5) Continuous drug supply. Analysis was performed as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) protocol. An overall decreasing performance of the national ART programme was observed from 2008 to 2010: EWI(1) (100% to 70%); EWI(2) (40% to 20%); EWI(3) (70% to 0%); EWI(4) (0% throughout); EWI(5) (90% to 40%). Thus, prescribing practices (EWI(1)) were in conformity with national guidelines, while patient adherence (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) and drug supply (EWI(5)) were lower overtime; with a heavy workload (median ratio ≈1/64 staff/patients) and community disengagement observed all over the study sites. In order to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in poor settings like Cameroon, continuous drug supply, community empowerment to support adherence, and probably a reduction in workload by task shifting, are the potential urgent measures to be undertaken. Such evidence-based interventions, rapidly generated and less costly, would be relevant in limiting the spread of preventable HIVDR and in sustaining the performance of ART programmes in LRS.

  12. Synthesis of drug loaded magnetic nanoparticles and their uptake into immune cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, Eva-Marie; Hempelmann, Rolf; Eggers, Ruth; Lee, Hyeck-Hee; Steinfeld, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles (Mn 0,8 Zn 0,2 Fe 2 O 4 ) are synthesized by the co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The particles are functionalized with dextran which is activated via amino or carboxymethyl groups. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) is attached to these dextran derivates in different ways. One method is based on the attachment of DOX to amino dextran by its keto group; the other is a bond to the primary amino group of DOX. The characterization of drug loaded dextran derivates is performed by Raman, FT-IR-, UV/VIS-and fluorescence spectroscopy. The biofunctionalized particles are intended for use in adoptive cancer immunotherapy as a new approach, where immune cells (T lymphocytes) will be used as new autonomous highly target specific drug delivery systems. The uptake efficiency of these particles into T lymphocytes is investigated by fluorescence and convocal microscopy.

  13. A drug-sensitive genetic network masks fungi from the immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Wheeler

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens can be recognized by the immune system via their beta-glucan, a potent proinflammatory molecule that is present at high levels but is predominantly buried beneath a mannoprotein coat and invisible to the host. To investigate the nature and significance of "masking" this molecule, we characterized the mechanism of masking and consequences of unmasking for immune recognition. We found that the underlying beta-glucan in the cell wall of Candida albicans is unmasked by subinhibitory doses of the antifungal drug caspofungin, causing the exposed fungi to elicit a stronger immune response. Using a library of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, we uncovered a conserved genetic network that is required for concealing beta-glucan from the immune system and limiting the host response. Perturbation of parts of this network in the pathogen C. albicans caused unmasking of its beta-glucan, leading to increased beta-glucan receptor-dependent elicitation of key proinflammatory cytokines from primary mouse macrophages. By creating an anti-inflammatory barrier to mask beta-glucan, opportunistic fungi may promote commensal colonization and have an increased propensity for causing disease. Targeting the widely conserved gene network required for creating and maintaining this barrier may lead to novel broad-spectrum antimycotics.

  14. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-03-26

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim's paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim's findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Clinical outcomes and immune benefits of anti-epileptic drug therapy in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krentz Hartmut B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are frequently prescribed to persons with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART although the extent of AED use and their interactions with cART are uncertain. Herein, AED usage, associated toxicities and immune consequences were investigated. Methods HIV replication was analysed in proliferating human T cells during AED exposure. Patients receiving AEDs in a geographically-based HIV care program were assessed using clinical and laboratory variables in addition to assessing AED indication, type, and cumulative exposures. Results Valproate suppressed proliferation in vitro of both HIV-infected and uninfected T cells (p 0.05 but AED exposures did not affect HIV production in vitro. Among 1345 HIV/AIDS persons in active care between 2001 and 2007, 169 individuals were exposed to AEDs for the following indications: peripheral neuropathy/neuropathic pain (60%, seizure/epilepsy (24%, mood disorder (13% and movement disorder (2%. The most frequently prescribed AEDs were calcium channel blockers (gabapentin/pregabalin, followed by sodium channel blockers (phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and valproate. In a nested cohort of 55 AED-treated patients receiving cART and aviremic, chronic exposure to sodium and calcium channel blocking AEDs was associated with increased CD4+ T cell levels (p 0.05 with no change in CD8+ T cell levels over 12 months from the beginning of AED therapy. Conclusions AEDs were prescribed for multiple indications without major adverse effects in this population but immune status in patients receiving sodium or calcium channel blocking drugs was improved.

  16. Anti-viral drug treatment along with immune activator IL-2: a control-based mathematical approach for HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Chatterjee, Amar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Recent development in antiretroviral treatment against HIV can help AIDS patients to fight against HIV. But the question that whether the disease is to be partially or totally eradicated from HIV infected individuals still remains unsolved. Usually, the most effective treatment for the disease is HAART which can only control the disease progression. But as the immune system becomes weak, the patients can not fight against other diseases. Immune cells are activated and proliferated by IL-2 after the identification of antigen. IL-2 production is impaired in HIV positive patients and intermitted administration of immune activator IL-2 together with HAART which is a more effective treatment to fight against the disease. Thus, its expediency is essential and is yet to be explored. In this article we anticipated a mathematical model of the effect of IL-2 together with RTIs therapy in HIV positive patients. Our analytical as well as numerical study shows that the optimal schedule of treatment for best result is to be obtained by systematic drug therapy. But at the last stage of treatment, the infection level raises again due to minimisation of drug dosage. Thus we study the perfect adherence of the drugs and found out if RTIs are taken with sufficient interval then for fixed interval of IL-2 therapy, certain amount of drug dosages may be able to sustain the immune system at pre-infection stage and the infected CD4+T cells are going towards extinction.

  17. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  18. Assessment of the World Health Organization's HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholus Mutenda

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO early warning indicators (EWIs of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR.In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites: On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression. Comparisons were made between main and outreach sites and between 2014 and 2012 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in a matched analysis.The national estimates were: On-time pill pick-up 81.9% (95% CI 81.1-82.8 for adults and 82.4% (81.3-83.4 for pediatrics, Retention in care 79% retained on ART after 12 months for adults and 82% for pediatrics, Pharmacy stock-outs 94% of months without a stock-out for adults and 88% for pediatrics, and Dispensing practices 0.01% (0.001-0.056 dispensed mono- or dual-therapy for adults and 0.01% (0.001-0.069 for pediatrics. Viral load suppression was significantly affected by low rates of Viral load completion. Main sites had higher On-time pill pick-up than outreach sites for adults (p<0.001 and pediatrics (p<0.001, and no difference between main and outreach sites for Retention in care for adults (p = 0.761 or pediatrics (p = 0.214. From 2012 to 2014 in adult sites, On-time pill pick-up (p = 0.001, Retention in care (p<0.001, and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.002 worsened. In pediatric sites, On-time pill pick-up (p<0.001 and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.012 worsened.Results of EWIs monitoring in Namibia provide evidence about ART programmatic functioning and contextualize results from national surveys of HIVDR. These results are worrisome as they show a decline in program performance over time. The national ART program is taking steps to minimize the emergence of HIVDR by strengthening adherence and retention of patients on ART

  19. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  20. Severe adverse drug reaction following Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) administration for copperhead snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Maryjoy R; Bochenek, Samantha H; Bush, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) in a patient bitten by a copperhead snake. A 68-year-old man presented with progressive envenomation after receiving a copperhead snakebite on each hand. Crotalinae Fab antivenom was administered. While the initial and only dose was partially infusing, the patient developed an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of urticaria and hypotension, which resolved with cessation of the infusion, recurred with resumption of the infusion, and ultimately was completed with supportive care. An additional episode of hypotension, urticaria, and angioedema occurred shortly after antivenom therapy completion. Epinephrine was administered, resolving the reaction with complete patient recovery. The event received a Naranjo score of 10, indicating a definite ADR. Treating copperhead snakebites with antivenom is a matter of debate. Concern over adverse events and cost induce some physicians to manage copperhead bites without antivenom because they are generally milder in severity. As demonstrated in this case, severe ADR can occur with Crotalinae Fab antivenom, and its efficacy for copperhead envenoming needs to be better established via placebo-controlled, randomized trials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  2. Modulating the innate immune response to influenza A virus: potential therapeutic use of anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eRamos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection by influenza A viruses (IAV is frequently characterized by robust inflammation that is usually more pronounced in the case of avian influenza. It is becoming clearer that the morbidity and pathogenesis caused by IAV is a consequence of this inflammatory response, with several components of the innate immune system acting as the main players. It has been postulated that using a therapeutic approach to limit the innate immune response in combination with antiviral drugs has the potential to diminish symptoms and tissue damage caused by IAV infection. Indeed, some anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to be effective in animal models at reducing IAV pathology as a proof of principle. The main challenge in developing such therapies is to selectively modulate signaling pathways that contribute to lung injury while maintaining the ability of the host cells to mount an antiviral response to control virus replication. However, the dissection of those pathways is very complex given the numerous components regulated by the same factors (i.e. NF kappa B transcription factors and the large number of players involved in this regulation, some of which may be undescribed or unknown. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current knowledge regarding the innate immune responses associated with tissue damage by IAV infection, the understanding of which is essential for the development of effective immunomodulatory drugs. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances on the development and evaluation of such drugs as well as the lessons learned from those studies.

  3. Optimization of the THP-1 activation assay to detect pharmaceuticals with potential to cause immune mediated drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Daniele; Galbiati, Valentina; Gatti, Nicolò; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Corsini, Emanuela

    2015-10-01

    Despite important impacts of systemic hypersensitivity induced by pharmaceuticals, for such endpoint no reliable preclinical approaches are available. We previously established an in vitro test to identify contact and respiratory allergens based on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in THP-1 cells. Here, we challenged it for identification of pharmaceuticals associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions, with the idea that drug sensitizers share common mechanisms of cell activation. Cells were exposed to drugs associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions (streptozotocin, sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, probenecid, clonidine, procainamide, ofloxacin, methyl salicylate), while metformin was used as negative drug. Differently to chemicals, drugs tested were well tolerated, except clonidine and probenecid, with no signs of cytotoxicity up to 1-2mg/ml. THP-1 activation assay was adjusted, and conditions, that allow identification of all sensitizing drugs tested, were established. Next, using streptozotocin and selective inhibitors of PKC-β and p38 MAPK, two pathways involved in chemical allergen-induced cell activation, we tested the hypothesis that similar pathways were also involved in drug-induced IL-8 production and CD86 upregulation. Results indicated that drugs and chemical allergens share similar activation pathways. Finally, we made a structure-activity hypothesis related to hypersensitivity reactions, trying to individuate structural requisite that can be involved in immune mediated adverse reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Considering the Future of Pharmaceutical Promotions in Social Media; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Renee Dillman Carpentier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores the implications of increased social media marketing by drug manufacturers, based on findings in Hyosun Kim’s article of the major themes in recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA warning letters and notices of violation regarding online direct-to-consumer promotions of pharmaceuticals. Kim’s rigorous analysis of FDA letters over a 10-year span highlights a relative abundance of regulatory action toward marketer-controlled websites and sponsored advertisements, compared to branded and unbranded social media messaging. However, social media marketing efforts are increasing, as is FDA attention to these efforts. This commentary explores recent developments and continuing challenges in the FDA’s attempts to provide guidance and define pharmaceutical company accountability in marketer-controlled and -uncontrolled claims disseminated through social media.

  5. Considering the Future of Pharmaceutical Promotions in Social Media Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Francesca Renee Dillman

    2016-02-09

    This commentary explores the implications of increased social media marketing by drug manufacturers, based on findings in Hyosun Kim's article of the major themes in recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning letters and notices of violation regarding online direct-to-consumer promotions of pharmaceuticals. Kim's rigorous analysis of FDA letters over a 10-year span highlights a relative abundance of regulatory action toward marketer-controlled websites and sponsored advertisements, compared to branded and unbranded social media messaging. However, social media marketing efforts are increasing, as is FDA attention to these efforts. This commentary explores recent developments and continuing challenges in the FDA's attempts to provide guidance and define pharmaceutical company accountability in marketer-controlled and -uncontrolled claims disseminated through social media. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Faccendini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patientsObjectives:The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (dose escalation and dose tapering related to biologic drugs in the chronic treatment of adult patients with Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs.Methods:We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the Policlinico di Tor Vergata (PTV database. We considered all biologic drugs dispensed by the PTV hospital pharmacy between January 2010 and December 2015:abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab (originator and biosimilar, tocilizumab, and ustekinumab were included. Drug dose escalation and dose tapering were calculated and compared with their Defined Daily Dose (DDD.Results:A total of 1803 patients with IMID and biologic drug prescription were analyzed (male: 51.2%. The majority of patients were in the class 36-50 years (n = 612. The median follow-up was 33.8 months (IQR 14.43-56.20. Dermatology was the ward with the largest number of patients (n = 882; 48.9%, followed by rheumatology (n = 619; 34.3% and gastroenterology (n = 302; 16.8%. Dose escalation was observed in 406 patients (22.5%. Infliximab biosimilar (n = 51 was the biological drug with the highest dose escalation rate (86.3%, followed by infliximab originator (n = 28; 60.3% and ustekinumab (37.8%. Etanercept was the biological drug with the lowest dose escalation rate (7.4%, followed by golimumab (12.2% and adalimumab (13.8%. In 677 patients (37.5% a dose tapering was observed. Etanercept showed the highest rate of patients with dose tapering (41.6%, followed by adalimumab (33.6%.Conclusions:The results of this analysis show that dose modification is quite common in PTV clinical practice. Considering the strong focus on the pharmaceutical expenditure and the need of cost containment

  7. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE...

  8. Flaviviridae virus nonstructural proteins 5 and 5A mediate viral immune evasion and are promising targets in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Mahalingam, Suresh; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2018-05-06

    Infections with viruses in the Flaviviridae family have a vast global and economic impact because of the high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of Flaviviridae infections is very complex and not fully understood because these viruses can inhibit multiple immune pathways including the complement system, NK cells, and IFN induction and signalling pathways. The non-structural (NS) 5 and 5A proteins of Flaviviridae viruses are highly conserved and play an important role in resisting host immunity through various evasion mechanisms. This review summarizes the strategies used by the NS5 and 5A proteins of Flaviviridae viruses for evading the innate immune response by inhibiting pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signalling pathways (TLR/MyD88, IRF7), suppressing interferon (IFN) signalling pathways (IFN-γRs, STAT1, STAT2), and impairing the function of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) (e.g. protein kinase R [PKR], oligoadenylate synthase [OAS]). All of these immune evasion mechanisms depend on the interaction of NS5 or NS5A with cellular proteins, such as MyD88 and IRF7, IFN-αRs, IFN-γRs, STAT1, STAT2, PKR and OAS. NS5 is the most attractive target for the discovery of broad spectrum compounds against Flaviviridae virus infection. The methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities of NS5 are the main therapeutic targets for antiviral drugs against Flaviviridae virus infection. Based on our site mapping, the sites involved in immune evasion provide some potential and promising targets for further novel antiviral therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  10. A yeast-based assay identifies drugs that interfere with immune evasion of the Epstein-Barr virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Voisset

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is tightly associated with certain human cancers, but there is as yet no specific treatment against EBV-related diseases. The EBV-encoded EBNA1 protein is essential to maintain viral episomes and for viral persistence. As such, EBNA1 is expressed in all EBV-infected cells, and is highly antigenic. All infected individuals, including individuals with cancer, have CD8+ T cells directed towards EBNA1 epitopes, yet the immune system fails to detect and destroy cells harboring the virus. EBV immune evasion depends on the capacity of the Gly-Ala repeat (GAr domain of EBNA1 to inhibit the translation of its own mRNA in cis, thereby limiting the production of EBNA1-derived antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I pathway. Here we establish a yeast-based assay for monitoring GAr-dependent inhibition of translation. Using this assay we identify doxorubicin (DXR as a compound that specifically interferes with the GAr effect on translation in yeast. DXR targets the topoisomerase-II–DNA complexes and thereby causes genomic damage. We show, however, that the genotoxic effect of DXR and various analogs thereof is uncoupled from the effect on GAr-mediated translation control. This is further supported by the observation that etoposide and teniposide, representing another class of topoisomerase-II–DNA targeting drugs, have no effect on GAr-mediated translation control. DXR and active analogs stimulate, in a GAr-dependent manner, EBNA1 expression in mammalian cells and overcome GAr-dependent restriction of MHC class I antigen presentation. These results validate our approach as an effective high-throughput screening assay to identify drugs that interfere with EBV immune evasion and, thus, constitute candidates for treating EBV-related diseases, in particular EBV-associated cancers.

  11. A yeast-based assay identifies drugs that interfere with immune evasion of the Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisset, Cécile; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Mazars, Anne; Arbach, Hratch; Le Cann, Marie; Soubigou, Flavie; Apcher, Sébastien; Fåhraeus, Robin; Blondel, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is tightly associated with certain human cancers, but there is as yet no specific treatment against EBV-related diseases. The EBV-encoded EBNA1 protein is essential to maintain viral episomes and for viral persistence. As such, EBNA1 is expressed in all EBV-infected cells, and is highly antigenic. All infected individuals, including individuals with cancer, have CD8(+) T cells directed towards EBNA1 epitopes, yet the immune system fails to detect and destroy cells harboring the virus. EBV immune evasion depends on the capacity of the Gly-Ala repeat (GAr) domain of EBNA1 to inhibit the translation of its own mRNA in cis, thereby limiting the production of EBNA1-derived antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. Here we establish a yeast-based assay for monitoring GAr-dependent inhibition of translation. Using this assay we identify doxorubicin (DXR) as a compound that specifically interferes with the GAr effect on translation in yeast. DXR targets the topoisomerase-II-DNA complexes and thereby causes genomic damage. We show, however, that the genotoxic effect of DXR and various analogs thereof is uncoupled from the effect on GAr-mediated translation control. This is further supported by the observation that etoposide and teniposide, representing another class of topoisomerase-II-DNA targeting drugs, have no effect on GAr-mediated translation control. DXR and active analogs stimulate, in a GAr-dependent manner, EBNA1 expression in mammalian cells and overcome GAr-dependent restriction of MHC class I antigen presentation. These results validate our approach as an effective high-throughput screening assay to identify drugs that interfere with EBV immune evasion and, thus, constitute candidates for treating EBV-related diseases, in particular EBV-associated cancers.

  12. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  13. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  14. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  15. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings?Findings from Expert Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug A...

  16. New and emerging immune-targeted drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a major inflammatory component that constitutes the most common progressive and disabling neurological condition in young adults. Injectable immunomodulatory medicines such as interferon drugs and glatiramer acetate have dominated the MS market for over the past two decades but this situation is set to change. This is because of: (i) patent expirations, (ii) the introduction of natalizumab, which targets the interaction between leukocytes and the blood-CNS barrier, (iii) the launch of three oral immunomodulatory drugs (fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide), with another (laquinimod) under regulatory review and (iv) a number of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (alemtuzumab, daclizumab and ocrelizumab) about to enter the market. Current and emerging medicines are reviewed and their impact on people with MS considered. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. [Changes of the immune cells, cytokines and growth hormone in teenager drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ying-min; Zhu, Yue-chun; Kuang, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Hua, Chen; He, Wen-yi

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the effect of heroin on the immune function, growth and development in the teenager heroin addicts by measuring their T-lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 cytokines and serum growth hormone. Tlymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood from the teenager heroin addicts were measured by direct microvolume whole blood immunofluorescent staining technique by flow cytometer (FCM). Thl / Th2 cytokines were measured by BD cytometric bead array and serum growth hormone was assayed using the chemiluminescence method in the 20 teenager heroin addicts and 23 healthy teenagers. The levels of CD3(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+)/CD3(+)+ CD8(+), Th1 cytokines(IL-2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) and Th2 cytokines(IL-4 and IL-10) reduced significantly in the teenager heroin addicts compared with the healthy control group (P teenager heroin addicts was remarkably higher than that in control group (Pteenager heroin addicts. Besides, it can increase the level of serum growth hormone of the teenager heroin addicts.

  18. Mood stabilizing drugs regulate transcription of immune, neuronal and metabolic pathway genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herteleer, L; Zwarts, L; Hens, K; Forero, D; Del-Favero, J; Callaerts, P

    2016-05-01

    Lithium and valproate (VPA) are drugs used in the management of bipolar disorder. Even though they reportedly act on various pathways, the transcriptional targets relevant for disease mechanism and therapeutic effect remain unclear. Furthermore, multiple studies used lymphoblasts of bipolar patients as a cellular proxy, but it remains unclear whether peripheral cells provide a good readout for the effects of these drugs in the brain. We used Drosophila culture cells and adult flies to analyze the transcriptional effects of lithium and VPA and define mechanistic pathways. Transcriptional profiles were determined for Drosophila S2-cells and adult fly heads following lithium or VPA treatment. Gene ontology categories were identified using the DAVID functional annotation tool with a cut-off of p neuronal development, neuronal function, and metabolism. (i) Transcriptional effects of lithium and VPA in Drosophila S2 cells and heads show significant overlap. (ii) The overlap between transcriptional alterations in peripheral versus neuronal cells at the single gene level is negligible, but at the gene ontology and pathway level considerable overlap can be found. (iii) Lithium and VPA act on evolutionarily conserved pathways in Drosophila and mammalian models.

  19. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Southwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions.

  20. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-01-16

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Transcriptional control of drug resistance, virulence and immune system evasion in pathogenic fungi: a cross-species comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Current knowledge on the activity of the transcription factors characterized in each of these pathogenic fungal species will be addressed. Particular focus is given to their mechanisms of activation, regulatory targets and phenotypic outcome. The review further provides an evaluation on the conservation of transcriptional circuits among different fungal pathogens, highlighting the pathways that translate common or divergent traits among these species in what concerns their drug resistance, virulence and host immune evasion features. It becomes evident that the regulation of transcriptional networks is complex and presents significant variations among different fungal pathogens. Only the oxidative stress regulators Yap1 and Skn7 are conserved among all studied species; while some transcription factors, involved in nutrient homeostasis, pH adaptation, drug resistance and morphological switching are present in several, though not all species. Interestingly, in some cases not very homologous transcription factors display orthologous functions, whereas some homologous proteins have diverged in terms of their function in different species. A few cases of species specific transcription factors are also observed.

  2. Transcriptional Control of Drug Resistance, Virulence and Immune System Evasion in Pathogenic Fungi: A Cross-Species Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pedro; Costa, Catarina; Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Romão, Daniela; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis , and Candida tropicalis . Current knowledge on the activity of the transcription factors characterized in each of these pathogenic fungal species will be addressed. Particular focus is given to their mechanisms of activation, regulatory targets and phenotypic outcome. The review further provides an evaluation on the conservation of transcriptional circuits among different fungal pathogens, highlighting the pathways that translate common or divergent traits among these species in what concerns their drug resistance, virulence and host immune evasion features. It becomes evident that the regulation of transcriptional networks is complex and presents significant variations among different fungal pathogens. Only the oxidative stress regulators Yap1 and Skn7 are conserved among all studied species; while some transcription factors, involved in nutrient homeostasis, pH adaptation, drug resistance and morphological switching are present in several, though not all species. Interestingly, in some cases not very homologous transcription factors display orthologous functions, whereas some homologous proteins have diverged in terms of their function in different species. A few cases of species specific transcription factors are also observed.

  3. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-10

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word "WARNING", and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu) carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  4. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K

    2016-02-03

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as “eDTCA” is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA notices of violations (NOVs and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the “disruptive” qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored.

  6. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response. Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization. The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to

  7. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover-Kopec, Emily; Kawano, Mika; Klaver, Robert W.; Blumenthal, Benno; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response.Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization.The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological

  8. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Akshaya Srikanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%. The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52% was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/μl were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ≤250 cells/mm 3 with comorbid conditions.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for immune-modulation: the donor, the recipient, and the drugs in-between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Krisztian

    2014-09-01

    Adoptive transfer of cultured bone marrow stromal cells (mesenchymal stem cells also known as MSCs) is a promising new way to aid tissue regeneration and treat a wide variety of diseases where regulation of inflammatory responses is derailed. Although significant advances have been made in the field, pinpointing important mechanistic details about how MSCs function in vitro and in vivo, there are still many unanswered questions that need to be addressed before welcoming MSCs in the therapeutic arsenal of immune mediated diseases. In this viewpoint, we highlight and discuss a few factors that we believe are critical in terms of therapeutic success employing cultured MSCs. Selecting the right donor population, choosing the best culture conditions and picking the patient population that is most likely to give a favourable therapeutic response is just as important as considering interactions between MSCs and the combination of drugs in the recipient's body. Given the complexity of MSC-host interactions, it is also imperative to develop screening tools that account for as many variables as possible and predict precisely the in vivo response rates before MSCs enter the body. To achieve this, a multidisciplinary approach is required with comprehensive knowledge of basic MSC biology, immunology, pharmacology and good clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  11. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  12. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  13. Impact of a warning CPOE system on the inappropriate pill splitting of prescribed medications in outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    Full Text Available Prescribing inappropriate pill splitting is not rare in clinical practice. To reduce inappropriate pill splitting, we developed an automatic warning system linked to a computerized physician order entry (CPOE system for special oral formulation drugs in outpatient settings. We examined the impact of the warning system on inappropriate prescribing of pill splitting and assess prescribers' responses to the warnings.Drugs with extended-release or enteric-coated formulations that were not originally intended to be split were recognized as "special oral formulations". A hard-stop system which could examine non-integer doses of drugs with special oral formulations, provide warnings to interrupt inappropriate prescriptions was integrated in CPOE in a medical center since June 2010. We designed an intervention study to compare the inappropriate splitting before and after the implementation of the warning system (baseline period 2010 January to May vs. intervention period 2010 June to 2011 August. During the intervention period, prescription changes in response to a warning were logged and analyzed.A total of 470,611 prescribed drug items with 34 different drugs with special oral formulations were prescribed in the study period. During the 15-month intervention period, 909 warnings for 26 different drugs were triggered among 354,523 prescribed drug items with special oral formulations. The warning rate of inappropriate splitting in the late intervention period was lower than those in baseline period (0.16% vs. 0.61%, incidence rate ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.23-0.31, P<0.001. In respond to warnings, physicians had to make adjustments, of which the majority was changing to an unsplit pill (72.9%.The interruptive warning system could avoid the prescriptions with inappropriate pill splitting. Accordingly, physicians changed their behavior of prescribing special oral formulations regarding inappropriate pill splitting. We suggest the establishment of such system

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Can Enhance Human Mucosal and Systemic Immunity and Prevent Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Induced Reduction in T Regulatory Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Paul; Mujagic, Zlatan; de Haan, Bart J.; Siezen, Roland J.; Bron, Peter A.; Meijerink, Marjolein; Wells, Jerry M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Faas, Marijke M.; Troost, Freddy J.

    2017-01-01

    Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or WCFS1) or placebo for 7 days. To determine whether L. plantarum can enhance immune response, we compared the effects of three stains on systemic and gut mucosal immunity, by among others assessing memory responses against tetanus toxoid (TT)-antigen, and mucosal gene transcription, in human volunteers during induction of mild immune stressor in the intestine, by giving a commonly used enteropathic drug, indomethacin [non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)]. Systemic effects of the interventions were studies in peripheral blood samples. NSAID was found to induce a reduction in serum CD4+/Foxp3 regulatory cells, which was prevented by L. plantarum TIFN101. T-cell polarization experiments showed L. plantarum TIFN101 to enhance responses against TT-antigen, which indicates stimulation of memory responses by this strain. Cell extracts of the specific L. plantarum strains provoked responses after WCFS1 and TIFN101 consumption, indicating stimulation of immune responses against the specific bacteria. Mucosal immunomodulatory effects were studied in duodenal biopsies. In small intestinal mucosa, TIFN101 upregulated genes associated with maintenance of T- and B-cell function and antigen presentation. Furthermore, L. plantarum TIFN101 and WCFS1 downregulated immunological pathways involved in antigen presentation and shared downregulation of snoRNAs, which may suggest cellular destabilization, but may also be an indicator of tissue repair. Full sequencing of the L. plantarum strains revealed possible gene clusters that might be responsible for the differential biological effects of the bacteria on host immunity. In conclusion, the impact of oral consumption L. plantarum on

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Can Enhance Human Mucosal and Systemic Immunity and Prevent Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Induced Reduction in T Regulatory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Vos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or WCFS1 or placebo for 7 days. To determine whether L. plantarum can enhance immune response, we compared the effects of three stains on systemic and gut mucosal immunity, by among others assessing memory responses against tetanus toxoid (TT-antigen, and mucosal gene transcription, in human volunteers during induction of mild immune stressor in the intestine, by giving a commonly used enteropathic drug, indomethacin [non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID]. Systemic effects of the interventions were studies in peripheral blood samples. NSAID was found to induce a reduction in serum CD4+/Foxp3 regulatory cells, which was prevented by L. plantarum TIFN101. T-cell polarization experiments showed L. plantarum TIFN101 to enhance responses against TT-antigen, which indicates stimulation of memory responses by this strain. Cell extracts of the specific L. plantarum strains provoked responses after WCFS1 and TIFN101 consumption, indicating stimulation of immune responses against the specific bacteria. Mucosal immunomodulatory effects were studied in duodenal biopsies. In small intestinal mucosa, TIFN101 upregulated genes associated with maintenance of T- and B-cell function and antigen presentation. Furthermore, L. plantarum TIFN101 and WCFS1 downregulated immunological pathways involved in antigen presentation and shared downregulation of snoRNAs, which may suggest cellular destabilization, but may also be an indicator of tissue repair. Full sequencing of the L. plantarum strains revealed possible gene clusters that might be responsible for the differential biological effects of the bacteria on host immunity. In conclusion, the impact of oral consumption L

  16. Evaluation of Pre-marketing Factors to Predict Post-marketing Boxed Warnings and Safety Withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Miller, Kathleen L; Lanthier, Michael; Dal Pan, Gerald; Nardinelli, Clark

    2017-06-01

    An important goal in drug regulation is understanding serious safety issues with new drugs as soon as possible. Achieving this goal requires us to understand whether information provided during the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug review can predict serious safety issues that are usually identified after the product is approved. However, research on this topic remains understudied. In this paper, we examine whether any pre-marketing drug characteristics are associated with serious post-marketing safety actions. We study this question using an internal FDA database containing every new small molecule drug submitted to the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) on or after November 21, 1997, and approved and commercially launched before December 31, 2009. Serious post-marketing safety actions include whether these drugs ever experienced either a post-marketing boxed warning or a withdrawal from the market due to safety concerns. A random effects logistic regression model was used to test whether any pre-marketing characteristics were associated with either post-marketing safety action. A total of 219 new molecular entities were analyzed. Among these drugs, 11 experienced a safety withdrawal and 30 received boxed warnings by July 31, 2016. Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find that neither clinical trial sample sizes nor review time windows are associated with the addition of a post-marketing boxed warning or safety withdrawal. However, we do find that new drugs approved with either a boxed warning or priority review are more likely to experience post-marketing boxed warnings. Furthermore, drugs approved with boxed warnings tend to receive post-marketing boxed warnings resulting from new safety information that are unrelated to the original warning. Drugs approved with a boxed warning are 3.88 times more likely to receive a post-marketing boxed warning, while drugs approved with a priority review are 3.51 times more likely to receive a post

  17. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  18. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  19. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  20. Microwave warning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A device for warning a person carrying or wearing it of the presence of dangerous microwave radiation is fully powered by the radiations being detected. A very low-wattage gas-discharge lamp is energized by a broadly or a sharply tuned receiver circuit including dipole antennas or one antenna and a ''grounding'' casing element. The casing may be largely and uniformly transparent or have different areas gradedly light-transmissive to indicate varying radiation intensities. The casing can be made in the shape of a pocket watch, fountain pen, bracelet or finger ring, etc

  1. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  2. Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  3. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  4. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  5. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  6. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  7. Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagrossi, Luna; Hermans, Lucas E; Salpini, Romina

    2018-01-01

    structure of HBV genome, some immune-escape mutations or stop-codons in HBsAg can derive from drug-resistance mutations in RT. This study is aimed at gaining insight in prevalence and characteristics of immune-associated escape mutations, and stop-codons in HBsAg in chronically HBV-infected patients...

  8. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  9. Believability of Cigarette Warnings About Addiction: National Experiments of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Kowitt, Sarah D; Huang, Li-Ling; Noar, Seth M; Jarman, Kristen L; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-06-07

    We conducted two experiments to examine the believability of three addiction-focused cigarette warnings and the influence of message source on believability among adolescents and adults in the United States. Experimental data were collected using national phone surveys of adolescents (age 13-17; n = 1125; response rate, 66%) and adults (age 18+; n = 5014; response rate, 42%). We assessed the believability of three cigarette warnings about addiction attributed to four message sources (Food and Drug Administration [FDA], Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], no source). The majority of adolescents and adults reported the three cigarette warnings were very believable (49%-81% for adolescents; 47%-76% for adults). We found four to five times higher odds of adolescents believing a warning that cigarettes are addictive (warning 1) or that nicotine was an addictive chemical (warning 2) compared to a warning that differentiated the addictive risks of menthol versus traditional cigarettes (warning 3), warning 1 adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.10, 6.63; warning 2 aOR: 3.87, 95% CI: 2.70, 5.50. Similarly, we found three to five times higher odds of adults (including current smokers) believing the same warnings, warning 1 aOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.82, 4.95; warning 2 aOR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.45, 4.28. Message source had no overall impact on the believability of warnings for either population. Our findings support the implementation of FDA's required warnings that cigarettes are addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical. These believable warnings may deter adolescents from initiating smoking and encourage adults to quit smoking. This article describes, for the first time, the believability of different cigarette warnings about addiction. We now know that the majority of adolescents and adults believe cigarette warnings that highlight cigarettes as addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical in tobacco

  10. 21 CFR 290.6 - Spanish-language version of required warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish-language version of required warning. 290... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CONTROLLED DRUGS General Provisions § 290.6 Spanish-language version of required... of this drug to any person other than the patient for whom it was prescribed.” The Spanish version of...

  11. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  12. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines: Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster interferes with a rapid urine drug screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, M E; Osuch, E; Kahler-Venter, C P

    2017-08-25

    The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through clinical trials and other tests that would validate their composition and safety, and other properties such as their effect on laboratory diagnostic tests. To investigate the cross-reactivity of selected HMs with commonly tested drugs of abuse (DoA) using a qualitative rapid urinalysis assay. The six HMs selected were bought from local pharmacies. A rapid urinalysis screening test was performed with the Instant View Multi-Drug of Abuse Test kit from Labstix Diagnostics. Drug-free urine (DFU) was pooled from samples donated by healthy volunteers. Urine samples that had tested positive for DoA were obtained from a pharmacology laboratory. Aliquots of the urine samples were spiked with the HMs in neat and diluted form, and tested at various time intervals. The results for the DFU samples spiked with the HMs remained negative. There were no significant changes in pH or specific gravity of the samples. The results of samples that had tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were not altered by five of the HMs when spiked at 40% v/v. The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test. An important finding is that the herbal mixture Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the cannabinoid screening test. It adds to the list of substances that may be potential adulterants of urine for screening tests.

  13. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  14. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  15. Differential Relationships among Circulating Inflammatory and Immune Activation Biomediators and Impact of Aging and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Cohort of Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Kirk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection live longer, aging and age-related chronic conditions have become major health concerns for this vulnerable population. Substantial evidence suggests that chronic inflammation and immune activation contribute significantly to chronic conditions in people aging with or without HIV infection. As a result, increasing numbers of inflammation and immune activation biomediators have been measured. While very few studies describe their in vivo relationships, such studies can serve as an important and necessary initial step toward delineating the complex network of chronic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we evaluated in vivo relationships between serum levels of neopterin, a biomediator of immune activation, and four commonly described inflammatory biomediators: soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptor (sTNFR-1, sTNFR-2, interleukin (IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP, as well as the impact of HIV infection and aging in the AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience (ALIVE study, a community-recruited observational study of former and current injection drug users (IDUs with or at high risk for HIV infection in Baltimore, MD, USA. The study included 1,178 participants in total with 316 HIV-infected (HV+ and 862 HIV-uninfected (HIV− IDUs. Multivariate regression analyses were employed, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hepatitis C virus co-infection, injection drug use, comorbidities, and HIV status (for all participants, and HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell counts, and antiretroviral therapy (for HIV+ participants. The results showed significant impact of aging on all five biomediators and that of HIV infection on all but sTNFR-1. In the adjusted model, neopterin had positive associations with sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2 (partial correlation coefficients: 0.269 and 0.422, respectively, for all participants; 0.292 and 0.354 for HIV+; and 0.262 and 0.435 for HIV

  16. The effect of perioperative analgesic drugs omnopon and dexketoprofen on the functional activity of immune cells in murine model of tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, R I; Khranovska, N M; Skachkova, O V; Skivka, L M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of perioperative analgesia with nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor dexketoprofen and opioid drug omnopon on the functional activity of immune cells in tumor excision murine model. Lewis lung carcinoma cells were transplanted into hind paw of C57/black mice. On the 23th day tumor was removed. Analgesic drugs were injected 30 min before and once a day for 3 days after the surgery. Biological material was obtained a day before, 1 day and 3 days after the tumor removal. IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA levels in splenic cells were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytotoxic activity of splenocytes was estimated by flow cytometry. We found that in splenocytes of mice received opioid analgesia IL-10 mRNA level was increased 2.3 times on day one after the surgery compared to preoperative level (P dexketoprofen group this parameter did not change. IFN-γ gene expression level on day 3 after tumor removal was 40% higher in splenocytes of dexketoprofen treated mice as compared with omnopon treated animals (P dexketoprofen against (50.2 ± 3.3)% in omnopon group. In conclusion, perioperative analgesia with cyclooxygenase inhibitor dexketoprofen in contrast to opioid analgesia with omnopon preserves higher functional activity of murine immune cells in the experimental model of tumor surgery.

  17. The ABP Dendrimer, a Drug-Candidate against Inflammatory Diseases That Triggers the Activation of Interleukin-10 Producing Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchon, Séverine; Poupot, Rémy

    2018-05-25

    The ABP dendrimer, which is built on a phosphorus-based scaffold and bears twelve azabisphosphonate groups at its surface, is one of the dendrimers that has been shown to display immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects towards the human immune system. Its anti-inflammatory properties have been successfully challenged in animal models of inflammatory disorders. In this review, we trace the discovery and the evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the ABP dendrimer in three different animal models of both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. We emphasize that its therapeutic effects rely on the enhancement of the production of Interleukin-10, the paradigm of anti-inflammatory cytokines, by different subsets of immune cells, such as monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  18. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings-Findings from Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-07-14

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration's new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences' product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  20. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  1. Sex bias in experimental immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice: suggested roles for Tregs, estrogen, and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Cho

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury (DILI triggered by drug haptens is more prevalent in women than in men. However, mechanisms responsible for this sex bias are not clear. Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs and 17β-estradiol is crucial in the pathogenesis of sex bias in cancer and autoimmunity. Therefore, we investigated their role in a mouse model of immune-mediated DILI.To model DILI, we immunized BALB/c, BALB/cBy, IL-6-deficient, and castrated BALB/c mice with trifluoroacetyl chloride-haptenated liver proteins. We then measured degree of hepatitis, cytokines, antibodies, and Treg and splenocyte function.BALB/c females developed more severe hepatitis (p<0.01 and produced more pro-inflammatory hepatic cytokines and antibodies (p<0.05 than did males. Castrated males developed more severe hepatitis than did intact males (p<0.001 and females (p<0.05. Splenocytes cultured from female mice exhibited fewer Tregs (p<0.01 and higher IL-1β (p<0.01 and IL-6 (p<0.05 than did those from males. However, Treg function did not differ by sex, as evidenced by absence of sex bias in programmed death receptor-1 and responses to IL-6, anti-IL-10, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28. Diminished hepatitis in IL-6-deficient, anti-IL-6 receptor α-treated, ovariectomized, or male mice; undetectable IL-6 levels in splenocyte supernatants from ovariectomized and male mice; elevated splenic IL-6 and serum estrogen levels in castrated male mice, and IL-6 induction by 17β-estradiol in splenocytes from naïve female mice (p<0.05 suggested that 17β-estradiol may enhance sex bias through IL-6 induction, which subsequently discourages Treg survival. Treg transfer from naïve female mice to those with DILI reduced hepatitis severity and hepatic IL-6.17β-estradiol and IL-6 may act synergistically to promote sex bias in experimental DILI by reducing Tregs. Modulating Treg numbers may provide a therapeutic approach to DILI.

  2. Local Delivery System of Immune Modulating Drug for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma: In Vitro Experimental Study and In Vivo Animal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Don Haeng; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Jeong, Seok; Yoon, Chang Jin; Choi, Jung-Ah; Byun, Ju Nam; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Kyu Back

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a developed drug delivery system containing OK-432 through in vitro and animal study. An OK-432-impregnated polycarbonate/polyurethane stent membrane was used to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) enabling the locoregional release of OK-432. Polyethyleneglycol was used as a detergent and porosity generator. The stability of OK-432 in solvent, releasing kinetics of drug, and cytotoxicity of the DDS were evaluated. OK-432-impregnated DDS was implanted in mice in which a human adenocarcinoma cell line was injected and grown in their back. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for quantifying the amount of drug. OK-432 exposed to phosphate-buffered saline and OK-432 exposed to N,N-dimethylacetamide showed similar results on dot graphs and histograms. However, OK-432 exposed to tetrahydrofurane showed different dot graphs and histograms, which means that the antigenicity of the drug was changed. The release rate of OK-432 was maintained at a constant level for 6 weeks. The local delivery of OK-432 was found to have an antitumor effect on a human adenocarcinoma cell line in an animal study, but no effect on this cell line in in vitro cell culture. Histologic examination showed minimal inflammatory reaction in surrounding tissue. Our study shows that local treatment using this OK-432 release system is safe and effective in reducing adenocarcinoma in a mouse model

  3. In chronic myeloid leukemia patients on second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, deep sequencing of BCR-ABL1 at the time of warning may allow sensitive detection of emerging drug-resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soverini, Simona; De Benedittis, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fausto; Gugliotta, Gabriele; Mancini, Manuela; Bavaro, Luana; Machova Polakova, Katerina; Linhartova, Jana; Iurlo, Alessandra; Russo, Domenico; Pane, Fabrizio; Saglio, Giuseppe; Rosti, Gianantonio; Cavo, Michele; Baccarani, Michele; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-02

    Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients receiving second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy with dasatinib or nilotinib have a higher risk of disease relapse and progression and not infrequently BCR-ABL1 kinase domain (KD) mutations are implicated in therapeutic failure. In this setting, earlier detection of emerging BCR-ABL1 KD mutations would offer greater chances of efficacy for subsequent salvage therapy and limit the biological consequences of full BCR-ABL1 kinase reactivation. Taking advantage of an already set up and validated next-generation deep amplicon sequencing (DS) assay, we aimed to assess whether DS may allow a larger window of detection of emerging BCR-ABL1 KD mutants predicting for an impending relapse. a total of 125 longitudinal samples from 51 CML patients who had acquired dasatinib- or nilotinib-resistant mutations during second-line therapy were analyzed by DS from the time of failure and mutation detection by conventional sequencing backwards. BCR-ABL1/ABL1%(IS) transcript levels were used to define whether the patient had 'optimal response', 'warning' or 'failure' at the time of first mutation detection by DS. DS was able to backtrack dasatinib- or nilotinib-resistant mutations to the previous sample(s) in 23/51 (45 %) pts. Median mutation burden at the time of first detection by DS was 5.5 % (range, 1.5-17.5 %); median interval between detection by DS and detection by conventional sequencing was 3 months (range, 1-9 months). In 5 cases, the mutations were detectable at baseline. In the remaining cases, response level at the time mutations were first detected by DS could be defined as 'Warning' (according to the 2013 ELN definitions of response to 2nd-line therapy) in 13 cases, as 'Optimal response' in one case, as 'Failure' in 4 cases. No dasatinib- or nilotinib-resistant mutations were detected by DS in 15 randomly selected patients with 'warning' at various timepoints, that later turned into optimal

  4. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  5. Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, T; Sheehan, M; Siskind, V

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the knowledge, intentions, and driving behavior of persons prescribed medications that display a warning about driving. It also examines their confidence that they can self-assess possible impairment, as is required by the Australian labeling system. We surveyed 358 outpatients in an Australian public hospital pharmacy, representing a well-advised group taking a range of medications including those displaying a warning label about driving. A brief telephone follow-up survey was conducted with a subgroup of the participants. The sample had a median age of 53.2 years and was 53 percent male. Nearly three quarters (73.2%) had taken a potentially impairing class of medication and more than half (56.1%) had taken more than one such medication in the past 12 months. Knowledge of the potentially impairing effects of medication was relatively high for most items; however, participants underestimated the possibility of increased impairment from exceeding the prescribed dose and at commencing treatment. Participants' responses to the safety implications of taking drugs with the highest level of warning varied. Around two thirds (62.8%) indicated that they would consult a health practitioner for advice and around half would modify their driving in some way. However, one fifth (20.9%) would drive when the traffic was thought to be less heavy and over a third (37.7%) would modify their medication regime so that they could drive. The findings from the follow-up survey of a subsample taking target drugs at the time of the first interview were also of concern. Only just over half (51%) recalled seeing the warning label on their medications and, of this group, three quarters (78%) reported following the warning label advice. These findings indicated that there remains a large proportion of people who either did not notice or did not consider the warning when deciding whether to drive. There was a very high level of confidence in this group that they could

  6. Evaluating the Immunogenicity of Protein Drugs by Applying In Vitro MHC Binding Data and the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinu Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has evolved to become highly specialized in recognizing and responding to pathogens and foreign molecules. Specifically, the function of HLA class II is to ensure that a sufficient sample of peptides derived from foreign molecules is presented to T cells. This leads to an important concern in human drug development as the possible immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals, especially those intended for chronic administration, can lead to reduced efficacy and an undesired safety profile for biological therapeutics. As part of this review, we will highlight the molecular basis of antigen presentation as a key step in the induction of T cell responses, emphasizing the events associated with peptide binding to polymorphic and polygenic HLA class II molecules. We will further review methodologies that predict HLA class II binding peptides and candidate epitopes. We will focus on tools provided by the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource, discussing the basic features of different prediction methods, the objective evaluation of prediction quality, and general guidelines for practical use of these tools. Finally the use, advantages, and limitations of the methodology will be demonstrated in a review of two previous studies investigating the immunogenicity of erythropoietin and timothy grass pollen.

  7. The effect of perioperative analgesic drugs omnopon and dexketoprofen on the functional activity of immune cells in murine model of tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Sydor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of perioperative analgesia with nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor dexketoprofen and opioid drug omnopon on the functional activity of immune cells in tumor excision murine model. Lewis lung carcinoma cells were transplanted into hind paw of C57/black mice. On the 23th day tumor was removed. Analgesic drugs were injected 30 min before and once a day for 3 days after the surgery. Biological material was obtained a day before, 1 day and 3 days after the tumor removal. IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA levels in splenic cells were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytotoxic activity of splenocytes was estimated by flow cytometry. We found that in splenocytes of mice received opioid analgesia IL-10 mRNA level was increased 2.3 times on day one after the surgery compared to preoperative level (P < 0.05, while in dexketoprofen group this parameter did not change. IFN-γ gene expression level on day 3 after tumor removal was 40% higher in splenocytes of dexketoprofen treated mice as compared with omnopon treated animals (P < 0.05. Cytotoxic activity of splenocytes on day 3 postsurgery was (62.2 ± 2.4% in dexketoprofen against (50.2 ± 3.3% in omnopon group. In conclusion, perioperative analgesia with cyclooxygenase inhibitor dexketoprofen in contrast to opioid analgesia with omnopon preserves higher functional activity of murine immune cells in the experimental model of tumor surgery.

  8. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  9. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  10. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  11. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214...

  13. The cancer-immunity cycle as rational design for synthetic cancer drugs: Novel DC vaccines and CAR T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Dimberg, Anna; Essand, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    Cell therapy is an advanced form of cancer immunotherapy that has had remarkable clinical progress in the past decade in the search for cure of cancer. Most success has been achieved for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells where CAR T-cells targeting CD19 show very high complete response rates for patients with refractory acute B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are close to approval for this indication. CD19 CAR T-cells are also effective against B-cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell lymphomas. Although encouraging, CAR T-cells have not yet proven clinically effective for solid tumors. This is mainly due to the lack of specific and homogenously expressed targets to direct the T-cells against and a hostile immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in solid tumors. Cancer vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) are also making progress although clinical efficacy is still lacking. The likelihood of success is however increasing now when individual tumors can be sequences and patient-specific neoepitopes identified. Neoepitopes and/or neoantigens can then be included in patient-based DC vaccines. This review discusses recent advancements of DC vaccines and CAR T-cells with emphasis on the cancer-immunity cycle, and current efforts to design novel cell therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Framing Indoor Tanning Warning Messages to Reduce Skin Cancer Risks Among Young Women: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the impact of indoor tanning device warnings that communicate the risks associated with indoor tanning (i.e., loss framed) or the benefits of avoiding indoor tanning (i.e., gain framed). A convenience sample of non-Hispanic White women aged 18 to 30 years who tanned indoors at least once in the past year (n = 682) participated in a within-subjects experiment. Participants completed baseline measures and reported indoor tanning intentions and intentions to quit indoor tanning in response to 5 warning messages in random order. A text-only control warning was based on Food and Drug Administration-required warnings for indoor tanning devices. Experimental warnings included graphic content and were either gain or loss framed. In multivariable analyses, gain-framed warnings did not differ from the control warning on women's intentions to tan indoors, but they prompted stronger intentions to quit than the control message. Loss-framed warnings significantly reduced intentions to tan indoors and increased intentions to quit indoor tanning compared with control and gain-framed warnings. The public health impact of indoor tanning device warnings can be enhanced by incorporating graphic content and leveraging gain- and loss-framed messaging.

  15. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-01-01

    With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  16. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dandoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8 to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes. The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin, substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  17. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  18. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to

  19. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways and on immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Byerly, Jenni R; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William E; Berghaus, Londa J; Hyde, Dallas M; Schelegle, Edward S; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2005-07-01

    To compare the effects of an orally administered corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid (flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine), and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 6 cats with asthma experimentally induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA). A randomized, crossover design was used to assess changes in the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA determined by use of ELISAs. Mean +/- SE eosinophil percentages in BALF when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 +/- 2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 +/- 1.7%) were significantly lower than for the control treatment (33.7 +/- 11.1%). We did not detect significant differences in airway hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in serum was significantly lower when cats were treated with prednisone (25.5 +/- 5.4%), compared with values for the control treatment (63.6 +/- 12.9%); no other significant differences were observed in content of BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments. Orally administered and inhaled corticosteroids decreased eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration of prednisone decreased the content of BGA-specific IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic immunologic effects were detected among treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered as an alternate method for decreasing airway inflammation in cats with asthma.

  20. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... throat warning:” (G) Warning for drug products containing sodium phosphates set forth in § 201.307(b)(2... (excluding pregnancy) and all warnings for persons experiencing certain symptoms. The warnings under this... paragraphs (c)(5)(i) through (c)(5)(vii), (c)(5)(ix), and (c)(5)(x) of this section. (ix) The pregnancy...

  1. Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: Effects on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Yeung, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current U.S Surgeon General’s text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Results Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p=.004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current U.S. Surgeon General’s text warnings (p=.014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Conclusion Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. PMID:26442992

  2. Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Yeung, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of exposure to the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking. A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18-25-years-old. During session one, demographics, smoking behaviour, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current US Surgeon General's text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p = .004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current US Surgeon General's text warnings (p = .014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers' implicit attitudes towards smoking.

  3. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  4. World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN IV: Clinical pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbotosho Grace O

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN database has the potential to improve the treatment of malaria, through informing current drug selection and use and providing a prompt warning of when treatment policies need changing. This manuscript outlines the contribution and structure of the clinical pharmacology component of this database. The determinants of treatment response are multi-factorial, but clearly providing adequate blood concentrations is pivotal to curing malaria. The ability of available antimalarial pharmacokinetic data to inform optimal dosing is constrained by the small number of patients studied, with even fewer (if any studies conducted in the most vulnerable populations. There are even less data relating blood concentration data to the therapeutic response (pharmacodynamics. By pooling all available pharmacokinetic data, while paying careful attention to the analytical methodologies used, the limitations of small (and thus underpowered individual studies may be overcome and factors that contribute to inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters defined. Key variables for pharmacokinetic studies are defined in terms of patient (or study subject characteristics, the formulation and route of administration of the antimalarial studied, the sampling and assay methodology, and the approach taken to data analysis. Better defining these information needs and criteria of acceptability of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD studies should contribute to improving the quantity, relevance and quality of these studies. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarials and a more clear definition of what constitutes "therapeutic drug levels" would allow more precise use of the term "antimalarial resistance", as it would indicate when treatment failure is not caused by intrinsic parasite resistance but is instead the result of inadequate drug levels. The clinical pharmacology component

  5. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  6. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  7. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pictorial warnings and their ability to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth in Egypt. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews with a sample of cigarette smokers, the research argues that various social, cultural, and economic factors constrain the effectiveness of pictorial warnings. A key finding is that ...

  8. Radiation warning system in Slovenia (ROSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that a radiological accident may have a widespread effect, the Slovenian government has decided to establish an early warning system. The aim of it is to detect any incident (domestic or foreign) involving radioactivity as fast as possible, to initiate appropriate measures, and to give immediate warning to the population

  9. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The Tip of the Iceberg of Misleading Online Advertising; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mintzes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kim’s overview of Food and Drug Administration (FDA regulatory actions from 2005 to 2014 is a comprehensive analysis of the US regulatory experience with online direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription medicines. This experience is of relevance internationally as online DTCA reaches the English-speaking public globally, despite the illegality of DTCA in most countries. The most common violations were omissions or minimizations of risk information, overstatements of efficacy, unsubstantiated claims, and promotion of unapproved (“off-label” use. Nearly one fourth of violations involved cancer drugs, raising additional concerns about patient vulnerability, limited treatment advance, and high costs. Based on content analyses of online DTCA, these cases likely reflect a small proportion of unbalanced and misleading promotional information available on the web. The FDA is only able to review a small proportion of promotional materials submitted to them, due to limited staffing, and the delay between first posting and regulatory action means that many people may be exposed to messages that are found to be inaccurate and misleading. The sheer volume of online DTCA, combined with the ability for content to shift continually, poses unique regulatory challenges.

  11. The Tip of the Iceberg of Misleading Online Advertising Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-02-18

    Kim's overview of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory actions from 2005 to 2014 is a comprehensive analysis of the US regulatory experience with online direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. This experience is of relevance internationally as online DTCA reaches the English-speaking public globally, despite the illegality of DTCA in most countries. The most common violations were omissions or minimizations of risk information, overstatements of efficacy, unsubstantiated claims, and promotion of unapproved ("off-label") use. Nearly one fourth of violations involved cancer drugs, raising additional concerns about patient vulnerability, limited treatment advance, and high costs. Based on content analyses of online DTCA, these cases likely reflect a small proportion of unbalanced and misleading promotional information available on the web. The FDA is only able to review a small proportion of promotional materials submitted to them, due to limited staffing, and the delay between first posting and regulatory action means that many people may be exposed to messages that are found to be inaccurate and misleading. The sheer volume of online DTCA, combined with the ability for content to shift continually, poses unique regulatory challenges. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Identification of drug resistance and immune-driven variations in hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B regions reveals a new approach toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Aqsa; Obaid, Ayesha; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Hanif, Rumeza; Naz, Anam; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Ali, Amjad; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Cellular immune responses (T cell responses) during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are significant factors for determining the outcome of infection. HCV adapts to host immune responses by inducing mutations in its genome at specific sites that are important for HLA processing/presentation. Moreover, HCV also adapts to resist potential drugs that are used to restrict its replication, such as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Although DAAs have significantly reduced disease burden, resistance to these drugs is still a challenge for the treatment of HCV infection. Recently, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) observed in HCV proteins (NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B) have heightened concern that the emergence of drug resistance may compromise the effectiveness of DAAs. Therefore, the NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B drug resistance variations were investigated in this study, and their prevalence was examined in a large number of protein sequences from all HCV genotypes. Furthermore, potential CD4 + and CD8 + T cell epitopes were predicted and their overlap with genetic variations was explored. The findings revealed that many reported DRMs within NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B are not drug-induced; rather, they are already present in HCV strains, as they were also detected in HCV-naïve patients. This study highlights several hot spots in which HLA and drug selective pressure overlap. Interestingly, these overlapping mutations were frequently observed among many HCV genotypes. This study implicates that knowledge of the host HLA type and HCV subtype/genotype can provide important information in defining personalized therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  14. Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S

    1997-01-01

    This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested.

  15. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  16. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immune Globulin (Human). 640.100 Section 640.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.100 Immune...

  17. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  18. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  19. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  20. COMMUNICATING RISK IN THE CONTEXT OF METHADONE FORMULATION CHANGES: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF OVERDOSE WARNING POSTERS IN VANCOUVER, CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Anderson, Solanna; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND British Columbia, Canada’s provincial methadone program recently replaced their existing methadone formulation with a formulation ten times more concentrated. The transition raised concerns about heightened risk of accidental overdose, leading two organizations to disseminate methadone overdose warning posters during the transitional period. This study explores people who use drugs’ (PWUD) perceptions of these warning posters. METHODS Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty-four PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment in Vancouver. Participants were recruited from ongoing cohort studies of drug-using individuals. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, focusing on participants’ perceptions of the warning posters and potential impacts on drug-related risks. RESULTS Overdose warning posters constituted a key source of information about the methadone formulation change, but did not provide adequate information for all participants. Participants articulated a preference for descriptive language, focusing on changes in concentration rather than “strength”, and universal hazard symbols to effectively communicate overdose risks. CONCLUSION Participants indicated that warnings employing descriptive language more effectively communicated risk of methadone overdose. Future overdose warnings for drug-using populations must provide adequate information for the intended audience, and be communicated to PWUD through multiple channels. PMID:26644025

  1. A rare cause of drug-induced hepatitis in an immunocompromised patient and the role of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadhi, Viplove; Arora, Deepika; Arora, Manish; Marsh, Franklin

    2012-08-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning on numerous herbal drugs, including many popular products at General Nutrition Centers (GNC), regarding unstudied hepatotoxicity. There have been recent reports of GNC products such as hydroxycut and herbalife, causing drug-induced hepatitis. Herbal medications are over-the-counter products and are not investigated thoroughly by the FDA. Given that the most common outpatient laboratory abnormality is elevated liver transaminases, a sign of hepatocellular toxicity; it is not surprising that some of these products end up causing hepatic dysfunction, especially when taken in large volume. There are numerous herbal supplements that are hepatotoxic, however, these medications have a much more significant effect in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients, which is secondary to depleted glutathione. We present a rare case of drug induced hepatitis secondary to herbal medications used to treat HIV and elucidate the role of glutathione depletion in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  3. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... see the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  4. Caltrans fog detection and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has implemented a fog detection and warning system on Highway 99 near Fresno. The entire central valley region is susceptible to Tule fog, which can reduce visibility tremendously, sometimes to n...

  5. An experimental study of the effects of electronic cigarette warnings on young adult nonsmokers' perceptions and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Smith, Clayton; Johnson, Andrea C; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") manufacturers use warning labels on their advertising that vary widely in content and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning label requirement for e-cigarettes. There is limited data on the effects of these warnings on e-cigarette perceptions and other potential predictors of future tobacco use behavior in populations of interest to inform future regulatory requirements. This study examined the effects of e-cigarette warnings on perceptions of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and other cognitive precursors to tobacco use among young adult non-smokers. Non-smoking young adults ages 18 to 30 years (n = 436) were recruited through an internet-based crowdsourcing platform for an online experiment. Participants completed pre-exposure measures of demographics, tobacco use, and other relevant constructs and were randomized to view 1 of 9 e-cigarette stimuli in a 3 (Ad/Warning condition: Ad Only, Ad with Warning, Warning Only) x 3 (E-cigarette brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) design. After viewing e-cigarette stimuli, participants reported perceptions of e-cigarettes and behavioral intentions to use e-cigarettes. Participants in the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions also completed a heat-mapping task assessing aspects of the ads that captured their attention. Then, participants were randomized to view cigarette ads from 1 of 3 major cigarette brands and reported perceptions of cigarettes and intentions to smoke cigarettes. Participants in the Warning Only condition reported significantly greater perceived harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes and thoughts about not using e-cigarettes than the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions (p's advertisements had little impact.

  6. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

    2008-03-01

    We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

  8. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  9. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  10. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it has added a document to the docket for the proposed rulemaking concerning required textual warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. The document is a report entitled ``Report: Experimental Study of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels'' (Experimental Study Report) and it describes the results from a research study that quantitatively evaluated the relative impact of certain color graphics on consumer attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and intended behaviors related to cigarette smoking. The purpose of this notice is to provide the public an opportunity to review and comment on the Experimental Study Report.

  11. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  12. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid ... virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Can Enhance Human Mucosal and Systemic Immunity and Prevent Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Induced Reduction in T Regulatory Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Mujagic, Zlatan; de Haan, Bart J.; Siezen, Roland J.; Bron, Peter A.; Meijerink, Marjolein; Wells, Jerry M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Faas, Marijke M.; Troost, Freddy J.

    2017-01-01

    Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum strains can enhance human mucosal and systemic immunity and prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced reduction in T regulatory Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Paul; Mujagic, Zlatan; Haan, de Bart J.; Siezen, Roland J.; Bron, Peter A.; Meijerink, Marjolein; Wells, Jerry M.; Masclee, Ad A.M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Faas, Marijke M.; Troost, Freddy J.

    2017-01-01

    Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or

  17. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  18. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  19. Design and Validation of Affective Warning Pictorial on Cigarette Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanduen Pat-Arin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study were to design and validate affective warning pictorials for cigarette label in Thailand. Brainstorming and survey techniques were used to collect the idea of possible warning pictorials. All ideas were grouped for finding candidated pictorials. Then, primary sixty warning pictorials were collected and equally classified into three affective warning pictorial groups as positive, neutral, and negative. Sixty Thai male engineering students participated in affective validation of warning pictorials using SAM rating. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS was used to manipulate the affective state of participants to neutral affective state before the experiments. The results revealed that all affective warning pictorials were successfully evoked target affective states on participants. After refining, thirty affective warning pictorials were provided as positive, neutral, and negative affective warning pictorials for using on cigarette labels. Implications on the affective warning pictorials design and validation.

  20. Value of preapproval safety data in predicting postapproval hepatic safety and assessing the legitimacy of class warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yeong-Liang; Wu, Ya-Chi; Gau, Churn-Shiouh; Lin, Min-Shung

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate whether preapproval safety data for nonhepatotoxic drugs and hepatotoxic drugs can be compared to improve preapproval prediction of postapproval hepatic safety and to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings. Drugs within a therapeutic class that included at least one drug that had been withdrawn from the market because of liver toxicity or had a warning of potential liver toxicity issued by major regulatory agencies, and at least one drug free from such regulatory action, were identified and divided into two groups: drugs with and drugs without regulatory action. Preapproval clinical data [including the elevation rates of alanine aminotransferse (ALT) and withdrawal due to liver toxicity, the number of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin, and liver failure] and nonclinical data (including chemical structures, metabolic pathways, and other significant findings in animal studies) were compared between the two groups. Six drug classes were assessed in this study: thiazolidinediones, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, leukotriene receptor inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists. In two classes (COMT inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists), drugs with regulatory action had significantly higher rates of ALT elevation of more than threefold and greater numbers of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin than drugs without regulatory action. Drugs with regulatory action also had chemical structures or metabolic pathways associated with the toxicity. The legitimacy of class warnings was refuted in all six classes of drugs. Preapproval safety data may help predict postapproval hepatic safety and can be used to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings.

  1. Emergency warning for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkovich, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assess the current state of Emergency Warning capabilities in the United States and make recommendations on what needs to be done to cost effectively establish a National Emergency Warning System to best serve the people of the United States, including those with disabilities. As part of this assessment, terminology will be defined, existing systems will be examined, critical needs and functions will be explained, and recommendations made for a system to deliver emergency messages to those people immediately at risk from natural and human-caused disasters in a timely and effective manner, regardless of location or situational circumstance. The assessment will include the needs and available technologies for delivering emergency warnings to people with disabilities, which are generally little understood, poorly addressed, and often ignored.

  2. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  3. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties...... areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions...

  4. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  5. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  6. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  7. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  8. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  9. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  10. Crisis management and warning procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

  11. Graphic tobacco warning labels – an improper solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi JD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joshua D SalviWeill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USAIn June 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (HR 1256. This legislation required that all tobacco products and advertising must have a graphic warning covering 50 percent of the front and back of the package. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has proposed a number of graphic designs, and the final designs were submitted in June, 2011. The proposed designs include grotesque imagery in an attempt to dissuade smoking in the USA. However, these graphic labels were invalidated in court due to violation of freedom-of-speech rights. Independent from that point, these labels, if appealed, would do more harm than good from a public health perspective. 

  12. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  13. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required warnings. 307.2 Section 307.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER... Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these...

  14. Brake wear warning device: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

  15. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during the..., or a physical barrier shall be installed to impede travel beyond permanent support. ...

  16. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications PictoriAl WArningS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Cigarette smoking; tobacco; pictorial warning messages; late adolescents corresponding author: ... messages on the prevention of smoking ... centrate on the effect of social smoking .... The research's aim was explained to the.

  17. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  18. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioural impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-05-01

    Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an 'emotional reaction' scale in previous research. We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction-related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  20. Trigger Warnings as Respect for Student Boundaries in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.; Kulbaga, Theresa A.

    2018-01-01

    The fierce public and scholarly debate over trigger warnings in university classrooms has often characterized the issue as one of academic freedom and ignored the social justice arguments for trigger warnings. In this essay, we argue that trigger warnings expand academic speech by engaging students more fully in their own learning. Specifically,…

  1. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  2. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations.Methods: Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL, and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market.Results: In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6% followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%. Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%, anti-microbial (14.6%, and CNS (12.5% drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%. Conclusion: The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health.

  3. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ... needle sharing. When people who inject drugs share "equipment"—such as needles, syringes, and other drug injection ...

  5. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. 76 FR 66074 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011. This small entity compliance guide (SECG) is intended to set forth in plain language the requirements of the regulation and to help small businesses understand and comply with the regulation.

  7. 76 FR 67197 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of October 25, 2011 (76 FR 66074). The document announced the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule that published in the Federal Register of June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36628). The notice published with an incorrect docket number. This document corrects that error.

  8. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....102 Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). (a) Processing method. The processing method shall be one...

  9. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  10. The design of the light-flash warning light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli

    2018-05-01

    In today's society, the warning light has been used widely in people's daily life and various industries and agricultures. It is important to protect people's life and security. Light-flashing warning light is a kind of warning light control equipment which can control warning light automatically open and work in the state of blinking after dark, and it can automatically shut down after the dawn. It can achieve the flashing light automatic control and dual function. At present, light-flashing warning lights are mainly used in the projects of municipal construction. It is helpful to warn people and vehicles that passed in the construction site and ensure personal safety through using light-flashing warning light. Its design is simple, its performance is stable and it is also very convince to use it.

  11. An exploratory study of drinkers views of health information and warning labels on alcohol containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Lisa M; Vandenberg, Brian; Fitzgerald, John L

    2012-03-01

    To identify general and specific features of health information warning labels on alcohol beverage containers that could potentially inform the development and implementation of a new labelling regime in Australia. Mixed methods, including a cross-sectional population survey and a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding alcohol beverage labelling. The population survey used computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1500 persons in Victoria, Australia to gauge the level of support for health information and warning labels. The qualitative study used six focus groups to test the suitability of 12 prototype labels that were placed in situ on a variety of alcohol beverage containers. The telephone survey found 80% to 90% support for a range of information that could potentially be mandated by government authorities for inclusion on labels (nutritional information, alcohol content, health warning, images). Focus group testing of the prototype label designs found that labels should be integrated with other alcohol-related health messages, such as government social advertising campaigns, and specific labels should be matched appropriately to specific consumer groups and beverage types. There are high levels of public support for health information and warning labels on alcohol beverages. This study contributes much needed empirical guidance for developing alcohol beverage labelling strategies in an Australian context. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  13. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions......, but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties......What does it take to recognise and prevent hazards with international causes and consequences? How can we handle the risks related to financial instability, terrorism, pandemics, air pollution, flooding and climate change? The book brings together scholars and senior practitioners from different...

  14. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesjak Martin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment nonqualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle.

  15. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  16. Home seismometer for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shigeki; Horiuchi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Nakamura, Hiromitsu; Wu, Changjiang; Rydelek, Paul A.; Kachi, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has started the practical service of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) and a very dense deployment of receiving units is expected in the near future. The receiving/alarm unit of an EEW system is equipped with a CPU and memory and is on-line via the internet. By adding an inexpensive seismometer and A/D converter, this unit is transformed into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer. If the home seismometer is incorporated in the standard receiving unit of EEW, then the number of seismic observatories will be drastically increased. Since the background noise inside a house caused by human activity may be very large, we have developed specialized software for on-site warning using the home seismometer. We tested our software and found that our algorithm can correctly distinguish between noise and earthquakes for nearly all the events.

  17. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  18. Early warnings : a phenomenon in project management

    OpenAIRE

    Nikander, Ilmari O.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of Concurrent Engineering has caused growing demands on project management. The classic project management methods are often slow: problems may already exist when those methods are applied. The objective of the present study is to improve the opportunities of those responsible for a project's operational management to receive advance information about potential problems and final results through early warnings typical of the theory of weak signals by Igor Ansoff. The researc...

  19. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards or away (downwards from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  20. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  1. A breakthrough in antibody-drug conjugates in anti-immune rejection%抗免疫排斥反应中抗体药物偶联物的突破性进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩龙; 莽源祎; 张雷

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The immunological rejection between host and graft is the leading cause of organ transplantation failure. The traditional immunosuppressive agents have been unable to meet the needs of clinical treatment. Antibody-drug conjugate, as a type of new drugs, may be hope for the treatment of immune rejection. OBJECTIVE:To comprehensively analyze the composition of antibody-drug conjugates, mechanism of action, clinical research progress as wel as the development trend. METHODS:A computer-based online retrieval was performed to search papers in CNKI and PubMed database using the key words of ADCs, immunosuppressive agents, immunotoxins, organ transplantation, graft rejection in Chinese and English. Recently published or published in the prestigious journals were selected in the same field. After excluding objective-independent papers and repeated studies, 42 papers were included for further analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Antibody-drug conjugates, as highly effective and lowly toxic immunosuppressant, have achieved a breakthrough in treatment of targeting tumor, while the role of it in anti-immune rejection is stil at the exploratory stage. For islet transplantation, novel antibody-drug conjugates are required to block CD8+T effector by CD103/E-Cadherin pathway, and wil probably serve as a potential drug intervention for al ograft rejection.%背景:宿主与移植物间的免疫排斥反应是器官移植失败的主要原因之一,传统的免疫抑制剂已无法满足临床治疗的需求,抗体药物偶联物作为一类新型药物,可能为免疫排斥反应的治疗带来希望。  目的:综合分析抗体药物偶联物的构成、作用机制、临床研究进展以及未来的发展趋势。  方法:以“抗体药物偶联物、免疫抑制剂、免疫毒素、器官移植、移植物排斥”,“ADCs,immunosuppressive agents,immunotoxins,organ transplantation,graft rejection”为检索

  2. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  3. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  4. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  5. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  6. Multi-granularity immunization strategy based on SIRS model in scale-free network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new immunization strategy was established to prevent the epidemic spreading based on the principle of "Multi-granularity" and "Pre-warning Mechanism", which send different pre-warning signal with the risk rank of the susceptible node to be infected. The pre-warning means there is a higher risk that the susceptible node is more likely to be infected. The multi-granularity means the susceptible node is linked with multi-infected nodes. In our model, the effect of the different situation of the multi-granularity immunizations is compared and different spreading rates are adopted to describe the epidemic behavior of nodes. In addition the threshold value of epidemic outbreak is investigated, which makes the result more convincing. The theoretical analysis and the simulations indicate that the proposed immunization strategy is effective and it is also economic and feasible.

  7. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  8. Immunization after renal transplantation: current clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, G. H.; Lammers, A. J. J.; Brinkman, R. J.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; van Vugt, M.; van der Pant, K. A. M. I.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of potent immunosuppressive drugs and increased travel by renal transplant recipients (RTR) has augmented the risk for infectious complications. Immunizations and changes in lifestyle are protective. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group has developed

  9. Immunomodulator, immunosuppression of radiation and immune reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jianping; Fang Jing; Zhou Ying; Cui Yufang; Jiang Zhujun; Du Li; Ma Qiong

    2010-01-01

    There is a refined and complicated regulatory network between immune cells, and between immune cells and secretory factors. The immune system is kept in a homeostasis and equilibrium by positive activation and negative inhibition. In recent years, the mechanisms of immunosuppression in depth for successful allograft transplantation were studied, and many immunosuppressants and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed for clinical use. Most of them are targeting T cell receptors and three kinds of singnal pathways. The receptors of the immunosuppression were either found highly expressed in immune cells after irradiation. To relieve the suppression by regulating the receptors could help the immune reconstruction out of radiation damage. Many new immunoenhancers have been discovered to improve the immune system function for radiation by Toll-like receptors. The search for new immunoenhancers and agents for relieving immunosuppression is of great importance to immune construction for radiation sickness. (authors)

  10. Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and Escitalopram--Its Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, André; Noohi, Saeid; Elie, Dominique; Mahdanian, Artin A; Yu, Ching; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g., by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in inpatients with acute medical illness, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 275 randomly selected inpatients with medical illness assessed by the psychiatric C-L team of a large Canadian academic hospital between 2008 and 2014. We grouped patients based on whether they were assessed by the C-L team before or after the citalopram Health Canada warning. Our primary outcome was change in citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns. We found that of patients seen before the Health Canada warning, a significantly higher number were prescribed citalopram/escitalopram (44.1% vs. 22.3%, χ(2) = 14.835, p Canada warning was similar in both groups (8.9% vs. 12.1%, χ(2) = 0.233, p = 0.63). Overall, C-L psychiatrists were less likely to prescribe citalopram/escitalopram following the Health Canada warning, which did not translate into safer dosing. Clinicians should not avoid prescribing citalopram/escitalopram appropriately in medically vulnerable inpatients when benefits outweigh disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  12. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  13. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  14. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  15. Early warning signals of simulated Amazon dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Chris; Good, Peter; Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Dieback of the Amazon rainforest has been considered a potential tipping point in the Earth system due to the belief that there is more than one stable attractor in its dynamics and for future projections within global climate models (GCMs), in some cases a huge amount of forest is lost abruptly. The rainforest is a huge carbon sink, playing a critical role in the global carbon cycle and so if dieback is going to happen over a short period of time, it is important to have some early warning t...

  16. Early warning network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Kuca, P.; Prouza, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Early Warning Network encompasses 48 measuring sites covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic; 38 of them are located at observatories of the Czech Hydro-Meteorological Institute (28 at round-the-clock manned observatories, 10 at unmanned, automated observatories) and 10 are located at air contamination measuring points operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute and Regional Centres of the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The network operates in one of 3 modes: the standard mode, alert mode, and emergency mode. (P.A.)

  17. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  18. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  19. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  1. Structural Analysis Of CD59 Of Chinese Tree Shrew: A New Reference Molecule For Human Immune System Specific CD59 Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena; Panda, Santamay

    2017-11-17

    Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. CD59 glycoprotein, commonly referred to as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is encoded by the CD59 gene in human beings. It is the member of the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. With this initial point the objective of this study was to determine a comparative composite based structure of CD59 of Chinese tree shrew. The additional objective of this study was to examine the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the assistance of several bioinformatical analytical tools. CD59 Amino acid sequence of Chinese tree shrew collected from the online database system of National Centre for Biotechnology Information. SignalP 4.0 online server was employed for detection of signal peptide instance within the protein sequence of CD59. Molecular model structure of CD59 protein was generated by the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) suite. The confirmation for three-dimensional structural model was evaluated by structure validation tools. Location of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, and hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis was performed with the help of Chimera tool. Electrostatic potential analysis was carried out with the adaptive Poisson

  2. Warning: you are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers’ decisions - if the ad is goal relevant - the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  3. Warning: You are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers' decisions – if the ad is goal relevant – the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  4. Correlates of Immunity to Filovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses can cause severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Recent advances in vaccine and therapeutic drug development have provided encouraging data concerning treatment of these infections. However, relatively little is known about immune responses in fatal versus non-fatal filovirus infection. This review summarizes the published literature on correlates of immunity to filovirus infection, and highlights deficiencies in our knowledge on this topic. It is likely that there are several types of successful immune responses, depending on the type of filovirus, and the presence and timing of vaccination or drug treatment.

  5. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  6. Observed activation status of lane departure warning and forward collision warning of Honda vehicles at dealership service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-11-16

    There are little objective data on whether drivers with lane departure warning and forward collision warning systems actually use them, but self-report data indicate that lane departure warning may be used less and viewed less favorably than forward collision warning. The current study assessed whether the systems were turned on when drivers brought their vehicles to dealership service stations and whether the observational protocol is a feasible method for collecting similar data on various manufacturers' systems. Observations of 2013-2015 Honda Accords, 2014-2015 Odysseys, and 2015 CR-Vs occurred at 2 U.S. Honda dealerships for approximately 4 weeks during Summer 2015. Of the 265 vehicles observed to have the 2 systems, 87 (32.8%) had lane departure warning turned on. Accords were associated with a 66% increase in the likelihood that lane departure warning was turned on compared with Odysseys, but the rate was still only about 40% in Accords. In contrast, forward collision warning was turned on in all but one of the observed vehicles. Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers.

  7. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  8. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with

  10. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the terrain awareness and warning system audio and visual warnings. (d) Exceptions. Paragraphs (a... after March 29, 2002. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a... minimum meets the requirements for Class B equipment in Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C151. (b) Airplanes...

  11. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal... in motor vehicles and used to warn approaching traffic of the presence of a stopped vehicle, except... the driver activate the vehicular hazard warning signal lamps before leaving the vehicle to erect the...

  12. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of warning system apparatus. 234.211... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.211 Security of warning system apparatus...

  13. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  14. An exploration of public knowledge of warning signs for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; Fleming, Paul; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Warning signs of cancer have long been used as an effective way to summarise and communicate early indications of cancer to the public. Given the increasing global burden of cancer, the communication of these warning signs to the public is more important than ever before. This paper presents part of a larger study which explored the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of people in mid-life towards cancer prevention. The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the knowledge of members of the public aged between 35 and 54 years of age. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of the population listing 17 warning signs of cancer. These included the correct warning signs and distracter signs. Respondents were asked to correctly identify the seven warning signs. Findings show that respondents could identify 4.8 cancer warning signs correctly. Analysis by demographics shows that being female, being older, having a higher level of educational attainment and being in a higher socio-economic group are predictors of better level of knowledge of cancer warning signs. Recommendations are proffered with regard to better targeting, clarification and communication of cancer warning signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. & Oei, H.-L.

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines a method of evaluating a 'local queue warning system', in principle intended only to warn drivers of unexpected congestion at known discontinuities of the road geomctry (bottleneck) and give them advisory speed indications. A prerequisite for installing this system is therefore

  16. 30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks, except...

  17. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  18. Warning Signs for Suicide: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, M. David; Berman, Alan L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Nock, Matthew K.; Silverman, Morton M.; Mandrusiak, Michael; Van Orden, Kimberly; Witte, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The current article addresses the issue of warning signs for suicide, attempting to differentiate the construct from risk factors. In accordance with the characteristic features discussed, a consensus set of warning signs identified by the American Association of Suicidology working group are presented, along with a discussion of relevant clinical…

  19. The investigation of early warning signs of aggression in forensic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Fluttert; prof Berno van Meijel; Mieke Grypdonck; Bjørkly Stal; Mirjan van Leeuwen

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as

  20. The Mental Health Counselor and "Duty to Warn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)

  1. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  2. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  3. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  5. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early warning of climate tipping points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2011-07-01

    A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

  7. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  8. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  9. Reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards: Concept and application to debris flow warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are increasingly applied to mitigate the risks posed by natural hazards. To compare the effect of EWS with alternative risk reduction measures and to optimize their design and operation, their reliability and effectiveness must be quantified. In the present contribution, a framework approach to the evaluation of threshold-based EWS for natural hazards is presented. The system reliability is classically represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and Probability of False Alarms (PFA). We demonstrate how the EWS effectiveness, which is a measure of risk reduction, can be formulated as a function of POD and PFA. To model the EWS and compute the reliability, we develop a framework based on Bayesian Networks, which is further extended to a decision graph, facilitating the optimization of the warning system. In a case study, the framework is applied to the assessment of an existing debris flow EWS. The application demonstrates the potential of the framework for identifying the important factors influencing the effectiveness of the EWS and determining optimal warning strategies and system configurations. - Highlights: • Warning systems are increasingly applied measures to reduce natural hazard risks. • Bayesian Networks (BN) are powerful tools to quantify warning system's reliability. • The effectiveness is defined to assess the optimality of warning systems. • By extending BNs to decision graphs, the optimal warning strategy is identified. • Sensors positioning significantly influence the effectiveness of warning systems

  10. Factual text and emotional pictures: overcoming a false dichotomy of cigarette warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Owusu, Daniel; Jenson, Desmond; Neilands, Torsten B

    2017-04-20

    In reviewing the first set of pictorial warning labels in the USA, the courts equated textual labels with facts and information, and images with emotion. This study tested the differences in perceived informativeness and emotion between textual and pictorial cigarette warning labels. An online study with 1838 US adults who were non-smokers (n=764), transitioning smokers (quit smoking in the past 2 years or currently trying to quit, n=505) or current smokers (n=569). Each participant evaluated 9 out of 81 text and pictorial cigarette warning labels. Participants reported to what extent they perceived the label as informative and factual and the negative emotions they felt while looking at each label. We used linear mixed models to account for the nesting of multiple observations within each participant. There were no significant differences in perceived informativeness between textual (mean 6.15 on a 9-point scale) and pictorial labels (6.14, p=0.80, Cohen's d=0.003). Textual labels evoked slightly less emotion (4.21 on a 9-point scale) than pictorial labels (4.42, pemotion were strongly correlated (Pearson r=0.53, pemotional and not factual. Pictorial labels are rated as informative and factual, textual labels evoke emotion, and emotionality and informativeness are strongly correlated. These findings serve as evidence for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to counteract the claim that pictorial warning labels, by definition, are not 'purely factual and uncontroversial'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Addiction, adolescence, and innate immune gene induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton T Crews

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated drug use/abuse amplifies psychopathology, progressively reducing frontal lobe behavioral control and cognitive flexibility while simultaneously increasing limbic temporal lobe negative emotionality. The period of adolescence is a neurodevelopmental stage characterized by poor behavioral control as well as strong limbic reward and thrill seeking. Repeated drug abuse and/or stress during this stage increase the risk of addiction and elevate activator innate immune signaling in the brain. Nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB is a key glial transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, oxidases, proteases, and other innate immune genes. Induction of innate brain immune gene expression (e.g., NF-κB facilitates negative affect, depression-like behaviors, and inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, innate immune gene induction alters cortical neurotransmission consistent with loss of behavioral control. Studies with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressant drugs as well as opiate antagonists link persistent innate immune gene expression to key behavioral components of addiction, e.g. negative affect-anxiety and loss of frontal cortical behavioral control. This review suggests that persistent and progressive changes in innate immune gene expression contribute to the development of addiction. Innate immune genes may represent a novel new target for addiction therapy.

  12. Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgin, Halil; Liu, Zhichao; Kelly, Reagan; Fang, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Tong, Weida

    2012-01-01

    Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In

  13. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug... amending the animal drug regulations to remove a warning for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot and to... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice...

  14. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  16. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  17. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  18. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  19. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  20. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  1. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs.

  2. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  3. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  4. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  5. Design of vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    This paper mainly designs a low cost, high-accuracy, micro-miniaturization, and digital display and acousto-optic alarm features of the vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system that based on MCU AT89C51. The vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system includes forward anti-collision warning system, auto parking systems and reversing anti-collision radar system. It mainly develops on the basis of ultrasonic distance measurement, its performance is reliable, thus the driving safety is greatly improved and the parking security and efficiency enhance enormously.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  7. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications ... of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, at the present time. The ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in ... AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their compromised immune system, people with AIDS often develop serious infections or cancers, and they frequently suffer ... Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ... AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  12. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...

  14. Smartphone MEMS accelerometers and earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The low cost MEMS accelerometers in the smartphones are attracting more and more attentions from the science community due to the vast number and potential applications in various areas. We are using the accelerometers inside the smartphones to detect the earthquakes. We did shake table tests to show these accelerometers are also suitable to record large shakings caused by earthquakes. We developed an android app - MyShake, which can even distinguish earthquake movements from daily human activities from the recordings recorded by the accelerometers in personal smartphones and upload trigger information/waveform to our server for further analysis. The data from these smartphones forms a unique datasets for seismological applications, such as earthquake early warning. In this talk I will layout the method we used to recognize earthquake-like movement from single smartphone, and the overview of the whole system that harness the information from a network of smartphones for rapid earthquake detection. This type of system can be easily deployed and scaled up around the global and provides additional insights of the earthquake hazards.

  15. Early warnings of heart rate deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Vania G; Nabney, Ian T

    2016-08-01

    Hospitals can experience difficulty in detecting and responding to early signs of patient deterioration leading to late intensive care referrals, excess mortality and morbidity, and increased hospital costs. Our study aims to explore potential indicators of physiological deterioration by the analysis of vital-signs. The dataset used comprises heart rate (HR) measurements from MIMIC II waveform database, taken from six patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and diagnosed with severe sepsis. Different indicators were considered: 1) generic early warning indicators used in ecosystems analysis (autocorrelation at-1-lag (ACF1), standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis and heteroskedasticity) and 2) entropy analysis (kernel entropy and multi scale entropy). Our preliminary findings suggest that when a critical transition is approaching, the equilibrium state changes what is visible in the ACF1 and SD values, but also by the analysis of the entropy. Entropy allows to characterize the complexity of the time series during the hospital stay and can be used as an indicator of regime shifts in a patient's condition. One of the main problems is its dependency of the scale used. Our results demonstrate that different entropy scales should be used depending of the level of entropy verified.

  16. Flood forecasting and warning systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Awan, Shaukat

    2004-01-01

    Meteorologically, there are two situations which may cause three types of floods in Indus Basin in Pakistan: i) Meteorological Situation for Category-I Floods when the seasonal low is a semi permanent weather system situated over south eastern Balochistan, south western Punjab, adjoining parts of Sindh get intensified and causes the moisture from the Arabian Sea to be brought up to upper catchments of Chenab and Jhelum rivers. (ii) Meteorological Situation for Category-11 and Category-111 Floods, which is linked with monsoon low/depression. Such monsoon systems originate in Bay of Bengal region and then move across India in general west/north westerly direction arrive over Rajasthan or any of adjoining states of India. Flood management in Pakistan is multi-functional process involving a number of different organizations. The first step in the process is issuance of flood forecast/warning, which is performed by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) utilizing satellite cloud pictures and quantitative precipitation measurement radar data, in addition to the conventional weather forecasting facilities. For quantitative flood forecasting, hydrological data is obtained through the Provincial Irrigation Department and WAPDA. Furthermore, improved rainfall/runoff and flood routing models have been developed to provide more reliable and explicit flood information to a flood prone population.(Author)

  17. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help Changes in physical and cognitive abilities that may ... and their family members, friends, and caregivers. To help in determining when an older adult may need ...

  19. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  20. The Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System of Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hardware design, the development of the software and the use of the Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (TEWERMS) of Cyprus. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs.

  1. Test of thermal shields for early warning station detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The properties of thermal shields around NaI crystal scintillators for early warning stations have been checked in order to assure that external temperature variations cannot influence the stability of the measurements....

  2. Report on dynamic speed harmonization and queue warning algorithm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the algorithms that will be used to generate harmonized recommended speeds : and queue warning information in the proposed Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) prototype. This document : describ...

  3. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  4. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PICTORICAL WARNING PADA KEMASAN ROKOK: KOMUNIKASI PERSUASIF DALAM KAMPANYE KESEHATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sherly Hindra Negoro

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has became the serious problem which always to be the classical dynamic of health communication’s field. Through health campaign by using pictorical warning in cigarette packs, Indonesian Government has priority to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia. Pictorical warning in cigarette packs was regard as one of communication strategic for implementing. Health campaign has outcome that could change the health behavior for the persuadee. Visualization by using image b...

  7. Hepatitis B reactivation and rituximab: a new boxed warning and considerations for solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S T; Cardwell, S M; Nailor, M D; Gabardi, S

    2014-04-01

    Use of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 antigen, continues to increase in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for several off-label uses. In September 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Drug Safety Communication to oncology, rheumatology and pharmacy communities outlining a new Boxed Warning for rituximab. Citing 109 cases of fatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in persons receiving rituximab therapy with previous or chronic HBV infection documented in their Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), the FDA recommends screening for HBV serologies in all patients planned to receive rituximab and antiviral prophylaxis in any patient with a positive history of HBV infection. There is a lack of data pertaining to this topic in the SOT population despite an increase in off-label indications. Previous reports suggest patients receiving rituximab, on average, were administered six doses prior to HBV reactivation. Recommendations on prophylaxis, treatment and re-challenging patients with therapy after resolution of reactivation remain unclear. Based on data from the FDA AERS and multiple analyses in oncology, SOT providers utilizing rituximab should adhere to the FDA warnings and recommendations regarding HBV reactivation until further data are available in the SOT population. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  9. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  10. 63 Years and 715 Days to the "Boxed Warning": Unmasking of the Propylthiouracil Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivkees ScottA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available 715 days after potential problems related to PTU use in children were presented in a debate in front of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a "black-box" warning about the hepatotoxicity risk of the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU. This safety advisory followed the collective actions of academic societies, medical publishers, the National Institutes of Health, and the FDA. Considering that surgery and radioactive iodine are the legitimate treatment options for Grave Disease (GD, and are now the preferred alternative therapy in individuals who developed toxic reactions to MMI, the use of PTU should now be limited to exceptional circumstances and pregnancy. Long-term PTU therapy, especially in children, is not justifiable. The current advisory comes 63 years after the introduction of PTU for clinical use in 1947.

  11. Improving the effectiveness of nighttime temporary traffic control warning devices, volume 2 : evaluation of nighttime mobile warning lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Vehicle-mounted warning lights for nighttime mobile highway operations provide critical protection to workers and the driving : public. Alerting the traveling public of the approaching work activity and providing guidance is vital to maintaining safe...

  12. Comparative analysis of three drug-drug interaction screening systems against probable clinically relevant drug-drug interactions: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhič, Neža; Mrhar, Ales; Brvar, Miran

    2017-07-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening systems report potential DDIs. This study aimed to find the prevalence of probable DDI-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and compare the clinical usefulness of different DDI screening systems to prevent or warn against these ADRs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients urgently admitted to medical departments. Potential DDIs were checked using Complete Drug Interaction®, Lexicomp® Online™, and Drug Interaction Checker®. The study team identified the patients with probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs on admission, the causality of which was assessed using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening systems to prevent or warn against probable DDI-related ADRs were evaluated. Overall, 50 probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs were found in 37 out of 795 included patients taking at least two drugs, most common of them were bleeding, hyperkalemia, digitalis toxicity, and hypotension. Complete Drug Interaction showed the best sensitivity (0.76) for actual DDI-related ADRs, followed by Lexicomp Online (0.50), and Drug Interaction Checker (0.40). Complete Drug Interaction and Drug Interaction Checker had positive predictive values of 0.07; Lexicomp Online had 0.04. We found no difference in specificity and negative predictive values among these systems. DDI screening systems differ significantly in their ability to detect probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value.

  13. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, an...

  14. Virus genetic variations and evade from immune system, the present influenza challenges: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shahsavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The spread of influenza viruses in multiple bird and mammalian species is a worldwide serious threat to human and animal populations' health and raise major concern for ongoing pandemic in humans. Direct transmission of the avian viruses which have sialic acid specific receptors similar to human influenza viruses are a warning to the emergence of a new mutant strain that is likely to share molecular determinants to facilitate their replication in human host. So the emerge virus can be transmitted easily through person to person. The genetic variations of the influenza viruses, emerge and re-emerge of new antigenic variants, and transmission of avian influenza viruses to human may raise wide threat to public health and control of pandemic influenza. Vaccination, chemoprophylaxis with specific antiviral drugs, and personal protective non-pharmacological measures are tools to treat influenza virus infection. The emergence of drug resistant strains of influenza viruses under drug selective pressure and their limited efficacy in severe cases of influenza infections highlight the need to development of new therapies with alternative modes. In recent years several studies have been progressed to introduce components to be act at different stages of the viral life cycle with broad spectrum reactivity against mammalian and bird influenza subtypes. A wide variety of different antiviral strategies include inhibition of virus entry, blocking of viral replication or targeting of cellular signaling pathways have been explored. The current inactivated influenza vaccines are eliciting only B-cell responses. Application of the vaccines has been limited due to the emergence of the new virus antigenic variants. In recent decade development of gene vaccines by targeting various influenza virus proteins have been interested because significant potential for induction of both humoral and cell mediated immunity responses. Enhanced and directed immune responses to

  15. Augmented reality warnings in vehicles: Effects of modality and specificity on effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Felix; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information. Part one of the study concentrates on the effectiveness of necessary warnings and part two on the drivers' compliance despite false alarms. For the first warning scenario, we found several positive main effects of specificity. However, subsequent effects of specificity were moderated by the modality of the warnings. The specific visual warnings were observed to have advantages over the three other warning designs concerning gaze and braking reaction times, passing speeds and collision rates. Besides the true alarms, braking reaction times as well as subjective evaluation after these warnings were still improved despite false alarms. The specific auditory warnings were revealed to have only a few advantages, but also several disadvantages. The results further indicate that the exact coding of additional information, beyond its mere amount and modality, plays an important role. Moreover, the observed advantages of the specific visual warnings highlight the potential benefit of augmented reality coding to improve future collision warnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour and subsequent reduction in acetaminophen-related morbidity and mortality. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Biological anti-TNF drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mônica Simon; Bendtzen, Klaus; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    practice shows a significant percentage of individuals who do not exhibit the desired response. Loss of therapeutic benefit after initial successful response is designated secondary failure. Immune-biological agents are not self-antigens and are therefore potentially immunogenic. Secondary failure...... is frequently caused by antibodies against immune-biologicals, known as anti-drug antibodies (ADA). ADA that neutralize circulating immune-biologicals and/or promote their clearance can reduce treatment efficacy. Furthermore, ADA can induce adverse events by diverse immunological mechanisms. This review...... provides a comprehensive overview of ADA in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF immune-biologicals, and explores the concept of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as an effective strategy to improve therapeutic management. Expert opinion: Monitoring circulating ADA and therapeutic immune-biological...

  18. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  19. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. The :most dangerous but least co:m:mon for:m of drug allergy is .... immune response, and allergic reaction occur in only ... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... requires cross-linking of the high-affinity specific IgE Fc.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used ...

  3. Human Precision-Cut Liver Slices as an ex Vivo Model to Study Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Westra, Inge M.; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Dragovic, Sanja; Merema, M.T.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a major problem during drug development and has caused drug withdrawal and black-box warnings. Because of the low concordance of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in animals and humans, robust screening methods using human tissue are needed to predict

  4. Human precision-cut liver slices as an ex vivo model to study idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Westra, Inge; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Dragovic, Sanja; Merema, Maja; Groothuis, Genoveva

    2013-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a major problem during drug development and has caused drug withdrawal and black-box warnings. Due to the low concordance of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in animals and humans, robust screening methods using human tissue are needed to predict and to

  5. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  6. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future

  7. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7

  8. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  9. The Financial Benefit of Early Flood Warnings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Parker, Dennis J.; Richardson, David; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Effective disaster risk management relies on science based solutions to close the gap between prevention and preparedness measures. The outcome of consultations on the UNIDSR post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction highlight the need for cross-border early warning systems to strengthen the preparedness phases of disaster risk management in order to save people's lives and property and reduce the overall impact of severe events. In particular, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems provide vital information to various decision makers with which early warnings of floods can be made. Here the potential monetary benefits of early flood warnings using the example of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) are calculated based on pan-European Flood damage data and calculations of potential flood damage reductions. The benefits are of the order of 400 Euro for every 1 Euro invested. Because of the uncertainties which accompany the calculation, a large sensitivity analysis is performed in order to develop an envelope of possible financial benefits. Current EFAS system skill is compared against perfect forecasts to demonstrate the importance of further improving the skill of the forecasts. Improving the response to warnings is also essential in reaping the benefits of flood early warnings.

  10. Time-to-impact estimation in passive missile warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan

    2017-05-01

    A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.

  11. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  12. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  13. Imbalanced immune homeostasis in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during treatment for malignant Iymphoproliferative diseases are described in 5 patients. There appeared to be a temporal relationship between the development of these complications and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs or extensive radiotherapy.

  15. New Players in Immunity to Tuberculosis: The Host Microbiome, Lung Epithelium, and Innate Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections. However, little is known about its role in the eventual outcome of the mycobacterial infection. In this review, we highlight the changes in microbial composition in the respiratory tract and gut that have been linked to the alteration of immune responses, and to the risk, prevention, and treatment of TB. In addition, we summarize our current understanding of alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune system, and their interaction with Mtb during early infection. Extensive studies are warranted to fully understand the all-inclusive role of the lung microbiota, its interaction with epithelium and innate immune responses and resulting adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis and/or protection from Mtb infection. Novel interventions aimed at influencing the microbiota, the alveolar immune system and innate immunity will shape future strategies of prevention and treatment for TB. PMID:29692778

  16. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  17. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  18. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  19. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  1. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  2. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  3. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  4. Early warning signal for interior crises in excitable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, Rajat; Kantz, Holger; Bialonski, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The ability to reliably predict critical transitions in dynamical systems is a long-standing goal of diverse scientific communities. Previous work focused on early warning signals related to local bifurcations (critical slowing down) and nonbifurcation-type transitions. We extend this toolbox and report on a characteristic scaling behavior (critical attractor growth) which is indicative of an impending global bifurcation, an interior crisis in excitable systems. We demonstrate our early warning signal in a conceptual climate model as well as in a model of coupled neurons known to exhibit extreme events. We observed critical attractor growth prior to interior crises of chaotic as well as strange-nonchaotic attractors. These observations promise to extend the classes of transitions that can be predicted via early warning signals.

  5. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  6. Antecedents of Interview faking: Honesty-Humility and Warning instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Law

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e. interview faking. Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behaviour, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviours. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions.

  7. Warnings to Counter Choice Blindness for Identification Decisions: Warnings Offer an Advantage in Time but Not in Rate of Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Choice blindness for identification decisions refers to the inability of eyewitnesses to detect that an originally recognized target was swapped for a non-identified lineup member. The robustness of the effect calls for measures that can prevent or reduce the negative consequences of choice blindness manipulations. Here, we investigated whether pre- and post-warnings given to participants about the possibility of mistakes reduces choice blindness for identification decisions. Participants (N = 119 were presented with identifications they never made and were asked to justify those decisions. Either before or after the presentation of the manipulated identification outcome, participants were or were not warned about the possibility of mistakes in the identification process. Although warnings were not sufficient to reduce choice blindness for identification decisions they provided a time-related detection advantage. Pre-warned participants questioned the legitimacy of the manipulated outcome sooner (i.e., concurrent detection than participants in other conditions. Hence, pre-warnings can help detect mistakes in the identification procedure at an earlier stage, before they contaminate the memory of the witness and other pieces of evidence. From a theoretical stance, our findings attest to the strength of self-suggestion and indicate that choice blindness effects are deeply rooted in cognition.

  8. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  9. Weather warnings predict fall-related injuries among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondor, Luke; Charland, Katia; Verma, Aman; Buckeridge, David L

    2015-05-01

    weather predictions are a useful tool for informing public health planning and prevention strategies for non-injury health outcomes, but the association between winter weather warnings and fall-related injuries has not been assessed previously. to examine the association between fall-related injuries among older adults and government-issued winter weather warnings. using a dynamic cohort of individuals ≥65 years of age who lived in Montreal between 1998 and 2006, we identified all fall-related injuries from administrative data using a validated set of diagnostic and procedure codes. We compared rates of injuries on days with freezing rain or snowstorm warnings to rates observed on days without warnings. We also compared the incidence of injuries on winter days to non-winter days. All analyses were performed overall and stratified by age and sex. freezing rain alerts were associated with an increase in fall-related injuries (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.32), particularly among males (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56), and lower rates of injuries were associated with snowstorm alerts (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99). The rate of fall-related injuries did not differ seasonally (IRR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). official weather warnings are predictive of increases in fall-related injuries among older adults. Public health agencies should consider using these warnings to trigger initiation of injury prevention strategies in advance of inclement weather. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  11. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  12. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  13. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  14. Health warnings promote healthier dietary decision making: Effects of positive versus negative message framing and graphic versus text-based warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Bode, Stefan; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-08-01

    Food product health warnings have been proposed as a potential obesity prevention strategy. This study examined the effects of text-only and text-and-graphic, negatively and positively framed health warnings on dietary choice behavior. In a 2 × 5 mixed experimental design, 96 participants completed a dietary self-control task. After providing health and taste ratings of snack foods, participants completed a baseline measure of dietary self-control, operationalized as participants' frequency of choosing healthy but not tasty items and rejecting unhealthy yet tasty items to consume at the end of the experiment. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of five health warning groups and presented with 10 health warnings of a given form: text-based, negative framing; graphic, negative framing; text, positive framing; graphic, positive framing; or a no warning control. Participants then completed a second dietary decision making session to determine whether health warnings influenced dietary self-control. Linear mixed effects modeling revealed a significant interaction between health warning group and decision stage (pre- and post-health warning presentation) on dietary self-control. Negatively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than other health warnings. Negatively framed text health warnings and positively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than positively framed text health warnings and control images, which did not increase dietary self-control. Overall, HWs primed healthier dietary decision making behavior, with negatively framed graphic HWs being most effective. Health warnings have potential to become an important element of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) adaption in National Early Warning Alerting Systems of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In China, from local communities to entire nations, there was a patchwork of specialized hazard public alerting systems. And each system was often designed just for certain emergency situations and for certain communications media. Application took place in the NEWAS (National Early Warning Alerting Systems) [2]project where CAP serves as central message to integrate all kind of hazard situations, including the natural calamity, accident disaster, public health emergency , social safety etc. Officially operated on May 2015, NEWAS now has completed docking work with 14 departments including civil administration, safety supervision, forestry, land, water conservancy, earthquake, traffic, meteorology, agriculture, tourism, food and drug supervision, public security and oceanic administration. Thus, several items in CAP has been modified, redefined and extended according to the various grading standards and publishing strategies, as well as the characteristics of Chinese Geocoding. NEWAS successfully delivers information to end users through 4 levels (i.e. State, province, prefecture and county) structure and by various means. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] http://www.12379.cn/

  16. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  17. Forecasting and Warning of Tropical Cyclones in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangzhong Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the global economy, the impact of tropical cyclones has become far-reaching. Thus they are a fundamental issue to be addressed both nationally and globally. The socio-economic impact is particularly noticeable in developing countries, especially China. This paper begins with the effects of cyclones on regional and global economies. Then a brief introduction to the past and current situations and progress in cyclones forecasting and warning in China are presented. Finally the paper gives recommendations about improving and perfecting the tropical cyclone forecasting and warning systems.

  18. Application of τc*Pd in earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Lun; Lin, Ting-Li; Wu, Yih-Min

    2015-03-01

    Rapid assessment of damage potential and size of an earthquake at the station is highly demanded for onsite earthquake early warning. We study the application of τc*Pd for its estimation on the earthquake size using 123 events recorded by the borehole stations of KiK-net in Japan. The new type of earthquake size determined by τc*Pd is more related to the damage potential. We find that τc*Pd provides another parameter to measure the size of earthquake and the threshold to warn strong ground motion.

  19. PICTORICAL WARNING PADA KEMASAN ROKOK: KOMUNIKASI PERSUASIF DALAM KAMPANYE KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Hindra Negoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has became the serious problem which always to be the classical dynamic of health communication’s field. Through health campaign by using pictorical warning in cigarette packs, Indonesian Government has priority to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia. Pictorical warning in cigarette packs was regard as one of communication strategic for implementing. Health campaign has outcome that could change the health behavior for the persuadee. Visualization by using image becomes persuasive communication tools cigarette packs as the communication media. EPPM model was used to analysis this case. This paper was using literature study to understand this problem.

  20. A Possible Method for Warning of House Price Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Yanxiang Gu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas that had the most house price inflation between 1998 and 2006 and the highest price to income ratios are characterized by strong income growth and high population density. Areas with the highest price to income ratios in 2006 and lowest population density suffered the largest percentage price declines after the bubble burst. An equation is established for estimating warning level against house price bubble, and the estimated warning could leave 19 percent room and more than two years of time for action.

  1. Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadjanyan Michael G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.

  2. Rational drug design paradigms: the odyssey for designing better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellici, Tahsin; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vrontaki, Eleni; Liapakis, George; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Tzakos, Andreas G; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Bryant, Sharon; Langer, Thierry; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the time and effort requirements for the development of a new drug, and the high attrition rates associated with this developmental process, there is an intense effort by academic and industrial researchers to find novel ways for more effective drug development schemes. The first step in the discovery process of a new drug is the identification of the lead compound. The modern research tendency is to avoid the synthesis of new molecules based on chemical intuition, which is time and cost consuming, and instead to apply in silico rational drug design. This approach reduces the consumables and human personnel involved in the initial steps of the drug design. In this review real examples from our research activity aiming to discover new leads will be given for various dire warnings diseases. There is no recipe to follow for discovering new leads. The strategy to be followed depends on the knowledge of the studied system and the experience of the researchers. The described examples constitute successful and unsuccessful efforts and reflect the reality which medicinal chemists have to face in drug design and development. The drug stability is also discussed in both organic molecules and metallotherapeutics. This is an important issue in drug discovery as drug metabolism in the body can lead to various toxic and undesired molecules.

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  4. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  5. [Combination drug therapy in leprosy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terencio de las Aguas, J

    1983-01-01

    The importance of polichemotherapy in multibacilar leprosy (LL and LD) in patients without any previous therapy as in those diagnosticated and under monotherapy most of all in the resistance patients is presented. Sulphones, clofazimine and rifampicine are selected as first rate drugs and protionamide-etionamide as second rate drugs. The therapy plans with the association of two and three drugs and the convenience of continuing indefinitely with at least one of the drugs are presented insisting on the advantages of the clofazimine-sulphones and rifampicine-sulphones associations. The necessity of immunotherapy for recover of celular immunity against the bacilus, is the only form of preventing relapses and drug resistance.

  6. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System) for Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella; Gueli, Roberto; Basile, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System), specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF). The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA) model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall-streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall-runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall-runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015) have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002-2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall threshold models to produce

  7. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  8. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  10. Using warnings to reduce categorical false memories in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Anna M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    Warnings about memory errors can reduce their incidence, although past work has largely focused on associative memory errors. The current study sought to explore whether warnings could be tailored to specifically reduce false recall of categorical information in both younger and older populations. Before encoding word pairs designed to induce categorical false memories, half of the younger and older participants were warned to avoid committing these types of memory errors. Older adults who received a warning committed fewer categorical memory errors, as well as other types of semantic memory errors, than those who did not receive a warning. In contrast, young adults' memory errors did not differ for the warning versus no-warning groups. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of warnings at reducing categorical memory errors in older adults, perhaps by supporting source monitoring, reduction in reliance on gist traces, or through effective metacognitive strategies.

  11. 49 CFR 234.205 - Operating characteristics of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating characteristics of warning system... characteristics of warning system apparatus. Operating characteristics of electromagnetic, electronic, or... limits within which the system is designed to operate. ...

  12. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Flash floods warning technique based on wireless communication networks data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas; Messer, Hagit

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods can occur throughout or subsequent to rainfall events, particularly in cases where the precipitation is of high-intensity. Unfortunately, each year these floods cause severe property damage and heavy casualties. At present, there are no sufficient real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope with this phenomenon. Here we show the tremendous potential of flash floods advanced warning based on precipitation measurements of commercial microwave links. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. We present the flash flood warning potential of the wireless communication system for two different cases when floods occurred at the Judean desert and at the northern Negev in Israel. In both cases, an advanced warning regarding the hazard could have been announced based on this system. • This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08). This work was also supported by a grant from the Yeshaya Horowitz Association, Jerusalem. Additional support was given by the PROCEMA-BMBF project and by the GLOWA-JR BMBF project.

  14. Low-cost warning device industry assessment : research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Virtually all of the grade crossing train detection and warning systems in the United States use a variant of the track circuit technology developed over a century ago. Track circuits have evolved through the years, but the design and principles of o...

  15. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  16. Flood early warning system : Design, implementation and computational modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Shirshov, G.S.; Melnikova, N.B.; Belleman, R.G.; Rusadi, F.I.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Gouldby, B.P.; Lhomme, J.; Balis, B.; Bubak, M.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Ozhigin, A.V.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a prototype of the flood early warning system (EWS) developed within the UrbanFlood FP7 project. The system monitors sensor networks installed in flood defenses (dikes, dams, embankments, etc.), detects sensor signal abnormalities, calculates dike failure probability, and simulates

  17. Sensitivity to selected contaminants in a biological early warning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several early warning systems for the monitoring of water quality are based on the assessment of valve opening/closing in bivalves. Tests were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the mussel Anodonta woodiana, installed on the Mosselmonitor, to seven contaminants and evaluate the usefulness of these sensors for ...

  18. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-08

    Feb 8, 2016 ... 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ... early warning scoring system (EWS) was defined by Morgan et al. on .... method in identifying the risky patients, since there are.

  19. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  20. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  1. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  2. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  3. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  4. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  5. Do Simple Warning Signs Enhance the Use of Stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of stairways/moving stairways in shopping malls and examine the extent to which simple warning signs determined whether people took the stairs. Design: Large posters that could readily be seen by mall visitors were situated between the stairs and moving stairways in shopping malls.…

  6. Software for ASS-500 based early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, P.; Isajenko, K.

    1998-01-01

    The article describes the software for the management of early warning system based on ASS-500 station. The software can communicate with the central computer using TCP/IP protocol. This allows remote control of the station through modem or local area network connection. The article describes Windows based user interface of the program

  7. Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services] Sources: Adapted from Maslow , 1943; Butts as reported by Damonte, 2006 8  Research...how positions of competing interests will evolve. Synthesizes political science, microeconomics, game theory , decision theory , and spatial...explanation of why outcomes occur (actor motivations ) Senturion Software 19 Integrated Crisis Early Warning System (ICEWS)  Developed By DARPA

  8. Warning citizens; influencing self-reliance in emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the response to an emergency is making sure that people are able to take themselves and others to a place of safety. To make people aware that there is an emergency, there are three steps that have to be taken: there has to be a warning that something is going on, people have to

  9. For easy sleep along the shore: Making hazard warnings more ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... For easy sleep along the shore: Making hazard warnings more effective ... to alert the public; local leaders trained to make the right decisions; .... and the sirens sound, its people will have the motivation and the capacity to act?

  10. Early Warning Signals of Ecological Transitions: Methods for Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, William A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Livina, Valerie N.; Seekell, David A.; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Dakos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies show that changes in spatial characteristics of the system could provide early warnings of approaching transitions. However, the empirical validation of these indicators lag behind their theoretical developments. Here, we summarize a range of currently available spatial early warning signals, suggest potential null models to interpret their trends, and apply them to three simulated spatial data sets of systems undergoing an abrupt transition. In addition to providing a step-by-step methodology for applying these signals to spatial data sets, we propose a statistical toolbox that may be used to help detect approaching transitions in a wide range of spatial data. We hope that our methodology together with the computer codes will stimulate the application and testing of spatial early warning signals on real spatial data. PMID:24658137

  11. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  12. Signal Processing Methods for Flood Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.P.; Kusherbaeva, V.T.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Meijer, R.J.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nasermoaddeli, M.H.; Liong, S.Y.; Savic, D.; Fröhle, P.; Daemrich, K.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present in a data-driven approach for detection of anomalies in earthen dam (dike) behaviour that can indicate the onset of flood defence structure failure. This approach is implemented in the UrbanFlood early warning system's Artificial Intelligence component that processes dike measurements in

  13. Duty-to-Warn Guidelines for Mental Health Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luann; Altekruse, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes legal cases in which duty-to-warn was an issue. Suggests that guidelines for counselors are few and lack definition. Offers a model to guide counselors in making clinical judgments in cases and case examples to exemplify possible ethical dilemmas in the practice of counseling. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  14. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 2, Field test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....

  15. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  16. A search for applications of Fiber Optics in early warning systems for natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenker, Koen; Bogaard, Thom

    2013-04-01

    In order to reduce the societal risk associated with natural hazards novel technologies could help to advance in early warning systems. In our study we evaluate the use of multi-sensor technologies as possible early-warning systems for landslides and man-made structures, and the integration of the information in a simple Decision Support System (DSS). In this project, particular attention will be paid to some new possibilities available in the field of distributed monitoring systems of relevant parameters for landslide and man-made structures monitoring (such as large dams and bridges), and among them the distributed monitoring of temperature, strain and acoustic signals by FO cables. Fiber Optic measurements are becoming more and more popular. Fiber optic cables have been developed in the telecommunication business to send large amounts of information over large distances with the speed of light. Because of the commercial application, production costs are relatively low. Using fiber optics for measurements has several advantages. This novel technology is, for instance, immune to electromagnetic interference, appears stable, very accurate, and has the potential to measure several independent physical properties in a distributed manner. The high resolution spatial and temporal distributed information on e.g. temperature or strain (or both) make fiber optics an interesting measurement technique. Several applications have been developed in both engineering as science and the possibilities seem numerous. We will present a thorough literature review that was done to assess the applicability and limitations of FO cable technology. This review was focused but not limited to application in landslide research. Several examples of current practices will be shown, also from outside the natural hazard practice and possible application will be discussed.

  17. Local Tsunami Warnings using GNSS and Seismic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami warning Centers (TWC's) must issue warnings based on imperfect and limited data. Uncertainties increase in the near field, where a tsunami reaches the closest coastal populations to the causative earthquake in a half hour or less. In the absence of a warning, the usual advice is "When the ground shakes so severely that it's difficult to stand, move uphill and away from the coast." But, what if the shaking is not severe? If, for example, the earthquake ruptures slowly (producing very little perceived shaking) this advice will fail. Unfortunately these "Tsunami" earthquakes are not rare: tsunamis from slow earthquakes off of Nicaragua in 1992, and Java in 1994 and 2006, killed 179, 250 and 637 people, respectively, even though very few nearby coastal residents felt any strong ground shaking. TWC's must therefore warn the closest coastal populations to the causative earthquake, where over 80% of the Tsunami based casualties typically occur, as soon possible after earthquake rupture begins. The NWS Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) currently issue local Tsunami Warnings for the US West Coast, Hawaii, and the Puerto Rico - Virgin Island region within 2-4 minutes after origin time. However, our initial short period Magnitude estimates saturate over about Mw 6.5, and Mwp underestimates Mw for events larger than about Mw 7.5 when using data in the 0 to 3 degree epicentral distance range, severely underestimating the danger of a potential Tsunami in the near field. Coastal GNSS networks complement seismic monitoring networks, and enable unsaturated estimates of Mw within 2-3 minutes of earthquake origin time. NASA/JPL, SIO, USGS, CWU, UCB and UW, with funding and guidance from NASA, and leveraging the USGS funded ShakeAlert development, have been working with the National Weather Service TWC's to incorporate real-time GNSS and seismogeodetic data into their operations. These data will soon provide unsaturated estimates of moment magnitude, Centroid Moment Tensor

  18. Role of Osmolytes in Regulating Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar

    2016-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host organism from diverse range of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. It is a complex network of cells, humoral factors, chemokines and cytokines. Dysregulation of immune system results in various kinds of immunological disorders. There are several external agents which govern the regulation of immune system. Recent studies have indicated the role of osmolytes in regulation of various immunological processes such as Ag-Ab interaction, Ig assembly, Ag presentation etc. In this present review, we have systematically discussed the role of osmolytes involved in regulation of several key immunological processes. Osmolytes are involved in the regulation of several key immunological processes such as immunoglobulin assembly and folding, immune cells proliferation, regulation of immune cells function, Ag-Ab interaction, antigen presentation, inflammatory response and protection against photo-immunosuppression. Hence, osmolytes and their transporters might be used as potential drug and drug targets respectively. This review is therefore designed to help clinicians in development of osmolyte based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various immunological disorders. Appropriate future perspectives have also been included.

  19. 49 CFR 214.329 - Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection § 214.329 Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts. Roadway workers in a roadway work group who foul any track outside of working limits shall be given warning of approaching trains by one... shall clearly signify to all recipients of the warning that a train or other on-track equipment is...

  20. Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaouie, Hala; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese youth. This was a cross-sectional study including school students (n=1412) aged 13-18 years recruited from 28 schools and university students (n=1217) aged 18-25 years recruited from 7 universities. A variety of warnings were adapted from other countries. In all, 4 warnings were tested among school students and 18 among university students. All pictorial warnings were considered more effective than the current text warning on message-related and impact-related variables, including intentions to quit or not to start smoking among school and university students. Selected examples related to the top-ranked pictorial warnings are: among male non-smoking school students, 81% agreed that the 'lung' warning had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking as compared to 57% for the current text warning (pnegative economic consequences of smoking, and to find that such a warning was effective among specific sociodemographic groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. A Test of the Effectiveness of a List of Suicide Warning Signs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Hollar, Daniel; Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Silverman, Morton M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect that reading a list of warning signs for suicide has on beliefs about suicide, including the belief that one can recognize a suicidal crisis. All participants read two sets of warning signs (with only the experimental group reading the suicide warning signs) and then answered questions concerning beliefs…

  2. 75 FR 26269 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Public Alert and Warning Program's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... system to alert and warn the American people in situations of war, terrorist attack, natural disaster, or... Order 13407, Public Alert and Warning System, by providing robust and survivable power generation, fuel... of interoperable public alert and warning systems, to identify technologies and standards that...

  3. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-01

    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  4. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  5. The pathway to earthquake early warning in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.; West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Development Team

    2013-05-01

    The development of earthquake early warning capabilities in the United States is now accelerating and expanding as the technical capability to provide warning is demonstrated and additional funding resources are making it possible to expand the current testing region to the entire west coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Over the course of the next two years we plan to build a prototype system that will provide a blueprint for a full public system in the US. California currently has a demonstrations warning system, ShakeAlert, that provides alerts to a group of test users from the public and private sector. These include biotech companies, technology companies, the entertainment industry, the transportation sector, and the emergency planning and response community. Most groups are currently in an evaluation mode, receiving the alerts and developing protocols for future response. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is the one group who has now implemented an automated response to the warning system. BART now stops trains when an earthquake of sufficient size is detected. Research and development also continues to develop improved early warning algorithms to better predict the distribution of shaking in large earthquakes when the finiteness of the source becomes important. The algorithms under development include the use of both seismic and GPS instrumentation and integration with existing point source algorithms. At the same time, initial testing and development of algorithms in and for the Pacific Northwest is underway. In this presentation we will review the current status of the systems, highlight the new research developments, and lay out a pathway to a full public system for the US west coast. The research and development described is ongoing at Caltech, UC Berkeley, University of Washington, ETH Zurich, Southern California Earthquake Center, and the US Geological Survey, and is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the US Geological

  6. The carcinogenic potential of tacrolimus ointment beyond immune suppression: a hypothesis creating case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jürgen C; Houben, Roland; Vetter, Claudia S; Bröcker, Eva B

    2006-01-11

    Since tacrolimus ointment was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis, it has been approved in more than 30 additional countries, including numerous European Union member nations. Moreover, in the current clinical routine the use of this drug is no longer restricted to the approved indication, but has been extended to a wide variety of inflammatory skin diseases including some with the potential of malignant transformation. So far, the side-effects reported from the topical use of tacrolimus have been relatively minor (e.g. burning, pruritus, erythema). Recently, however, the FDA reviewed the safety of topical tacrolimus, which resulted in a warning that the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Oral lichen planus (OLP) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old women in February 1999. After several ineffective local and systemic therapeutic measures an off-label treatment of this recalcitrant condition using Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was initiated in May 2002. After a few weeks of treatment most of the lesions ameliorated, with the exception of the plaques on the sides of the tongue. Nevertheless, the patient became free of symptoms which, however, reoccurred once tacrolimus was weaned, as a consequence treatment was maintained. In April 2005, the plaques on the left side of the tongue appeared increasingly compact and a biopsy specimen confirmed the suspected diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. The suspected causal relationship between topical use of tacrolimus and the development of a squamous cell carcinoma prompted us to test the notion that the carcinogenicity of tacrolimus may go beyond mere immune suppression. To this end, tacrolimus has been shown to have an impact on cancer signalling pathways such as the MAPK and the p53 pathway. In the given case, we were able to demonstrate that these pathways had also been altered subsequent to tacrolimus therapy.

  7. The carcinogenic potential of tacrolimus ointment beyond immune suppression: a hypothesis creating case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Claudia S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since tacrolimus ointment was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis, it has been approved in more than 30 additional countries, including numerous European Union member nations. Moreover, in the current clinical routine the use of this drug is no longer restricted to the approved indication, but has been extended to a wide variety of inflammatory skin diseases including some with the potential of malignant transformation. So far, the side-effects reported from the topical use of tacrolimus have been relatively minor (e.g. burning, pruritus, erythema. Recently, however, the FDA reviewed the safety of topical tacrolimus, which resulted in a warning that the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Case presentation Oral lichen planus (OLP was diagnosed in a 56-year-old women in February 1999. After several ineffective local and systemic therapeutic measures an off-label treatment of this recalcitrant condition using Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was initiated in May 2002. After a few weeks of treatment most of the lesions ameliorated, with the exception of the plaques on the sides of the tongue. Nevertheless, the patient became free of symptoms which, however, reoccurred once tacrolimus was weaned, as a consequence treatment was maintained. In April 2005, the plaques on the left side of the tongue appeared increasingly compact and a biopsy specimen confirmed the suspected diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The suspected causal relationship between topical use of tacrolimus and the development of a squamous cell carcinoma prompted us to test the notion that the carcinogenicity of tacrolimus may go beyond mere immune suppression. To this end, tacrolimus has been shown to have an impact on cancer signalling pathways such as the MAPK and the p53 pathway. In the given case, we were able to demonstrate that these

  8. The carcinogenic potential of tacrolimus ointment beyond immune suppression: a hypothesis creating case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Jürgen C; Houben, Roland; Vetter, Claudia S; Bröcker, Eva B

    2006-01-01

    Since tacrolimus ointment was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis, it has been approved in more than 30 additional countries, including numerous European Union member nations. Moreover, in the current clinical routine the use of this drug is no longer restricted to the approved indication, but has been extended to a wide variety of inflammatory skin diseases including some with the potential of malignant transformation. So far, the side-effects reported from the topical use of tacrolimus have been relatively minor (e.g. burning, pruritus, erythema). Recently, however, the FDA reviewed the safety of topical tacrolimus, which resulted in a warning that the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Oral lichen planus (OLP) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old women in February 1999. After several ineffective local and systemic therapeutic measures an off-label treatment of this recalcitrant condition using Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was initiated in May 2002. After a few weeks of treatment most of the lesions ameliorated, with the exception of the plaques on the sides of the tongue. Nevertheless, the patient became free of symptoms which, however, reoccurred once tacrolimus was weaned, as a consequence treatment was maintained. In April 2005, the plaques on the left side of the tongue appeared increasingly compact and a biopsy specimen confirmed the suspected diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. The suspected causal relationship between topical use of tacrolimus and the development of a squamous cell carcinoma prompted us to test the notion that the carcinogenicity of tacrolimus may go beyond mere immune suppression. To this end, tacrolimus has been shown to have an impact on cancer signalling pathways such as the MAPK and the p53 pathway. In the given case, we were able to demonstrate that these pathways had also been altered subsequent to tacrolimus therapy

  9. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  10. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  11. Pharmacological Aspects of Neuro-Immune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vadim V; Kudryashov, Nikita V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Barreto, George E; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2018-01-01

    The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organisms is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of adult brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. The changes that occur as a result of the influence of pharmacological agents at one of the systems should inevitably lead to the functional reorganization at another. Integrative mechanisms underlying the neuro-immune interactions may explain the "pleiotropic" pharmacological effects of some antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. Amantadine, which was originally considered as an antiviral agent, was approved as anti-parkinsonic drug after its wide medical use. The prolonged administration of interferon alpha caused depression in 30-45% of patients, thus limiting its clinical use. The antiviral drug "Oseltamivir" may provoke the development of central side effects, including abnormal behavior, delirium, impaired perception and suicides. Anti-herpethetical drug "Panavir" shows pronounced neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experimental and clinical data related to central effects of drugs with antiviral or/and immunotropic activity, and to discover the relationship of these effects with changes in reactivity of immune system and proinflammatory response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Antidepressant drugs and the risk of suicide in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacsson, Göran; Rich, Charles L

    2014-04-01

    Government agencies have issued warnings about the use of antidepressant medications in children, adolescents, and young adults since 2003. The statements warn that such medications may cause de novo 'suicidality' in some people. This review explores the data on the treatment of depression that led to these warnings and subsequent data that are relevant to the warnings. It also addresses the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in general and the relationship of suicide rates to antidepressant treatment. It concludes that the decisions for the 'black box' warnings were based on biased data and invalid assumptions. Furthermore, the decisions were unsupported by the observational data regarding suicide in young people that existed in 2003. The following recommendations would seem to follow from these observations. First, drug authorities should re-evaluate the basis for their imposed warnings on antidepressant medicines, and analyze the actual public health consequences the warnings have had. In the absence of substantial evidence supporting the warnings, they should be removed. Second, physicians and other providers with prescription privileges should continue to be educated regarding the importance of aggressively treating depression in young people, using antidepressants when indicated. Third, physicians and other professionals who treat depressed young people must always be aware of the risk of suicide (albeit quite low) and observe them closely for any signs of increased risk of suicide. This is necessary regardless of the type of treatment being provided.

  13. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The system version presented is based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and on relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system

  14. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  15. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on ... Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  18. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  19. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels Are Not Created Equal: They Can Increase or Decrease Smokers' Quit Intentions Relative to Text-Only Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Romer, Daniel; Tusler, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette graphic-warning labels elicit negative emotion. Research suggests negative emotion drives greater risk perceptions and quit intentions through multiple processes. The present research compares text-only warning effectiveness to that of graphic warnings eliciting more or less negative emotion. Nationally representative online panels of 736 adult smokers and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers were randomly assigned to view one of three warning types (text-only, text with low-emotion images, or text with high-emotion images) four times over 2 weeks. Participants recorded their emotional reaction to the warnings (measured as arousal), smoking risk perceptions, and quit intentions. Primary analyses used structural equation modeling. Participants in the high-emotion condition reported greater emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = 0.21; bTeen = 0.27, p's labels with images that elicit more negative emotional reaction are associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions in adults and teens relative to text-only warnings. However, graphic warnings containing images which evoke little emotional reaction can backfire and reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. This research is the first to directly manipulate two emotion levels in sets of nine cigarette graphic warning images and compare them with text-only warnings. Among adult and teen smokers, high-emotion graphic warnings were associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. Low-emotion graphic warnings backfired and tended to reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. Policy makers should be aware that merely placing images on cigarette packaging is insufficient to increase smokers' risk perceptions and quit intentions. Low-emotion graphic warnings will not necessarily produce desired population-level benefits relative to text-only or high-emotion warnings. © The Author 2016

  20. Mouse Precision-Cut Liver Slices as an ex Vivo Model To Study Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Yixi; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) has been the top reason for withdrawing drugs from the market or for black box warnings. IDILI may arise from the interaction of a drug's reactive metabolite with a mild inflammation that renders the liver more sensitive to injury resulting in

  1. Smokers? and E-Cigarette Users? Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Par...

  2. Verification of warnings at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Lovro

    2017-04-01

    The role of national meteorological services is increasingly related to warnings. This is particularly stressed due to more frequent extreme events and severe weather. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia various warnings products are introduced, from Civil protection service and MeteoAlarm to different specialized products, such as heat spells, cold spells, forest fire warnings, etc. Verification of warnings is a relatively new field, with spurious methods and diverse data. Still, various results of warnings will be presented in this paper, mostly through contingency tables and related verification scores. These results provide an insight to the forecast system, it's properties and give a good feed-back to the forecasters.

  3. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  4. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-11-02

    To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message). The impact of the attributes on the probability of choosing ENDS was analysed using conditional and nested logit regressions, controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status. A general population sample of 515 participants (50 ever-users and 465 never-users of ENDS) aged 14-17 years were recruited to complete the experiment using an online panel. Fruit/sweets/beverage flavours significantly increase the probability of choosing ENDS among youth (pe-cigarettes, increase (p<0.05) the probability of choosing ENDS among adolescent never-users. Warning messages reduce (p<0.01) the probability of choosing ENDS among never-users. Restricting fruit/sweets/beverage flavours in ENDS, regulating modifiable vaping devices and adopting strong health warning messages may reduce the uptake of ENDS among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. MenTORing Immunity: mTOR Signaling in the Development and Function of Tissue-Resident Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell G; Pearce, Edward J

    2017-05-16

    Tissue-resident immune cells must balance survival in peripheral tissues with the capacity to respond rapidly upon infection or tissue damage, and in turn couple these responses with intrinsic metabolic control and conditions in the tissue microenvironment. The serine/threonine kinase mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central integrator of extracellular and intracellular growth signals and cellular metabolism and plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the function of mTOR signaling in the differentiation and function of tissue-resident immune cells, with focus on the role of mTOR as a metabolic sensor and its impact on metabolic regulation in innate and adaptive immune cells. We also discuss the impact of metabolic constraints in tissues on immune homeostasis and disease, and how manipulating mTOR activity with drugs such as rapamycin can modulate immunity in these contexts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: ‘dampness,’ ‘perspiration,’ ‘sweat,’ ‘sweating,’ or ‘wetness’] due to stress”. (3) For products that... this chapter for definition of bullet. (ii) The warning required by § 369.21 of this chapter for drugs...

  8. A pocket warning γ-dosimeter with numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-09-01

    A pocket warning dosimeter is described. It provides alarms (continuous tone and a flashing red light) when a presettable dose has been accumulated in the range .064 - 16.4 rads (0.64 - 164 μGy). This warning level can be selected in nine steps of 2 with a switch inside the dosimeter. The dose rate is indicated by a series of sound pulses whose repetition rate is proportional to the dose rate. At 1 rad/h (10 mGy/h) about 17 pluses/minute are emitted. The accumulated dose up to 20 rads (0.2 Gy) is displayed in steps of 1 mrad (10 μGy) with a liquid crystal display. A red LED lights before battery failure occurs. The effects of changes in temperature, battery voltage, dose rate and photon energy upon dosimeter sensitivity are presented. Finally, the applications of the dosimeter are discussed. (auth)

  9. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  10. Bioethics and deliberative democracy: five warnings from Hobbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2006-06-01

    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes's alternative to participatory democracy-assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign-no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those (such as most bioethicists) advocating for deliberative democracy based on a rational consensus model. In light of these warnings, the author suggests an alternative, modus vivendi approach to deliberative democracy that would radically alter the current practice of bioethics.

  11. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  12. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  13. Upgrade of the early warning system in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvari, A.; Cindro, M.; Krizman, M.; Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The main task of the Early Warning System in Slovenia is to warn the competent authorities of the increase of external radiation. Only an efficient Ewes can cope with the situation that we have in case of nuclear or radiation accident. For such purposes the measuring locations have to fulfil some basic radiation monitoring criteria (population density, distance from NPP, precipitation, land use). In this article the results of each criterion as well as the total set is described. The results of the applied criteria are presented with colour contour images. The purpose of this article is to allocate the critical areas on the territory of Slovenia that have to be considered in final determination of the appropriate measuring locations. (author)

  14. Design of Early Warning System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Bo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings of the landslide monitoring technology method, a set of landslides monitoring and early warning system is designed. It can achieve real-time sensor data acquisition, remote transmission and query display. In addition, aiming at the harsh environment of landslide monitoring and the performance requirements of the monitoring system, an improved minimum hop routing protocol is proposed. It can reduce network energy consumption, enhance network robustness, and improve node layout and networking flexibility. In order to realize the remote transmission of data, GPRS wireless communication is used to transmit monitoring data. Combined with remote monitoring center, real-time data display, query, preservation and landslide warning and prediction are realized. The results show that the sensor data acquisition system is accurate, the system is stable, and the node network is flexible. Therefore, the monitoring system has a good use value.

  15. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  16. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  17. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  18. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  19. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  20. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System for Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brigandì

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System, specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF. The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall–streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall–runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall–runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015 have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002–2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall

  1. Monitoring and Warning of Landslides Based On Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhbir, Y.

    Management issues of landslide hazards assume much greater significance in poorest segments of society living in landslide risk prone hilly areas in developing countries. Analysis of the temporal recurrence of landslides shows that disastrous events occur with a frequency higher than the social and economic capacity of these societies to recover from previous events. In the context of landslide hazard management in In- dian Himalayan states this problem assumes much greater significance. Majority of the population lives on hill slopes which experience repeated landsliding activity es- pecially during the summer monsoon rains. Considering the high cost of structural control measures and the lack of necessary spatial database in respect of Quaternary geology, detailed topography and geohydrology etc., there is an acute need to develop a monitoring and warning system which is economical, easy to operate and does not require high technological inputs. Since most of the landslides in these areas are triggered by high incidence of rain, it appears attractive to explore development of a monitoring and warning network based on critical rainfall intensity thresholds. Such an option for management of landslide hazards would also provide useful meteorological data required for assessment of wa- ter resources, soil loss due to erosion, agricultural practices and flood incidence. In this paper, available approaches to the prediction and warning of landslide based on rainfall data will be critically reviewed. Various criteria recommended in litera- ture for threshold rainfall values in rain induced ground movements/failures would be compared and these relationships will be contrasted with the limited data available for the Indian Himalayan landslides. A plan for a network of automatic rain gauges and a suitable warning system will be discussed.

  2. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    upon, which are relevant to tsunami warning, include public announcement siren systems and numerical models. Special attention has been paid to the submarine cable-mounted systems. Due importance has been attached to the instrumented era which... of appropriate emergency measures. Whereas satellite-based reporting is one option, a simple and cost-effective methodology for real-time reporting of tsunami from coastal regions and islands is cellular based GPRS technology. From an operational point...

  3. Viagra warning re "poppers" and notice re protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-05-01

    Pfizer, Inc., manufacturer of Viagra (sildenafil), is warning patients that Viagra is contraindicated with nitrate inhalers (poppers). Nitrates in any form or nitric oxide donors can potentially cause hypotension. Pfizer also recommends that patients using protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, use a lower dose of Viagra (25 mg) because they interfere with the elimination of Viagra. This interaction does not pose a significant risk to the patient.

  4. Improved Intelligence Warning in an Age of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    failure to warn about the Egyptian and Syrian invasion in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Despite closely monitoring the Egyptian and Syrian war preparations and...highly probable the possibility that the Egyptian and the Syrian state of alert derives from fear from us, and as slightly probable the possibility...and Complexity: a Platform for Designing Business Architecture . Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: the Power of

  5. Early Warnings of Cyber Threats in Online Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Sapienza, Anna; Bessi, Alessandro; Damodaran, Saranya; Shakarian, Paulo; Lerman, Kristina; Ferrara, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a system for automatically generating warnings of imminent or current cyber-threats. Our system leverages the communication of malicious actors on the darkweb, as well as activity of cyber security experts on social media platforms like Twitter. In a time period between September, 2016 and January, 2017, our method generated 661 alerts of which about 84% were relevant to current or imminent cyber-threats. In the paper, we first illustrate the rationale and workflow of our system,...

  6. Earthquake Early Warning Beta Users: Java, Modeling, and Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The beta users receive earthquake information very rapidly in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences of performance and potential uses within their organization. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. Actions could include: personal safety approaches, such as drop cover, and hold on; automated processes and procedures, such as opening elevator or fire stations doors; or situational awareness. Users are beginning to determine which policy and technological changes may need to be enacted, and funding requirements to implement their automated controls. The use of models and mobile apps are beginning to augment the basic Java desktop applet. Modeling allows beta users to test their early warning responses against various scenarios without having to wait for a real event. Mobile apps are also changing the possible response landscape, providing other avenues for people to receive information. All of these combine to improve business continuity and resiliency.

  7. Silent Warning: Understanding the National Terrorism Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SILENT WARNING...PERFORMING OR GANIZATION NA:i\\ti E (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SP ONSORING /MONIT ORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...Homeland Sectu’ity Advisory System, Boston Marathon bombing, Christmas Day bomber, tmderwear bomber, hum cane , cotmteiteiTO!’ism, CT AB

  8. Indications and Warning Analysis Management System IWAMS. A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    White Album by Joan Didion . Copyright © 1979 by Joan Didion . Reprinted with the permission of Simon and Schuster. "Indications, Warning, and Crisis...and the system. The chief symptom is memorably suggested in these passages by the writer, Joan Didion , on an illness she has suffered. Referring to...Science Review, Vol. 73, 1979, pp, 171-180. 210 IWAMS (40) "We tell ourselves": See Joan Didion , The White Album. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979, p. 11

  9. Low cancer suspicion following experience of a cancer 'warning sign'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katriina L; Winstanley, Kelly; Macleod, Una; Scott, Suzanne E; Wardle, Jane

    2015-11-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of late-stage cancer diagnosis. A number of explanations have been advanced for this, but one which has attracted recent attention is lower patient knowledge of cancer warning signs, leading to delay in help-seeking. However, although there is psychometric evidence of SES differences in knowledge of cancer symptoms, no studies have examined differences in 'cancer suspicion' among people who are actually experiencing a classic warning sign. A 'health survey' was mailed to 9771 adults (⩾50years, no cancer diagnosis) with a symptom list including 10 cancer 'warning signs'. Respondents were asked if they had experienced any of the symptoms in the past 3months, and if so, were asked 'what do you think caused it?' Any mention of cancer was scored as 'cancer suspicion'. SES was indexed by education. Nearly half the respondents (1732/3756) had experienced a 'warning sign', but only 63/1732 (3.6%) mentioned cancer as a possible cause. Lower education was associated with lower likelihood of cancer suspicion: 2.6% of respondents with school-only education versus 7.3% with university education suspected cancer as a possible cause. In multivariable analysis, low education was the only demographic variable independently associated with lower cancer suspicion (odds ratio (OR)=0.34, confidence interval (CI): 0.20-0.59). Levels of cancer suspicion were low overall in this community sample, and even lower in people from less educated backgrounds. This may hinder early symptomatic presentation and contribute to inequalities in stage at diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. ATTACK WARNING: Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD Integration Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    protocols, Cumbersome Integration different manufacturers’ computer systems can communicate with eachother . The warning and assessment subsystems...by treating TW/AA system as a single system subject to program review and oversight by the Defense Acquisition Board. Within this management...restore the unit to operation quickly enough after a power loss to meet NORAD mis- sion requirements. The Air Force intends to have the contractor

  11. Impact of methamphetamine on infection and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Salamanca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation.

  12. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  13. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  14. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  15. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  16. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  17. Building regional early flood warning systems by AI techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Amin, M. Z. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Building early flood warning system is essential for the protection of the residents against flood hazards and make actions to mitigate the losses. This study implements AI technology for forecasting multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The methodology includes three major schemes: (1) configuring the self-organizing map (SOM) to categorize a large number of regional inundation maps into a meaningful topology; (2) building dynamic neural networks to forecast multi-step-ahead average inundated depths (AID); and (3) adjusting the weights of the selected neuron in the constructed SOM based on the forecasted AID to obtain real-time regional inundation maps. The proposed models are trained, and tested based on a large number of inundation data sets collected in regions with the most frequent and serious flooding in the river basin. The results appear that the SOM topological relationships between individual neurons and their neighbouring neurons are visible and clearly distinguishable, and the hybrid model can continuously provide multistep-ahead visible regional inundation maps with high resolution during storm events, which have relatively small RMSE values and high R2 as compared with numerical simulation data sets. The computing time is only few seconds, and thereby leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting and make early flood inundation warning system. We demonstrate that the proposed hybrid ANN-based model has a robust and reliable predictive ability and can be used for early warning to mitigate flood disasters.

  18. Early Warning Models for Systemic Banking Crises in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Asanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to create an adequate early warning model for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The probability of banking crisis occurrence is calculated using discrete dependent variable models, more precisely, estimating logit regression. Afterwards, seven simple logit regressions that individually have two explanatory variables are estimated. Adequate weights have been assigned to all seven regressions using the technique of Bayesian model averaging. The advantage of this technique is that it takes into account the model uncertainty by considering various combinations of models in order to minimize the author’s subjective judgment when determining reliable early warning indicators. The results of Bayesian model averaging largely coincide with the results of a previously estimated dynamic logit model. Indicators of credit expansion, thanks to their performances, have a dominant role in early warning models for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The results have also shown that the Montenegrin banking system is significantly exposed to trends on the global level.

  19. Marketing strategies and warning labels on children's toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-10-01

    The overconsumption of toothpaste has negative consequences, particularly for children. This study's objectives were to describe misleading marketing strategies used in selling children's fluoridated toothpaste and identify warning label characteristics. Two researchers independently coded the packaging from 26 over-the-counter toothpastes that are specifically marketed for children. Aggressive marketing strategies targeting children were identified: every toothpaste in this sample displayed at least 1 children's animated character, 50% had at least 1 picture of a food item, 92.3% stated they were flavored and 26.9% depicted a full swirl of toothpaste, directly contradicting dentist recommendations for young children. Further, on most toothpaste tubes, warnings regarding fluoride overconsumption for young children were only listed on the back and in very small font. Misleading marketing strategies are regularly used in selling children's toothpaste as if it is a food product, while warnings regarding overconsumption among youth are minimized. Dental hygienists are in an important position to help parents of young children implement safe oral care practices. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Vrancea early warning system for Bucharest and industrial objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, A.; Grigore, A.; Tataru, D.

    2005-01-01

    Romania is an earthquake prone area and it is of crucial importance to obtain quantitative information needed for seismic risk mitigation and related public policies and seismic safety measures. The most damaging earthquakes in Romania concentrate in the Vrancea region, located at the sharp bend of the Eastern Carpathians Arc, in a well confined focal volume at intermediate depths between 60 km and 200 km.Vrancea earthquakes are documented for at least a millennium (since 985 a.c.) and represent very peculiar characteristics. They are a permanent threat for large urban areas on the Romanian territory and extended areas in Europe. Bucharest is among the cities mostly affected by destructive earthquakes. The early warning system in Romania is to provide individuals and communities exposed to disaster risk given by strong Vrancea earthquakes, with accurate information about an impending hazard as early as possible, to act in a timely and appropriate manner to reduce probability of suffering, personal damage, death and property losses. The purpose of this early system is to issue messages at sites of interest before the destructive seismic energy arrives. Early warning system is a technological instrument to detect, monitor and submit warnings/alerts. It needs to become part of a management information system for decision - making in the context of national institutional frameworks for disaster management and as a part of national and local strategies for disaster risk reduction. (authors)

  1. Vrancea early warning system for Bucharest and industrial objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wenzel, Friedemann; Bonjer, K. P.

    2004-01-01

    Romania is an earthquake prone area and it is of crucial importance to obtain quantitative information needed for seismic risk mitigation and related public policies and seismic safety measures. The most damaging earthquakes in Romania concentrate in the Vrancea region, located at the sharp bend of the Eastern Carpathians Arc, in a well confined focal volume at intermediate depths between 60 km and 200 km. Vrancea earthquakes are documented for at least a millennium (since 985 a.c.) and represent very peculiar characteristics. They are a permanent threat for large urban areas on the Romanian territory and extended areas in Europe. Bucharest is among the mega cities mostly affected by destructive earthquakes. The early warning system in Romania is to provide individuals and communities exposed to disaster risk due to strong Vrancea earthquakes, with accurate information about an impending hazard as early as possible, to act in a timely and appropriate manner to reduce probability of suffering, personal damage, death and property losses. The purpose of this early system is to issue messages at sites of interest before the destructive seismic energy arrives. Early warning system is a technological instrument to detect, monitor and issue warnings/alerts. It needs to become part of a management information system for decision - making in the context of national institutional frameworks for disaster management and as a part of national and local strategies for disaster risk reduction. (authors)

  2. An automatic tsunami warning system: TREMORS application in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, D.; Robert, S.; Thomas, Y.; Schindelé, F.

    1996-03-01

    An integrated system named TREMORS (Tsunami Risk Evaluation through seismic Moment of a Real-time System) has been installed in EVORA station, in Portugal which has been affected by historical tsunamis. The system is based on a three component long period seismic station linked to a compatible IBM_PC with a specific software. The goals of this system are the followings: detect earthquake, locate them, compute their seismic moment, give a seismic warning. The warnings are based on the seismic moment estimation and all the processing are made automatically. The finality of this study is to check the quality of estimation of the main parameters of interest in a goal of tsunami warning: the location which depends of azimuth and distance, and at last the seismic moment, M 0, which controls the earthquake size. The sine qua non condition for obtaining an automatic location is that the 3 main seismic phases P, S, R must be visible. This study gives satisfying results (automatic analysis): ± 5° errors in azimuth and epicentral distance, and a standard deviation of less than a factor 2 for the seismic moment M 0.

  3. Airborne Turbulence Detection and Warning ACLAIM Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.

  4. Flood Monitoring and Early Warning System Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, J. G.; Mendez, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a real-time flood monitoring and early warning system in the northern portion of the province of Isabela, particularly the municipalities near Cagayan River. Ultrasonic sensing techniques have become mature and are widely used in the various fields of engineering and basic science. One of advantage of ultrasonic sensing is its outstanding capability to probe inside objective non-destructively because ultrasound can propagate through any kinds of media including solids, liquids and gases. This study focuses only on the water level detection and early warning system (via website and/or SMS) that alerts concern agencies and individuals for a potential flood event. Furthermore, inquiry system is also included in this study to become more interactive wherein individuals in the community could inquire the actual water level and status of the desired area or location affected by flood thru SMS keyword. The study aims in helping citizens to be prepared and knowledgeable whenever there is a flood. The novelty of this work falls under the utilization of the Arduino, ultrasonic sensors, GSM module, web-monitoring and SMS early warning system in helping stakeholders to mitigate casualties related to flood. The paper envisions helping flood-prone areas which are common in the Philippines particularly to the local communities in the province. Indeed, it is relevant and important as per needs for safety and welfare of the community.

  5. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Fukami, K; Hanapi, M N; Livia, L; Nor, M D

    2013-01-01

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  6. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  7. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  8. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  9. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  10. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Faleiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of

  11. Immune Responses Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Teimourpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV. M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+ T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis. Although cell-mediated immunity is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of humoral and innate immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

  12. Adrenaline influence on the immune response. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depelchin, A.; Letesson, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The intervention of adrenaline in the immunoregulation was investigated through the modification of the anti-SRBC PFC response of mice after its i.p. administration (4 μg) at various intervals before SRBC antigen. When the interval was less than 24 h, adrenaline accelerated the immune kinetics. This modification was apparent on both direct and indirect PFC, as well as on naive and immune mice. However, mice treated from 2 days showed a suppression of the response. The adrenaline affect subsisted on the adoptive response of spleen cells drug-treated either in vivo or in vitro. The mitogenic response after in vitro PHA or LPS stimulation of spleen cells from adrenaline-treated mice indicated that the T-cells were the drug target. The physiological role of the adrenaline and immunological influences of acute stress are discussed in the paper. The stress was provided by gamma irradiation. (Auth.)

  13. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  14. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  15. TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall

  16. Graphic warnings and text warning labels on cigarette packages in Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Awareness and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Jradi

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike.

  17. Immune-deficient animals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rygaard, J.; Brunner, N.; Groem, N.; Spang-Thomsen, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents paper given at a workshop on immune-dificient animals in biomedical research. Topics presented included the following: differential recovery of antibody production potential after sublethal whole-body irradiation of mice; increased levels of plasma DNA in nude mice transplanted with human tumors; and transplantation of exocrine pancreatic carcinomas to nude mice: A model to investigate immunoscintigraphy, radioimmunotherapy and drug sensitivity

  18. Sporogenous Probiotics, Iron Deficiency and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kvashnina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of current data about biological properties and characteristics of sporogenous bacteria Bacillus coagulans. Those data demonstrated efficacy and advantages of medical drug Lactovit Forte, which contains spores of Bacillus coagulans and vitamins В9 and В12. These results of proven effective impact on the immune system and hematopoiesis are based on the methods of evidence-based medicine.

  19. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  20. On Modelling an Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy, Raúl; Saab, Rosa; Godínez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Immune systems of live forms have been an abundant source of inspiration to contemporary computer scientists. Problem solving strategies, stemming from known immune system phenomena, have been successfully applied to challenging problems of modern computing. However, research in artificial immune systems has overlooked establishing a coherent model of known immune system behaviour. This paper aims reports on an preliminary computer model of an immune system, where each immune system component...

  1. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 302

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    were aged between 17 and 35. He said that between 1970 and last year, 379 Malaysians were arrested for drug offenses overseas. Datuk Haji Ngah said...drug processing centre at the Malaysian -Thai border. He warned that the country’s development would be affected and the people would suffer if the...Thai actor with three kilogrammes of No 3 heroin and a .38 revolver on Charoen Krung Road near the Capitol cinema . They were identified as Pol Cpl

  2. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  3. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  4. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  6. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  8. Role of the Immune System in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Hector; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition of individual cytokines prevent or ameliorate experimental hypertension, and studies in genetically-modified mouse strains have demonstrated that lymphocytes are necessary participants in the development of hypertension and in hypertensive organ injury. Furthermore, immune reactivity may be the driving force of hypertension in autoimmune diseases. Infiltration of immune cells, oxidative stress, and stimulation of the intrarenal angiotensin system are induced by activation of the innate and adaptive immunity. High blood pressure results from the combined effects of inflammation-induced impairment in the pressure natriuresis relationship, dysfunctional vascular relaxation, and overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Imbalances between proinflammatory effector responses and anti-inflammatory responses of regulatory T cells to a large extent determine the severity of inflammation. Experimental and human studies have uncovered autoantigens (isoketal-modified proteins and heat shock protein 70) of potential clinical relevance. Further investigations on the immune reactivity in hypertension may result in the identification of new strategies for the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Di Nunno, Vincenzo; Cubelli, Marta; Santoni, Matteo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Anto; Battelli, Nicola; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Chemotherapy has represented the standard therapy for unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma for more than 20 years. The growing knowledge of the interaction between tumour and immune system has led to the advent of new classes of drugs, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors, which are intended to change the current scenario. To date, immunotherapy is able to improve the overall responses and survival. Moreover, thanks to its safety profile immune-checkpoint inhibitors could be proposed also to patients unfit for standard chemotherapy. No doubts that these agents have started a revolution expected for years, but despite this encouraging results it appears clear that not all subjects respond to these agents and requiring the development of reliable predictive response factors able to isolate patients who can more benefit from these treatments as well as new strategies aimed to improve immunotherapy clinical outcome. In this review we describe the active or ongoing clinical trials involving Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), Programmed Death receptor 1 (PD-1) and Cytotoxic-T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA 4) inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma focusing our attention on the developing new immune-agents and combination strategies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. siRNA and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Canonical small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are potent activators of the mammalian innate immune system. The induction of innate immunity by siRNA is dependent on siRNA structure and sequence, method of delivery, and cell type. Synthetic siRNA in delivery vehicles that facilitate cellular uptake can induce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and interferons after systemic administration in mammals and in primary human blood cell cultures. This activation is predominantly mediated by immune cells, normally via a Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. The siRNA sequence dependency of these pathways varies with the type and location of the TLR involved. Alternatively nonimmune cell activation may also occur, typically resulting from siRNA interaction with cytoplasmic RNA sensors such as RIG1. As immune activation by siRNA-based drugs represents an undesirable side effect due to the considerable toxicities associated with excessive cytokine release in humans, understanding and abrogating this activity will be a critical component in the development of safe and effective therapeutics. This review describes the intracellular mechanisms of innate immune activation by siRNA, the design of appropriate sequences and chemical modification approaches, and suitable experimental methods for studying their effects, with a view toward reducing siRNA-mediated off-target effects.

  11. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  12. Phase II clinical development of new drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Naitee; Ho, Shuyen; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on how to appropriately plan and develop a Phase II program, and how to design Phase II clinical trials and analyze their data. It provides a comprehensive overview of the entire drug development process and highlights key questions that need to be addressed for the successful execution of Phase II, so as to increase its success in Phase III and for drug approval. Lastly it warns project team members of the common potential pitfalls and offers tips on how to avoid them.

  13. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure-activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle-immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...

  17. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  19. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Death Penalty: Pancasila, with Efforts to Eradicated Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    R., Anggun Ariena; Ky, Ade Oktariatas

    2015-01-01

    The rise of drugs criminal in Indonesia at this time, making Indonesia would be drugs emergency. Drugs is an extraordinary crime and need special attention in the eradication effort. Therefore it takes great strength to use legal action heaviest where Indonesia has a death penalty sentence. The purpose of the death penalty is to give hard effect for drugs criminal and as warning for the others. The reality of the death penalty in Indonesia shows the operation of the judicial system is not go...