WorldWideScience

Sample records for drug testing programs

  1. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug... the Federal workplace drug testing program but also pointed out that ``* * * the Department of.... Executive Order 12866 and Regulatory Flexibility Act This Interim Final Rule is not significant for purposes...

  2. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... definition of prohibited drugs. In Sec. Sec. 120.103 and 120.211, we omitted the reference to Sec. 135.1 from.... FAA-2008-0937; Amendment No. 120-0A, 135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program... Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...

  3. NCAA Drug-Testing Program 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Drug-Testing Program was created to protect the health and safety of student-athletes and to ensure that no one participant might have an artificially induced advantage or be pressured to use chemical substances. This publication describes this program in the following chapters: (1) NCAA…

  4. Employee assistance programs, drug testing, and workplace injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Miller, Ted R; Hendrie, Delia; Galvin, Deborah M

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of employee assistance programs (EAPs) on occupational injuries. Multivariate regressions probed a unique data set that linked establishment information about workplace anti-drug programs in 1988 with occupational injury rates for 1405 establishments. EAPs were associated with a significant reduction in both no-lost-work and lost-work injuries, especially in the manufacturing and transportation, communication and public utilities industries (TCPU). Lost-work injuries were more responsive to specific EAP characteristics, with lower rates associated with EAPs staffed by company employees (most likely onsite). Telephone hotline services were associated with reduced rates of lost-work injuries in manufacturing and TCPU. Drug testing was associated with reductions in the rate of minor injuries with no lost work, but had no significant relationship with lost-work injuries. This associational study suggests that EAPs, especially ones that are company-staffed and ones that include telephone hotlines, may prevent workplace injuries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations...) * * * (2) * * * (i) Positive, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s). (ii) Positive-dilute, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for...

  6. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey... of Federal Regulations, as follows: [[Page 26184

  7. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... time for related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs and will... related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs, including HHS... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing...

  8. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information Regarding Specific Issues Related to the Use of the Oral Fluid Specimen for Drug Testing AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental... may be applied to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (oral fluid...

  9. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  10. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., 2011. DATES: This rule is effective July 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues... Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING...

  11. Development, implementation and management of a drug testing program in the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    To combat the rising use of drugs in the workplace many American companies have implemented drug testing programs and are testing employees and job applicants for use of illegal drugs. In addition, on September 15, 1986, Executive Order No.12564 was issued by President Reagan, which requires all federal agencies to develop programs and policies, one of the goals of which is to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Included in this Executive Order is the requirement that federal agencies implement drug testing has become a prevalent practice as a means to detect and deter drug use in the workplace. Before a drug testing program is implemented, it is imperative that policies and procedures are developed that (1) ensure the accuracy of test results, (2) protect the validity and integrity of the specimen, (3) guarantee due process, and (4) maintain confidentiality. To make certain that these prerequisites were met in the government drug testing programs, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was directed to develop technical and scientific guidelines for conducting such programs. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    .... Revise paragraph (c)(5) and redesignate it as (c)(6); Sec. 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP... assistance program (EAP). Finally, this rulemaking would make it clear that the agency's practice of... of the training given to both supervisors and employees in their employee assistance programs...

  13. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...)(5) and (c)(6). The revisions read as follows: Sec. 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP... of employees, must be documented as part of each employer's employee assistance program. 4. It makes... documentation of the training given to both supervisors and employees in their employee assistance programs...

  14. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... required method. However, in response to comments requesting additional flexibility in testing methods, the... may increase flexibility and lower costs for employers who choose to use them over more expensive...

  15. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  16. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... IFR to mitigate this conflict between the DOT rules and what we view as beneficial State laws by.... It merely eliminated a conflict that would have precluded parties from complying with certain State...

  17. 77 FR 60318 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... 12866 and Regulatory Flexibility Act This Final Rule is not significant for purposes of Executive Order... certify, under the Regulatory Flexibility Act, that this rule does not have a significant economic impact...

  18. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... of small entities, for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. The Department makes these... necessary for the Department to conduct a regulatory evaluation or Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for this...

  19. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain legal...

  20. 77 FR 26471 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... scientific methodologies the laboratories must use for testing. Because of these requirements and to create... of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) & The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT... drug or drug metabolite in his or her system, as in the case of other drugs (see Sec. 40.137...

  1. Spillover effects of HIV testing policies: changes in HIV testing guidelines and HCV testing practices in drug treatment programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima A. Frimpong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent to which state adoption of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2006 revisions to adult and adolescent HIV testing guidelines is associated with availability of other important prevention and medical services. We hypothesized that in states where the pretest counseling requirement for HIV testing was dropped from state legislation, substance use disorder treatment programs would have higher availability of HCV testing services than in states that had maintained this requirement. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 383 opioid treatment programs from the 2005 and 2011 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS. Data were collected from program directors and clinical supervisors through telephone surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to measure associations between state adoption of CDC recommended guidelines for HIV pretest counseling and availability of HCV testing services. Results The effects of HIV testing legislative changes on HCV testing practices varied by type of opioid treatment program. In states that had removed the requirement for HIV pretest counseling, buprenorphine-only programs were more likely to offer HCV testing to their patients. The positive spillover effect of HIV pretest counseling policies, however, did not extend to methadone programs and did not translate into increased availability of on-site HCV testing in either program type. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential positive spillover effects of HIV testing policies on HCV testing practices. They also suggest that maximizing the benefits of HIV policies may require other initiatives, including resources and programmatic efforts that support systematic integration with other services and effective implementation.

  2. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... personal identifying information about an employee (other than a social security number (SSN) or other... testing required under this part. (c) As a drug testing laboratory located in Canada or Mexico which is... procedures. (d) As an IITF located in Canada or Mexico which is not certified by HHS under the NLCP, you are...

  3. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 3: Employee Alcohol- and Drug-Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Susan R.; Libbin, Anne E.

    1988-01-01

    The third in a series of four articles, this discusses the legal implications of the use of medical tests to prevent drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and to reduce absenteeism, tardiness, reduced productivity, and accidents that result from employee substance abuse. Cites recent cases. (JOW)

  4. Patterns of HIV testing, drug use, and sexual behaviors in people who use drugs: findings from a community-based outreach program in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Yi, Siyan

    2017-12-05

    People who use drugs are an important priority for HIV programs. However, data related to their utilization of HIV services are limited. This paper reports patterns of HIV testing, drug use, and risk and service perception among people who use drugs. Study participants were receiving HIV and harm reduction services from a community-based program in Phnom Penh, comprised of itinerant peer-led outreach and static drop-in centers. This was a mixed-methods study conducted in 2014, comprising of a quantitative survey using a structured questionnaire, followed by two focus group discussions among a sub-sample of survey participants. Participants were recruited from hotspots in five HIV high-burden communes using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Quantitative descriptive analyses and qualitative thematic analyses were performed. This study included 151 people who use drugs with a mean age of 31.2 (SD = 6.5) years; 77.5% were male and 39.1% were married. The most common drugs used were methamphetamines (72.8%) and heroin (39.7%), and 38.0% injected drugs in the past 3 months. Overall, 83.3% had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months, of whom 62.5% had been tested by peers through community-based outreach. However, there were ongoing HIV risks: 37.3% were engaging in sex on drugs, only 35.6% used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 10.8% had had a sexually transmitted infection in the last 6 months. Among people who reported injecting drugs in the past 3 months, 27.5% reported re-using needles/syringes. Almost half (46.5%) perceived themselves as being at lower risk of HIV compared to the general population. Qualitative results contextualized the findings of low perception of HIV risks and suggested that although services were often unavailable on weekends, at night, or during national holidays, peer-led community-based outreach was highly accepted. A peer-led community-based approach was effective in reaching people who use drugs with HIV and harm reduction

  5. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  6. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  7. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  8. Experiences with drug testing at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    After more than 2 yr of operation of a drug testing program at the San Onofre nuclear power plant site, the Southern California Edison Co. has had a number of experiences and lessons considered valuable. The drug testing program at San Onofre, implemented in September of 1984, continues in essentially the same form today. Prior to describing the program, the paper reviews several underlying issues that believed to be simultaneously satisfied by the program: trustworthiness, fitness and safety, public trust, and privacy and search. The overall drug testing program, periodic drug monitoring program, and unannounced drug testing program are described. In addition to the obvious features of a good drug testing program, which are described in the EEI guide, it is essential to consider such issues as the stated program rationale, employee relations, and disciplinary action measures when contemplating or engaging in drug testing at nuclear power plants

  9. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  10. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  11. Relay test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing

  12. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  13. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  14. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  15. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  16. Workplace drug testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, A G; Pierce, A

    2001-09-15

    Not much information is available on workplace drug testing (WDT) in Europe. There is no specific legislation and there are no generally accepted guidelines. Many companies establish a drug policy with little or no provisions for drug testing. Often, testing is performed on-site by occupational physicians, with little or no quality control, no systematic confirmation of positives, no chain of custody and no adulteration testing. In some parts of Europe, e.g. in the United Kingdom and some Scandinavian countries, WDT is increasing in importance, but it is not as widespread as in USA. The most frequently performed tests are amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and alcohol. The percentage of positives is variable, but seems to decrease with the years following the introduction of WDT. Cannabis is the drug that is most frequently found.Recently, the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) was founded, with the aims to ensure that WDT in Europe is performed to a defined quality standard and in a legally secured way and to provide an independent forum for all aspects of WDT.A working group in the United Kingdom has recently finalised the United Kingdom laboratory guidelines for legally defensible WDT and discussions are under way with the EWDTS to establish common guidelines. Many efforts will be needed to establish WDT as an accepted part of a company policy on drugs: establishing and maintaining the confidence in the results of the laboratory, establishing the legal status of WDT, preserving the privacy and rights of the employees, proving the cost-effectiveness of WDT in a European context, finding a balance between strict guidelines and enough flexibility to tailor testing to the changing needs. It is hoped that the exchange of experience between different countries will contribute to reaching these goals.

  17. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs” (65 FR 41944; August 9, 2001) to collect specimens... could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The forensic toxicologist may not be an employee... or drug metabolites in Federal workplace drug testing programs and the licensee or other entity...

  18. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...

  19. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...

  20. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  1. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...

  2. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  3. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.13 How do DOT drug and... non-DOT drug and alcohol testing programs. This prohibition includes the use of the DOT forms with...

  4. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  5. An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan K; Yacoubian, George S

    2002-01-01

    Drug testing in the workplace has gone from virtual nonexistence to widespread employer acceptance during the past two decades. This growth is particularly significant for the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite this growing vigilance, no scholarly works have examined the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. To address this limitation, we investigate the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors (MODs) within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation. Moreover, companies that drug test their employees experienced a significant reduction in their MODs. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.

  6. Novel insights in the fecal egg count reduction test for monitoring drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths in large-scale treatment programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Levecke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT is recommended to monitor drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in public health. However, the impact of factors inherent to study design (sample size and detection limit of the fecal egg count (FEC method and host-parasite interactions (mean baseline FEC and aggregation of FEC across host population on the reliability of FECRT is poorly understood.A simulation study was performed in which FECRT was assessed under varying conditions of the aforementioned factors. Classification trees were built to explore critical values for these factors required to obtain conclusive FECRT results. The outcome of this analysis was subsequently validated on five efficacy trials across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Unsatisfactory (<85.0% sensitivity and specificity results to detect reduced efficacy were found if sample sizes were small (<10 or if sample sizes were moderate (10-49 combined with highly aggregated FEC (k<0.25. FECRT remained inconclusive under any evaluated condition for drug efficacies ranging from 87.5% to 92.5% for a reduced-efficacy-threshold of 90% and from 92.5% to 97.5% for a threshold of 95%. The most discriminatory study design required 200 subjects independent of STH status (including subjects who are not excreting eggs. For this sample size, the detection limit of the FEC method and the level of aggregation of the FEC did not affect the interpretation of the FECRT. Only for a threshold of 90%, mean baseline FEC <150 eggs per gram of stool led to a reduced discriminatory power.This study confirms that the interpretation of FECRT is affected by a complex interplay of factors inherent to both study design and host-parasite interactions. The results also highlight that revision of the current World Health Organization guidelines to monitor drug efficacy is indicated. We, therefore, propose novel guidelines to support future monitoring programs.

  7. Organizational adoption of preemployment drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, C S; Blum, T C

    2001-04-01

    This study explored the adoption of preemployment drug testing by 360 organizations. Survival models were developed that included internal organizational and labor market factors hypothesized to affect the likelihood of adoption of drug testing. Also considered was another set of variables that included social and political variables based on institutional theory. An event history analysis using Cox regressions indicated that both internal organizational and environmental variables predicted adoption of drug testing. Results indicate that the higher the proportion of drug testers in the worksite's industry, the more likely it would be to adopt drug testing. Also, the extent to which an organization uses an internal labor market, voluntary turnover rate, and the extent to which management perceives drugs to be a problem were related to likelihood of adoption of drug testing.

  8. 49 CFR 40.205 - How are drug test problems corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are drug test problems corrected? 40.205 Section 40.205 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.205 How are drug test problems...

  9. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug... final selection for employment or assignment to such a position. Provisions of this part do not prohibit contractors from conducting drug testing on applicants for employment in any position. ...

  10. A Model for Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…

  11. Formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    2001-08-28

    Exposure of a drug to irradiation can influence the stability of the formulation, leading to changes in the physicochemical properties of the product. The influence of excipients of frequently used stabilizers is often difficult to predict and, therefore, stability testing of the final preparation is important. The selection of a protective packaging must be based on knowledge about the wavelength causing the instability. Details on drug photoreactivity will also be helpful in order to minimize side-effects and/or optimize drug targeting by developing photoresponsive drug delivery systems. This review focuses on practical problems related to formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

  12. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-05-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low.

  13. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and..., as defined in § 26.5; (3) Post-accident. As soon as practical after an event involving a human error... contributed to the accident. The licensee or other entity shall test the individual(s) who committed the error...

  14. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  15. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  16. Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

  17. Accelerated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Harkness, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion on the accelerated testing of batteries is given. The statistical analysis and the various aspects of the modeling that was done and the results attained from the model are also briefly discussed.

  18. Admissions of injection drug users to drug abuse treatment following HIV counseling and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, J; Willis, G; McDonald, M; Lewis, B F; Sereti, S M; Feldman, Z T

    1994-01-01

    The outcomes of counseling and testing programs related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk of infection among injection drug users (IDUs) are not well known or understood. A counseling and testing outcome of potential public health importance is attaining admission to drug abuse treatment by those IDUs who are either infected or who are at high risk of becoming infected. The authors investigated factors related to admission to drug abuse treatment among 519 IDUs who received HIV counseling and testing from September 1987 through December 1990 at a men's prison and at community-based testing sites in Worcester, MA. By June 1991, 123 of the 519 IDUs (24 percent) had been admitted to treatment. Variables associated with their admission included a long history of drug injection, frequent recent drug injection, cleaning injection equipment using bleach, prior drug treatment, and a positive HIV test result. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for effects of recruitment site, year, sex, and area of residence, generally confirmed the associations. IDUs in the study population who were HIV-infected sought treatment or were admitted to treatment more frequently than those who were not infected. The results indicate that access to drug abuse treatment should be facilitated for high-risk IDUs and for those who have begun to inject drugs recently.

  19. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not comply...

  20. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40.207 Section 40.207 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of...

  1. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  2. Test Program Set (TPS) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC TPS Laboratory provides an organic Test Program Set (TPS) development, maintenance, and life cycle management capability for DoD LCMC materiel developers....

  3. Nevada Test Site closure program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. B Appendix B to Part 40—DOT Drug Testing.... Specimen Results Reported (total number) By Test Reason (a) Pre-employment (number) (b) Post-Accident...

  5. Accelerated leach test development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1990-11-01

    In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Schools as Good Parent: Symbolism versus Substance in Drug and Alcohol Testing of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the decision to implement a drug and alcohol testing program, analyzing how such programs fit within the traditional functions of criminal and administrative law, pinpoints some messages conveyed by testing programs, and discusses factual premises that should underlay such programs. Reviews recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and gauges…

  7. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  8. Human basophil degranulation test in drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Domínguez, J; Sastre Castillo, A

    1986-01-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of HBDT as an in vitro method for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Two hundred and thirty six patients with suspected drug sensitization to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfamides, pyrazolones and A.S.A. were analyzed. Seventy-nine of them were allergic; in 43 cases it was confirmed by in vivo methods. Other patients were diagnosed by clinical history only if they had more than two reactions to the same drug. In order to be included in this group patients with reactions to pyrazolones and A.S.A. had to have tolerated other NSAI, therefore these patients were allergic to one compound only. All patients were considered non-allergic were determined by a negative provocation test. In the group of allergic patients we obtained 63 (79%) positive degranulations and 16 (21%) negative. One hundred and thirty two (84%) negative degranulations and 25 (16%) positive were obtained in the group of non-allergic patients. Once having analyzed 10 statistical parameters with each drug, the HBOT appears to be a useful method for these drugs except for streptomycin. In 16 (80%) out of 20 aspirin sensitive asthmatic patients we found that their basophils were degranulated. In 7 patients with urticaria and/or angioedema by A.S.A. and other NSAI the degranulation was negative, confirming the absence of the involvement of basophils in this reactions.

  9. An Outreach Program in Drug Education; Teaching a Rational Approach to Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, James L.; Joffe, Stephen J.

    1975-01-01

    Aimed at encouraging rational decision making about drug use, a peer oriented drug education program was conducted in a community youth project. Youth and leaders shared feelings and knowledge about drugs. Compared with four program dropouts, six participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the drug group, its leaders and themselves.…

  10. College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis play...

  11. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  12. Analytical challenges in sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Walpurgis, Katja; Baume, Norbert; Thomas, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Analytical chemistry represents a central aspect of doping controls. Routine sports drug testing approaches are primarily designed to address the question whether a prohibited substance is present in a doping control sample and whether prohibited methods (for example, blood transfusion or sample manipulation) have been conducted by an athlete. As some athletes have availed themselves of the substantial breadth of research and development in the pharmaceutical arena, proactive and preventive measures are required such as the early implementation of new drug candidates and corresponding metabolites into routine doping control assays, even though these drug candidates are to date not approved for human use. Beyond this, analytical data are also cornerstones of investigations into atypical or adverse analytical findings, where the overall picture provides ample reason for follow-up studies. Such studies have been of most diverse nature, and tailored approaches have been required to probe hypotheses and scenarios reported by the involved parties concerning the plausibility and consistency of statements and (analytical) facts. In order to outline the variety of challenges that doping control laboratories are facing besides providing optimal detection capabilities and analytical comprehensiveness, selected case vignettes involving the follow-up of unconventional adverse analytical findings, urine sample manipulation, drug/food contamination issues, and unexpected biotransformation reactions are thematized.

  13. Status of CCTF test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Y.; Iguchi, T.; Sugimoto, J.; Akimoto, H.; Okubo, T.; Okabe, K.

    1984-01-01

    The cylindrical core test facility (CCTF) is one of the facilities of the large scale reflood test program which was initiated in April, 1976. The first series of the CCTF test (CCTF CORE I Test) was completed in April, 1981 and the second series (CCTF Core II Test) has been conducted since April, 1982. In the test, the following has been intended to be examined: (1) The conservativeness of the assumption of the safety analysis with the evaluation model (EM) code. (2) The refill and reflood phenomena for analytical modeling of thermo-hydrodynamics in the core and the system. (3) The validity of the models in the EM code and the application to the best estimate code development. In this paper, presented are the quantative evaluation of the REFLA code and the discussion of some CCTF Core II Test results. The REFLA code consists of REFLA-1D core code developed with the results of small scale tests and a simple system model developed with the results of the CCTF Core I Test. The CCTF Core II Test was perfored for developing more realistic model for the alternative ECCS as well as for the cold leg injection type ECCS

  14. Automated [inservice testing] IST program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    There are two methods used to manage a Section XI program: Manual and Automated. The manual method usually consists of hand written records of test results and scheduling requirements. This method while initially lower in cost, results in problems later on in the life of a plant as data continues to accumulate. Automation allows instant access to forty years of test results. Due to the lower cost and higher performance of todays' personal computers, an automated method via a computer program provides an excellent method for managing the vast amount of data that accumulates over the forty year life of a plant. Through the use of a computer, special functions involving this data are available, which through a manual method would not be practical. This paper will describe some of the advantages in using a computer program to manage the Section XI 1ST program. The ISTBASE consists of program code and numerous databases. The source code is written and complied in CLIPPER (tm) language. Graphing routines are performed by dGE (tm) graphics library. Graphs are displayed in EGA form. Since it was estimated that the total complied code, would exceed 640K of ram, overlays through the use of modular programming were used to facilitate the DOS restrictions of 640K ram. The use of overlays still require the user to gain access to ISTBASE through the PASSWORD module. The database files are designed to be compatible with dBASE III+ (tm) data structure. This allows transfer of data between ISTBASE and other database managers/applications. A math co-processor is utilized to speed up calculations on graphs and other mathematical calculations. Program code and data files require a hard disk drive with at least 28 Meg capacity. While ISTBASE will execute on a 8088 based computer, an 80286 computer with a 12 MHz operating speed should be considered the minimum system configuration

  15. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  16. Minimum Leakage Condenser Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results and analysis of tests performed on four critical areas of large surface condensers: the tubes, tubesheets, tube/tubesheet joints and the water chambers. Significant changes in operation, service duty and the reliability considerations require that certain existing design criteria be verified and that improved design features be developed. The four critical areas were treated analytically and experimentally. The ANSYS finite element computer program was the basic analytical method and strain gages were used for obtaining experimental data. The results of test and analytical data are compared and recommendations made regarding potential improvement in condenser design features and analytical techniques

  17. 77 FR 5317 - Medicaid Program; Covered Outpatient Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 447 Medicaid Program; Covered Outpatient Drugs; Proposed... Part 447 [CMS-2345-P] RIN 0938-AQ41 Medicaid Program; Covered Outpatient Drugs AGENCY: Centers for... requirements pertaining to Medicaid reimbursement for covered outpatient drugs to implement provisions of the...

  18. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment.

  19. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results or...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If you...

  1. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  2. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... other entity relies on drug and alcohol tests that were conducted before the individual applied for...

  3. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  4. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  5. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a...

  6. 49 CFR 40.203 - What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? 40.203 Section 40.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.203...

  7. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees who...

  8. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section 423.159 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality...

  9. Drug-food interaction counseling programs in teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, A R; Doering, P L; Hatton, R C

    1992-04-01

    The results of a survey to characterize drug-food interaction counseling programs in teaching hospitals and solicit opinions on these programs from pharmacists and dietitians are reported. A questionnaire was mailed to the pharmacy director and the director of dietary services at teaching hospitals nationwide. The questionnaire contained 33 questions relating to hospital characteristics, drug-food interaction counseling programs, and the standard calling for such programs issued by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Of 792 questionnaires mailed, 425 were returned (response rate, 53.7). A majority of the pharmacists and dietitians (51.2%) did not consider their drug-food interaction counseling program to be formal; some had no program. The pharmacy department was involved more in program development than in the daily operation of such programs. The most frequent methods of identifying patients for counseling were using lists of patients' drugs and using physicians' orders. A mean of only five drugs were targeted per program. Slightly over half the respondents rated the Joint Commission standard less effective than other standards in its ability to improve patient care. A majority of teaching hospitals did not have formal drug-food interaction counseling programs. Pharmacists and dietitians did not view these programs as greatly beneficial and did not believe that the Joint Commission has clearly delineated the requirements for meeting its standard.

  10. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has ...

  11. Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use

  12. 12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Brännström, Lars

    2017-01-01

    12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use are neither better nor worse than other interventions Illicit drug abuse has serious and far-reaching implications for the abuser, their family members, friends, and society as a whole. Preferred intervention programs are those that effectively reduce...... illicit drug use and its negative consequences, and are cost-effective as well. Current evidence shows that overall, 12-step programs are just as effective as alternative, psychosocial interventions. The costs of programs are, therefore, an important consideration. However, the strength of the studies...

  13. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  14. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    , and other drug targets (integrase and envelope) if such drugs were part of the failing regimen; (iii) consider testing for CCR5 tropism at virologic failure or when a change of therapy has to be made in absence of detectable viral load, and in the latter case test DNA or last detectable plasma RNA; (iv...... the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure...... is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing...

  15. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  16. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  17. Testing for drugs of abuse in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C

    2014-06-01

    Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.

  18. An AIDS risk reduction program for Dutch drug users: an intervention mapping approach to planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman P; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2003-10-01

    This article presents the development of a theory- and evidence-based AIDS prevention program targeting Dutch drug users and aimed at promoting condom use. The emphasis is on the development of the program using a five-step intervention development protocol called intervention mapping (IM). Preceding Step 1 of the IM process, an assessment of the HIV problem among drug users was conducted. The product of IM Step 1 was a series of program objectives specifying what drug users should learn in order to use condoms consistently. In Step 2, theoretical methods for influencing the most important determinants were chosen and translated into practical strategies that fit the program objectives. The main strategy chosen was behavioral journalism. In Step 3, leaflets with role-model stories based on authentic interviews with drug users were developed and pilot tested. Finally, the need for cooperation with program users is discussed in IM Steps 4 and 5.

  19. 76 FR 54599 - Medicare Program; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...), prescription drug benefit program (Part D) and section 1876 cost plans including conforming changes to the MA... accounts (MSA) plans, cost-sharing for dual-eligible enrollees in the MA program and prescription drug pricing, coverage, and payment processes in the Part D program, and requirements governing the marketing...

  20. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment.

  1. Impact of HIV prevention programs on drug users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2009-11-01

    Faced with a rising HIV epidemic among injecting drug users, harm reduction policies and programs were introduced in Malaysia in 2005. The positive impact seen since the introduction of these programs comprise the inclusion of the health aspects of illicit drug use in the country's drug policies; better access to antiretroviral therapy for injecting drug users who are HIV infected; reduction in HIV-risk behavior; and greater social benefits, including increased employment. Despite these achievements, tension between law enforcement and public health persists, as harm reduction exists alongside an overall drug policy that is based on abstinence and zero tolerance. Unless there is harmonization of this policy, sustainability and scale-up of harm reduction programs will remain a challenge.

  2. 47 CFR 73.713 - Program tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Broadcast Stations § 73.713 Program tests. (a) Upon completion of construction of an international.... The Commission reserves the right to change the date of the beginning of such tests or to suspend or revoke the authority for program tests as and when such action may appear to be in the public interest...

  3. [Pathogenic Mechanism and Diagnostic Testing for Drug Allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Katsuji

    2018-01-01

     Three stages of the pathogenic mechanism of drug allergies can be considered: antigen formation, immune reaction and inflammation/disorder reaction. Drugs are thought to form 4 types of antigens: drug only, polymers, drug-carrier conjugates, and metabolite-carrier complexes. Antigens are recognized by B cell receptors and T cell receptors. Helper T cells (Th) are differentiated into four subsets, namely, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (Treg). Th1 produces interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and activates macrophages and cytotoxic T cells (Tc). Macrophages induce type IV allergies, and Tc lead to serious type IV allergies. On the other hand, Th2 produces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, etc., and activates B cells. B cells produce IgE antibodies, and the IgE antibody affects mast cells and induces type I allergies. Activated eosinophil leads to the chronic state of type I allergy. Diagnostic testing for allergenic drugs is necessary for patients with drug allergies. Because in vivo diagnostic tests for allergenic drugs are associated with a risk and burden to the patient, in vitro allergy tests are recommended to identify allergenic drugs. In allergy tests performed in vitro, cytological tests are more effective than serological tests, and the leukocyte migration test (LMT) presently has the highest efficacy. An LMT-chamber is better than LMT-agarose in terms of usability and sensitivity, and it can detect about 80% of allergenic drugs.

  4. Experiences with urine drug testing by police among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Gestalt Therapy Within a Drug Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideroff, Stephen I.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a Gestalt therapeutic approach that has shown promise within a drug treatment program. The major issues discussed include the acquisition of self-support, taking responsibility, dealing with anxiety, contact, and the expression of pent-up feelings. (Author)

  6. A study on programmed drug release from tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Jacoba van der

    1993-01-01

    This thesis shows the extension of the applicability of the megaloporous system for drugs with different physico-chemical properties, like solubility and pK.. Procaine HC1, a highly soluble drug, can successfully be formulated in the programmed release megaloporous system, by using Carnauba wax,

  7. The PUMA test program and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The PUMA test program is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data that are relevant to various Boiling Water Reactor phenomena. The author briefly describes the PUMA test program and facility, presents the objective of the program, provides data analysis for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident test, and compares the data with a RELAP5/MOD 3.1.2 calculation

  8. Results from the 2013 drug and alcohol testing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2013 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) that test positive fo...

  9. Results from the 2008 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2008 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses who test positive for controlled sub...

  10. Drug Testing in the Schools. Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Drug testing of district employees and students is examined from several perspectives: implications for school policy, legality, administration and protocol, and test reliability and accuracy. Substance abuse has become a major concern for educators, parents, and citizens as illegal drugs are more readily available. It is also pointed out that the…

  11. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  12. Guidelines for European workplace drug testing in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moore, Christine; George, Claire; Pichini, Simona

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decade, oral fluid has established itself as a robust testing matrix for monitoring drug use or misuse. Commercially available collection devices provide opportunities to collect and test oral fluid by the roadside and near-patient testing with both clinical and criminal justice applications. One of the main advantages of oral fluid relates to the collection of the matrix which is non-invasive, simple, and can be carried out under direct observation making it ideal for workplace drug testing. Laboratories offering legally defensible oral fluid workplace drug testing must adhere to national and international quality standards (ISO/IEC 17025); however, these standards do not address issues specific to oral fluid testing. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) recognizes the importance of providing best practice guidelines to organizations offering testing and those choosing to use oral fluid drug testing to test their employees. The aim of this paper is to present the EWDTS guidelines for oral fluid workplace drug testing. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Transportation and retention in outpatient drug abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, P D; Lemon, S C; Stein, M D

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear models revealed that provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services improved treatment retention beyond these thresholds for both OMM and ODF, but individual vouchers or payment for public transportation did not. Future research should validate whether car, van, or contracted transportation services improve retention and other treatment outcomes in outpatient drug abuse treatment.

  14. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...] Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to the... entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program to [[Page 5028

  15. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  16. Swift and Certain, Proportionate and Consistent: Key Values of Urine Drug Test Consequences for Probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Amy B

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, urine drug testing (UDT) in the correctional population (both prison and community corrections) has been infrequent, is scheduled, and has a high possibility of delayed results. Of practical relevance is that scheduled testing is ineffective for identifying drug misuse. Of ethical relevance is that consequences of positive scheduled tests can be unpredictable-in the form of overly severe punishment or a lack of treatment options-and that the scheduled testing paradigm is a poor way to change behaviors. More innovative programs now use a UDT paradigm with more frequent, random testing providing rapid results and certain, swift consequences and addiction treatment when warranted or requested. Studies have shown these new programs-the foundation of which is frequent, random UDTs-to significantly reduce drug use, criminal recidivism, and incarceration. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  18. Implementing and testing program PLOTTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Enclosed is a description of the magnetic tape or floppy diskette containing the PLOTTAB code package. In addition detailed information is provided on implementation and testing of this code. See part I for mainframe computers; part II for personal computers. These codes are documented in IAEA-NDS-82. (author)

  19. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  20. MHD diffuser model test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzorek, J J

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.

  1. MHD diffuser model test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idzorek, J.J.

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment

  2. Testing for drug and alcohol аbuse at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kavrakovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace represents a great risk to employee’s health and safety. More than 50% of the employees worldwide are related to easily accessible drug abuse, while 70% of the employees are related to alcohol abuse in the workplace. Tests for detecting drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace should be part of a new regulation, compulsory for all employees in the Republic of Macedonia. Implementing this sort of testing program should at the same time be a step towards devising particular solutions that shall bring about greater safety in the working environment. A key element in the implementation is to devise and establish an adequate policy that shall determine the risk factors within a working establishment which shall clearly express its position regarding drug and alcohol abuse during working hours. Along with the risk factors, the policy may also include the program for testing both, employees and the ones who are about to be employed, for drug and alcohol abuse. In order to implement this sort of test, it must be in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (Official gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No 92/07, 2007 and a legal framework has to be defined, that shall regulate and solve numerous aspects of this issue, in order to fully implement the program for drug free working environment pursuant to the Declaration and the decrees of the United Nations General Assembly in 1998.

  3. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  4. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug abuse...

  6. Do we have the training? The ethics of workplace drug testing and the GP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan; Thornett, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    Workplace drug testing has been in place in Australia since the early 1990s. In some industries it is required by legislation, while in others, employers have introduced it as an apparent cost effective way of improving productivity, safety and the health of its workforce while reducing absenteeism, accident rates and even deaths. There are national standards in place for workplace drug testing regarding specimen collection and testing, and well documented processes to follow in establishing a drug screening program within a workforce. This article explores the ethics of workplace drug testing and questions the assumed rights and obligations of employer, employee and the clinician involved in occupational medicine. It is questionable whether most general practitioners have the appropriate training to deal with these ethical issues comprehensively.

  7. Toward a generic approach for : Stress testing of drug substances and drug products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klick, Silke; Muijselaar, Pim G.; Waterval, Joop; Eichinger, Thomas; Korn, Christian; Gerding, Thijs K.; Debets, Alexander J.; Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari; Van Den Beld, Cas; Somsen, Govert W.; De Jong, Gerhardus J.

    The Impurity Profiling Group has developed a generic approach for conducting stress testing on drug substances and drug products. The proposed strategy is evaluated and verified with historical data and new experiments. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach is reasonable and generates

  8. The NRU blowdown test facility commissioning program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsworth, J A; Zanatta, R J; Yamazaki, A R; Semeniuk, D D; Wong, W; Dickson, L W; Ferris, C E; Burton, D H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1990-12-31

    A major experimental program has been established at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRL) that will provide essential data on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel under abnormal reactor operating conditions and on the transient release, transport and deposition of fission product activity from severely degraded fuel. A number of severe fuel damage (SFD) experiments will be conducted within the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) at CRL. A series of experiments are being conducted to commission this new facility prior to the SFD program. This paper describes the features and the commissioning program for the BTF. A development and testing program is described for critical components used on the reactor test section. In-reactor commissioning with a fuel assembly simulator commenced in 1989 June and preliminary results are given. The paper also outlines plans for future all-effects, in-reactor tests of CANDU-designed fuel. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Immunohistochemistry Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büttner, Reinhard; Gosney, John R; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Three programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are currently approved for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment with pembrolizumab in NSCLC requires PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. Nivolumab and atezolizumab are approved without PD-L1...

  10. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; Aulock, Sonja von

    2006-01-01

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After ri...

  11. Role of Urine Drug Testing in the Current Opioid Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gagan

    2017-12-01

    While the evidence for urine drug testing for patients on chronic opioid therapy is weak, the guidelines created by numerous medical societies and state and federal regulatory agencies recommend that it be included as one of the tools used to monitor patients for compliance with chronic opioid therapy. To get the most comprehensive results, clinicians should order both an immunoassay screen and confirmatory urine drug test. The immunoassay screen, which can be performed as an in-office point-of-care test or as a laboratory-based test, is a cheap and convenient study to order. Limitations of an immunoassay screen, however, include having a high threshold of detectability and only providing qualitative information about a select number of drug classes. Because of these restrictions, clinicians should understand that immunoassay screens have high false-positive and false-negative rates. Despite these limitations, though, the results can assist the clinician with making preliminary treatment decisions. In comparison, a confirmatory urine drug test, which can only be performed as a laboratory-based test, has a lower threshold of detectability and provides both qualitative and quantitative information. A urine drug test's greater degree of specificity allows for a relatively low false-negative and false-positive rate in contrast to an immunoassay screen. Like any other diagnostic test, an immunoassay screen and a confirmatory urine drug test both possess limitations. Clinicians must keep this in mind when interpreting an unexpected test result and consult with their laboratory when in doubt about the meaning of the test result to avoid making erroneous decisions that negatively impact both the patient and clinician.

  12. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants' ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed.

  13. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  14. Drug Use among Seniors on Public Drug Programs in Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Jeff; Hunt, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Seniors take more drugs than younger Canadians because, on average, they have a higher number of chronic conditions. Although taking multiple medications may be necessary to manage these conditions, it is important to consider the benefits and risks of each medication and the therapeutic goals of the patient. This article provides an in-depth look at the number and types of drugs used by seniors using drug claims data from the CIHI's National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System Database, representing approximately 70% of seniors in Canada. In 2012, almost two-thirds (65.9%) of seniors on public drug programs had claims for five or more drug classes, while 27.2% had claims for 10 or more, and 8.6% had claims for 15 or more. The most commonly used drug class was statins, used by nearly half (46.6%) of seniors. Nearly two-thirds (60.9%) of seniors living in long-term care (LTC) facilities had claims for 10 or more drug classes. Proton pump inhibitors were the most commonly used drug class among seniors living in LTC facilities (used by 37.0% of seniors in LTC facilities), while statins ranked seventh (29.8%).

  15. Policing, massive street drug testing and poly-substance use chaos in Georgia - a policy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Balanchivadze, Nino; Kirtadze, Irma

    2016-01-16

    Since early 2000, intensive policing, wide scale street drug testing, and actions aimed at limiting the availability of specific drugs have been implemented in Georgia. Supporters of this approach argue that fear of drug testing and resulting punishment compels drug users to stop using and prevents youth from initiating drug use. It has been also stated that reduction in the availability of specific drugs should be seen as an indication of the overall success of counter-drug efforts. The aim of the current review is to describe the drug-related law enforcement response in Georgia and its impact on illicit drug consumption and drug-related harm. We reviewed relevant literature that included peer-reviewed scientific articles, stand-alone research reports, annual drug situation reports, technical reports and program data. This was also supplemented by the review of relevant legislation and judicial practices for the twelve year period between 2002 and 2014. Every episode of reduced availability of any "traditional" injection drug was followed by the discovery/introduction of a new injection preparation. The pattern of drug consumption was normally driven by users' attempts to substitute their drug of choice through mixing together available alternative substances. Chaotic poly-substance use and extensive utilization of home-made injection drugs, prepared from toxic precursors, became common. Massive random street drug testing had little or no effect on the prevalence of problem drug use. Intensive harassment of drug users and exclusive focus on reducing the availability of specific drugs did not result in reduction of the prevalence of injecting drug use. Repressive response of Georgian anti-drug authorities relied heavily on consumer sanctions, which led to shifts in drug users' behavior. In most cases, these shifts were associated with the introduction and use of new toxic preparations and subsequent harm to the physical and mental health of drug consumers.

  16. The advanced test reactor strategic evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Since the Chernobly accident, the safety of test reactors and irradiation facilities has been critically evaluated from the public's point of view. A systematic evaluation of all safety, environmental, and operational issues must be made in an integrated manner to prioritize actions to maximize benefits while minimizing costs. Such a proactive program has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, called the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), is being conducted for the ATR to provide integrated safety and operational reviews of the reactor against the standards applied to licensed commercial power reactors. This has taken into consideration the lessons learned by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) and the follow-on effort known as the Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP). The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the designs of older operating nuclear power plants to confirm and document their safety. The ATR STEP objectives are discussed

  17. [Drug Addiction Self-Help Recovery scale (DASH-scale): an approach to the measurement of recovery from drug addiction in self-help program among drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale for measuring the recovery in self-help program for drug addicts. Our study sites were fourteen self-help groups for drug addicts called "DARC: Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center". DARC activities were based on Narcotics Anonymous types of self-help program. The 25-items DASH-scale questionnaire was developed using data, which were obtained through in-depth interview among DARC staff. A cross-sectional study among recovering addicts participating in "DARC" activities was implemented from Jan 2004 to Feb 2004. 164 subjects were responded to our questionnaire. Factor analysis was carried out and items with weaker or split loadings were removed. Factor analysis of DASH-scale results produced a surprisingly clean four-factor solution. 19-items were left to form the final DASH-scale; regular life-style (6 items), acceptance of drug addiction (5 items), sympathy with member (5 items), reborn (3 items). The internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) of these scales was very high (0.87). Low but significant concurrent correlations were observed between the DASH-scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (0.22), Purpose in Life Test (0.35). Discriminant validity of the DASH-scale was supported by significant increase with exposed period of self-help program. Evidence supports the DASH-scale was possible to measure recovery in self-help program.

  18. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  19. An Impact Evaluation of a Rural Youth Drug Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of mixed affective-cognitive drug education program on rural northern Michigan and northeastern Wisconsin sixth and seventh graders' (N=265) substance use health beliefs and behaviors. Alcohol use in this population was determined to be much higher than national average for similar age groups while marijuana, cigarette, and…

  20. Pharmacogenetics and Predictive Testing of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted.

  1. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0004] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  2. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0034] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  3. Periodical test program in depth revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, C.; Zermizoglou, R.

    1987-11-01

    Inspection visits made to different sites during 1980 and 1981 evidenced the need to extend and define more precisely the periodical tests performed on safety related systems; thus Electricite de France was requested by the Safety Authorities to re-examine the periodical test program for all safety related systems. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Electricite de France in order to perform an exhaustive analysis of the periodical test program for the 900 and 1300 MWe plants, and the organization set up at the IPSN at one hand and Electricite de France on the other hand for the purpose of elaborating a periodical test program which would be ratified by the Safety Authorities

  4. Recommended well drilling and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.; Wilson, C.

    1978-07-01

    A well drilling and testing program is recommended by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to identify the hydrology of deep basalts in the Pasco Basin. The ultimate objective of this program is to assist in determining the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Reservation. The recommended program has been staged for maximum effectiveness. In the first stage, six wells have been identified for drilling and testing which, when coupled with existing wells, will provide sufficient data for a preliminary overview of basin hydrology and a preliminary determination of the hydrologic suitability of the deep basalt for a repository site. The rate at which the first stage wells are drilled and tested will depend upon the date at which a preliminary determination of site suitability is required. It was assumed that a preliminary determination of suitability would be required in 1980, in which case all six first stage wells would be drilled in FY 1979. If the results of the first stage analysis are favorable for repository siting, tentative repository sites can be identified and a second stage hydrology program can be implemented to provide the necessary details of the flow system. To accomplish this stage, a number of deep wells would be required at locations both inside and outside the basin, with specific sites to be identified as the work progresses to obtain maximum utility of existing data. A program is recommended for testing in each new well and for completion of testing in each existing well. Recommended tests include borehole geophysics, pressure and permeability testing, geochemical sampling, tracer testing, hydrofracturing and borehole fracture logging. The entire data collection program is oriented toward providing the information required to establish and verify an accurate numerical model of the Pasco Basin

  5. Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-25

    Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β 2 -agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...

  7. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  8. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  9. FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALITIES REGARDING DRUGS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aparecida de Barros

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.

  10. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components of...

  11. Drug Assessment Program; A Community Guide. The Drug Abuse Council Handbook Series, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Louis H.; Sessler, John

    Addiction to illicit hard drugs, and particularly opiates, has increased in the past few years. Yet, there are few comprehensive evaluations of the treatment systems, and there is little systematic planning for programs to meet current and anticipated changes in the community's need for treatment. This report has been written to assist community…

  12. 'Worth the test?' Pragmatism, pill testing and drug policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Recent deaths of young Australian music festival attendees from 'party-drug' overdoses have sparked debate about the effectiveness of drug policies. Australia is widely lauded for its harm minimisation approach to drugs, and yet, over the last 30 years, it can be argued its policies have been fragmented, sometimes inconsistent and contradictory. The present article examines the root of this inconsistency, using it as a foundation to advocate for drug policy reform. In keeping with the goals of the National Drug Strategy to promote policy innovation, there is an opportunity to learn from international studies which have shown promising findings in the reduction of party-drug use and its harms through application of pill testing. This paper evaluates Australia's National Drug Strategy and pill testing through a lens of pragmatism, to determine whether there is space for testing practices in contemporary policy. Specifically, the paper analyses current drug policy literature and research studies, examining a range of key drug use indicators, social and political debate and research evidence. The need for policy reform, attitudinal and cultural shifts and development of stronger cross-sectoral partnerships is highlighted, to ensure a rational and logical approach that genuinely tackles drug policy-making and strategy from a broad public health perspective. Using a theoretical frame of pragmatism and drawing from national and international research evidence, this paper recommends the integration of pill testing into Australia's harm minimisation strategy.

  13. Quality assurance in the nuclear test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    In February 1979 Test Program laid the ground work for a new quality assurance structure. The new approach was based on the findings and recommendations of the Ad Hoc QA Program Review panel, which are summarized in this report. The new structure places the responsibility for quality assurance in the hands of the line organizations, both in the programmatic and functional elements of the LLL matrix

  14. Oral fluid drug tests: effects of adulterants and foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raphael C; Tran, Minhchau; Tung, James K

    2005-06-10

    An on-site oral fluid drug screen, Oratect, was used to investigate the effects of adulterants and foodstuffs on oral fluid test results. Common foods, beverages, food ingredients, cosmetics and hygienic products were demonstrated not to cause false positive results when tested 30 min after their consumption. Evaluations of two commercial oral fluid adulterants, "Clear Choice Fizzy Flush" and "Test'in Spit n Kleen Mouthwash" suggest their mechanism of action is the clearing of residual drugs of abuse compounds through rinsing of the oral cavity. They do not directly destroy the drug compounds or change the pH of the oral fluid. It is also suggested that a common mouthwash would perform similar action.

  15. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  16. Microbial sensor for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-T; Wang, D-B; Li, C-Y; Deng, J-Y; Zhang, J-B; Bi, L-J; Zhang, X-E

    2018-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source. In principle, after drug pretreatment for 4-5 days, the response differences between the sensors made of drug-sensitive isolates are distinguishable from the sensors made of drug-resistant isolates. The susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain, its mutants and 35 clinical isolates to six common anti-TB drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, levofloxacin and para-aminosalicylic acid were tested using the proposed method. The results agreed well with the gold standard method (LJ) and were determined in significantly less time. The whole procedure takes approximately 11 days and therefore has the potential to inform clinical decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possible application of a dissolved oxygen electrode-based microbial sensor in M. tuberculosis drug resistance testing. This study used the microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The overall detection result of the microbial sensor agreed well with that of the conventional LJ proportion method and takes less time than the existing phenotypic methods. In future studies, we will build an O 2 electrode array microbial sensor reactor to enable a high-throughput drug resistance analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Tritium systems test assembly quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstiens, F.L.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    A quality assurance program should establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that fusion facilities and their subsystems will perform satisfactorily in service. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) Quality Assurance Program has been designed to assure that the designs, tests, data, and interpretive reports developed at TSTA are valid, accurate, and consistent with formally specified procedures and reviews. The quality consideration in all TSTA activities is directed toward the early detection of quality problems, coupled with timely and positive disposition and corrective action

  18. Drug sensitivity testing platforms for gastric cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vianne; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Ng, Christopher; Mok, Yingting; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Yan, Benedict

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer diagnostics has traditionally been histomorphological and primarily the domain of surgical pathologists. Although there is an increasing usage of molecular and genomic techniques for clinical diagnostics, there is an emerging field of personalised drug sensitivity testing. In this review, we describe the various personalised drug sensitivity testing platforms and discuss the challenges facing clinical adoption of these assays for gastric cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2006-06-30

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After rinsing, the beads are incubated with human whole blood and the release of the endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1beta is measured as a marker of pyrogenic activity. Intentional contaminations with lipopolysaccharide were retrieved from the chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel, cisplatin and liposomal daunorubicin, the antibiotic gentamicin, the antifungal agent liposomal amphotericin B, and the corticosteroid prednisolone at lower dilutions than in the standard in vitro pyrogen test. This represents a promising new approach for the detection of pyrogenic contamination in drugs or in drugs containing interfering additives and should lead to improved safety levels.

  20. The Andrews’ Principles of Risk, Need, and Responsivity as Applied in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Meta-Analysis of Crime and Drug Use Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Pearson, Frank S.; Podus, Deborah; Hamilton, Zachary K.; Greenwell, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to answer the question: Can the Andrews principles of risk, needs, and responsivity, originally developed for programs that treat offenders, be extended to programs that treat drug abusers? Methods Drawing from a dataset that included 243 independent comparisons, we conducted random-effects meta-regression and ANOVA-analog meta-analyses to test the Andrews principles by averaging crime and drug use outcomes over a diverse set of programs for drug abuse problems. Results For crime outcomes, in the meta-regressions the point estimates for each of the principles were substantial, consistent with previous studies of the Andrews principles. There was also a substantial point estimate for programs exhibiting a greater number of the principles. However, almost all of the 95% confidence intervals included the zero point. For drug use outcomes, in the meta-regressions the point estimates for each of the principles was approximately zero; however, the point estimate for programs exhibiting a greater number of the principles was somewhat positive. All of the estimates for the drug use principles had confidence intervals that included the zero point. Conclusions This study supports previous findings from primary research studies targeting the Andrews principles that those principles are effective in reducing crime outcomes, here in meta-analytic research focused on drug treatment programs. By contrast, programs that follow the principles appear to have very little effect on drug use outcomes. Primary research studies that experimentally test the Andrews principles in drug treatment programs are recommended. PMID:24058325

  1. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager may...

  2. The WIPP research and development test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) is a DOE RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States defense-related radioactive waste. The in-situ test program is defined for the thermal-structural interactions, plugging and sealing, and waste package interactions in a salt environment. An integrated series of large-scale underground tests address the issues of both systems and long-term isolation performance of a repository

  3. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  4. 47 CFR 73.1620 - Program tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... integration of ownership and management and diversification of the media of mass communciation contained in... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program tests. 73.1620 Section 73.1620 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES...

  5. An Online Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls: Posttest and 1-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.

  6. Patch testing in non-immediate cutaneous adverse drug reactions: value of extemporaneous patch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assier, Haudrey; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Gener, Gwendeline; Verlinde Carvalh, Muriel; Chosidow, Olivier; Wolkenstein, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Patch testing following a standardized protocol is reliable for identifying the culprit drug in cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). However, these patch tests (PTs) require pharmaceutical material and staff, which are not always easily available. To evaluate an extemporaneous PT method in CADRs. We retrospectively analysed data for all patients referred to our department between March 2009 and June 2013 for patch testing after a non-immediate CADR. The patients who supplied their own suspected drugs were tested both with extemporaneous PTs and with conventional PTs. Extemporaneous PTs involved a nurse crushing and diluting the drug in pet. in a ratio of approximately one-third to two-thirds. Standardized PTs were performed according to guidelines, with commercial drugs diluted to 30% or with active ingredients diluted to 10%. We analysed the data for the two PT methods in terms of the number of positive test reactions, drugs tested, and type of CADR for patients in whom the two PT methods were used. In total, 75 of 156 patients underwent the two PT procedures, including 91 double tests. Overall, 21 tests gave positive reactions with the two methods, and 69 other tests gave negative results with the two methods. Our series yielded results similar to those of published series concerning the types of CADR and the drugs responsible. Our results suggest that, for CADRs, if a patient supplies a suspected drug but if the pharmaceutical material and staff are not available for conventional PTs, extemporaneous PTs performed by the nurse with the commercial drug used by the patient can be useful and reliable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockow, K.; Garvey, L. H.; Aberer, W.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Barbaud, A.; Bilo, M. B.; Bircher, A.; Blanca, M.; Bonadonna, B.; Campi, P.; Castro, E.; Cernadas, J. R.; Chiriac, A. M.; Demoly, P.; Grosber, M.; Gooi, J.; Lombardo, C.; Mertes, P. M.; Mosbech, H.; Nasser, S.; Pagani, M.; Ring, J.; Romano, A.; Scherer, K.; Schnyder, B.; Testi, S.; Torres, M.; Trautmann, A.; Terreehorst, I.

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable

  8. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs.The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status.HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del and H3122 (EML4-ALK cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003. The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026 in CD-DST.In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically.

  9. Effect of drugs on the thyroid function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, G.P.; Faria, A.C.S. de; Carvalho, M.C. de; Guimaraes, M.M.; Cordeiro, J.G.H.; Santa Casa do Rio de Janeiro

    1984-01-01

    The effects of drugs in the results of thyroid function tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the real clinical state of the patients, are reviewed. The aspects of the metabolism of the thyreoidean hormones which could be related to these alterations are presented. (Author) [pt

  10. NRC valve performance test program - check valve testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmougin, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Valve Performance Test Program addresses the current requirements for testing of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in light water reactors. Leak rate monitoring is the current method used by operating commercial power plants to survey the condition of their PIVs. ETEC testing of three check valves (4-inch, 6-inch, and 12-inch nominal diameters) indicates that leak rate testing is not a reliable method for detecting impending valve failure. Acoustic emission monitoring of check valves shows promise as a method of detecting loosened internals damage. Future efforts will focus on evaluation of acoustic emission monitoring as a technique for determining check valve condition. Three gate valves also will be tested to evaluate whether the check valve results are applicable to gate type PIVs

  11. Progress and promise for the MDMA drug development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Holland, Julie; Mithoefer, Michael C

    2018-02-01

    Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy." MDMA stimulates the release of hormones and neurochemicals that affect key brain areas for emotion and memory processing. A series of recently completed phase 2 clinical trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD show favorable safety outcomes and large effect sizes that warrant expansion into multi-site phase 3 trials, set to commence in 2018. The nonprofit sponsor of the MDMA drug development program, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), is supporting these trials to explore whether MDMA, administered on only a few occasions, can increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Brain imaging techniques and animal models of fear extinction are elucidating neural mechanisms underlying the robust effects of MDMA on psychological processing; however, much remains to be learned about the complexities of MDMA effects as well as the complexities of PTSD itself.

  12. Development of immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Thomas T; Evans, Ellen W

    2012-01-01

    The ICH S8 immunotoxicity testing guideline for human pharmaceuticals was published in 2006 and was intended to provide guidance for assessing the immunotoxicity potential of low-molecular-weight drugs that are not intended to alter the immune system. For drugs intended to modulate the immune system, immunotoxicity testing strategies are generally developed on a case-by-case approach since the targets, intended patient population, and mechanisms of action of the test compound will determine the type of testing needed. Some of the general principles of ICH S8, however, may be applied to immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs. A weight-of-evidence approach using factors discussed in ICH S8 in concert with an assessment of the potential value of additional immunotoxicity testing should be considered. For most situations, immunotoxicity studies with immunomodulatory compounds evaluate off-target effects on the immune system and exaggerated pharmacology. The potential use of data from these studies and considerations such as translatability to humans are discussed.

  13. Urine specimen validity test for drug abuse testing in workplace and court settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  15. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  17. 1/3-scale model testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Attaway, S.W.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Huerta, M.; Abbott, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the drop testing of a one-third scale model transport cask system. Two casks were supplied by Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) to demonstrate dual purpose shipping/storage casks. These casks will be used to ship spent fuel from DOEs West Valley demonstration project in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for long term spent fuel dry storage demonstration. As part of the certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data. Two 9-m (30-ft) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood filled impact limiters. In the first test, the cask system was tested in an end-on configuration. In the second test, the system was tested in a slap-down configuration where the axis of the cask was oriented at a 10 degree angle with the horizontal. Slap-down occurs for shallow angle drops where the primary impact at one end of the cask is followed by a secondary impact at the other end. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. This paper describes both test results in terms of measured deceleration, post test deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system

  18. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Current status of accreditation for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moeller, Manfred; Kronstrand, Robert

    2008-03-21

    At the annual meeting of the Society of Hair Testing in Vadstena, Sweden in 2006, a committee was appointed to address the issue of guidelines for hair testing and to assess the current status of accreditation amongst laboratories offering drug testing in hair. A short questionnaire was circulated amongst the membership and interested parties. Fifty-two responses were received from hair testing laboratories providing details on the amount and type of hair tests they offered and the status of accreditation within their facilities. Although the vast majority of laboratories follow current guidelines (83%), only nine laboratories were accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 for hair testing. A significant number of laboratories reporting that they were in the process of developing quality systems with a view to accrediting their methods within 2-3 years. This study provides an insight into the status of accreditation in hair testing laboratories and supports the need for guidelines to encourage best practice.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two

  1. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  2. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  3. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  5. The Advanced Test Reactor Strategic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of safety, environmental, and operational issues has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), provides an integrated review of safety and operational issues against the standards applied to licensed commercial facilities. In the review of safety issues, 18 deviations were identified which required prompt attention. Resolution of these items has been accelerated in the program. An integrated living schedule is being developed to address the remaining findings. A risk evaluation is being performed on the proposed corrective actions and these actions will then be formally ranked in order of priority based on considerations of safety and operational significance. Once the final ranking is completed, an integrated schedule will be developed, which will include considerations of availability of funding and operating schedule. 3 refs., 2 figs

  6. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    to Southern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance......OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...

  7. NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR is to provide integral data for code assessment, which reasonably reproduce the important phenomena and processes expected in the SBWR under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and transient conditions. To achieve this objective, the Program consists of four coupled elements: (1) to design and construct an integral, carefully-scaled SBWR test facility at Purdue Univ., (2) to provide pre-construction RELAP5/CONTAIN predictions of the facility design, (3) to provide confirmatory data for code assessment, and (4) to assess the RELAP5/CONTAIN code with data. A description of the open-quotes preliminary designclose quotes of the Purdue test facility and test matrix is presented. The facility is scheduled to be built by December 1994. Approximately 50 tests will be performed from April 1995 through April 1996 and documented by interim data reports. A final and complete data report is scheduled to be published by July 31, 1996

  8. 75 FR 10272 - Notice Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program-Contract Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program--Contract Pharmacy Services AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... drug pricing program by which manufacturers who sell covered outpatient drugs to particular covered... provisions, which had been previously limited to the Alternative Methods Demonstration Project program. FOR...

  9. 13 CFR 147.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and (d) The penalties that you may impose upon them for drug...-free awareness program? 147.215 Section 147.215 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in...

  10. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  11. Olodaterol and vilanterol detection in sport drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundela, Zdenek; Große, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the detection of olodaterol and vilanterol, two novel β2 -agonists, in human urine for the purpose of sport drug testing was investigated. Compounds of interest were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) employing methods commonly used in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratories. For both substances, the respective parent compound was found to be a suitable target analyte for monitoring therapeutic dose administration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  13. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 1985 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). Programmatic activities were concentrated in three areas, as listed and described in the following paragraphs. (1) A literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. Available mathematical models are based on diffusion as the predominant mechanism. Although numerous factors that affect leaching have been identified, they have been conveniently categorized as factors related to the entire leaching system, to the leachant or to the waste form. A report has been published on the results of this literature survey. (2) A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data are being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. (3) Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected

  14. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  15. A Census of Prison-Based Drug Treatment Programs: Implications for Programming, Policy, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Wayne N.; Zajac, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Despite a growing realization that unmeasured programmatic differences influence prison-based drug treatment effectiveness, few attempts to systematically measure such differences have been made. To improve program planning and evaluation in this area, we developed a census instrument to collect descriptive information about 118 prison-based drug…

  16. Diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity: lymphocyte transformation test and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Hans F.

    2005-01-01

    For all types of allergic reactions including immediate type of reactions, types II and III reactions as well as delayed-type reactions the recognition of the antigen by specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes is a prerequisite. Evidences for the key role of T-lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of allergic drug reactions are positive patch test reactions and the LTT. The proliferative response that can be measured by means of the incorporation of 3H-thymidine during DNA synthesis can be expressed as stimulation index (SI) which is the relation between the cell proliferation with antigen compared without antigen. In addition drug-specific activation of PBMC consistently resulted in IL-5 expression and secretion. The sensitivity of the LTT for the detection of drug sensitization could be improved up to 92% by the measurement of released interleukin-5. The expression and secretion of other cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-10 was less consistently and had a diagnostic sensitivity of 36 and 50%, respectively. Microarrays are a promising new technical platform to look for better markers which can be used as a read out in the LTT and other similar assays and to study pharmacological interactions between drugs including cytokines such as interferons and the immune system

  17. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother.

  18. Philadelphia's community based drug abuse program: broader medical and social concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, J

    1975-06-01

    The rehabilitation of drug dependent people has undergone drastic changes since first attempts were made to curb the abuse of illegal drugs. The isolated law-enforcement model proved to be of no use in this area. So, too, the medical model, the psychological model and the public health model proved disappointingly low in their results. During the last ten years, a so-called "metabolic replacement model" has had its upsurge, creating a controversy still under discussion. The Drug Abuse Rehabilitation Programs of the West Philadelphia Community Mental Health Consortium, Inc. have been in the forefront with its treatment models. Established in 1968 as a purely methadone maintenance program, it has evolved into becoming a model, applying community mental health principles. This paper will explore this model further, describing the mechanics of its changes. From a municipal hospital-based methadone dispensing station, the program has developed into a multi-modality project. Three decentralized drug-free outpatient services are located in the midst of the community where the drug abuse problem is more accute. Outreach is emphasized and case-funding is applied. A possibly unique river-front motel was just acquired for the development of a community-based treatment modality. The 94 rooms were converted into a first-floor alcoholism program which also has a "highway safety program" and an intermediate care facility for alcoholics. The second floor of this facility contains outpatient services for the treatment of drug addicts, including a methadone maintenance program, counselling, family therapy and group therapy. The place where most of the emphasis has been placed is the Work Rehabilitation Center (a novel approach whereby patients will spend up to six hours in "partial hospitalization"). Clients will be tested for vocational aptitude and four workshops will be developed on the premises - carpentry, automotive, electricity and clerical. A huge cafeteria with a semi

  19. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor, to have the potential to significantly affect the environment, public health and safety, or... evidence of the use of illegal drugs of employees in testing designated positions identified in this... section shall provide for random tests at a rate equal to 30 percent of the total number of employees in...

  20. The U.S. food and drug administration's dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratta, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The U. S. Public Health Service's (PHS) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (part of the PHS) has had a Dosimetry Program at the Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center (WEAC) (formerly the Northeastern Radiological Health Laboratory). This Dosimetry Program has been in place since 1961. In 1967 it was augmented by the construction of a Whole Body Counter at WEAC for measuring internal dose. The FDA's Center for Medical Devices and Radiological Health had been handling these dosimeters since 1961 and in 2000 the WEAC took over total responsibility for this program for the FDA's Office of Regulatory affairs. This program was originally setup for the radiation workers (analysts and support personnel) and later included investigators personnel working in the medical and dental x-ray field. The field laboratories began using radionuclides in 1972 and were also issued radiation dosimeters. Investigators station at border import station alter 2003 were issued as well as radiation pages as a precaution when checking imported food and other FDA regulated products. This paper will discuss the results of radiation exposure received by analyst (including whole body measurements) at WEAC and field laboratories. Also discussed will be exposures to investigators in the medical and dental field. The exposure to the investigators at the import border stations will be included even though they have not been carrying dosimeters for slightly more than a year. In general, the exposures have been well below the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for radiation workers. (author)

  1. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  2. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  3. Resident assistant training program for increasing alcohol, other drug, and mental health first-aid efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J; Rossheim, Matthew E; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2015-05-01

    In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on eight US campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems 6 months after baseline. Compared with those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs' ability to provide alcohol, other drugs, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates.

  4. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...... search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  5. Towards a pragmatic human migraine model for drug testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emma Katrine; Olesen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Background A model for the testing of novel anti-migraine drugs should preferably use healthy volunteers for ease of recruiting. Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) provokes headache in healthy volunteers with some migraine features such as pulsating pain quality and aggravation by physical activity.......003). Difference in area under the headache score curve (AUC) 0-4 hours between sumatriptan and placebo was not significant ( p = 0.30). Conclusion 5-ISMN is a very powerful inducer of migraine-like headache in healthy individuals but the headache does not respond to sumatriptan. The model is not useful for future...

  6. 76 FR 29183 - Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for Certain Covered Entities Under 340B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... and, if they are, at what price. These covered entities do not know if they can buy these orphan drugs... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 10 RIN 0906-AA94 Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for... Prices of Drugs Purchased by Covered Entities.'' Section 340B implemented a drug pricing program by which...

  7. 75 FR 69591 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source Drugs AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... withdrawing the definition of ``multiple source drug'' as it was revised in the ``Medicaid Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in the October 7, 2008 Federal Register. DATES: Effective...

  8. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under the...

  9. Clinician impression versus prescription drug monitoring program criteria in the assessment of drug-seeking behavior in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Griggs, Christopher A; Mitchell, Patricia M; Langlois, Breanne K; Friedman, Franklin D; Moore, Rebecca L; Lin, Shuo Cheng; Nelson, Kerrie P; Feldman, James A

    2013-10-01

    We compare emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior with objective criteria from a state prescription drug monitoring program, assess change in opioid pain reliever prescribing after prescription drug monitoring program review, and examine clinical factors associated with suspected drug-seeking behavior. This was a prospective observational study of emergency providers assessing a convenience sample of patients aged 18 to 64 years who presented to either of 2 academic medical centers with chief complaint of back pain, dental pain, or headache. Drug-seeking behavior was objectively defined as present when a patient had greater than or equal to 4 opioid prescriptions by greater than or equal to 4 providers in the 12 months before emergency department evaluation. Emergency providers completed data forms recording their impression of the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior, patient characteristics, and plan for prescribing pre- and post-prescription drug monitoring program review. Descriptive statistics were generated. We calculated agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program definition, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of emergency provider impression, using prescription drug monitoring program criteria as the criterion standard. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine clinical factors associated with drug-seeking behavior. Thirty-eight emergency providers with prescription drug monitoring program access participated. There were 544 patient visits entered into the study from June 2011 to January 2013. There was fair agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program (κ=0.30). Emergency providers had sensitivity 63.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.8% to 71.7%), specificity 72.7% (95% CI 68.4% to 77.0%), and positive predictive value 41.2% (95% CI 34.4% to 48

  10. MARKETING PREDICTIONS IN ANTI-DRUG SOCIAL PROGRAMS: USE OF CAUSAL METHODS IN THE STUDY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Corina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug use is one of the major challenges that todays society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue of drug use in Romania, by making predictions based on the evolution of this phenomenon during the next five years. The obtained results have revealed the necessity to increase the number of programs preventing drug use, aswell as the need to continue social programs that have proved effective in previous years.

  11. DRUG COURTS: Better DOJ Data Collection and Evaluation Efforts Needed to Measure Impact of Drug Court Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Under this concept, in exchange for the possibility of dismissed charges or reduced sentences, defendants are diverted to drug court programs in various ways and at various stages in the judicial process...

  12. Excluding Orphan Drugs from the 340B Drug Discount Program: the Impact on 18 Critical Access Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Carpinelli Wallack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 340B Drug Pricing Program is a federal program designed to reduce the amount that safety net providers spend on outpatient drugs. The Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act of 2010 extended eligibility for 340B to critical access hospitals (CAHs for all drugs except those designated as “orphan.” Because this policy is unprecedented, this study quantifies the gross financial impact that this exemption has on a group of CAHs. Methods: Drug spending for 2010 from 18 CAHs in Minnesota and Wisconsin are reviewed to identify the prevalence of orphan drug purchases and to calculate the price differentials between the 340B price and the hospitals’ current cost. Results: The 18 CAHs’ purchases of orphan drugs comprise an average of 44% of the total annual drug budgets, but only 5% of units purchased, thus representing a very high proportion of their expenditures. In the aggregate, the 18 hospitals would have saved $3.1 million ($171,000 average per hospital had purchases of drugs with orphan designations been made at the 340B price. Because CAH claims for Medicare are reimbursed on a cost-basis, the Federal government is losing an opportunity for savings. Conclusion: The high prevalence of orphan drug use and considerable potential for cost reduction through the 340B program demonstrate the loss of benefit to the hospitals, Federal government and the states.

  13. Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

    2010-05-01

    To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs.

  14. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  15. Effects of Program and Patient Characteristics on Retention of Drug Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Joshi, Vandana; Maglione, Margaret; Chou, Chih Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of program and patient characteristics on patient retention in residential, out-patient, and methadone maintenance drug treatment programs. Data for 26,047 patients in 87 programs show that threshold retention rates were generally low for all 3 program types, although program practice and service provision played important…

  16. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  17. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and drugs...

  18. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  19. Choosing the right laboratory: a review of clinical and forensic toxicology services for urine drug testing in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy.

  20. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  1. Pioneer Robot Testing Program and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Ukraine established a joint program in 1997 to address the need for remotely operated systems for unstructured environments in Ukraine such as the highly hazardous conditions inside the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4, or Shelter Object. The environment inside Shelter Object is extremely hazardous due to ionizing radiation fields, high airborne contamination, and major industrial safety issues. Although Ukrainian workers have explored and mapped much of the internals of Unit 4 in the time since the accident during the morning hours of April 26, 1986, there remain areas where humans have not entered to this date. Based on the agreement between USDOE and Ukraine, the USDOE, in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), developed the Pioneer Robot and has provided it to the ChNPP within the framework of international technical assistance. Pioneer is capable of mobile platform movement and manipulation under teleoperated control, 3-dimensional mapping, and environmental data collection. The Pioneer is radiation hardened for conditions like those of Shelter Object. Pioneer has been evaluated on site in Ukraine for use in both the Shelter Object environment and the more general conditions of ChNPP decommissioning. This paper summarizes the results of these testing activities and describes the status and near-term activities in support of the Pioneer Robot integration into Ukraine

  2. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  3. Test systems in drug discovery for hazard identification and risk assessment of human drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.

  4. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... vehicle and equipment maintenance; revenue vehicle control or dispatch (optional); Commercial Drivers... to merely reflect the changes HHS made to the revised CCF, and clarified how collectors, laboratories... provide to the collector. One commentor, a large laboratory with many collection sites, concurred with the...

  5. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Compliance Program Guidance Manual (FY 88). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  6. The Family and Federal Drug Abuse Policies--Programs: Toward Making the Invisible Family Visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Notes why the family is not considered in drug policy and programing and asserts that existing conditions demand conscious consideration of the family in efforts of federal drug agencies. Data show changing parameters of drug use-abuse. A research and prevention agenda that integrates the family is presented. (Author/BEF)

  7. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). 423.153 Section 423.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...

  8. Using Virtual ATE Model to Migrate Test Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 杨乔林

    1995-01-01

    Bacause of high development costs of IC (Integrated Circuit)test programs,recycling existing test programs from one kind of ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) to another or generating directly from CAD simulation modules to ATE is more and more valuable.In this paper,a new approach to migrating test programs is presented.A virtual ATE model based on object-oriented paradigm is developed;it runs Test C++ (an intermediate test control language) programs and TeIF(Test Inftermediate Format-an intermediate pattern),migrates test programs among three kinds of ATE (Ando DIC8032,Schlumberger S15 and GenRad 1732) and generates test patterns from two kinds of CAD 9Daisy and Panda) automatically.

  9. Drug usage guidelines, Part 3: assessment of acceptance of the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, R A; Huber, S L; Rice, G; Hudson, H D; Godwin, H N

    1985-04-01

    The Drug Usage Guidelines (DUG) program, as perceived by the members of the P & T Committee and by physicians who had prepared and submitted DUGs, was demonstrated to be an effective method for evaluating drugs for formulary inclusion. The majority of P & T members felt that the DUG program had strengthened the drug review process without being too tedious or preventing the addition of valuable drugs to the formulary. Sixty-eight percent of physicians who had submitted a DUG expressed the opinion that it served as a vehicle for providing educational information on rational therapeutics. A majority of respondents stated that they would recommend the DUG program to other hospitals.

  10. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  11. Plenary III–04: Responses to Drug Costs: Year Three of the Medicare Part D Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Vicki; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Many Medicare Part D beneficiaries face substantial prescription drug cost-sharing. In the first year of the program, many beneficiaries reported substantial drug use changes in response to the coverage gap. In response, an increasing number of plans offer generic drug coverage during the gap. We compared responses to Part D costs among beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage and full gap coverage in 2008, the third year of the Part D program.

  12. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1) Drug...

  13. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  14. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another test, performed by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS). This procedure is... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall be...

  15. Full-course drug challenge test in the diagnosis of delayed allergic reactions to penicillin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jakob E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Drug challenge test (DCT) has long been the most sensitive test in the allergological work-up when investigating for penicillin allergy.......Drug challenge test (DCT) has long been the most sensitive test in the allergological work-up when investigating for penicillin allergy....

  16. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  17. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  18. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  19. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  20. Program for analyzing power boost tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, C.A.

    1982-03-01

    A rapid increase of power in a reactor produces a failure in the fuel. Experiments to study the conditions in the NRU reactor after such failures have been planned and carried out. Given the concentrations of specified isotopes at a number of times over the length of an experiment as produced for example, from the program SARGS and the power history of the reactor, this program calculates the release rates, escape rate coefficients, and fractional releases for the isotopes. These values may be optionally printed and plotted. Decay schemes for a limited number of mass numbers are implemented. The program is written in FORTRAN and runs on the CDC 6600 - CYBER 170 system

  1. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  2. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share the DVD Meet the Kids in the Movie Bring LATS to the classroom! Close News/Events ... this could severely affect their research results and interpretation. Through the PRF Diagnostics Program, each cell line ...

  3. Towards a Theory for Testing Non-terminating Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotlieb, Arnaud; Petit, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    Non-terminating programs are programs that legally perform unbounded computations. Though they are ubiquitous in real-world applications, testing these programs requires new theoretic developments as usual definitions of test data adequacy criteria ignore infinite paths. This paper develops...... a theory of program-based structural testing based on operational semantics. Reasoning at the program semantics level permits to cope with infinite paths (and non-feasible paths) when defining test data adequacy criteria. As a result, our criteria respect the first Weyuker’s property on finite...... applicability, even for non-terminating programs. We discuss the consequences of this re-interpretation of test data adequacy criteria w.r.t. existing test coverage criteria....

  4. Women's opinions of legal requirements for drug testing in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Edmonds, Brownsyne; Mckenzie, Fatima; Austgen, MacKenzie B; Carroll, Aaron E; Meslin, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    To explore women's attitudes and perceptions regarding legal requirements for prenatal drug testing. Web-based survey of 500 US women (age 18-45) recruited from a market research survey panel. A 24-item questionnaire assessed their opinion of laws requiring doctors to routinely verbal screen and urine drug test patients during pregnancy; recommendations for consequences for positive drug tests during pregnancy; and opinion of laws requiring routine drug testing of newborns. Additional questions asked participants about the influence of such laws on their own care-seeking behaviors. Data were analyzed for associations between participant characteristics and survey responses using Pearson's chi-squared test. The majority of respondents (86%) stated they would support a law requiring verbal screening of all pregnant patients and 73% would support a law requiring universal urine drug testing in pregnancy. Fewer respondents were willing to support laws that required verbal screening or urine drug testing (68% and 61%, respectively) targeting only Medicaid recipients. Twenty-one percent of respondents indicated they would be offended if their doctors asked them about drug use and 14% indicated that mandatory drug testing would discourage prenatal care attendance. Women would be more supportive of policies requiring universal rather than targeted screening and testing for prenatal drug use. However, a noteworthy proportion of women would be discouraged from attending prenatal care - a reminder that drug testing policies may have detrimental effects on maternal child health.

  5. Financial incentives for generic drugs: case study on a reimbursement program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inocencio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the use of financial incentives in choice of medication and to assess the economic results concerning the use of financial incentives to promote the use of genetic medication in lieu of reference drugs in a company with a reimbursement program. Methods: A case study was carried out in a large supermarket. The data was obtained in the company responsible for managing medication. The study reached 83,625 users between August 2005 and July 2007. The data was submitted to regressions in order to analyze trends and hypothesis tests to assess differences in medication consumption. The results were compared with general data regarding medication consumption of five other organizations and also with data about the national consumption of generic medication in Brazil. Results: The use of financial incentives to replace brand medications for generics, in the company studied, increased the consumption of generic drugs without reducing the company expenses with the reimbursement programs. Conclusions: This study show the occurrence of unplanned results (increase in the consumption of medications and the positive consequences of the reimbursement program concerning access to medication.

  6. Mutagenicity in drug development: interpretation and significance of test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, D

    1985-03-01

    , methapyrilene). In vivo mutagenicity assays are more physiological but appear to be relatively insensitive due to the inability to achieve sufficiently high acute plasma levels to mimic cumulative long-term effects. Examination of the mutagenicity of naturally occurring analogs may indicate the irrelevance of a test compound's mutagenicity (e.g., deoxyguanosine and the structurally related antiviral drug, acyclovir, have identical mutagenicity patterns). Life-threatening or severe debilitating diseases (e.g., cancer, severe psychoses, severe crippling arthritis, sight-threatening diseases) may justify treatment with mutagenic or even carcinogenic therapeutic agents (benefit/risk considerations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  8. The current status of community drug testing via the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites in sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. Reid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the analysis of drug residues in sewage has been promoted as a means of estimating the level of drug use in communities. Measured drug residue concentrations in the sewage are used to determine the load (total mass of the drug being used by the entire community. Knowledge of the size or population of the community then allows for the calculation of drug-use relative to population (typically drug-mass/day/1000 inhabitants which facilitates comparisons between differing communities or populations. Studies have been performed in many European countries, including Norway, as well as in the US and Australia. The approach has successfully estimated the use of cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, cannabis, nicotine and alcohol. The analysis of biomarkers of drug use in sewage has great potential to support and complement existing techniques for estimating levels of drug use, and as such has been identified as a promising development by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA; www.emcdda.europa.eu/wastewater-analysis. The approach is not without its challenges, and ongoing collaboration across Europe aims at agreeing upon best-practice and harmonising the methods being used. In Norway development is being performed through the NFR RUSMIDDEL funded DrugMon (www.niva.no/drugmon project that has led to the development of many new techniques, significantly improved our understanding of the uncertainties associated with the approach and allowed the coordination of Europe wide collaboration which has included all important intercalibration exercises. Application of the technique can provide evidence-based and real-time estimates of collective drug use with the resulting data used to improve the much needed estimates of drug use and dependency.

  9. Testing antidepressant compounds in a neuropsychological model of drug action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerit, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Although much research effort has been put into the development of new antidepressant drugs, the process of developing a drug often fails at the stage of large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which an initially promising compound appears to lack efficacy after all. Several experimental

  10. CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

  11. The UKAEA mechanical test programs in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of CDFR will be based on the mechanical behaviour of materials in air, although at a later date account may need to be taken of sodium effects. The need for this Information is outlined in the introductory paper. The extent of the air programs and preliminary findings are described in this paper

  12. The UKAEA mechanical test programs in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D S [UKAEA, RNPDL, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1977-07-01

    The design of CDFR will be based on the mechanical behaviour of materials in air, although at a later date account may need to be taken of sodium effects. The need for this Information is outlined in the introductory paper. The extent of the air programs and preliminary findings are described in this paper.

  13. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  14. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  15. Test of user- and system programs coded in real time languages - requirements on program language and testing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertlin, J.; Mackert, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper the functions are presented, which should be part of a test system for user programs in a higher treat time programming language, taking into account time sequences and competitive processes. As can be shown by the problem of testing, use of higher level real time programming languages renders the task of program development essentially easier, however performance of test procedures without appropriate test systems is very difficult. After the presentation of notions and methods for the testing of programs, general requirements on testing tools are described and the test system functions for a program test, beeing uncritical with respect to time, are placed together. Thereby, for every individual function, the interface between the test system, the program under test, and the residual program-generation system (compiler, binder, operating system, delay-time system, and loader) is given too. For the time-critical test, a series of desirable functions are described, which can be implemented with acceptable expense. (orig.) [de

  16. Drug use prevention: factors associated with program implementation in Brazilian urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-03-07

    A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.

  17. A linear programming computational framework integrates phosphor-proteomics and prior knowledge to predict drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing; Yan, Ke; Dong, Ligang; Meng, Guanmin; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-21

    In recent years, the integration of 'omics' technologies, high performance computation, and mathematical modeling of biological processes marks that the systems biology has started to fundamentally impact the way of approaching drug discovery. The LINCS public data warehouse provides detailed information about cell responses with various genetic and environmental stressors. It can be greatly helpful in developing new drugs and therapeutics, as well as improving the situations of lacking effective drugs, drug resistance and relapse in cancer therapies, etc. In this study, we developed a Ternary status based Integer Linear Programming (TILP) method to infer cell-specific signaling pathway network and predict compounds' treatment efficacy. The novelty of our study is that phosphor-proteomic data and prior knowledge are combined for modeling and optimizing the signaling network. To test the power of our approach, a generic pathway network was constructed for a human breast cancer cell line MCF7; and the TILP model was used to infer MCF7-specific pathways with a set of phosphor-proteomic data collected from ten representative small molecule chemical compounds (most of them were studied in breast cancer treatment). Cross-validation indicated that the MCF7-specific pathway network inferred by TILP were reliable predicting a compound's efficacy. Finally, we applied TILP to re-optimize the inferred cell-specific pathways and predict the outcomes of five small compounds (carmustine, doxorubicin, GW-8510, daunorubicin, and verapamil), which were rarely used in clinic for breast cancer. In the simulation, the proposed approach facilitates us to identify a compound's treatment efficacy qualitatively and quantitatively, and the cross validation analysis indicated good accuracy in predicting effects of five compounds. In summary, the TILP model is useful for discovering new drugs for clinic use, and also elucidating the potential mechanisms of a compound to targets.

  18. Contrast media: interactions with other drugs and clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Exley, C.M.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2005-01-01

    Many patients with multiple medical problems who are receiving a variety of drugs are investigated with imaging techniques which require intravascular contrast media. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology therefore decided to review the literature and to draw up simple guidelines on interactions between contrast media and other drugs. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Contrast media may interact with other drugs, and may interfere with isotope studies and biochemical measurements. Awareness of the patient drug history is important to avoid potential hazards. Simple guidelines are presented. (orig.)

  19. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2010-07-12

    Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.

  20. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  1. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  2. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms

  3. Helping Students Test Programs That Have Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thornton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Within computer science education, many educators are incorporating software testing activities into regular programming assignments. Tools like JUnit and its relatives make software testing tasks much easier, bringing them into the realm of even introductory students. At the same time, many introductory programming courses are now including graphical interfaces as part of student assignments to improve student interest and engagement. Unfortunately, writing software tests for programs that have significant graphical user interfaces is beyond the skills of typical students (and many educators. This paper presents initial work at combining educationally oriented and open-source tools to create an infrastructure for writing tests for Java programs that have graphical user interfaces. Critically, these tools are intended to be appropriate for introductory (CS1/CS2 student use, and to dovetail with current teaching approaches that incorporate software testing in programming assignments. We also include in our findings our proposed approach to evaluating our techniques.

  4. Tested program for Third World economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, R.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the responsibility for the inability of Western-oriented Third World Countries (1) to make democratic economic institutions work rests upon advisers to American and international financial institutions who recommend principles of economic growth distilled out of Keynesian recipes for an over-saving Western society of the 1930s, and out of aspects of American experience with no applicability elsewhere. Applicable aspects of U.S. experience suggest a program relying on capitalistic drives and using fiscal and monetary policy of the type that proved useful in the development of democratic capitalism in the U.S. in the 19th century.

  5. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  6. PBF/LOFT Lead Rod Test Program experiment predictions document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J.; Cox, W.R.; Niebruegge, D.A.; Seiber, S.J.; Brake, T.E.; Driskell, W.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Tolman, E.L.

    1978-12-01

    The PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) Test Program is being conducted to provide experimental information on the behavior of nuclear fuel under normal and accident conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The PBF/LLR tests are designed to simulate the test conditions for the LOFT Power Ascension Tests L2-3 through L2-5. The test program has been designed to provide a parametric evaluation of the LOFT fuel (center and peripheral modules) over a wide range of power. This report presents the experiment predictions for the three four-rod LOCA tests

  7. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  8. Technical bases for the DWPF testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be the first production facility in the United States for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. Production of DWPF canistered wasteforms will begin prior to repository licensing, so decisions on facility startup will have to be made before the final decisions on repository design are made. The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has addressed this discrepancy by defining a Waste Acceptance Process. This process provides assurance that the borosilicate-glass wasteform, in a stainless-steel canister, produced by the DWPF will be acceptable for permanent storage in a federal repository. As part of this process, detailed technical specifications have been developed for the DWPF product. SRS has developed detailed strategies for demonstrating compliance with each of the Waste Acceptance Process specifications. An important part of the compliance is the testing which will be carried out in the DWPF. In this paper, the bases for each of the tests to be performed in the DWPF to establish compliance with the specifications are described, and the tests are detailed. The results of initial tests relating to characterization of sealed canisters are reported

  9. Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the…

  10. Extent of Drug Coverage across Generic Drug Discount Programs offered by Community Pharmacies: A look at five Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshali K. Patel, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions are expensive to treat because of the ongoing prescription cost burden. Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs that offer generics at discounted price may prove beneficial to reduce pharmacy costs for the same.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which GDDPs provide drug coverage for five common chronic conditions.Methods: A content analyses of preexisting information was conducted. Extent of coverage based on top 200 generic drugs prescribed during 2008 for the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension, mental disorders, arthritis, pulmonary/respiratory conditions, and diabetes were identified. Commonly prescribed medications for these diseases were identified using published peer reviewed clinical guidelines. List of drugs covered under a GDDP for stores, Wal-Mart, Walgreens, CVS, Kroger, HEB, Target, and Randalls were obtained and compared to assess drug coverage by retail dollar sales and sales volume. Descriptive statistics and frequency/percentage of coverage were reported using SAS 9.2.Results: GDDPs covered the highest number of drugs for hypertension (21-27 across different GDDPs and the least (3-5 across different GDDPs for pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Arthritis (5-11, mental disorders (6-11 and diabetes (5-7 had similar coverage. When compared to the top 200 drugs by retail dollars spent during 2008, hypertension (68%-87% and diabetes (63%-88% had the highest coverage followed by respiratory conditions (30%-50%, arthritis (22%-48%, and mental disorders (21%-38%. Similar result was obtained when GDDP coverage was compared with the top 200 generic drugs by sales volume, where diabetes (63-88% and hypertension (57%-74% had the highest coverage and mental disorders remained the lowest (23%-37%.Conclusion/Implications: Drug coverage in GDDPs varied by pharmacies across the five common chronic conditions evaluated which may limit accessibility of these programs for

  11. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    .... 2201, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in... comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane...

  12. Test results of Nb3Sn ribbons for the Princeton D coil test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; File, J.; Willard, J.W.

    1974-10-01

    A previously described D coil test program was modified. Details of a smaller Nb 3 Sn D coil test program are described. Cusp coil tests were made with several Nb 3 Sn composite ribbons. Measurements of both the quench and recovery currents as a function of magnetic field component perpendicular to the wide edge of the ribbon are presented. (auth)

  13. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…

  14. What Will Happen if . . . A Programmed Instruction Course on Drugs and Their Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Developed by the National Institute of Mental Health, this booklet offers a programed instruction course on drugs and their effects. The purpose of the text is to learn about specific drugs which are currently being used and abused by a large group of people in our society. Narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and marihuana are…

  15. 43 CFR 43.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 43.215 Section 43.215 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals § 43.215 What must I...

  16. 29 CFR 1472.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 1472.215 Section 1472.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals § 1472.215...

  17. Directory of Academic Institutions and Organizations Offering Drug, Alcohol, and Employee Assistance Program Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This directory lists academic institutions, State offices of alcohol and drug abuse, and national organizations which offer drug, alcohol, and employee assistance program (EAP) educational resources. A matrix format is used. Entries include name, address, telephone number, and contact person. A dot appears directly under column headings which are…

  18. Collider Dipole Magnet test program from development through production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Verification of CDM performance, reliability, and magnet production processes will be accomplished during the development phase of the program. Key features of this program include thorough in process testing of magnet subassemblies, verification of the magnetic field quality, and demonstration of the CDM performance during the formal qualification program. Reliability demonstration of the CDM design includes component tests and an accelerated life test program. Prototype magnet phase will address achievement of magnet performance goals through a program of fabrications, test, analysis, redesign as required and procurement of modified parts for a second fabrication run. This process would be repeated again if necessary, and would conclude with a final design for the production magnets. Production process validation will address the effects that key production processes have upon magnet performance, using the magnets produced during the Preproduction phase

  19. Results from the 2012 drug and alcohol testing survey : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2012 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) who test positive for...

  20. Results from the 2015 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2015 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  1. Results from the 2014 drug and alcohol testing survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2014 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  2. Results from the 2016 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2016 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  3. Restructuring rehabilitation for women: programs for the female drug addict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, K M; Quinones, M A; Tracy, G; Young, D; Hughes, J

    1977-12-01

    Two residential therapeutic communities for female addicts--one coeducational and the other all female--encountered serious problems shortly after their formation. The authors found that the male and female staff of the coeducational program had quite different perceptions of the purposes and characteristics of the women's part of the program. In both programs the female staff held such strongly ambivalent feeling toward their roles as women and authority figures that they had difficulty functioning effectively. The authors suggest the need for research that will identify the female addict's special needs, and a restructuring of programs to meet those needs. Further, training programs for female staff must enable them to distinguish between their own ideals and their clients' needs.

  4. Resistance mechanisms and drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van; Mouton, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized as causative agents of opportunistic infections in humans. For most NTM infections the therapy of choice is drug treatment, but treatment regimens differ by species, in particular between slow (e.g. Mycobacterium avium complex,

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders showed that past-year use of illicit drugs other than marijuana is ... use of the prescription stimulant Adderall® in the past year. 1 Read more about the MTF survey results ...

  6. Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Currents Blog Cancer Currents Blog Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug Subscribe April ... to this page included, e.g., “Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug was originally ...

  7. Tritium Systems Test Assembly operator training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstiens, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Proper operator training is needed to help ensure the safe operation of fusion facilities by personnel who are qualified to carry out their assigned responsibilities. Operators control and monitor the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) during normal, emergency, and maintenance phases. Their performance is critical both to operational safety, assuring no release of tritium to the atmosphere, and to the successful simulation of the fusion reaction progress. Through proper training we are helping assure that TSTA facility operators perform their assignments in a safe and efficient manner and that the operators maintain high levels of operational proficiency through continuing training, retraining, requalification, and recertification

  8. Urine and oral fluid drug testing in support of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Tai C; Magnani, Barbarajean; Moore, Christine

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the abuse of opioid drugs has resulted in greater prevalence of addiction, overdose, and deaths attributable to opioid abuse. The epidemic of opioid abuse has prompted professional and government agencies to issue practice guidelines for prescribing opioids to manage chronic pain. An important tool available to providers is the drug test for use in the initial assessment of patients for possible opioid therapy, subsequent monitoring of compliance, and documentation of suspected aberrant drug behaviors. This review discusses the issues that most affect the clinical utility of drug testing in chronic pain management with opioid therapy. It focuses on the two most commonly used specimen matrices in drug testing: urine and oral fluid. The advantages and disadvantages of urine and oral fluid in the entire testing process, from specimen collection and analytical methodologies to result interpretation are reviewed. The analytical sensitivity and specificity limitations of immunoassays used for testing are examined in detail to draw attention to how these shortcomings can affect result interpretation and influence clinical decision-making in pain management. The need for specific identification and quantitative measurement of the drugs and metabolites present to investigate suspected aberrant drug behavior or unexpected positive results is analyzed. Also presented are recent developments in optimization of test menus and testing strategies, such as the modification of the standard screen and reflexed-confirmation testing model by eliminating some of the initial immunoassay-based tests and proceeding directly to definitive testing by mass spectrometry assays.

  9. History of ground motion programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Some measurements were made in the atmospheric testing era, but the study of ground motion from nuclear tests became of wider interest after the instigation of underground testing. The ground motion generated by underground nuclear test has been investigated for a number of reasons including understanding basic phenomena, operational and safety concerns, yield determination, stimulation of earthquake concerns, and developing methods to aid in treaty verifications. This history of ground motion programs will include discussing early studies, high yield programs, Peaceful Nuclear Explosions tests, and some more recent developments. 6 references, 10 figures

  10. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... performing a safety-sensitive function. (3) If an employee refuses to submit to a drug or alcohol test...

  11. Testing program for concrete at temperatures to 8940K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Robinson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    A test program was conducted to define the variations in mechanical properties of a limestone aggregate concrete and a lightweight insulating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Four test series were conducted: (1) unconfined compression; (2) shear; (3) rebar bond; and (4) sustained loading (creep). Tests results are presented

  12. Justice downwind: America's atomic testing program in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on personal interviews, case histories, and the archives of the Atomic Energy Commission, Professor Ball discusses the American nuclear-testing program from 1951 to 1963, the impact of the testing on people living downwind from the Nevada Test Site, long-term effects of radiation exposure, and the clash between the ''downwinders'' and the government

  13. The Department of Energy's radon testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy recently completed an initial survey of indoor radon in its buildings in response to Public Law 100--551, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988. Other federal agencies have also conducted radon surveys. This paper presents an overview of the results from radon testing of several thousand buildings ranging from 100 m 2 to over 10,000 M 2 in size. In addition, we have examined results from groups of buildings, classified according to ventilation and usage characteristics. So far, there is no apparent difference among building classes. The paper also discusses our proposal for phased radon surveys. We suggest that first-phase results can be used to identify facilities with radon problems. In the second phase, we suggest measurements be made at a much higher sampling density at facilities with radon problems. The results of the second phase are expected to identify all buildings in need of mitigation

  14. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  15. Manipulator Comparative Testing Program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    The manipulator systems tested included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Central Research Laboratories Model M-2, and the GCA PaR Systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (1) the BILARM in master/slave mode without force reflection, (2) the BILARM in master/slave mode with force reflection, (3) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode without force reflection, (4) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode with force reflection, (5) the BILARM with switchbox controls, and (6) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments examined differences between master/slave systems with and without force reflection and differences between master/slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems. A fourth experiment examined the relative contributions of the remote viewing system and the manipulator system to the performance of remote handling tasks. Results of the experiments showed that operators using the Model M-2 in master/slave mode had significantly faster times to completion than operators using the BILARM in master/slave mode, with about the same error rate per trial. Operators were slower using the BILARM with force reflection than without it, and they committed more errors. There was no statistically significant difference between force-reflection and nonforce-reflection conditions for the M-2 manipulator for any of the performance criteria. Tasks and procedures used in this testing were not sensitive to differences within any single system. No inferences about the effect of force reflection on remote task performance should be made from these data. The two manipulator systems in switchbox mode had significantly slower times to completion than any system in master/slave mode, with approximately the same error rate per trial. There were no significant differences between the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR arm

  16. Culture and drug susceptibility testing among previously treated tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia J. Romero Mercado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results. The lack of DST and delay in receiving DST results leads to underestimation of the number of MDR-TB cases and hinders the timely initiation of MDR-TB treatment.

  17. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  18. PBF/LOFT Lead Rod Test Program experiment operating specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    The PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) Test Program is being conducted to provide experimental information on the behavior of nuclear fuel under normal and accident conditions in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Understanding the behavior of light-water reactors (LWR) under loss-of-coolant conditions is a major objective of the NRC Reactor Safety Research Program. The Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) facility is the major testing facility to evaluate the systems response of an LWR over a wide range of Loss of Coolant Experment (LOCE) conditions. As such, the LOFT core is intended to be used for sequential LOCE tests provided no significant fuel rod failures occur. The PFB/LLR tests are designed to simulate the test conditions for the LOFT Power Ascension Tests L2-2 through L2-5. The test program has been designed to provide a parametric evaluation of the LOFT fuel over a wide range of power. Thus, a relatively accurate assessment of the state of the LOFT core after the completion of each subtest and the anticipated effect of the next test can be obtained by utilizing a combination of LLR test data and analytical predictions. Specifications for the test program are presented

  19. Bioengineered Liver Models for Drug Testing and Cell Differentiation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Underhill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of the human liver are important for the following: (1 mitigating the risk of drug-induced liver injury to human beings, (2 modeling human liver diseases, (3 elucidating the role of single and combinatorial microenvironmental cues on liver cell function, and (4 enabling cell-based therapies in the clinic. Methods to isolate and culture primary human hepatocytes (PHHs, the gold standard for building human liver models, were developed several decades ago; however, PHHs show a precipitous decline in phenotypic functions in 2-dimensional extracellular matrix–coated conventional culture formats, which does not allow chronic treatment with drugs and other stimuli. The development of several engineering tools, such as cellular microarrays, protein micropatterning, microfluidics, biomaterial scaffolds, and bioprinting, now allow precise control over the cellular microenvironment for enhancing the function of both PHHs and induced pluripotent stem cell–derived human hepatocyte-like cells; long-term (4+ weeks stabilization of hepatocellular function typically requires co-cultivation with liver-derived or non–liver-derived nonparenchymal cell types. In addition, the recent development of liver organoid culture systems can provide a strategy for the enhanced expansion of therapeutically relevant cell types. Here, we discuss advances in engineering approaches for constructing in vitro human liver models that have utility in drug screening and for determining microenvironmental determinants of liver cell differentiation/function. Design features and validation data of representative models are presented to highlight major trends followed by the discussion of pending issues that need to be addressed. Overall, bioengineered liver models have significantly advanced our understanding of liver function and injury, which will prove useful for drug development and ultimately cell-based therapies.

  20. Miracle drug: Brazil approves never-tested cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S; Mota, Daniel M

    2017-07-01

    Background Brazil recently approved synthetic phosphoetanolamine, a popularly dubbed 'cancer pill', a substance that has been shown to kill cancer cells in lab animal models but was not yet formally accessed in humans, and thus despite the existence of any evidence of its efficacy and safety. Methods The authors describe the recent decision of Brazil to aprove phosphoetanolamine in the context of growing 'judicialization' to promote access to medicines and thus reinforcing a growing sense of legal uncertainty. Results The approval of phosphoetanolamine despite the existence of any evidence of its efficacy and safety represents to the authors one of the saddest and surrealistic episodes in Brazil's recent public health history. Brazil's current economic crisis is fueling the 'judicialization' to promote access to medicines and thus reinforcing a growing sense of legal uncertainty in the context of rising economic constrains and a progressive failing state. The authors state that the Phosphoetanolamine's approval bill violates current legal prohibition of commercialisation of drugs without the Brazilian national drug regulatory agency's approval and thus may represent a potential menace to Brazil's pharmacogovernance and the country's governance to health technology assessment at the Brazilian national health systems. Conclusion Phosphoetanolamine's approval illustrates that the combination of flawed decision making, economic crisis and political interference may threaten weak governance mechanisms for drug regulation and health technology assessment and thus representing an extra burden in the sustainability of universal access-based national health systems.

  1. Testing the structure of a hydrological model using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Benny; Muttil, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    SummaryGenetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that Genetic Programming can be used to test the structure of hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, Genetic Programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, watertable depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using Genetic Programming, a simple model of deep percolation was recurrently evolved in multiple Genetic Programming runs. This simple and interpretable model supported the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that Genetic Programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  2. CRIEPI test program for seismic isolation of the FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry's (CRIEPIs) seismic isolation program. The test and research program on seismic isolation was started in 1987 by CRIEPI under contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan. It was intended to establish a technical basis for the application of seismic isolation to fast breeder reactors (FBRs). In this paper, some details of the program and results of the preliminary study are described

  3. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  4. Prototype steam generator test at SCTI/ETEC. Acoustic program test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.A.; Thiele, A.; Claytor, T.N.

    1981-10-01

    This document is an integrated test plan covering programs at General Electric (ARSD), Rockwell International (RI) and Argonne National Laboratory (CT). It provides an overview of the acoustic leak detection test program which will be completed in conjunction with the prototype LMFBR steam generator at the Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory. The steam generator is installed in the Sodium Components Test Installation (SCTI). Two acoustic detection systems will be used during the test program, a low frequency system developed by GE-ARSD (GAAD system) and a high frequency system developed by RI-AI (HALD system). These systems will be used to acquire data on background noise during the thermal-hydraulic test program. Injection devices were installed during fabrication of the prototype steam generator to provide localized noise sources in the active region of the tube bundle. These injectors will be operated during the steam generator test program, and it will be shown that they are detected by the acoustic systems

  5. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications

  6. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications.

  7. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program is described. The LACE program is being performed at the Hanford Engineer Development Laboratory (operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company) and the initial tests are sponsored by EPRI. The objectives of the LACE program are: to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations; and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior . Test results from the first phase of the LACE program are presented and discussed. Three large-scale scoping tests, simulating a containment bypass accident sequence, demonstrated the extent of agglomeration and deposition of aerosols occurring in the pipe pathway and vented auxiliary building under realistic accident conditions. Parameters varied during the scoping tests were aerosol type and steam condensation

  8. Simultaneous test construction by zero-one programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for simultaneous test construction using the Operations Research technique zero-one programming. The model for zero-one programming consists of two parts. The first contains the objective function that describes the aspect to be optimized. The second part contains the

  9. 76 FR 23914 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NOP. Residue testing plays an important role in organic certification by providing a means for... OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6503 through 6507) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or... State organic certification program may contain additional requirements for the production and handling...

  10. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  11. High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5524--17-9751 High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test ...NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 2. REPORT TYPE1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING...PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test Report Daniel G. Gdula* and

  12. NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larwood, S.; Musial, W.; Freebury, G.; Beattie, A.G.

    2001-04-19

    In the mid-90s the European community initiated the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) program to harmonize testing and measurement procedures in several industries. Within the program, a project was carried out called the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development. The second part of that project, called Blade Test Methods and Techniques, included the United States and was devised to help blade-testing laboratories harmonize their testing methods. This report provides the results of those tests conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  13. Evaluating an In-School Drug Prevention Program for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, David J.; Steep, Barbara; Silverman, Gloria; Stevens-Lavigne, Andrea; Ellis, Kathy; Smythe, Cindy; Rye, Barbara J.; Braun, Kathy; Wood, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    A drug prevention program involving 167 at-risk students in grades 8-10 at 9 Ontario schools resulted in reduced use of and less supportive attitudes toward alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Program success is attributed to high attendance and retention, community health professionals' participation, comprehensive approach, strong…

  14. Testing Automation of Context-Oriented Programs Using Separation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Zawawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for programming that enables switching among contexts of commands during program execution is context-oriented programming (COP. This technique is more structured and modular than object-oriented and aspect-oriented programming and hence more flexible. For context-oriented programming, as implemented in COP languages such as ContextJ* and ContextL, this paper introduces accurate operational semantics. The language model of this paper uses Java concepts and is equipped with layer techniques for activation/deactivation of layer contexts. This paper also presents a logical system for COP programs. This logic is necessary for the automation of testing, developing, and validating of partial correctness specifications for COP programs and is an extension of separation logic. A mathematical soundness proof for the logical system against the proposed operational semantics is presented in the paper.

  15. SPSS and SAS programming for the testing of mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, William N; Benuzillo, Jose G; Carrico, Mineh S

    2004-01-01

    Mediation modeling can explain the nature of the relation among three or more variables. In addition, it can be used to show how a variable mediates the relation between levels of intervention and outcome. The Sobel test, developed in 1990, provides a statistical method for determining the influence of a mediator on an intervention or outcome. Although interactive Web-based and stand-alone methods exist for computing the Sobel test, SPSS and SAS programs that automatically run the required regression analyses and computations increase the accessibility of mediation modeling to nursing researchers. To illustrate the utility of the Sobel test and to make this programming available to the Nursing Research audience in both SAS and SPSS. The history, logic, and technical aspects of mediation testing are introduced. The syntax files sobel.sps and sobel.sas, created to automate the computation of the regression analysis and test statistic, are available from the corresponding author. The reported programming allows the user to complete mediation testing with the user's own data in a single-step fashion. A technical manual included with the programming provides instruction on program use and interpretation of the output. Mediation modeling is a useful tool for describing the relation between three or more variables. Programming and manuals for using this model are made available.

  16. Prediction of clinical response to drugs in ovarian cancer using the chemotherapy resistance test (CTR-test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kischkel, Frank Christian; Meyer, Carina; Eich, Julia; Nassir, Mani; Mentze, Monika; Braicu, Ioana; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Sehouli, Jalid

    2017-10-27

    In order to validate if the test result of the Chemotherapy Resistance Test (CTR-Test) is able to predict the resistances or sensitivities of tumors in ovarian cancer patients to drugs, the CTR-Test result and the corresponding clinical response of individual patients were correlated retrospectively. Results were compared to previous recorded correlations. The CTR-Test was performed on tumor samples from 52 ovarian cancer patients for specific chemotherapeutic drugs. Patients were treated with monotherapies or drug combinations. Resistances were classified as extreme (ER), medium (MR) or slight (SR) resistance in the CTR-Test. Combination treatment resistances were transformed by a scoring system into these classifications. Accurate sensitivity prediction was accomplished in 79% of the cases and accurate prediction of resistance in 100% of the cases in the total data set. The data set of single agent treatment and drug combination treatment were analyzed individually. Single agent treatment lead to an accurate sensitivity in 44% of the cases and the drug combination to 95% accuracy. The detection of resistances was in both cases to 100% correct. ROC curve analysis indicates that the CTR-Test result correlates with the clinical response, at least for the combination chemotherapy. Those values are similar or better than the values from a publication from 1990. Chemotherapy resistance testing in vitro via the CTR-Test is able to accurately detect resistances in ovarian cancer patients. These numbers confirm and even exceed results published in 1990. Better sensitivity detection might be caused by a higher percentage of drug combinations tested in 2012 compared to 1990. Our study confirms the functionality of the CTR-Test to plan an efficient chemotherapeutic treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  17. Transporters affecting biochemical test results: Creatinine-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X; Bleasby, K; Chan, G H; Nunes, I; Evers, R

    2016-11-01

    Creatinine is eliminated by the kidneys through a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Drug-induced increases in serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance are used as a marker for acute kidney injury. However, inhibition of active transport of creatinine can result in reversible and, therefore, benign increases in SCr levels. Herein, the transporters involved in creatinine clearance are discussed, in addition to limitations of using creatinine as a biomarker for kidney damage. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  18. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-08-04

    To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1-49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. Analisar se características dos dirigentes, das escolas e do currículo escolar estão associadas à implantação de programas de prevenção ao uso de drogas nas escolas do ciclo fundamental II e médio. Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 263 dirigentes escolares. Os dados foram coletados nos anos

  19. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T.; Bernaudat, C.

    2016-01-01

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO ® specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  20. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazalis, B., E-mail: bernard.cazalis@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Desquines, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/DMN, F- 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bernaudat, C. [Electricité de France, EDF/SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-04-15

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO{sup ®} specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  1. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  2. The MuCool Test Area and RF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torun, Y.; Huang, D.; Norem, J.; Palmer, Robert B.; Stratakis, Diktys; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Yonehara, K.; Li, D.

    2010-01-01

    The MuCool RF Program focuses on the study of normal conducting RF structures operating in high magnetic field for applications in muon ionization cooling for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. Here we give an overview of the program, which includes a description of the test facility and its capabilities, the current test program, and the status of a cavity that can be rotated in the magnetic field, which allows for a detailed study of the maximum stable operating gradient vs. magnetic field strength and angle.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Turkish versions of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in the prison setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Ogel, Kultegin; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in prisoners with (n = 124) or without (n = 78) drug use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the DUDIT, the DAST-10, and the Addiction Profile Index-Short (API-S). The DUDIT and the DAST-10 were found to be psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measures with high convergent validity when compared with each other (r = 0.86), and API-S (r = 0.88 and r = 0.84, respectively), and to have a Cronbach's α of 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. In addition, a single component accounted for 58.28% of total variance for DUDIT, whereas this was 47.10% for DAST-10. The DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.95 and 0.79, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 10, whereas these scores were 0.88 and 0.74 for the DAST-10 when using the optimal cut-off score of 4. Additionally, both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 showed good discriminant validity as they differentiated prisoners with drug use disorder from those without. Findings support the Turkish versions of both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 as reliable and valid drug abuse screening instruments that measure unidimensional constructs.

  4. Benefits of a Pharmacology Antimalarial Reference Standard and Proficiency Testing Program Provided by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Chris; Lindegardh, Niklas; Barnes, Karen I.; Guerin, Philippe J.; Sibley, Carol H.; White, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of antimalarial drug resistance should include measurements of antimalarial blood or plasma concentrations in clinical trials and in individual assessments of treatment failure so that true resistance can be differentiated from inadequate drug exposure. Pharmacometric modeling is necessary to assess pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in different populations to optimize dosing. To accomplish both effectively and to allow comparison of data from different laboratories, it is essential that drug concentration measurement is accurate. Proficiency testing (PT) of laboratory procedures is necessary for verification of assay results. Within the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN), the goal of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program is to facilitate and sustain high-quality antimalarial assays. The QA/QC program consists of an international PT program for pharmacology laboratories and a reference material (RM) program for the provision of antimalarial drug standards, metabolites, and internal standards for laboratory use. The RM program currently distributes accurately weighed quantities of antimalarial drug standards, metabolites, and internal standards to 44 pharmacology, in vitro, and drug quality testing laboratories. The pharmacology PT program has sent samples to eight laboratories in four rounds of testing. WWARN technical experts have provided advice for correcting identified problems to improve performance of subsequent analysis and ultimately improved the quality of data. Many participants have demonstrated substantial improvements over subsequent rounds of PT. The WWARN QA/QC program has improved the quality and value of antimalarial drug measurement in laboratories globally. It is a model that has potential to be applied to strengthening laboratories more widely and improving the therapeutics of other infectious diseases. PMID:24777099

  5. Testing the Structure of Hydrological Models using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, B.; Muttil, N.

    2009-04-01

    Genetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that genetic programming can be used to test the structure hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, genetic programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, water table depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using genetic programming, a simple model of deep percolation was consistently evolved in multiple model runs. This simple and interpretable model confirmed the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that genetic programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  6. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  8. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in the...

  9. Formation of the diuretic chlorazanil from the antimalarial drug proguanil--implications for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Tretzel, Laura; Bailloux, Isabelle; Buisson, Corinne; Lasne, Francoise; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Kienbaum, Peter; Mueller-Stoever, Irmela; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-11-10

    Chlorazanil (Ordipan, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a diuretic agent and as such prohibited in sport according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Despite its introduction into clinical practice in the late 1950s, the worldwide very first two adverse analytical findings were registered only in 2014, being motive for an in-depth investigation of these cases. Both individuals denied the intake of the drug; however, the athletes did declare the use of the antimalarial prophylactic agent proguanil due to temporary residences in African countries. A structural similarity between chlorazanil and proguanil is given but no direct metabolic relation has been reported in the scientific literature. Moreover, chlorazanil has not been confirmed as a drug impurity of proguanil. Proguanil however is metabolized in humans to N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, which represents a chemical precursor in the synthesis of chlorazanil. In the presence of formic acid, formaldehyde, or formic acid esters, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide converts to chlorazanil. In order to probe for potential sources of the chlorazanil detected in the doping control samples, drug formulations containing proguanil and urine samples of individuals using proguanil as antimalarial drug were subjected to liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. In addition, in vitro simulations with 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide and respective reactants were conducted in urine and resulting specimens analyzed for the presence of chlorazanil. While no chlorazanil was found in drug formulations, the urine samples of 2 out of 4 proguanil users returned findings for chlorazanil at low ng/mL levels, similar to the adverse analytical findings in the doping control samples. Further, in the presence of formaldehyde, formic acid and related esters, 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide was found to produce chlorazanil in human urine, suggesting that the detection of the obsolete diuretic

  10. Investigating the correlation between wastewater analysis and roadside drug testing in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Tscharke, Benjamin J; Longo, Marie; Cooke, Richard; White, Jason M; Gerber, Cobus

    2018-04-10

    The societal impact of drug use is well known. An example is when drug-intoxicated drivers increase the burden on policing and healthcare services. This work presents the correlation of wastewater analysis (using UHPLC-MS/MS) and positive roadside drug testing results for methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis from December 2011-December 2016 in South Australia. Methamphetamine and MDMA showed similar trends between the data sources with matching increases and decreases, respectively. Cannabis was relatively steady based on wastewater analysis, but the roadside drug testing data started to diverge in the final part of the measurement period. The ability to triangulate data as shown here validates both wastewater analysis and roadside drug testing. This suggests that changes in overall population drug use revealed by WWA is consistent and proportional with changes in drug-driving behaviours. The results show that, at higher levels of drug use as measured by wastewater analysis, there is an increase in drug driving in the community and therefore more strain on health services and police. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Containment Leakage Rate Testing Program in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, M.; Heruc, Z.

    2002-01-01

    NPP Krsko adopted new regulations for testing of the reactor building containment as stipulated by 10CFR50 (Code of Federal Regulation) Appendix J, Option B instead of the previous requirement 10CFR50 Appendix J now renamed to 10CFR50 Appendix J, Option A. In the USA a thorough analyses of nuclear power plants reactor building containment testing was conducted. As part of these analyses the test results obtained from testing of various reactor-building containments in the last ten years were reviewed. It was concluded that it would be meaningful to, based on test results historical data, reconsider possibility of redefining testing intervals. The official proposal of such approach was reviewed and approved by the NRC and published in September of 1995 in the FR Vol.60 No.186. Based on directions from 10CFR50 Appendix J, Option B, the new criteria for definition of test intervals were created. Criteria were based upon past performance during testing (Performance-based Requirements) and safety impact. At NPP Krsko, the analyses of the Reactor Building Containment. Integrity Test results was performed . This included test results of the Containment Integrated Leak Rate Testing (CILRT or Type A tests), Containment Isolation Valves Local Leak Rater Tests (Type C tests) and Mechanical and Electrical Penetrations Local Leak Rate tests (Type B tests). In accordance with instructions from NEI 94-01 and based on analyses of test results, NPP Krsko created Containment Leakage Rate Testing Program with the purpose to establish the performance-based definition of test intervals, inspection scope, trending and reporting. Equally, the program gives instructions how to evaluate test results and how to deal with the containment penetration or isolation valve repair contingency. All changes caused with transition from Option A to Option B are marginal to public safety. (author)

  12. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  13. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I S; Larsen, A R; Sandven, P

    2003-01-01

    In the first attempt to establish a quality assurance programme for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones, 20 strains with different fluoroquinolone susceptibility patterns were distributed by the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Stockholm to the other...

  14. 78 FR 102 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1056] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  15. The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of drug allergy: sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfeler, B; Pichler, W J

    1997-02-01

    The diagnosis of a drug allergy is mainly based upon a very detailed history and the clinical findings. In addition, several in vitro or in vivo tests can be performed to demonstrate a sensitization to a certain drug. One of the in vitro tests is the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which can reveal a sensitization of T-cells by an enhanced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a certain drug. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LTT, 923 case histories of patients with suspected drug allergy in whom a LTT was performed were retrospectively analysed. Based on the history and provocation tests, the probability (P) of a drug allergy was estimated to be > 0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.1-0.5 or 0.9) had a positive LTT, which indicates a sensitivity of 78%. If allergies to betalactam-antibiotics were analysed separately, the sensitivity was 74.4%. Fifteen of 102 patients where a classical drug allergy could be excluded (P sensitization could be demonstrated as well (i.e. hen's egg lysozyme, 7/7). In 632 of the 923 cases, skin tests were also performed (scratch and/or epicutaneous), for which we found a lower sensitivity than for the LTT (64%), while the specificity was the same (85%). Although our data are somewhat biased by the high number of penicillin allergies and cannot be generalized to drug allergies caused by other compounds, we conclude that the LTT is a useful diagnostic test in drug allergies, able to support the diagnosis of a drug allergy and to pinpoint the relevant drug.

  16. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  17. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  18. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  19. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  20. Black/White Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Test of Six Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Sunshine M.; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    Six specific hypotheses have been developed to account for why Caucasians have higher rates of drug use compared to African-Americans. This article utilizes data from a South Florida-based community study of 893 young adults (1998-2002) to test these hypotheses. Specifically, Caucasians (1) initiate drug use at younger ages than African-Americans…

  1. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... PHMSA-2013-0248] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline... Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to Obtain User Name and Password for...

  2. FDA Accelerates Testing and Review of Experimental Brain Cancer Drug | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigational brain cancer drug made with disabled polio virus and manufactured at the Frederick National Lab has won breakthrough status from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to fast-track its further refinement and clinical testing.  Br

  3. FDA Accelerates Testing and Review of Experimental Brain Cancer Drug | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigational brain cancer drug made with disabled polio virus and manufactured at the Frederick National Lab has won breakthrough status from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to fast-track its further refinement and clinical testing.  Br

  4. Programs for Testing Processor-in-Memory Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    The Multithreaded Microbenchmarks for Processor-In-Memory (PIM) Compilers, Simulators, and Hardware are computer programs arranged in a series for use in testing the performances of PIM computing systems, including compilers, simulators, and hardware. The programs at the beginning of the series test basic functionality; the programs at subsequent positions in the series test increasingly complex functionality. The programs are intended to be used while designing a PIM system, and can be used to verify that compilers, simulators, and hardware work correctly. The programs can also be used to enable designers of these system components to examine tradeoffs in implementation. Finally, these programs can be run on non-PIM hardware (either single-threaded or multithreaded) using the POSIX pthreads standard to verify that the benchmarks themselves operate correctly. [POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX) is a set of standards that define how programs and operating systems interact with each other. pthreads is a library of pre-emptive thread routines that comply with one of the POSIX standards.

  5. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  6. IFE chamber technology testing program in NIF and chamber development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Issues concerning chamber technology testing program in NIF involving: criteria for evaluation/prioritization of experiments, engineering scaling requirements for test article design and material selection and R and D plan prior to NIF testing were addressed in this paper. In order to maximize the benefits of testing program in NIF, the testing in NIF should provide the experimental data relevant to DEMO design choice or to DEMO design predictive capability by utilizing engineering scaling test article designs. Test plans were developed for 2 promising chamber design concepts. Early testing in non-fusion/non-ignition prior to testing in ignition facility serves a critical role in chamber R and D test plans in order to reduce the risks and costs of the more complex experiments in NIF

  7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration's dioxin monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P.; S. Kathleen Egan; Troxell, T.; P. Michael Bolger [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are a group of environmental contaminants whose primary route of human exposure occurs via the consumption of fatty foods of animal origin. Recent safety risk assessments conducted by national and international organizations broadly agree that risk management actions should be developed to decrease DLC exposure. Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tested specific foods with the goal of describing and reducing DLC exposure. In 2001, FDA developed a strategy for DLCs (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/{proportional_to}lrd/dioxstra.html) and substantially expanded its dioxin monitoring program to obtain more comprehensive data on background levels of DLCs in specific food and feed samples as well as to identify and reduce pathways of DLC contamination. FDA's dioxin monitoring program analyzes food collected under its Total Diet Study (TDS) and food and feed from targeted sampling. The TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey of approximately 280 core foods in the U.S. food supply. FDA targeted sampling collects and analyzes foods suspected of having both higher DLC levels and more variability in those levels than other foods. The contribution of dietary DLCs to overall exposure and the possible introduction of DLCs in animalbased food via the use of particular feed components was recently identified by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply and confirmed FDA's approach articulated in its dioxin strategy.

  8. Current status and burning issues in immunotoxicity testing of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Jan Willem van der; Loveren, Henk van

    2005-01-01

    Besides pathology endpoints, additional immune function endpoints have been included in the Note for Guidance on Repeated Dose Toxicity by the European Union (July 2001), which concern the analysis of antibody responses to a T-cell-dependent antigen. Guidance papers of other regulatory authorities are published as well. The main issue is the need for functional immunotoxicity testing to detect unintended immunosuppression. The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) has surveyed studies from the files of the pharmaceutical industry to find the proportion of compounds that can be detected by additional immunotoxicity testing. Preliminary analysis shows that 10-15% of the compounds in the survey only react positively to the additional tests. More data are requested from the pharmaceutical industry. The Expert Working Group of the ICH has decided to choose a cause-for-concern approach to immmunotoxicity rather than a routine-screening approach. The causes for concern are to be defined during ICH negotiations

  9. An investigation of classification algorithms for predicting HIV drug resistance without genotype resistance testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brandt, P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available is limited in low-resource settings. In this paper we investigate machine learning techniques for drug resistance prediction from routine treatment and laboratory data to help clinicians select patients for confirmatory genotype testing. The techniques...

  10. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... How does the MRO report drug test results? (a) As the MRO, it is your responsibility to report all... copy of that report in a format suitable for inspection and auditing by a DOT representative. (f) You...

  11. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  12. Preventing errors in administration of parenteral drugs: the results of a four-year national patient safety program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C. de; Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of a four-year national patient safety program concerning the parenteral drug administration process in the Netherlands. Methods: Structuring the preparation and administration process of parenteral drugs reduces the number of medication errors. A

  13. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that employee's performance either contributed to an accident or can not be completely discounted as a... determination, using the best information available at the time of the determination, that the employee's performance could not have contributed to the accident. The employee shall submit to post-accident testing...

  14. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  15. Effect of a drug allergy educational program and antibiotic prescribing guideline on inpatient clinical providers' antibiotic prescribing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Hurwitz, Shelley; Varughese, Christy A; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient providers have varying levels of knowledge in managing patients with drug and/or penicillin (PCN) allergy. Our objectives were (1) to survey inpatient providers to ascertain their baseline drug allergy knowledge and preparedness in caring for patients with PCN allergy, and (2) to assess the impact of an educational program paired with the implementation of a hospital-based clinical guideline. We electronically surveyed 521 inpatient providers at a tertiary care medical center at baseline and again 6 weeks after an educational initiative paired with clinical guideline implementation. The guideline informed providers on drug allergy history taking and antibiotic prescribing for inpatients with PCN or cephalosporin allergy. Of 323 unique responders, 42% (95% CI, 37-48%) reported no prior education in drug allergy. When considering those who responded to both surveys (n = 213), we observed a significant increase in knowledge about PCN skin testing (35% vs 54%; P allergy over time (54% vs 80%; P allergy was severe significantly improved (77% vs 92%; P = .03). Other areas, including understanding absolute contraindications to receiving a drug again and PCN cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials, did not improve significantly. Inpatient providers have drug allergy knowledge deficits but are interested in tools to help them care for inpatients with drug allergies. Our educational initiative and hospital guideline implementation were associated with increased PCN allergy knowledge in several crucial areas. To improve care of inpatients with drug allergy, more research is needed to evaluate hospital policies and sustainable educational tools. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Development and effectiveness of a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on smartphone application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Jung Ha; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop and evaluate a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on a smartphone application. Calculation ability, dosage calculation related self-efficacy and anxiety were measured. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Smartphone application and a handout for self-study were developed and administered to the experimental group and only a handout was provided for control group. Intervention period was 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ²-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 18.0. The experimental group showed more 'self-efficacy for drug dosage calculation' than the control group (t=3.82, psmartphone application is effective in improving dosage calculation related self-efficacy and calculation ability. Further study should be done to develop additional interventions for reducing anxiety.

  17. Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    Full Text Available The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.

  18. BWR Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) program: facility description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, A.G.

    1984-09-01

    A new boiling water reactor safety test facility (FIST, Full Integral Simulation Test) is described. It will be used to investigate small breaks and operational transients and to tie results from such tests to earlier large-break test results determined in the TLTA. The new facility's full height and prototypical components constitute a major scaling improvement over earlier test facilities. A heated feedwater system, permitting steady-state operation, and a large increase in the number of measurements are other significant improvements. The program background is outlined and program objectives defined. The design basis is presented together with a detailed, complete description of the facility and measurements to be made. An extensive component scaling analysis and prediction of performance are presented

  19. EBR-2 [Experimental Breeder Reactor-2] test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Lindsay, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Hill, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development, (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development, advanced control system development, plant diagnostics development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs

  20. Growing pains : how drug testing keeps workers and assets safe in a booming oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulgaard, T S

    2006-06-15

    Drug abuse has become a subject of concern to the oil and gas industry, where mistakes in the operation of large machines can result in injury, death and the loss of millions of dollars. Pre-employment urine tests are becoming standard procedure in the oil field. Many supervisors refuse to let employees start work without a clear test. Urine samples are tested for the presence of cannabis, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine. When a worker is injured or killed on the job, or after an uncommon error that causes significant damage, all parties involved are tested as soon as possible and a receipt of the results are expedited. The Alberta Human Rights and Citizenship Commission is now addressing the issue of drug testing, and has ascertained that drug and alcohol testing are only allowable in certain circumstances, and that it is discriminatory to test potential or existing employees for drug and alcohol use if the testing is not reasonable or justifiable. They have also suggested that there is a duty to accommodate persons with disabilities in the workplace. Drug and alcohol dependency fall within the meaning of disabled. Under the Construction Owner's Association of Alberta's Canadian Model for a Safe Workplace, testing must work in concert with treatment. Current employees are directed to seek help via an employee assistant plan. Workers and supervisors report that drug use is rampant in work camps. Industry-wide, fail rates for those who take part in drug testing are quoted by experts as ranging from between 2 to 14 per cent. 2 figs.

  1. Growing pains : how drug testing keeps workers and assets safe in a booming oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulgaard, T.S.

    2006-06-15

    Drug abuse has become a subject of concern to the oil and gas industry, where mistakes in the operation of large machines can result in injury, death and the loss of millions of dollars. Pre-employment urine tests are becoming standard procedure in the oil field. Many supervisors refuse to let employees start work without a clear test. Urine samples are tested for the presence of cannabis, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine. When a worker is injured or killed on the job, or after an uncommon error that causes significant damage, all parties involved are tested as soon as possible and a receipt of the results are expedited. The Alberta Human Rights and Citizenship Commission is now addressing the issue of drug testing, and has ascertained that drug and alcohol testing are only allowable in certain circumstances, and that it is discriminatory to test potential or existing employees for drug and alcohol use if the testing is not reasonable or justifiable. They have also suggested that there is a duty to accommodate persons with disabilities in the workplace. Drug and alcohol dependency fall within the meaning of disabled. Under the Construction Owner's Association of Alberta's Canadian Model for a Safe Workplace, testing must work in concert with treatment. Current employees are directed to seek help via an employee assistant plan. Workers and supervisors report that drug use is rampant in work camps. Industry-wide, fail rates for those who take part in drug testing are quoted by experts as ranging from between 2 to 14 per cent. 2 figs.

  2. Public/private partnerships for prescription drug coverage: policy formulation and outcomes in Quebec's universal drug insurance program, with comparisons to the Medicare prescription drug program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A; Martin, Elisabeth

    2007-09-01

    In January 1997, the government of Quebec, Canada, implemented a public/private prescription drug program that covered the entire population of the province. Under this program, the public sector collaborates with private insurers to protect all Quebecers from the high cost of drugs. This article outlines the principal features and history of the Quebec plan and draws parallels between the factors that led to its emergence and those that led to the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA) in the United States. It also discusses the challenges and similarities of both programs and analyzes Quebec's ten years of experience to identify adjustments that may help U.S. policymakers optimize the MMA.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing malaria diagnostic testing in drug shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Clarke, Siân E.; Lal, Sham

    2017-01-01

    Background Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access...... to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. Methods Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs...... following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm. The effect on the proportion of customers with fever ‘appropriately treated of malaria with ACT’ was captured during a randomised trial in drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda. Health sector costs included: training of drug shop vendors...

  4. KNK I Test Program, Final Report Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathol, W.

    1976-01-01

    The compact sodium cooled nuclear reactor KNK I of the Karlsruhe Research Center reached full power for the first time in February 1974. The goal of KNK I is to collect experience for the construction and operation of larger reactors, such as SNR 300. In order to deepen these experiences, a test program was drawn up and conducted from 1973 until 1975 within the framework of R and D work on the development of fast breeder reactors. The program included individual tasks concerning reactor design, safety instrumentation, irradiation and post-examination as well as behavior of components during operation. The performance of the tests was essentially governed by the licensing procedure imposed under the atomic energy act for the construction and operation of nuclear facilities. This report is the first part of the final report of the test program

  5. Transfer of drug dissolution testing by statistical approaches: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Kamarany, Mohammed Amood; EL Karbane, Miloud; Ridouan, Khadija; Alanazi, Fars K.; Hubert, Philippe; Cherrah, Yahia; Bouklouze, Abdelaziz

    2011-01-01

    The analytical transfer is a complete process that consists in transferring an analytical procedure from a sending laboratory to a receiving laboratory. After having experimentally demonstrated that also masters the procedure in order to avoid problems in the future. Method of transfers is now commonplace during the life cycle of analytical method in the pharmaceutical industry. No official guideline exists for a transfer methodology in pharmaceutical analysis and the regulatory word of transfer is more ambiguous than for validation. Therefore, in this study, Gauge repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) studies associated with other multivariate statistics appropriates were successfully applied for the transfer of the dissolution test of diclofenac sodium as a case study from a sending laboratory A (accredited laboratory) to a receiving laboratory B. The HPLC method for the determination of the percent release of diclofenac sodium in solid pharmaceutical forms (one is the discovered product and another generic) was validated using accuracy profile (total error) in the sender laboratory A. The results showed that the receiver laboratory B masters the test dissolution process, using the same HPLC analytical procedure developed in laboratory A. In conclusion, if the sender used the total error to validate its analytical method, dissolution test can be successfully transferred without mastering the analytical method validation by receiving laboratory B and the pharmaceutical analysis method state should be maintained to ensure the same reliable results in the receiving laboratory. PMID:24109204

  6. A compliance testing program for diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.E.; Cobb, B.J.; Jacob, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Compliance testing is nominally that part of a quality assurance program dealing with those aspects of X-ray equipment performance that are subject to radiation control legislation. Quality assurance programs for medical X-ray equipment should be an integral part of the quality culture in health care. However while major hospitals and individual medical centers may implement such programs with some diligence, much X-ray equipment can remain unappraised unless there is a comprehensive regulatory inspection program or some form of compulsion on the equipment owner to implement a testing program. Since the late 1950s all X-ray equipment in the State of Western Australia has been inspected by authorized officers acting on behalf of the Radiological Council, the regulatory authority responsible for administration of the State's Radiation Safety Act. However, economic constraints, coupled with increasing X-ray equipment numbers and a geographically large State have significantly affected the inspection rate. Data available from inspections demonstrate that regular compliance and performance checks are essential in order to ensure proper performance and to minimize unnecessary patient and operator dose. To ensure that diagnostic X-ray equipment complies with accepted standards and performance criteria, the regulatory authority introduced a compulsory compliance testing program for all medical, dental and chiropractic diagnostic X-ray equipment effective from 1 January 1997

  7. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective Stormwater control measures (SCM) testing, evaluation, and verification services. The program will aim to remove barriers to innovation, minimize duplicative performance evaluation needs, increase confidence that regulatory requirements are met by creating consistency among testing and evaluation protocols, and establishing equity between public domain and proprietary SCM evaluation approaches.The Environmental Technology Verification Program, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 18 years ago, was the only national program of its kindin the stormwater sector, but is now defunct, leaving a national leadership void. The STEPP initiative was triggered in part by regulatory demands in the government and private sectors to fill this vacuum. A concerted focus and study of this matter led to the release of a Water Environment Federation (WEF) white paper entitled “Investigation into the Feasibility of a National Testing and Evaluation Program for Stormwater Products and Practices” in February 2014. During this second phase of the STEPP initiative, and with EPA support, five analogous technology evaluation programs related to both stormwater and non-stormwater were an

  8. Mono- and combination drug therapies in hospitalized patients with bipolar depression. Data from the European drug surveillance program AMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeberle Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommendations and which combinations of psychotropic drugs are frequently used. Methods The prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were investigated of all in-patients with bipolar depression (n = 2246; time period 1994–2009 from hospitals participating in the drug surveillance program AMSP. For the drug use in 2010, 221 cases were analysed additionally. Results From 1994 to 2009, 85% of all patients received more than one class of psychotropic substances: 74% received antidepressants in combination therapy, 55% antipsychotics, 48% anticonvulsants and 33% lithium. When given in combination, lithium is the most often prescribed substance for bipolar depression (33%, followed by valproic acid (23%, mirtazapine and venlafaxine (16% each, quetiapine (15%, lamotrigine (14% and olanzapine (13%. Both, lithium and valproic acid are often combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, but also with mirtazapine und venlafaxine. Combinations of more than one antidepressant occur quite often, whereby combinations with bupropion, paroxetine, fluoxetine or fluvoxamine are very rare. In 2010, quetiapine (alone and combined was the most frequently prescribed drug (39%; aripiprazole was administered in 10%. Conclusion Combinations of antidepressants (SSRI, mirtazapine, venlafaxine with mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine and / or atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine are common. Of most of those combinations the efficacy has not been studied. The use of aripiprazole and the concomitant use of two or three antidepressants contrast the guidelines.

  9. Rational use and interpretation of urine drug testing in chronic opioid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Salazar, Elaine; Bertholf, Roger L

    2007-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential feature of pain management, as physicians seek to verify adherence to prescribed opioid regimens and to detect the use of illicit or unauthorized licit drugs. Results of urine drug tests have important consequences in regard to therapeutic decisions and the trust between physician and patient. However, reliance on UDT to confirm adherence can be problematic if the results are not interpreted correctly, and evidence suggests that many physicians lack an adequate understanding of the complexities of UDT and the factors that can affect test results. These factors include metabolic conversion between drugs, genetic variations in drug metabolism, the sensitivity and specificity of the analytical method for a particular drug or metabolite, and the effects of intentional and unintentional interferants. In this review, we focus on the technical features and limitations of analytical methods used for detecting drugs or their metabolites in urine, the statistical constructs that are pertinent to ordering UDT and interpreting test results, and the application of these concepts to the clinical monitoring of patients maintained on chronic opioid therapy.

  10. Methodology for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's radionuclides in foods program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratta, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the wholesomeness of the nation's food supply. The FDA modified its food monitoring program in January, 1973, to include radioactive isotopes. The methodology used to perform analyses on these food products are taken from the standard setting societies such as the AOAC International, American Society for Testing Materials and American Public Health Association Standard Methods. In addition, methods not tested by these societies are taken from the literature or from Department of Energy manuals such as the Health and Safety Laboratory and also from Environmental Protection Agency, Public Health Service, and Food and Agricultural Organization manuals. These include the methods for long-lived radionuclides such as tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137 and plutonium. Also, the short-lived radionuclides such as iodine-131, radiocesium, radiocerium and radioruthenium. In addition, they include the natural occurring radionuclides such as radium and uranium isotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitters such as radiocesium, iodine-131 and radioruthenium are determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. This is done using intrinsic germanium detectors with the appropriate hardware and software. The alpha and 'pure' beta-emitters are determined by various radiochemical methods and techniques. The radiochemical methodology and equipment used in analyzing these radionuclides are described and discussed. Also, the methodology and equipment for the gamma-emitters are described in more detail in this paper. In addition, the limits of detection for the methods used will be discussed. (author)

  11. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or “Right‐to‐Try” Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jelena P.; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E.; Adamo, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and “Right‐to‐Try” legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. Methods FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. Results The FDA EA program includes Single Patient‐Investigational New Drug (SP‐IND), Emergency SP‐IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. “Right‐to‐Try” legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. Conclusion The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP‐IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. PMID:25588691

  12. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  14. Development of a metrics dashboard for monitoring involvement in the 340B Drug Pricing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karralli, Rusol; Tipton, Joyce; Dumitru, Doina; Scholz, Lisa; Masilamani, Santhi

    2015-09-01

    An electronic tool to support hospital organizations in monitoring and addressing financial and compliance challenges related to participation in the 340B Drug Pricing Program is described. In recent years there has been heightened congressional and regulatory scrutiny of the federal 340B program, which provides discounted drug prices on Medicaid-covered drugs to safety net hospitals and other 340B-eligible healthcare organizations, or "covered entities." Historically, the 340B program has lacked a metrics-driven reporting framework to help covered entities capture the value of 340B program involvement, community benefits provided to underserved populations, and costs associated with compliance with 340B eligibility requirements. As part of an initiative by a large health system to optimize its 340B program utilization and regulatory compliance efforts, a team of pharmacists led the development of an electronic dashboard tool to help monitor 340B program activities at the system's 340B-eligible facilities. After soliciting input from an array of internal and external 340B program stakeholders, the team designed the dashboard and associated data-entry tools to facilitate the capture and analysis of 340B program-related data in four domains: cost savings and revenue, program maintenance costs, community benefits, and compliance. A large health system enhanced its ability to evaluate and monitor 340B program-related activities through the use of a dashboard tool capturing key metrics on cost savings achieved, maintenance costs, and other aspects of program involvement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a Secure Laptop-Based Testing Program in an Undergraduate Nursing Program: Students' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinyuan; Gunter, Glenda; Tsai, Ming-Hsiu; Lim, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the many robust learning management systems, and the availability of affordable laptops, have made secure laptop-based testing a reality on many campuses. The undergraduate nursing program at the authors' university began to implement a secure laptop-based testing program in 2009, which allowed students to use their newly purchased laptops to take quizzes and tests securely in classrooms. After nearly 5 years' secure laptop-based testing program implementation, a formative evaluation, using a mixed method that has both descriptive and correlational data elements, was conducted to seek constructive feedback from students to improve the program. Evaluation data show that, overall, students (n = 166) believed the secure laptop-based testing program helps them get hands-on experience of taking examinations on the computer and gets them prepared for their computerized NCLEX-RN. Students, however, had a lot of concerns about laptop glitches and campus wireless network glitches they experienced during testing. At the same time, NCLEX-RN first-time passing rate data were analyzed using the χ2 test, and revealed no significant association between the two testing methods (paper-and-pencil testing and the secure laptop-based testing) and students' first-time NCLEX-RN passing rate. Based on the odds ratio, however, the odds of students passing NCLEX-RN the first time was 1.37 times higher if they were taught with the secure laptop-based testing method than if taught with the traditional paper-and-pencil testing method in nursing school. It was recommended to the institution that better quality of laptops needs to be provided to future students, measures needed to be taken to further stabilize the campus wireless Internet network, and there was a need to reevaluate the Laptop Initiative Program.

  16. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  17. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and research...

  18. Scaffold hopping in drug discovery using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2008-05-01

    In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.

  19. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  1. Material control and accounting self-test program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Wilson, R.L.; Byers, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a controversial but potentially beneficial MCandA strategy that has not been widely attempted in the past, called Self-Test. In this strategy a processor of Strategic Special Nuclear Material (SSNM) devises a program of internally administered tests to determine if the MCandA system performs in a reliable, expedient manner in the face of a simulated loss or compromise. Self-Test procedures would include, for example, the actual removal of SSNM from process equipment in order to determine whether the MCandA system will detect the simulated theft. Self-Test programs have several potential problems. However, an approach with the potential for solving many of these problems has been devised and is discussed

  2. Zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test for drug safety signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Zheng, Dan; Zalkikar, Jyoti; Tiwari, Ram

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, numerous methods have been developed for data mining of large drug safety databases, such as Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Adverse Event Reporting System, where data matrices are formed by drugs such as columns and adverse events as rows. Often, a large number of cells in these data matrices have zero cell counts and some of them are "true zeros" indicating that the drug-adverse event pairs cannot occur, and these zero counts are distinguished from the other zero counts that are modeled zero counts and simply indicate that the drug-adverse event pairs have not occurred yet or have not been reported yet. In this paper, a zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is proposed to identify drug-adverse event pairs that have disproportionately high reporting rates, which are also called signals. The maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters of zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test are obtained using the expectation and maximization algorithm. The zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test is also modified to handle the stratified analyses for binary and categorical covariates (e.g. gender and age) in the data. The proposed zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is shown to asymptotically control the type I error and false discovery rate, and its finite sample performance for signal detection is evaluated through a simulation study. The simulation results show that the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method performs similar to Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method when the estimated percentage of true zeros in the database is small. Both the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test and likelihood ratio test methods are applied to six selected drugs, from the 2006 to 2011 Adverse Event Reporting System database, with varying percentages of observed zero-count cells.

  3. MAVL wastes containers functional demonstration and associated tests program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of studies on the MAVL wastes, the CEA develops containers for middle time wastes storage. This program aims to realize a ''B wastes containers'' demonstrator. A demonstrator is a container, parts of a container or samples which must validate the tests. This document presents the state of the study in the following three chapters: functions description, base data and design choices; presentation of the functional demonstrators; demonstration tests description. (A.L.B.)

  4. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooperative field test program for wind systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  6. DWPF Stage 2: precipitation test program at Mott

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This memorandum covers the results of the test program conducted at Mott Metallurgical to determine cross-flow filter performance on potassium/cesium tetraphenylborate (K/Cs TPB)-sodium titanate slurries. The test program was designed to provide essential basic operating data to supplement the 1000-gallon cold process tests planned at TNX and the shielded cell tests with actual waste supernate planned by Chemical Technology. The specific Mott Metallurgical test objectives are outlined in DPST-81-722. During the Mott Metallurgical test program an average filtrate flow rate of approximately 0.05 gpm/ft 2 was repeatedly demonstrated over an 8-hr run with 0.5 micron filter elements. Initial Fe/Al sludge concentrations up to 150 ppM did not affect filter performance. Rheologies of the K/Cs TPB-sodium titanate slurries up to 13% by weight, the maximum concentration achieved, are summarized. Several recommendations are made to act as a guide for optimal filter performance

  7. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  8. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  9. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... addressing potential UAS privacy concerns, as set out herein, contact Gregory C. Carter, Office of the Chief... address privacy concerns relating to the operation of the test site program, the FAA intends to include in... among policymakers, privacy advocates, and the industry regarding broader questions concerning the use...

  10. 78 FR 53466 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the Document Image... the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the...

  11. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  12. Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. Part II. Intermediate vessel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The testing of the intermediate pressure vessels is a major activity under the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. A primary objective of these tests is to develop or verify methods of fracture prediction, through the testing of selected structures and materials, in order that a valid basis can be established for evaluating the serviceability and safety of light-water reactor pressure vessels. These vessel tests were planned with sufficiently specific objectives that substantial quantitative weight could be given to the results. Each set of testing conditions was chosen so as to provide specific data by which analytical methods of predicting flaw growth, and in some cases crack arrest, could be evaluated. Every practical effort was made to assure that results would be relevant to some aspect of real reactor pressure vessel performance through careful control of material properties, selection of test temperatures, and design of prepared flaws. 5 references

  13. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  14. SSC string test facility for superconducting magnets: Testing capabilities and program for collider magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraushaar, P.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; McInturff, A.; Robinson, W.; Saladin, V.

    1993-05-01

    The Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) R ampersand D Testing Facility has been established at the SSC Laboratory to test Collider and High Energy Booster (HEB) superconducting magnet strings. The facility is operational and has had two testing periods utilizing a half cell of collider prototypical magnets with the associated spool pieces and support systems. This paper presents a description of the testing capabilities of the facility with respect to components and supporting subsystems (cryogenic, power, quench protection, controls and instrumentation), the planned testing program for the collider magnets

  15. 3D printed drug delivery and testing systems - a passing fad or the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Han; Kathuria, Himanshu; Tan, Justin Jia Yao; Kang, Lifeng

    2018-05-18

    The US Food and Drug Administration approval of the first 3D printed tablet in 2015 has ignited growing interest in 3D printing, or additive manufacturing (AM), for drug delivery and testing systems. Beyond just a novel method for rapid prototyping, AM provides key advantages over traditional manufacturing of drug delivery and testing systems. These includes the ability to fabricate complex geometries to achieve variable drug release kinetics; ease of personalising pharmacotherapy for patient and lowering the cost for fabricating personalised dosages. Furthermore, AM allows fabrication of complex and micron-sized tissue scaffolds and models for drug testing systems that closely resemble in vivo conditions. However, there are several limitations such as regulatory concerns that may impede the progression to market. Here, we provide an overview of the advantages of AM drug delivery and testing, as compared to traditional manufacturing techniques. Also, we discuss the key challenges and future directions for AM enabled pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Juvenile Animal Testing: Assessing Need and Use in the Drug Product Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile animal testing has become an established part of drug development to support safe clinical use in the human pediatric population and for eventual drug product label use. A review of European Paediatric Investigation Plan decisions showed that from 2007 to mid-2017, 229 drugs had juvenile animal work requested, almost exclusively incorporating general toxicology study designs, in rat (57.5%), dog (8%), mouse (4.5%), monkey (4%), pig (2%), sheep (1%), rabbit (1%), hamster (0.5%), and species not specified (21.5%). A range of therapeutic areas were found, but the most common areas were infectious diseases (15%), endocrinology (13.5%), oncology (13%), neurology (11%), and cardiovascular diseases (10%). Examination of major clinical indications within these therapeutic areas showed some level of consistency in the species of choice for testing and the pediatric age that required support. Examination of juvenile animal study findings presented in product labels raises questions around how useful the data are to allow prescribing the drug to a child. It is hopeful that the new ICH S11 guideline "Nonclinical Safety Testing in Support of Development of Pediatric Medicines" currently in preparation will aid drug developers in clarifying the need for juvenile animal studies as well as in promoting a move away from toxicology studies with a conventional design. This would permit more focused testing to examine identified areas of toxicity or safety concerns and clarify the presentation/interpretation of juvenile animal study findings for proper risk assessment by a drug prescriber.

  17. An Assessment of Prison-Based Drug Treatment; Texas' In-Prison Therapeutic Community Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Chatham, Lois R.; Camacho, L. Mabel

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of a comprehensive, prison-based treatment assessment, including a six-month follow-up study. Results show that 80% of the inmates referred to the program graduated. Graduates demonstrated marked reductions in criminal and drug-use activity and had lower relapse and recidivism rates when compared to other parolees. (RJM)

  18. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELEASE RATE OF A HIGHLY SOLUBLE DRUG FROM A PROGRAMMED RELEASE MEGALOPOROUS SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, C; MENGER, NR; LERK, CF

    The present study reports on the successful incorporation of a highly soluble drug, procaine HCl, in a programmed-release megaloporous system. This solid two-phase system is composed of housing phase matrix granules (HMG), controlling liquid penetration into the system, and of restraining phase

  20. 76 FR 14001 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools Discretionary Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    .... 2005; 62(6) 593-602. These challenges--crime, early drug and alcohol abuse, anxiety, aggressive or... Programs): Grants to Reduce Alcohol Abuse (CFDA No. 84.184A). Grants for the Integration of Schools and... abuse and mental health crises that affect AI/AN students. DATES: We must receive your comments on or...

  1. 76 FR 63017 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... (Sec. 423.2300) b. Definitions (Sec. 423.2305) (1) Applicable Beneficiary (2) Applicable Drug (3... marketing, including agent/broker training; payments to MA organizations based on quality ratings; standards... program; payment rules for non-contract health care providers; extending current network adequacy...

  2. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  3. Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase 'gas generationtesting' shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

  4. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O.; Loiseau, O.; Koch, W.; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Billone, M. C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO 2 , test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments

  5. Selecting participants when testing new drugs: the implications of age and gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Pamela R

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are rigorously tested for safety and efficacy prior to being licensed for use. During this testing process the archetypal research subject is a young male; women and older people are less frequently invited to participate. This is especially true at the early stages, but can also occur in the later phases of drug testing. This paper considers the reasons for the relative under-representation of these groups, and the legal implications of failing to include as research subjects the very types of people who will ultimately consume these drugs.

  6. 49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cancelled? 40.199 Section 40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... cause a drug test to be cancelled? (a) As the MRO, when the laboratory discovers a “fatal flaw” during... specimen has been “Rejected for Testing” (with the reason stated). You must always cancel such a test. (b...

  7. Implementation of in vitro replacement technologies in regulatory drug testing - An innovation systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, M.; Van Meer, P.J.K.; Moors, E.H.M.; Hekkert, M.P.; Schellekens, H.

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of in vivo methods by in vitro methods in regulatory drug testing is rare. The aim of this research is to identify barriers and drivers of the replacement of in vivo methods by in vitro methods in Europe. We studied two cases. The first case is the Draize eye test. Since 2009, the in

  8. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in older persons: Effect on mobility test outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we have shown that withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) as a single intervention reduces falls incidence. Improvement of mobility may be an important factor in this finding and we therefore tested whether mobility tests improved after FRID withdrawal.

  9. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in older persons: effect on mobility test outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huibert A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we have shown that withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) as a single intervention reduces falls incidence. Improvement of mobility may be an important factor in this finding and we therefore tested whether mobility tests improved after FRID withdrawal. METHODS: In

  10. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G B; Currie, J W

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  11. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies

  12. Test Report Emission Test Program EPA Information Collection Request for Delayed Coking Units 736 Coker Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARI Environmental, Inc. (ARI) was retained by Houston Refining LP (HRO) to conduct an emission test program at their refinery located in Houston, Texas. The testing was conducted on on the 736 Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) in response to EPA's ICR.

  13. WIPP R and D in situ test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States' defense-related radioactive waste. The in situ test program focus is to provide the models and data to demonstrate the facility performance for isolation of waste at WIPP. The program is defined for the WIPP sealing system, thermal-structural interactions and waste package performance. A number of integrated large-scale underground tests have been operational since 1983 and are ongoing. The tests address the issues of both systems design and long-term isolation performance of the WIPP repository

  14. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) compliance program guidance manual and updates (FY 86). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices. Irregular report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  15. Large-Scale Seismic Test Program at Hualien, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Graves, H.L.; Yeh, Y.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program at Hualien, Taiwan, is a follow-on to the soil-structure interaction (SSI) experiments at Lotung, Taiwan. The planned SSI studies will be performed at a stiff soil site in Hualien, Taiwan, that historically has had slightly more destructive earthquakes in the past than Lotung. The objectives of the LSST project is as follows: To obtain earthquake-induced SSI data at a stiff soil site having similar prototypical nuclear power plant soil conditions. To confirm the findings and methodologies validated against the Lotung soft soil SSI data for prototypical plant condition applications. To further validate the technical basis of realistic SSI analysis approaches. To further support the resolution of USI A-40 Seismic Design Criteria issue. These objectives will be accomplished through an integrated and carefully planned experimental program consisting of: soil characterization, test model design and field construction, instrumentation layout and deployment, in-situ geophysical information collection, forced vibration test, and synthesis of results and findings. The LSST is a joint effort among many interested parties. EPRI and Taipower are the organizers of the program and have the lead in planning and managing the program

  16. Large-Scale Seismic Test Program at Hualien, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Graves, H.L.; Chen, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program at Hualien, Taiwan, is a follow-on to the soil-structure interaction (SSI) experiments at Lotung, Taiwan. The planned SSI studies will be performed at a stiff soil site in Hualien, Taiwan, that historically has had slightly more destructive earthquakes in the past than Lotung. The LSST is a joint effort among many interested parties. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Taipower are the organizers of the program and have the lead in planning and managing the program. Other organizations participating in the LSST program are US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique, Electricite de France and Framatome. The LSST was initiated in January 1990, and is envisioned to be five years in duration. Based on the assumption of stiff soil and confirmed by soil boring and geophysical results the test model was designed to provide data needed for SSI studies covering: free-field input, nonlinear soil response, non-rigid body SSI, torsional response, kinematic interaction, spatial incoherency and other effects. Taipower had the lead in design of the test model and received significant input from other LSST members. Questions raised by LSST members were on embedment effects, model stiffness, base shear, and openings for equipment. This paper describes progress in site preparation, design and construction of the model and development of an instrumentation plan

  17. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  18. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  19. 77 FR 63837 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1056] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  20. Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse and New Psychoactive Substances in a High-Risk Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Alberto; Palamar, Joseph J; Gerace, Enrico; Di Corcia, Daniele; Vincenti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in the drug market over the last decade. Few drug surveys in the USA, however, ask about use of NPS, so prevalence and correlates of use are largely unknown. A large portion of NPS use is unintentional or unknown as NPS are common adulterants in drugs like ecstasy/Molly, and most NPS are rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting efficacy of urine, blood and saliva testing. We utilized a novel method of examining prevalence of NPS use in a high-risk population utilizing hair-testing. Hair samples from high-risk nightclub and dance music attendees were tested for 82 drugs and metabolites (including NPS) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty samples collected from different parts of the body were analyzed, 57 of which detected positive for at least one substance-either a traditional or new drug. Among these, 26 samples tested positive for at least one NPS-the most common being butylone (25 samples). Other new drugs detected include methylone, methoxetamine, 5/6-APB, α-PVP and 4-FA. Hair analysis proved a powerful tool to gain objective biological drug-prevalence information, free from possible biases of unintentional or unknown intake and untruthful reporting of use. Such testing can be used actively or retrospectively to validate survey responses and inform research on consumption patterns, including intentional and unknown use, polydrug-use, occasional NPS intake and frequent or heavy use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The joint EC/EPA mid-Connecticut test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgroe, J.D.; Brna, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    In early 1989, Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a comprehensive test program on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) unit of the Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford. The program, conducted in cooperation with the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA), the facility's operator, included characterization and performance test phases. The results of the characterization tests were used in defining both the combustion and flue gas cleaning system operating conditions for the performance tests. The results of the performance tests are emphasized in this paper and are summarized in three parts. First, the combustion tests results will be addressed and related to good combustion practice for RDF combustors. Then, the performance of the lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter system in controlling acid gas (hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide), trace organic [polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)], trace metal [arsenic (as), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)], and particulate matter (PM) emissions will be discussed. Finally, the results of ash/residue analyses will be presented

  2. Dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for programmed site-specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Klok, Harm-Anton; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-05-01

    In the past decades, polymeric nanoparticles have emerged as a most promising and viable technology platform for targeted and controlled drug delivery. As vehicles, ideal nanoparticles are obliged to possess high drug loading levels, deliver drug to the specific pathological site and/or target cells without drug leakage on the way, while rapidly unload drug at the site of action. To this end, various "intelligent" polymeric nanoparticles that release drugs in response to an internal or external stimulus such as pH, redox, temperature, magnetic and light have been actively pursued. These stimuli-responsive nanoparticles have demonstrated, though to varying degrees, improved in vitro and/or in vivo drug release profiles. In an effort to further improve drug release performances, novel dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles that respond to a combination of two or more signals such as pH/temperature, pH/redox, pH/magnetic field, temperature/reduction, double pH, pH and diols, temperature/magnetic field, temperature/enzyme, temperature/pH/redox, temperature/pH/magnetic, pH/redox/magnetic, temperature/redox/guest molecules, and temperature/pH/guest molecules have recently been developed. Notably, these combined responses take place either simultaneously at the pathological site or in a sequential manner from nanoparticle preparation, nanoparticle transporting pathways, to cellular compartments. These dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles have shown unprecedented control over drug delivery and release leading to superior in vitro and/or in vivo anti-cancer efficacy. With programmed site-specific drug delivery feature, dual and multi-stimuli responsive nanoparticulate drug formulations have tremendous potential for targeted cancer therapy. In this review paper, we highlight the recent exciting developments in dual and multi-stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for precision drug delivery applications, with a particular focus

  3. Describing of elements IO field in a testing computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Loshkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard of describing the process of displaying interactive windows on a computer monitor, through which an output of questions and input of answers are implemented during computer testing, is presented in the article [11]. According to the proposed standard, the description of the process mentioned above is performed with a format line, containing element names, their parameters as well as grouping and auxiliary symbols. Program objects are described using elements of standard. The majority of objects create input and output windows on a computer monitor. The aim of our research was to develop a minimum possible set of elements of standard to perform mathematical and computer science testing.The choice of elements of the standard was conducted in parallel with the development and testing of the program that uses them. This approach made it possible to choose a sufficiently complete set of elements for testing in fields of study mentioned above. For the proposed elements, names were selected in such a way: firstly, they indicate their function and secondly, they coincide with the names of elements in other programming languages that are similar by function. Parameters, their names, their assignments and accepted values are proposed for the elements. The principle of name selection for the parameters was the same as for elements of the standard: the names should correspond to their assignments or coincide with names of similar parameters in other programming languages. The parameters define properties of objects. Particularly, while the elements of standard create windows, the parameters define object properties (location, size, appearance and the sequence in which windows are created. All elements of standard, proposed in this article are composed in a table, the columns of which have names and functions of these elements. Inside the table, the elements of standard are grouped row by row into four sets: input elements, output elements, input

  4. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): a database for ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S J; Erickson, Sean D; Tolopko, Andrew N; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-05-17

    Ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): A Database for Ethnobotanically-Driven Drug-Discovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S. J.; Erickson, Sean D.; Tolopko, Andrew N.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E.; Eisenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study. Ethnobotanically-driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine-Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. Materials and Methods. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. Results. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. Conclusions. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically-driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. PMID:21420479

  6. 49 CFR 655.11 - Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  7. Willingness to Provide a Hair Sample for Drug Testing among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Cleland, Charles M; Sherman, Scott

    2018-04-25

    Non-disclosure of drug use on surveys is common and many drug users unknowingly ingest adulterant or replacement drugs, which leads to underreporting of use of these drugs. Biological testing can complement survey research, and hair-testing is an appealing method as many drugs are detectable for months post-use. We examined willingness to donate a hair sample to be tested among those surveyed in a population at high risk for consuming adulterated drugs-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. We surveyed 933 adults entering EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Hair donation response rates and reasons for refusal were examined from this cross-sectional study. A third (n = 312; 33.4%) provided a hair sample. Lack of interest (21.0%), lack of time (19.8%), not wanting a lock of hair cut (17.7%), and disinterest in having hair cut in public (13.8%) were the main reported reasons for refusal. 4.7% refused because they could not receive results. Past-year drug users were more likely to fear identification than non-users (p<.001). Asian participants were at lower odds of providing a hair sample (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87), and those reporting past-year use of LSD (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35), opioids (nonmedical; aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25-2.99), and/or methamphetamine (aOR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.36-8.62) were at higher odds of providing a sample than non-users of these drugs. Only a third of participants provided a hair sample and we found individual-level differences regarding willingness to provide a sample. Factors contributing to refusal should be considered to increase response rates and generalizability of results.

  8. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Bruno, Raimondo; Ezard, Nadine; Ritter, Alison

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%. Most (80%) were willing to wait an hour for their result. Almost all (94%) would not use a service if there was a possibility of arrest, and a majority (64%) would not use a service that did not provide individual feedback of results. Drug-checking results were only slightly more attractive if they provided comprehensive quantitative results compared with qualitative results of key ingredients. Most (93%) were willing to pay up to $5, and 68% up to $10, per test. One-third (33%) reported willingness to donate a whole dose for testing: they were more likely to be male, younger, less experienced, use drugs more frequently and attend venues/festivals less frequently. In this sample, festival- or club-based drug-checking services with low wait times and low cost appear broadly attractive under conditions of legal amnesty and individualised feedback. Quantitative analysis of ecstasy pills requiring surrender of a whole pill may appeal to a minority in Australia where pills are more expensive than elsewhere. [Barratt MJ, Bruno R, Ezard N, Ritter A. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Safeguards system testing WSRC Insider Exercise Program (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaux, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns related to the control and accountability of nuclear material located at DOE facilities is the theft or diversion of material by an insider. Many complex safeguards and security systems have been installed to provide timely detection and prevention of the removal of nuclear materials. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) section has implemented an insider exercise program designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these safeguards systems. Exercises consist of limited scope performance test. This paper describes the structure and controls for the insider exercise program at the Savannah River Site, the lessons learned over the past several years, and methods being utilized to improve the program

  10. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  11. Risk Management Program Application for the Component Test Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Jeffrey D. Bryan

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the application of the risk management program requirements to Component Test Capability (CTC) Project activities for each CTC alternative. In particular, DOE O 413.3A, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' and DOE G 413.3-7, 'Risk Management Guide for Project Management,' will apply in the event that Alternative 4, Single, Standalone Component Test Facility (CTF), is selected and approved. As such, it is advisable to begin planning to meet the associated Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance as early in the acquisition process as practicable. This white paper is intended to assist in this planning and to support associated decision-making activities. Nontechnical risks associated with each alternative will be identified to support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) CTC alternatives analysis. Technical risks are assumed to be addressed through the Technology Development Risk Management modeling process and are inherent to the alternatives

  12. Overview and status of the SIMMER testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has undertaken an extensive experiment analysis program to test the results of SIMMER Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) accident calculations. Initially, we will test the postdisassembly work-energy partition problem. The SIMMER-calculated order-of-magnitude reduction of available kinetic energy following a severe hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA) can be attributed to (1) purely fluid-dynamic effects; and (2) rate-controlled effects, such as phase transitions and heat transfer. We have chosen to test separately each class of mitigator. In this paper we review the experiments initially chosen for testing of each class of mitigator and report on the status of the analyses. We enumerate several problems in SIMMER that experiment analysis has disclosed. Finally, needs for future experiments are discussed

  13. FY11 Facility Assessment Study for Aeronautics Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, John A.; Sydnor, George H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach and results for the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) FY11 Facility Assessment Project. ATP commissioned assessments in FY07 and FY11 to aid in the understanding of the current condition and reliability of its facilities and their ability to meet current and future (five year horizon) test requirements. The principle output of the assessment was a database of facility unique, prioritized investments projects with budgetary cost estimates. This database was also used to identify trends for the condition of facility systems.

  14. The initial criticality and nuclear commissioning test program at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Seo, Chul-Gyo; Jun, Byung-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjin-Dong 150, Yusung-Ku, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The construction of the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor - HANARO of 3MW, developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, was completed at the beginning of this year. The first fuel loading began on February 2 1995, and initial criticality was achieved on February 8, when the core had four 18-element assemblies and thirteen 36-element assemblies. The critical control rod position was 600.8 mm which represents excess reactivity of 0.71 $. Currently the nuclear commissioning test is on going under the zero power range. This paper describes the initial criticality approach of the HANARO, and its nuclear commissioning test program. (author)

  15. DOE standard: Filter test facility quality program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard was developed primarily for application in US Department of Energy programs. It contains specific direction for HEPA filter testing performed at a DOE-accepted HEPA Filter Test Facility (FTF). Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data that may improve this document should be sent to the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31), US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585, by letter or by using the self-addressed Document Improvement Proposal form (DOE F 1300.3) appearing at the end of this document

  16. Increasing compliance with mass drug administration programs for lymphatic filariasis in India through education and lymphedema management programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Cantey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 45% of people living at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF worldwide live in India. India has faced challenges obtaining the needed levels of compliance with its mass drug administration (MDA program to interrupt LF transmission, which utilizes diethylcarbamazine (DEC or DEC plus albendazole. Previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with the MDA program were used to refine a pre-MDA educational campaign. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of these refinements and of a lymphedema morbidity management program on MDA compliance.A randomized, 30-cluster survey was performed in each of 3 areas: the community-based pre-MDA education plus community-based lymphedema management education (Com-MDA+LM area, the community-based pre-MDA education (Com-MDA area, and the Indian standard pre-MDA education (MDA-only area. Compliance with the MDA program was 90.2% in Com-MDA+LM, 75.0% in Com-MDA, and 52.9% in the MDA-only areas (p<0.0001. Identified barriers to adherence included: 1 fear of side effects and 2 lack of recognition of one's personal benefit from adherence. Multivariable predictors of adherence amenable to educational intervention were: 1 knowing about the MDA in advance of its occurrence, 2 knowing everyone is at risk for LF, 3 knowing that the MDA was for LF, and 4 knowing at least one component of the lymphedema management techniques taught in the lymphedema management program.This study confirmed previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with India's MDA program for LF. More importantly, it showed that targeting these predictors and barriers in a timely and clear pre-MDA educational campaign can increase compliance with MDA programs, and it demonstrated, for the first time, that lymphedema management programs may also increase compliance with MDA programs.

  17. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  18. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  19. The Potential Impact of Up-Front Drug Sensitivity Testing on India's Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva

    Full Text Available In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB. The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST. Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies. Here we use a mathematical model of TB transmission, calibrated to the TB epidemic in India, to explore the potential impact of a major national scale-up of rapid DST. To inform key parameters in a clinical setting, we take GeneXpert as an example of a technology that could enable such scale-up. We draw from a recent multi-centric demonstration study conducted in India that involved upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of all TB suspects.We find that widespread, public-sector deployment of high-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal DST appropriately linked with treatment could substantially impact MDR-TB in India. Achieving 75% access over 3 years amongst all cases being diagnosed for TB in the public sector alone could avert over 180,000 cases of MDR-TB (95% CI 44187 - 317077 cases between 2015 and 2025. Sufficiently wide deployment of Xpert could, moreover, turn an increasing MDR epidemic into a diminishing one. Synergistic effects were observed with assumptions of simultaneously improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Our results illustrate the potential impact of new and emerging technologies that enable widespread, timely DST, and the important effect that universal rapid DST in the public sector can have on the MDR-TB epidemic in India.

  20. Summary of ROSA-4 LSTF first phase test program and station blackout (TMLB) test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Kukita, Y.; Anoda, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes major test results obtained at the ROSA-4 Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) during the first phase of the test program. The results from a station blackout (TMLB) test conducted at the end of the first-phase program are described in some detail. The LSTF is an integral test facility being operated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for simulation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) thermal-hydraulic responses during small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) and operational/abnormal transients. It is a 1/48 volumetrically scaled, full-height, full-pressure simulator of a Westinghouse-type 4-loop PWR. The facility includes two symmetric primary loops each one containing an active inverted-U tube steam generator and an active reactor coolant pump. The loop horizontal legs are sized to conserve the scaled (1/24) volumes as well as the length to the square root of the diameter ratio in order to simulate the two-phase flow regime transitions. The primary objective of the LSTF first-phase program was to define the fundamental PWR thermal-hydraulic responses during SBLOCAs and transients. Most of the tests were conducted with simulated component/operator failures, including unavailability of the high pressure injection system and auxiliary feedwater system, as well as operator failure to take corrective actions. The forty-two first phase tests included twenty-nine SBLOCA tests conducted mainly for cold leg breaks, three abnormal transient tests and ten natural circulation tests. Attempts were made in several of the SBLOCA tests to simulate the plant recovery procedures as well as candidate accident management measures for prevention of high-pressure core melt situation. The natural circulation tests simulated the single-phase and two-phase natural circulation as well as reflux condensation behavior in the primary loops in steady or quasi-steady states

  1. Drugs as instruments: Describing and testing a behavioral approach to the study of neuroenhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Brand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroenhancement (NE is the non-medical use of psychoactive substances to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience. So far empirical investigations of individuals’ motivation for NE however have been hampered by the lack of theoretical foundation. This study aimed to apply drug instrumentalization theory to user motivation for NE. We argue that NE should be defined and analyzed from a behavioral perspective rather than in terms of the characteristics of substances used for NE. In the empirical study we explored user behavior by analyzing relationships between drug options (use over-the-counter products, prescription drugs, illicit drugs and postulated drug instrumentalization goals (e.g. improved cognitive performance, counteracting fatigue, improved social interaction. Questionnaire data from 1,438 university students were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to address the question of whether analysis of drug instrumentalization should be based on the assumption that users are aiming to achieve a certain goal and choose their drug accordingly or whether NE behavior is more strongly rooted in a decision to try or use a certain drug option. We used factor mixture modeling to explore whether users could be separated into qualitatively different groups defined by a shared ‘goal × drug option’ configuration. Our results indicate, first, that individuals’ decisions about NE are eventually based on personal attitude to drug options (e.g. willingness to use an over-the-counter product but not to abuse prescription drugs rather than motivated by desire to achieve a specific goal (e.g. fighting tiredness for which different drug options might be tried. Second, data analyses suggested two qualitatively different classes of users. Both predominantly used over-the-counter products, but ‘neuroenhancers’ might be characterized by a higher propensity to instrumentalize over

  2. Test Program for the Performance Analysis of DNS64 Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier research papers, bash shell scripts using the host Linux command were applied for testing the performance and stability of different DNS64 server imple­mentations. Because of their inefficiency, a small multi-threaded C/C++ program (named dns64perf was written which can directly send DNS AAAA record queries. After the introduction to the essential theoretical background about the structure of DNS messages and TCP/IP socket interface programming, the design decisions and implementation details of our DNS64 performance test program are disclosed. The efficiency of dns64perf is compared to that of the old method using bash shell scripts. The result is convincing: dns64perf can send at least 95 times more DNS AAAA record queries per second. The source code of dns64perf is published under the GNU GPLv3 license to support the work of other researchers in the field of testing the performance of DNS64 servers.

  3. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...... to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control...... in the private health sector. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons...

  4. Methods, strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of bioequivalence tests with special regard to immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Teun; Gabardi, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Within the field of solid organ transplantation, the patents for a number of immunosuppressive drugs have expired in the last few years. Tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil are now available as generic drugs. In some countries, the market penetration of these generic formulations is as high as 70%, whereas in some other countries, this figure is below 10%. Several professional societies have published position papers on the risks and benefits of generic substitution of immunosuppressive drugs. It often appears that transplant professionals are not fully aware of the requirements for registration of generic drugs. This article describes the registration requirements with a focus on bioequivalence testing, the strengths and weaknesses in this process, and the differences between Europe and the US. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  6. The Last State to Grant Nurse Practitioners DEA Licensure: An Education Improvement Initiative on the Florida Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellams, Joni R; Maye, John P

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) now have prescriptive authority for controlled substances in all 50 states in the United States. Florida, the last state to grant NPs DEA licensure, has been wrought with prescription diversion practices for a number of years as pill mills, doctor shopping, and overprescribing proliferated. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) help curb drug diversion activity and play a key role in reducing the abuse of controlled substances. The primary objective of this education improvement initiative was to increase knowledge of actively licensed NPs in the state of Florida regarding the state's PDMP. The main themes included the drug abuse problem, description and progression of the PDMP, and how to use the Florida PDMP. Upon approval from the institutional review board, this education improvement initiative gauged NP knowledge of the PDMP and main themes before and after an educational PowerPoint intervention. A pretest/posttest questionnaire was administered for assessment of all knowledge questions. One hundred forty-five NPs with active advanced registered NP licenses in Florida completed both the pretest and posttest questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were used for statistical significance testing. Knowledge of the PDMP and the main themes of the education improvement initiative significantly increased (p < .001) from pretest to posttest results. This education improvement initiative had positive effects for NPs on the knowledge of the Florida PDMP and the main themes. This indicated that Florida NPs are able to acquire greater comprehension of the PDMP by an education intervention.

  7. The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gripenberg Abdon Johanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08. This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1 demographics, 2 respondents' own drug use experience, 3 respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4 observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention

  8. Sensory submodalities testing in neurolinguistic programming, part of mental training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Teodor GROSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this study is part of a larger work, which involves increasing sporting performance by applying mental training techniques – special techniques of neurolinguistic programming. In this case we will discuss some aspects of the test application Jacobson S. (2011. Purpose of study and hypothesis: In neurolinguistic programming (NLP we have studied the relationship between sensory submodalities, in accordance with the Jacobson test (2011. We wanted to check the degree of significance of the mean difference parameters studied and if the materiality result falls within the objective parameters. If ideomotor representations of athletes are completed with multiple sensations of all sensory submodalities such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory and gustatory, the possibility of applying the techniques of NLP (neurolinguistic programming will have more effective results. Methods and material: two records were made by using two tests, test1 and test2 on master students of the University “Babes-Bolyai” Cluj-Napoca, from FEFS from APS department (training and sports performance. The statistical indicators were calculated on elements of descriptive statistics and the data is presented using indicators of centrality, location and distribution. Statistical analysis of non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used for sample pairs (data uneven distribution/rank. Materiality tests used was α=0.05 (5%, α=0.01 (1% or α=0.001. Results and deliberations: to detect the correlation between the two variables we used the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ. Statistical analysis was performed using the correlation coefficients Colton’s rule. It was found that no statistically significant differences were observed (p>0.05 in the statistical analysis of sample pairs Jacobson test values (times T1-T2. This is a result of the short timeframe – just one month – for objectives reasons. However, many of them appear in a good and a very good

  9. Canister disposition plan for the DWPF Startup Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Payne, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the disposition of canisters and the canistered waste forms produced during the DWPF Startup Test Program. The six melter campaigns (DWPF Startup Tests FA-13, WP-14, WP-15, WP-16, WP-17, and FA-18) will produce 126 canistered waste forms. In addition, up to 20 additional canistered waste forms may be produced from glass poured during the transition between campaigns. In particular, this canister disposition plan (1) assigns (by alpha-numeric code) a specific canister to each location in the six campaign sequences, (2) describes the method of access for glass sampling on each canistered waste form, (3) describes the nature of the specific tests which will be carried out, (4) details which tests will be carried out on each canistered waste form, (5) provides the sequence of these tests for each canistered waste form, and (6) assigns a storage location for each canistered waste form. The tests are designed to provide evidence, as detailed in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP 1 ), that the DWPF product will comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS 2 ). The WAPS must be met before the canistered waste form is accepted by DOE for ultimate disposal at the Federal Repository. The results of these tests will be included in the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR)

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Moos, Rudolf H; Smith, Brandy

    2017-11-01

    Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  12. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  13. Effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop for drug-dosage calculation in a nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical and calculation skills are widely acknowledged as being key nursing competences if patients are to receive care that is both effective and safe. Indeed, weaknesses in mathematical competence may lead to the administration of miscalculated drug doses, which in turn may harm or endanger patients' lives. However, little attention has been given to identifying appropriate teaching and learning strategies that will effectively facilitate the development of these skills in nurses. One such approach may be simulation. To evaluate the effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop on drug administration that focused on improving the drug-dosage calculation skills of second-year nursing students, with a view to promoting safety in drugs administration. A descriptive pre-post test design. Educational. Simulation center. The sample population included 77 nursing students from a Northern Italian University who attended a 30-hour Clinical Skills Workshop over a period of two weeks. The workshop covered integrated teaching strategies and innovative drug-calculation methodologies which have been described to improve psychomotor skills and build cognitive abilities through a greater understanding of mathematics linked to clinical practice. Study results showed a significant improvement between the pre- and the post-test phases, after the intervention. Pre-test scores ranged between 0 and 25 out of a maximum of 30 points, with a mean score of 15.96 (SD 4.85), and a median score of 17. Post-test scores ranged between 15 and 30 out of 30, with a mean score of 25.2 (SD 3.63) and a median score of 26 (pstudy shows that Clinical Skills Workshops may be tailored to include teaching techniques that encourage the development of drug-dosage calculation skills, and that training strategies implemented during a Clinical skills Workshop can enhance students' comprehension of mathematical calculations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  15. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  16. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  17. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  18. Experiences of burnout among drug counselors in a large opioid treatment program: A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Mark; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Muthulingam, Dharushana; Oberleitner, David; Madden, Lynn M; Marcus, Ruthanne; Eller, Anthony; Bono, Madeline H; Barry, Declan T

    2018-03-09

    Little is known about possible experiences of burnout among drug counselors in opioid treatment programs that are scaling up capacity to address the current opioid treatment gap. Participants in this quality improvement study were 31 drug counselors employed by large opioid treatment programs whose treatment capacities were expanding. Experiences of burnout and approaches for managing and/or preventing burnout were examined using individual semi-structured interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed, and systematically coded by a multidisciplinary team using grounded theory. Rates of reported burnout (in response to an open-ended question) were lower than expected, with approximately 26% of participants reporting burnout. Counselor descriptions of burnout included cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological symptoms; and job-related demands were identified as a frequent cause. Participants described both self-initiated (e.g., engaging in pleasurable activities, exercising, taking breaks during workday) and system-supported strategies for managing or preventing burnout (e.g., availing of supervision and paid time off). Counselors provided recommendations for system-level changes to attenuate counselor risk of burnout (e.g., increased staff-wide encounters, improved communication, accessible paid time off, and increased clinical supervision). Findings suggest that drug counselor burnout is not inevitable, even in opioid treatment program settings whose treatment capacities are expanding. Organizations might benefit from routinely assessing counselor feedback about burnout and implementing feasible recommendations to attenuate burnout and promote work engagement.

  19. The US Army Foreign Comparative Test fuel cell program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Elizabeth; Sifer, Nicholas; Bolton, Christopher; Ritter, Uli; Dubois, Terry

    The US Army RDECOM initiated a Foreign Comparative Test (FCT) Program to acquire lightweight, high-energy dense fuel cell systems from across the globe for evaluation as portable power sources in military applications. Five foreign companies, including NovArs, Smart Fuel Cell, Intelligent Energy, Ballard Power Systems, and Hydrogenics, Inc., were awarded competitive contracts under the RDECOM effort. This paper will report on the status of the program as well as the experimental results obtained from one of the units. The US Army has interests in evaluating and deploying a variety of fuel cell systems, where these systems show added value when compared to current power sources in use. For low-power applications, fuel cells utilizing high-energy dense fuels offer significant weight savings over current battery technologies. This helps reduce the load a solider must carry for longer missions. For high-power applications, the low operating signatures (acoustic and thermal) of fuel cell systems make them ideal power generators in stealth operations. Recent testing has been completed on the Smart Fuel Cell A25 system that was procured through the FCT program. The "A-25" is a direct methanol fuel cell hybrid and was evaluated as a potential candidate for soldier and sensor power applications.

  20. An Overview of the NASA Aeronautics Test Program Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD), however an overarching strategy for management of these national assets was needed. Therefore, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2006 NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD Test Resources Management Center (TRMC), stewards of the DoD test and evaluation infrastructure. Since then, approximately seventy percent of the ATP budget has been directed to underpin fixed and variable costs of facility operations within its portfolio and the balance towards strategic investments in its test facilities, including maintenance and capability upgrades. Also, a strong guiding coalition was established through the National Partnership for Aeronautics Testing (NPAT), with governance by the senior leadership of NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the DoD's TRMC. As part of its strategic planning, ATP has performed or participated in many studies and analyses, including assessments of major NASA and DoD aeronautics test capabilities, test facility condition evaluations and market research. The ATP strategy has also benefitted from unpublished RAND research and analysis by Ant n et al. (2009). Together, these various studies, reports and assessments serve as a foundation for a new, five year strategic plan that will guide ATP through FY 2014. Our vision for the future is a balanced

  1. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0 2 laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year

  2. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high gradient acceleration and state of the art free electron lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 to 100 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps Nd:YAG laser and a 100 mJ, 10 ps CO 2 laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high brightness electron beams. The AFT's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the High power laser will begin operation this year. 28 refs., 4 figs

  3. Receipt and timing of HIV drug resistance testing in six U.S. jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sharoda; Hall, H Irene; Hernandez, Angela L; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Saduvala, Neeraja; Oster, Alexandra M

    2017-12-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services recommends drug resistance testing at linkage to HIV care. Because receipt and timing of testing are not well characterized, we examined testing patterns among persons with diagnosed HIV who are linked to care. Using surveillance data in six jurisdictions for persons aged ≥13 years with HIV infection diagnosed in 2013, we assessed the proportion receiving testing, and among these, the proportion receiving testing at linkage. Multivariable log-binomial regression modeling estimated associations between selected characteristics and receipt of testing (1) overall, and (2) at linkage among those tested. Of 9,408 persons linked to care, 66% received resistance testing, among whom 68% received testing at linkage. Less testing was observed among male persons who inject drugs (PWID), compared with men who have sex with men (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97) and persons living in areas with population testing was lower for persons with initial CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm 3 , compared with those with CD4 counts tested, testing at linkage was lower among male PWID (aPR: 0.85; CI: 0.75-0.95) and, in some jurisdictions, persons with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm 3 (aPR range: 0.63-0.73). Two-thirds of persons with diagnosed HIV who were linked to care received resistance testing, and most received testing at linkage as recommended. Improving receipt and timing of testing among male PWID, persons in less populous settings, and in all jurisdictions, regardless of CD4 count, may improve care outcomes.

  4. Simple, direct drug susceptibility testing technique for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C-K; Joo, Y-T; Lee, E P; Park, Y K; Kim, H-J; Kim, S J

    2013-09-01

    The Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul, Republic of Korea. To develop a simple, direct drug susceptibility testing (DST) technique using Kudoh-modified Ogawa (KMO) medium. The critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), kanamycin (KM) and ofloxacin (OFX) for KMO medium were calibrated by comparing the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on KMO with those on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ). The performance of the direct KMO DST technique was evaluated on 186 smear-positive sputum specimens and compared with indirect LJ DST. Agreement of MICs on direct vs. indirect DST was high for INH, RMP and OFX. KM MICs on KMO were ∼10 g/ml higher than those on LJ. The critical concentrations of INH, RMP, OFX and KM for KMO were therefore set at 0.2, 40.0, 2.0, and 40.0 g/ml. The evaluation of direct DST of smear-positive sputum specimens showed 100% agreement with indirect LJ DST for INH and RMP. However, the respective susceptible and resistant predictive values were 98.8% and 100% for OFX, and 100% and 80% for KM. Direct DST using KMO is useful, with clear advantages of a shorter turnaround time, procedural simplicity and low cost compared to indirect DST. It may be most indicated in resource-poor settings for programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  5. In vitro anticancer drug test: A new method emerges from the model of glioma stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Riva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a grade IV astrocytoma and the most common malignant brain tumor. Current therapies provide a median survival of 12–15 months after diagnosis, due to the high recurrence rate. The failure of current therapies may be due to the presence, within the tumor, of cells characterized by enhanced self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation potential and elevated invasive behavior, called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To evaluate the pharmacological efficacy of selected drugs on six GSC lines, we set up a multiple drug responsivity assay based on the combined evaluation of cytomorphological and functional parameters, including the analysis of polymorphic nuclei, mitotic index and cell viability. In order to understand the real pharmacological efficacy of the tested drugs, we assigned a specific drug responsivity score to each GSC line, integrating the data produced by multiple assays. In this work we explored the antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel (PTX, an inhibitor of microtubule depolymerization, utilized as standard treatment in several cancers, and of valproic acid (VPA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs with multiple anticancer properties. We classified the six GSC lines as responsive or resistant to these drugs, on the basis of their responsivity scores. This method can also be useful to identify the best way to combine two or more drugs. In particular, we utilized the pro-differentiating effect of VPA to improve the PTX effectiveness and we observed a significant reduction of cell viability compared to single treatments.

  6. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa-Peláez, Maritza; Ayala, Nancy; Yadon, Zaida E; Heldal, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2-68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of

  7. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Samayoa-Peláez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area, disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms, for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76% were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB, 385 (14% were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10% were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8% previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms varied by department from 2–68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB. Only 21 (5% of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23% had a culture and 47 (20% had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital, culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32% and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%. Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and

  8. A review of targeted therapies evaluated by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program for osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSampson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, is a high grade primary bone sarcoma that occurs mostly in adolescence. Standard treatment consists of surgery in combination with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The development and approval of imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in children and the fully human monoclonal antibody, anti-GD2, as part of an immune therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients have established the precedent for use of targeted inhibitors along with standard chemotherapy backbones. However, few targeted agents tested have achieved traditional clinical end points for osteosarcoma. Many biological agents demonstrating anti-tumor responses in preclinical and early phase clinical testing have failed to reach response thresholds to justify randomized trials with large numbers of patients. The development of targeted therapies for pediatric cancer remains a significant challenge. To aid in the prioritization of new agents for clinical testing, the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP has developed reliable and robust preclinical pediatric cancer models to rapidly screen agents for activity in multiple childhood cancers and establish pharmacological parameters and effective drug concentrations for clinical trials. In this article, we examine a range of standard and novel agents that have been evaluated by the PPTP, and we discuss the preclinical and clinical development of these for the treatment of osteosarcoma. We further demonstrate that committed resources for hypothesis-driven drug discovery and development are needed to yield clinical successes in the search for new therapies for this pediatric disease.

  9. In-vitro antimycobacterial drug susceptibility testing of non-tubercular mycobacteria by tetrazolium microplate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Manimuthu Mani; Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Singla, Roopak; Singh, Sarman

    2008-07-11

    Non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM) has not been given due attention till the recent epidemic of HIV. This has led to increasing interest of health care workers in their biology, epidemiology and drug resistance. However, timely detection and drug susceptibility profiling of NTM isolates are always difficult in resource poor settings like India. Furthermore, no standardized methodology or guidelines are available to reproduce the results with clinical concordance. To find an alternative and rapid method for performing the drug susceptibility assay in a resource limited settings like India, we intended to evaluate the utility of Tetrazolium microplate assay (TEMA) in comparison with proportion method for reporting the drug resistance in clinical isolates of NTM. A total of fifty-five NTM isolates were tested for susceptibility against Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin by TEMA and the results were compared with agar proportion method (APM). Of the 55 isolates, 23 (41.8%) were sensitive to all the drugs and the remaining 32 (58.2%) were resistant to at least one drug. TEMA had very good concordance with APM except with minor discrepancies. Susceptibility results were obtained in the median of 5 to 9 days by TEMA. The NTM isolates were highly sensitive against Ofloxacin (98.18% sensitive) and Ciprofloxacin (90.09% sensitive). M. mucogenicum was sensitive only to Clarithromycin and resistant to all the other drugs tested. The concordance between TEMA and APM ranged between 96.4 - 100%. Tetrazolium Microplate Assay is a rapid and highly reproducible method. However, it must be performed only in tertiary level Mycobacteriology laboratories with proper bio-safety conditions.

  10. US DOE Regional Test Centers Program - 2016 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The US Department of Energy’s Regional Test Center (RTC) program provides outdoor validation and bankability data for innovative solar technologies at five sites across the US representing a range of climate conditions. Data helps get new technologies to market faster and improves US industry competitiveness. Managed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RTC program partners with US manufacturers of photovoltaic (PV) technologies, including modules, inverters, and balance-of-system equipment. The study is collaborative, with manufacturers (also known as RTC industry partners) and the national labs working together on a system design and validation strategy that meets a clearly defined set of performance and reliability objectives.

  11. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-08-16

    In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together

  12. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  13. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  14. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  15. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the open-quotes sourcesclose quotes and open-quotes targetsclose quotes requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources

  16. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results and new developments which ocurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40 % average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission 99 Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of U.S. university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U 3 Si-Al with 19.75 % enrichment and U 3 Si 2 -Al with 45 % enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR program. (Author)

  17. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  18. Material testing facilities and programs for plasma-facing component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Doerner, R. P.; Greuner, H.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Maier, H.

    2017-09-01

    Component development for operation in a large-scale fusion device requires thorough testing and qualification for the intended operational conditions. In particular environments are necessary which are comparable to the real operation conditions, allowing at the same time for in situ/in vacuo diagnostics and flexible operation, even beyond design limits during the testing. Various electron and neutral particle devices provide the capabilities for high heat load tests, suited for material samples and components from lab-scale dimensions up to full-size parts, containing toxic materials like beryllium, and being activated by neutron irradiation. To simulate the conditions specific to a fusion plasma both at the first wall and in the divertor of fusion devices, linear plasma devices allow for a test of erosion and hydrogen isotope recycling behavior under well-defined and controlled conditions. Finally, the complex conditions in a fusion device (including the effects caused by magnetic fields) are exploited for component and material tests by exposing test mock-ups or material samples to a fusion plasma by manipulator systems. They allow for easy exchange of test pieces in a tokamak or stellarator device, without opening the vessel. Such a chain of test devices and qualification procedures is required for the development of plasma-facing components which then can be successfully operated in future fusion power devices. The various available as well as newly planned devices and test stands, together with their specific capabilities, are presented in this manuscript. Results from experimental programs on test facilities illustrate their significance for the qualification of plasma-facing materials and components. An extended set of references provides access to the current status of material and component testing capabilities in the international fusion programs.

  19. Preliminary irradiation test results from the Yankee Atomic Electric Company reactor vessel test irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemiller, E.C.; Fyfitch, S.; Campbell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Plate materials each containing 0.24 w/o copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63 w/o and 0.19 w/o, were heat treated to simulate the Yankee vessel heat treatment (austenitized at 1800 deg F) and to simulate Regulatory Guide 1.99 database materials (austenitized at 1600 deg. F). These heat treatments produced different microstructures so the effect of microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity could be tested. Because the nickel content of the test plates varied and the copper level was constant, the effect of nickel on irradiation embrittlement was also tested. Correlation monitor material, HSST-02, was included in the program to benchmark the Ford Nuclear Reactor (U. of Michigan Test Reactor) which had never been used for this type of irradiation program. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs. 1/4T) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from the rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. If the improved properties are maintained, pressurized thermal shock calculations could utilize this margin. Finally, for one experiment, irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (500 deg. F and 550 deg. F) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The preliminary results of the irradiation program show an increase in T 30 shift of 69 deg. F for a decrease in irradiation temperature of 50 deg. F. The results suggest that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained after irradiation and for the copper content tested, nickel had no apparent effect on irradiation response. No apparent microstructure

  20. Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  1. Testing program for burning plasma experiment vacuum vessel bolted joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, P.K.; Khan, M.Z.; Swanson, J.; Feng, T.; Dinkevich, S.; Warren, J.

    1992-01-01

    As presently designed, the Burning Plasma Experiment vacuum vessel will be segmentally fabricated and assembled by bolted joints in the field. Due to geometry constraints, most of the bolted joints have significant eccentricity which causes the joint behavior to be sensitive to joint clamping forces. Experience indicates that as a result of this eccentricity, the joint will tend to open at the side closest to the applied load with the extent of the opening being dependent on the initial preload. In this paper analytical models coupled with a confirmatory testing program are developed to investigate and predict the non-linear behavior of the vacuum vessel bolted joint

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  3. Cover gas seals: FFTF-LMFBR seal test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, T.S.; Shimazaki, T.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor-inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configurations provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the CRBRP to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  4. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K S

    1984-05-01

    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. High-throughput 3D spheroid culture and drug testing using a 384 hanging drop array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Hsiao, Amy Y; Allen, Steven G; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Ho, Mitchell; Takayama, Shuichi

    2011-02-07

    Culture of cells as three-dimensional (3D) aggregates can enhance in vitro tests for basic biological research as well as for therapeutics development. Such 3D culture models, however, are often more complicated, cumbersome, and expensive than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. This paper describes a 384-well format hanging drop culture plate that makes spheroid formation, culture, and subsequent drug testing on the obtained 3D cellular constructs as straightforward to perform and adapt to existing high-throughput screening (HTS) instruments as conventional 2D cultures. Using this platform, we show that drugs with different modes of action produce distinct responses in the physiological 3D cell spheroids compared to conventional 2D cell monolayers. Specifically, the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has higher anti-proliferative effects on 2D cultures whereas the hypoxia activated drug commonly referred to as tirapazamine (TPZ) are more effective against 3D cultures. The multiplexed 3D hanging drop culture and testing plate provides an efficient way to obtain biological insights that are often lost in 2D platforms.

  6. The Effect of Race on Provider Decisions to Test for Illicit Drug Use in the Peripartum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUNINS, HILLARY VEDA; BELLIN, ERAN; CHAZOTTE, CYNTHIA; DU, EVELYN; ARNSTEN, JULIA HOPE

    2010-01-01

    Background Testing for illicit drugs may expose women who test positive to severe legal and social consequences. It is unknown whether racial disparities in drug testing practices underlie observed disparities in legal and social consequences of positive tests. Methods Using administrative hospital and birth certificate data, we analyzed factors associated with both receipt and results of illicit drug testing among women with live births during 2002–2003. We assessed the independent association of race and other sociodemographic factors with both receipt of a drug test by the mother or her newborn infant and positive maternal or neonatal toxicology results, after controlling for obstetrical conditions and birth outcomes associated with maternal substance abuse. Results Of the 8487 women with live births, 244 mother-newborn pairs (3%) were tested for illicit drug use. Black women and their newborns were 1.5 times more likely to be tested for illicit drugs as nonblack women in multivariable analysis. However, race was not independently associated with a positive result. Conclusions We identified racial differences in rates of testing for illicit drug use between black and nonblack women. We found equivalent positivity rates among tested black and nonblack women. The prevalence of drug use among untested women is unknown, however, so although tested women had equivalent rates of substance use detected, whether black and nonblack substance users are equally likely to be identified in the course of peripartum care remains uncertain. PMID:17388741

  7. Safety Test Program Summary SNAP 19 Pioneer Heat Source Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1971-07-01

    Sixteen heat source assemblies have been tested in support of the SNAP 19 Pioneer Safety Test Program. Seven were subjected to simulated reentry heating in various plasma arc facilities followed by impact on earth or granite. Six assemblies were tested under abort accident conditions of overpressure, shrapnel impact, and solid and liquid propellant fires. Three capsules were hot impacted under Transit capsule impact conditions to verify comparability of test results between the two similar capsule designs, thus utilizing both Pioneer and Transit Safety Test results to support the Safety Analysis Report for Pioneer. The tests have shown the fuel is contained under all nominal accident environments with the exception of minor capsule cracks under severe impact and solid fire environments. No catastrophic capsule failures occurred in this test which would release large quantities of fuel. In no test was fuel visible to the eye following impact or fire. Breached capsules were defined as those which exhibit thoria contamination on its surface following a test, or one which exhibited visible cracks in the post test metallographic analyses.

  8. Access to Experimental Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental drug has been tested in the lab and with animals and approved for testing in people by the FDA, but can’t yet be advertised, sold, or prescribed. Experimental drugs may be available through clinical trials or expanded access programs - learn more about these programs and how to talk to your doctor.

  9. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Black and White Drug Offenders: Implications for Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice and Reentry Policy and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-01-01

    Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.

  11. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  12. Firm- and drug-specific patterns of generic drug payments by US medicaid programs: 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Christina M L; Chang, Lenisa V; Guo, Jeff J; Yu, Yan; Berry, Edmund A; Bian, Boyang; Heaton, Pamela C

    2014-04-01

    The entry of generic drugs into markets previously monopolized by patented, branded drugs often represents large potential savings for healthcare payers in the USA. Our objectives were to describe and explain the trends in drug reimbursement by public Medicaid programmes post-generic entry for as many drug markets and for as long a time period as possible. The data were the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data maintained by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Quarterly utilization and expenditure data from 1991 to 2008 were extracted for 83 drugs, produced by 229 firms, that experienced initial generic entry between 1992 and 2004. A relative 'price' for a specific drug, firm and quarter was constructed as Medicaid reimbursement per unit (e.g. tablet, capsule or vial) divided by average reimbursement per unit for the branded drug the year before entry. Fixed-effects models controlling for time-, firm- and drug-specific differences were estimated to explain reimbursement. Twelve quarters after generic entry, 18 % of drugs had average per-unit reimbursement less than 50 % of the original branded-drug reimbursement. For each additional firm manufacturing the drug, reimbursement per unit, relative to the pre-generic-entry branded-drug reimbursement, was estimated to fall by 17 (p < 0.01) and 3 (p < 0.01) percentage points for generic and branded-drug companies, respectively. Each additional quarter post-generic entry brought a 2 (p < 0.01) percentage point drop in relative reimbursement. State Medicaid programmes generally have been able to obtain relief from high drug prices following patent expirations for many branded-drug medications by adjusting reimbursement following the expanded competition in the pharmaceutical market.

  13. Optimizing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Ptolemy, Adam S; Wasan, Ajay D

    2013-12-01

    It can be challenging to successfully monitor medication compliance in pain management. Clinicians and laboratorians need to collaborate to optimize patient care and maximize operational efficiency. The test menu, assay cutoffs, and testing algorithms utilized in the urine drug testing panels should be periodically reviewed and tailored to the patient population to effectively assess compliance and avoid unnecessary testing and cost to the patient. Pain management and pathology collaborated on an important quality improvement initiative to optimize urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management. We retrospectively reviewed 18 months of data from our pain management center. We gathered data on test volumes, positivity rates, and the frequency of false positive results. We also reviewed the clinical utility of our testing algorithms, assay cutoffs, and adulterant panel. In addition, the cost of each component was calculated. The positivity rate for ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were us to optimize our testing panel for monitoring medication compliance in pain management and reduce cost. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  15. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-01-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material

  16. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking. Objective To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions. Design and Setting A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003. Results From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p < 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785. Conclusions PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  17. [Clinical evaluation of triage as drug-of-abuse test kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toshiharu; Kohriyama, Kazuaki; Kondo, Rumiko; Goto, Kyoko; Yashiki, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    There are about 60,000 chemical substances which may cause poisoning. Identifying the cause substances is, therefore, very important for patient at emergency department. Triage is an immunoassay kit for the qualitative test for the metabolites of 8 major abuse drugs in urine. We assessed the usefullness of Triage on two patient groups. The first Group consists of the patients considered having not taken substances at initial diagnosis; the second Group consists of the patients considered having taken substances. The result are as follows. 1) The rate of Triage positive patients in the first Group were: attempt-suicide 23%, coma 24%, shock 10%, trauma 7%, respectively. Except for the habitually used medicine, narcotic and stimulant drugs were detected. In the first Group, negative result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patients as not poisoned, excluding the possitivity of 8 major drugs usage. 2) The rate of Triage positive patients in the second Group were very high: attempt-suicide 77%, coma 51%, shock 57%, trauma 30%, respectively, showing mostly any of 8 major drugs were the cause of poisoning. In the second Group, positive result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patient as poisoning or as coexisting poisoning with other diseases. 3) The specificity of Triage diagnosis in the first Group was 80% (113/142). The specificity and the sensitivity in the second Group were 64% (50/78) and 97% (74/76), respectively. These results means that Triage is very useful for diagnosis on 8 major drugs poisoning. 4) Triage is efficient for identifying the cause substances in drug poisoning and, therefore, can save medical expense. Triage is a very useful test kit at emergency department.

  18. Sensitivity test of tumor cell to anticancer drug using diffusion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soejima, S [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-11-01

    The diffusion chamber method and xenogeneic transplantation of human cancer cells in rats were studied clinically to test the sensitivity of these cells to anticancer drugs. The growth of Hirosaki sarcoma in a diffusion chamber inserted in to Wistar rats was influenced by the difference in tumor cell counts in the chamber. The growth rate in the chamber inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue was more constant than in the abdominal cavity, but the degree of proliferation of tumor cells in the abdominal cavity was more than in the subcutaneous tissue. Sarcoma and solid type sarcoma were affected by mitomycin C (MMC). The effect was greater in dd-mice than in Donryu rats. Solid type Yoshida sarcoma inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of Donryu rat was not affected by MMC. The degree of sensitivity of methylcholanthrene induced tumor cells, inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of Donryu rats, to MMC differed according to various conditions of the hosts. Clinically, the influences of anticancer drugs on human cancer cells inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of /sup 60/Co-irradiated Donryu rats were observed. There were various grades of sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to anticancer drugs. MMC was effective in 53% of the cases, Cyclophosphamide in 40%, 5-FU in 54%, cytosine arabinoside in 32%, and FT-207 in 57%. Twenty-seven percent were not affected by anticancer drugs. On histological examination, tubular adenocarcinoma cells had a high sensitivity to anticancer drugs, while poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells had a low sensitive. Anticancer drugs selected according to the sensitivity of human cancer cells had a marked effective on advanced cancer cells. The diffusion chamber method was useful in determining the degree of bone marrow toxicity of anticancer drugs.

  19. Generic drug discount programs: are prescriptions being submitted for pharmacy benefit adjudication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungol, Alexandra; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Qiu, Yang; Gleason, Patrick P

    2012-01-01

      In 2006, pharmacies began offering select generic prescription drugs at discount prices (e.g., $4 for a 30-day supply) through nonmembership and membership programs. As part of the contract in membership generic drug discount programs, the member agrees to forgo submission of the claim to the insurance company. Claims not submitted for insurance adjudication may result in incomplete pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) and health plan data, which could negatively influence adherence reporting and clinical programs. To address potentially missing claims data, the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) encourages Medicare Part D sponsors to incentivize network pharmacies to submit claims directly to the plan for drugs dispensed outside of a member's Part D benefit, unless a member refuses. The extent of PBM and health plan claims capture loss due to generic drug discount programs is unknown. To identify changes in levothyroxine utilizers' prescription claims capture rate following the advent of generic drug discount membership and nonmembership programs. This retrospective concurrent cohort study used claims data from 3.5 million commercially insured members enrolled in health plans located in the central and southern United States with Prime Therapeutics pharmacy benefit coverage. Members were required to be 18 years or older and younger than 60 years as of January 1, 2006, and continuously enrolled from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010. Members utilizing generic levothyroxine for at least 120 days during January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2006 (baseline period) from the same pharmacy group with supply on July 1, 2006, were placed into 1 of 3 pharmacy groups: (1) nonmembership (Walmart, Sam's Club, Target, Kroger, City Market, and King Soopers pharmacies), (2) membership (Walgreens, CVS, Albertsons, and Savon pharmacies), or (3) the reference group of all other pharmacies. The index date was defined as July 1, 2006. The levothyroxine claim providing

  20. Radiation damage calculations for the APT materials test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzine, R.K.; Wechsler, M.S.; Dudziak, D.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; James, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A materials irradiation was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the fall of 1996 and spring of 1997 in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. Testing of the irradiated materials is underway. In the proposed APT design, materials in the target and blanket are to be exposed to protons and neutrons over a wide range of energies. The irradiation and testing program was undertaken to enlarge the very limited direct knowledge presently available of the effects of medium-energy protons (∼1 GeV) on the properties of engineering materials. APT candidate materials were placed in or near the LANSCE accelerator 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam and received roughly the same proton current density in the center of the beam as would be the case for the APT facility. As a result, the proton fluences achieved in the irradiation were expected to approach the APT prototypic full-power-year values. To predict accurately the performance of materials in APT, radiation damage parameters for the materials experiment must be determined. By modeling the experiment, calculations for atomic displacement, helium and hydrogen cross sections and for proton and neutron fluences were done for representative samples in the 17A, 18A, and 18C areas. The LAHET code system (LCS) was used to model the irradiation program, LAHET 2.82 within LCS transports protons > 1 MeV, and neutrons >20 MeV. A modified version of MCNP for use in LCS, HMCNP 4A, was employed to tally neutrons of energies <20 MeV