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Sample records for drosophila melanogaster populations

  1. Maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster Population Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Juan Manuel; Lei, Elissa P

    2016-03-15

    Large quantities of DNA, RNA, proteins and other cellular components are often required for biochemistry and molecular biology experiments. The short life cycle of Drosophila enables collection of large quantities of material from embryos, larvae, pupae and adult flies, in a synchronized way, at a low economic cost. A major strategy for propagating large numbers of flies is the use of a fly population cage. This useful and common tool in the Drososphila community is an efficient way to regularly produce milligrams to tens of grams of embryos, depending on uniformity of developmental stage desired. While a population cage can be time consuming to set up, maintaining a cage over months takes much less time and enables rapid collection of biological material in a short period. This paper describes a detailed and flexible protocol for the maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster population cage, starting with 1.5 g of harvested material from the previous cycle.

  2. Geographical analysis of diapause inducibility in European Drosophila melanogaster populations.

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    Pegoraro, Mirko; Zonato, Valeria; Tyler, Elizabeth R; Fedele, Giorgio; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Tauber, Eran

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal overwintering in insects represents an adaptation to stressful environments and in European Drosophila melanogaster females, low temperatures and short photoperiods can induce an ovarian diapause. Diapause may represent a recent (melanogaster from tropical sub-Saharan Africa, because African D. melanogaster and the sibling species D. simulans, have been reported to fail to undergo diapause. Over the past few centuries, D. melanogaster have also invaded North America and Australia, and eastern populations on both continents show a predictable latitudinal cline in diapause induction. In Europe however, a new diapause-enhancing timeless allele, ls-tim, is observed at high levels in southern Italy (∼80%), where it appears to have arisen and has spread throughout the continent with a frequency of ∼20% in Scandinavia. Given the phenotype of ls-tim and its geographical distribution, we might predict that it would work against any latitudinal cline in diapause induction within Europe. Indeed we reveal that any latitudinal cline for diapause in Europe is very weak, as predicted by ls-tim frequencies. In contrast, we determine ls-tim frequencies in North America and observe that they would be expected to strengthen the latitudinal pattern of diapause. Our results reveal how a newly arisen mutation, can, via the stochastic nature of where it initially arose, blur an otherwise adaptive geographical pattern. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genomic Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Charles H.; Stevens, Kristian; Cardeno, Charis; Lee, Yuh Chwen G.; Schrider, Daniel R.; Pool, John E.; Langley, Sasha A.; Suarez, Charlyn; Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Fang, Shu; Nista, Phillip M.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Kern, Andrew D.; Dewey, Colin N.; Song, Yun S.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Begun, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This report of independent genome sequences of two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster (37 from North America and 6 from Africa) provides unique insight into forces shaping genomic polymorphism and divergence. Evidence of interactions between natural selection and genetic linkage is abundant not only in centromere- and telomere-proximal regions, but also throughout the euchromatic arms. Linkage disequilibrium, which decays within 1 kbp, exhibits a strong bias toward coupling of the more frequent alleles and provides a high-resolution map of recombination rate. The juxtaposition of population genetics statistics in small genomic windows with gene structures and chromatin states yields a rich, high-resolution annotation, including the following: (1) 5′- and 3′-UTRs are enriched for regions of reduced polymorphism relative to lineage-specific divergence; (2) exons overlap with windows of excess relative polymorphism; (3) epigenetic marks associated with active transcription initiation sites overlap with regions of reduced relative polymorphism and relatively reduced estimates of the rate of recombination; (4) the rate of adaptive nonsynonymous fixation increases with the rate of crossing over per base pair; and (5) both duplications and deletions are enriched near origins of replication and their density correlates negatively with the rate of crossing over. Available demographic models of X and autosome descent cannot account for the increased divergence on the X and loss of diversity associated with the out-of-Africa migration. Comparison of the variation among these genomes to variation among genomes from D. simulans suggests that many targets of directional selection are shared between these species. PMID:22673804

  5. History and Structure of Sub-Saharan Populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, John E.; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important model organism in evolutionary genetics, yet little is known about the population structure and the demographic history of this species within sub-Saharan Africa, which is thought to contain its ancestral range. We surveyed nucleotide variation at four 1-kb fragments in 240 individual lines representing 21 sub-Saharan and 4 Palearctic population samples of D. melanogaster. In agreement with recent studies, we find a small but significant level of geneti...

  6. [Mating behavior in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster at different population densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, N E; Sheremet, O Iu; Vorobieva, L I

    2006-04-01

    The effects of mutations and genetic background on the mating activity of male and receptivity of female Drosophila melanogaster have been studied at different population densities. Population density, as well as its combinations with other factors, significantly affects mating behavior of D. melanogaster. There are two distinct trends in the effect of this factor on mating behavior: the maximum larval overpopulation may cause either a significant suppression of the behaviors studied or an increase in their expressivity. The mating behaviors of wa and cn mutants against a certain genetic background changed similarly in response to varying population density.

  7. Assessing population and environmental effects on thermal resistance in Drosophila melanogaster using ecologically relevant assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east...

  8. The Genetic Structure of Natural Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Xix. Genotype-Environment Interaction in Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Tachida, Hidenori; Mukai, Terumi

    1985-01-01

    To investigate whether or not an excess of additive genetic variance for viability detected in southern natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster was created by diversifying selection, genotype-environment interaction was tested as follows. (1) Two karyotype chromosomes were used: 61 second chromosomes with the standard karyotype and 63 second chromosomes carrying In(2L)t. Their homozygote viabilities were larger than 50% of the average viability of random heterozygotes. (2) The effect...

  9. Transgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Transgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster relies upon direct microinjection of embryos and subsequent crossing of surviving adults. The necessity of crossing single flies to screen for transgenic events limits the range of useful transgenesis techniques to those that have a very high frequency of integration, so that about 1 in 10 to 1 in 100 surviving adult flies carry a transgene. Until recently, only random P-element transgenesis fulfilled these criteria. However, recent advances have brought homologous recombination and site-directed integration up to and beyond this level of efficiency. For all transgenesis techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, microinjection of embryos is the central procedure. This chapter gives a detailed protocol for microinjection, and aims to enable the reader to use it for both site-directed integration and for P-element transgenesis.

  10. Bacterial Communities Differ among Drosophila melanogaster Populations and Affect Host Resistance against Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplinska, Mariia; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana; Wertheim, Bregje

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population background effects, we characterized the bacterial communities in larvae of six genetically differentiated and geographically distant D. melanogaster lines collected from natural populations across Europe. The diet for these six lines had been identical for ca. 50 generations, thus any differences in the composition of the microbiome originates from the host populations. We also investigated whether induced shifts in the microbiome-in this case by controlled antibiotic administration-alters the hosts' resistance to parasitism. Our data revealed a clear signature of population background on the diversity and composition of D. melanogaster microbiome that differed across lines, even after hosts had been maintained at the same diet and laboratory conditions for over 4 years. In particular, the number of bacterial OTUs per line ranged from 8 to 39 OTUs. Each line harboured 2 to 28 unique OTUs, and OTUs that were highly abundant in some lines were entirely missing in others. Moreover, we found that the response to antibiotic treatment differed among the lines and significantly altered the host resistance to the parasitoid Asobara tabida in one of the six lines. Wolbachia, a widespread intracellular endosymbiont associated with parasitoid resistance, was lacking in this line, suggesting that other components of the Drosophila microbiome caused a change in host resistance. Collectively, our results revealed that lines that originate from different population backgrounds show significant differences in the established Drosophila microbiome, outpacing the long-term effect of diet. Perturbations on these naturally assembled microbiomes to some degree influenced the hosts' resistance

  11. Parallel Gene Expression Differences between Low and High Latitude Populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Wit, Janneke; Svetec, Nicolas; Begun, David J

    2015-05-01

    Gene expression variation within species is relatively common, however, the role of natural selection in the maintenance of this variation is poorly understood. Here we investigate low and high latitude populations of Drosophila melanogaster and its sister species, D. simulans, to determine whether the two species show similar patterns of population differentiation, consistent with a role for spatially varying selection in maintaining gene expression variation. We compared at two temperatures the whole male transcriptome of D. melanogaster and D. simulans sampled from Panama City (Panama) and Maine (USA). We observed a significant excess of genes exhibiting differential expression in both species, consistent with parallel adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Moreover, the majority of genes showing parallel expression differentiation showed the same direction of differential expression in the two species and the magnitudes of expression differences between high and low latitude populations were correlated across species, further bolstering the conclusion that parallelism for expression phenotypes results from spatially varying selection. However, the species also exhibited important differences in expression phenotypes. For example, the genomic extent of genotype × environment interaction was much more common in D. melanogaster. Highly differentiated SNPs between low and high latitudes were enriched in the 3' UTRs and CDS of the geographically differently expressed genes in both species, consistent with an important role for cis-acting variants in driving local adaptation for expression-related phenotypes.

  12. Investigations on radiosensitive and radioresistant populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noethel, H.

    1981-01-01

    In earlier work, immature oocytes of the irradiated population RoeI 4 of Drosophila melanogaster were found to be radioresistant relative to those of the basic population RoeI and to those of the control population Berlin wild (+K). The resistance of RoeI 4 relative to RoeI was previously attributed to a hypothetical 'factor' rar-3. In the present paper, evidence is presented to show that rar-3 is a single, recessive genetic factor, located on chromosome 3 at a map position of about 49.8. The action of rar-3 is apparently independent of that of rar-1 and rar-2, the factors already present in RoeI. (orig.)

  13. Adaptation to desiccation fails to generate pre- and postmating isolation in replicate Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Rundle, Howard D

    2010-03-01

    Many laboratory speciation experiments have raised allopatric populations in different environments to determine whether reproductive isolation evolves as a byproduct of adaptation (a form of ecological speciation). Few, however, have addressed the evolution of both pre- and postmating isolation or investigated the conditions affecting the process. We present results of an evolution experiment in which 12 lines of Drosophila melanogaster were derived from a common population and then independently evolved for more than 57 generations under alternative selection treatments. Six "desiccation" populations had access to food and water removed during a period of their adult lives generating strong desiccation selection, and six "starvation" populations had access to food but not water removed for the same period, generating a mild starvation stress. Substantial divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons occurred between the desiccation and starvation populations, key traits that have been implicated in sexual isolation in Drosophila. Despite this divergence, there was no detectable premating isolation between desiccation and starvation populations and postmating isolation was asymmetrical: the fitness of F1 hybrids was reduced in the desiccation but not the starvation environment. This asymmetry was likely caused by the absence of divergent selection: adaptation to desiccation appears to have come at no cost to performance in the starvation environment. Novel environments are thought to promote the evolution of reproductive isolation. Understanding the conditions that favor or hamper this remains a key challenge for speciation research.

  14. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

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    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  15. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

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    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  16. Population Genomics of Sub-Saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African Diversity and Non-African Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E.; Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Sugino, Ryuichi P.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Cardeno, Charis M.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Duchen, Pablo; Emerson, J. J.; Saelao, Perot; Begun, David J.; Langley, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia), while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa FST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated cosmopolitan

  17. Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations ofDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Hammad, Loubna A; Montooth, Kristi L

    2014-08-01

    Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation.Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment. For example, laboratory populations of D. melanogaster evolved in the presence of temporally variable temperatures have greater developmental plasticity of the ratio of PE to PC (PE/PC) and greater fecundity than do populations evolved at constant temperatures.Here, we extend this work to natural populations of D. melanogaster by evaluating thermal plasticity of glycerophospholipid composition at different life stages, in genotypes isolated from Vermont, Indiana and North Carolina, USA. We also quantify the covariance between developmental and adult (reversible) plasticity, and between adult responses of the membrane to cool and warm thermal shifts.As predicted by physiological models of homeoviscous adaptation, flies from all populations decrease PE/PC and the degree of lipid unsaturation in response to warm temperatures. Furthermore, these populations have diverged in their degree of membrane plasticity. Flies from the most variable thermal environment (Vermont, USA) decrease PE/PC to a greater extent than do other populations when developed at a warm temperature, a pattern that matches our previous observation in laboratory-evolved populations. We also find that developmental plasticity and adult plasticity of PE/PC covary across genotypes, but that adult responses to cool and warm thermal shifts do not.When combined with our previous observations of laboratory

  18. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  19. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 ± 2 to 43 ± 5 kBq/m 3 . Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  20. Dominant lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster natural populations flown on board ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    The resistance to mutagenic impacts represents an important issue of manned space missions. However the reasons of its individual variability as well as the factors which could induce mutations in space flight are not fully understood. Drosophila studies accomplished by several research teams at real space flights, revealed pronounced increase of mutations in somatic and reproductive cells, nonetheless, quite an opposite spaceflight effects also occurred, i.e., mei-41 laboratory strain showed postflight mutation rates lower than that in ground control. In order to monitor the influence of space flight on the mutational process, 4 series of space experiment with D. melanogaster wild type populations were performed at International Space Station (ISS). The appliance “Drosophila-2” used for breeding of drosophila in spaceflight conditions, enabled to conduct synchronous studies with two samples of fly populations. First instar drosophila larvae were placed into the experimental appliance 12 hours before the start of transport spacecraft. The duration of experiments was 7.9 through 19.7 days. In 19.7-day experiment, two generations of the flies were raised during the space flight, and then delivered to the earth. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) was evaluated as the percentage of embryonic death in the progeny of experimental drosophila samples. DLM tests in VV-09 and Chas-09 natural populations, performed after the exposure to 10.9-day flight, showed the increase of DLM rate in Chas-09 (0.077 in flight series vs. 0.43 in earth-based control) while post-flight DLM value in VV-09 did not diverge from on-earth sample (0.025 and 0.027 correspondingly). The same results for VV-09 were obtained after the 14.7-day and 7.9-day flights with the only exception: 7.9-day flight experiment employed DLM measurements in two VV-09 spaceflight samples, differing by the age of the flies, and the above DLM rates were detected in “younger” VV-09 sample only. DLM

  1. Natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from radioactively contaminated territories of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsenko, A.V.; Kozeretskaya, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model object to study Chernobyl NPP after-effects on biological processes. We performed study of natural populations from sites contaminated with radionuclides. Drosophila individuals were collected in autumn 2005 and 2006 in the regions with different degrees of radioactive contamination. The flies were sampled in Polesskoe with radioactive background of 50 uR/h; near cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP (2100 uR/h); Chernobyl city (60 uR/h); Kyiv (17 uR/h), Lubny (16 uR/h); Piryatin (15 uR/h); Uman (12 uR/h); Odessa (13 uR/h). Hybridological analysis was performed using drosophila laboratory lines Canton S (wild type strain) and C(1)DX (to detect lethal mutations in sex chromosome). The flies were kept on a standard medium in laboratory conditions. Occurrence of hybrid dysgenesis was monitored by gonad reduction, isolating the gonads and evaluating visually the degree of their development. Visual mutations have not been found in all the natural populations studied. When the populations were transferred to culture breeding, an elevation of the mutation visible frequency in generations has been detected. The elevation was the highest for Chernobyl (2100 uR/h) population. All the mutations observed are typical for Ukraine. Low frequency of gonad reduction has been detected. Since the gonad reduction is one of the traits of mobile elements activity in drosophilids, a conclusion has been made about the absence of mobile elements activity in all the populations, including the laboratory wild-type line Canton S. The results of the gonad reduction analysis indirectly confirm the low frequency of visual mutations in the populations studied. To assess the spontaneous level of lethal sex-linked mutations, the male/female ratio was evaluated in the first generation and compared with the ratio in the strain Canton S (using as control) using χ2-criterion. In natural populations from Lubny and Piryatin

  2. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon; Efecto sobre la viabilidad en poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuestas a Radon

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    Salceda, V.M. [Depto. de Biologia, ININ, Km.36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear. inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 {+-} 7, 12 {+-} 2, 43 {+-} 5, 25 {+-} 7, 14 {+-} 2, 6 {+-} 2, 78 {+-} 1, 58 {+-} 5 and 74 {+-} 7 k B/m{sup 3} with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors.

  3. Reduced Reproductive Success for a Conditioning Mutant in Experimental Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Gailey, Donald A.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Siegel, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    Male Drosophila melanogaster that have courted newly-emerged males can modify their subsequent courtship behavior to avoid further courtship with immature males for up to 6 hr (previously reported). Here, it was hypothesized that such an experience-dependent modification would afford a mating advantage to normal males over males that carried a mutation that affects learning and memory. Coisogenic lines were constructed which varied at the dunce gene ( dnc+ and dncM14 alleles) in order to test...

  4. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 ± 7, 12 ± 2, 43 ± 5, 25 ± 7, 14 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 78 ± 1, 58 ± 5 and 74 ± 7 k B/m 3 with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors

  5. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  6. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  7. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Duun Rohde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool in conservation genomics.

  8. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Krag, Kristian; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    , to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated......The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster...... at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool...

  9. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  10. Genetic structure of populations of Drosophila melanogaster natives from Laguna Verde, Veracruz; Estructura genetica de poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster originarias de Laguna Verde, Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The genetic variability hidden present in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, it has been broadly analyzed, and it is a tool that allows to detect differences among the different populations of this species, so much of natural nature as experimental. In this occasion we use it to see if differences exist in two neighboring populations inside the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, Veracruz, and this way to suggest, of having differences in the mount of the relative frequencies of lethal genes, semi lethals and normal, be due to the radioactive emanations product of the reactors operation of the plant. Its were took samples of flies in both towns during three successive seasons and they were transported to the laboratory of the ININ where they were carried out the tests to determine the frequency of the different types of genes. This was made by means of the denominated technique C y L / Pm that allows by means of a cross series with a stump marker to obtain, in the third generation, in isolated form the different types of genes and this way to calculate their relative frequencies. The study understands the analysis of 299 chromosomes extracted from the populations, of those that 95 correspond at the control population and 204 to the experimental one. As a result of the analysis we find that 30.52 percent of the genes of the population witness contains detrimental genes (sum of the lethal plus the semi lethal genes) as long as in the experimental population this value corresponds to 23.03 percent. In accordance with this information was not significant difference among the studied populations. A similar analysis, but now comparing the seasons, (summer against winter), it showed significant difference to 5% with regard to the lethal genes frequency only in the population witness. These results indicate the absence of damage, however it is necessary to consider that this can be due to that indeed there is not him or that the investigation protocol is not

  11. Genetic structure of populations of Drosophila melanogaster natives from Laguna Verde, Veracruz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic variability hidden present in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, it has been broadly analyzed, and it is a tool that allows to detect differences among the different populations of this species, so much of natural nature as experimental. In this occasion we use it to see if differences exist in two neighboring populations inside the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, Veracruz, and this way to suggest, of having differences in the mount of the relative frequencies of lethal genes, semi lethals and normal, be due to the radioactive emanations product of the reactors operation of the plant. Its were took samples of flies in both towns during three successive seasons and they were transported to the laboratory of the ININ where they were carried out the tests to determine the frequency of the different types of genes. This was made by means of the denominated technique C y L / Pm that allows by means of a cross series with a stump marker to obtain, in the third generation, in isolated form the different types of genes and this way to calculate their relative frequencies. The study understands the analysis of 299 chromosomes extracted from the populations, of those that 95 correspond at the control population and 204 to the experimental one. As a result of the analysis we find that 30.52 percent of the genes of the population witness contains detrimental genes (sum of the lethal plus the semi lethal genes) as long as in the experimental population this value corresponds to 23.03 percent. In accordance with this information was not significant difference among the studied populations. A similar analysis, but now comparing the seasons, (summer against winter), it showed significant difference to 5% with regard to the lethal genes frequency only in the population witness. These results indicate the absence of damage, however it is necessary to consider that this can be due to that indeed there is not him or that the investigation protocol is not

  12. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainullin, V.G.; Rakin, A.O.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Myasnyankina, E.N.; Generalova, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems facing the program in the wake of the Chernobyl accident is the estimation of genetic damage to plants and animals. Special attention was directed to studying the influence of radioactive pollutants at the accident site by means of an appropriate test system, using standard genetic subjects. The present study describes such investigations. Levels of persistent genetic damage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster found in the vicinity of the Chernobyl accident site were examined from August 1986-September 1989. Evidence is presented which indicates a relationship between the levels of radioactive pollution resulting from the Chernobyl accident and increasing genetic damage to exposed populations. The possible reasons for the decrease of mutation frequency observed in 1988 and 1989 are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that radiosensitive Drosophila mutants may be particularly sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution. (author). 16 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Origin, evolution, and population genetics of the selfish Segregation Distorter gene duplication in European and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Cara L; Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2015-05-01

    Meiotic drive elements are a special class of evolutionarily "selfish genes" that subvert Mendelian segregation to gain preferential transmission at the expense of homologous loci. Many drive elements appear to be maintained in populations as stable polymorphisms, their equilibrium frequencies determined by the balance between drive (increasing frequency) and selection (decreasing frequency). Here we show that a classic, seemingly balanced, drive system is instead characterized by frequent evolutionary turnover giving rise to dynamic, rather than stable, equilibrium frequencies. The autosomal Segregation Distorter (SD) system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a selfish coadapted meiotic drive gene complex in which the major driver corresponds to a partial duplication of the gene Ran-GTPase activating protein (RanGAP). SD chromosomes segregate at similar, low frequencies of 1-5% in natural populations worldwide, consistent with a balanced polymorphism. Surprisingly, our population genetic analyses reveal evidence for parallel, independent selective sweeps of different SD chromosomes in populations on different continents. These findings suggest that, rather than persisting at a single stable equilibrium, SD chromosomes turn over frequently within populations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The effect of X-radiation on a laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushzhenko, O.V.; Evdokimov, E.V.; Plekhanov, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of X radiation in doses of 13 to 416 mC/kg on a Dr. melanogaster population heterogenous in fertility. In the case of weak effects (13 and 26 mC/kg) the responses were diverse which was attributed to genetic differences between individuals of a population. With strong effects, the response of the population was identical

  15. Mapping of gene mutations in drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Charlotte Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this experiment, mutant genes of a given unknown mutant strain of Drosophila melanogaster were mapped to specific chromosomes. Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, was the appropriate choice for the organism to use in this specific experiment because of its relatively rapid life cycle of 10-14 days and because of the small amount of space and food neccessary for maintaining thousands of flies. The D. Melanogaster unknown strain specifically used in this experiment wa...

  16. Bacterial communities differ among Drosophila melanogaster populations and affect host resistance against parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaplinska, Mariia; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana; Wertheim, Bregje

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population

  17. Whole-Genome Resequencing of Experimental Populations Reveals Polygenic Basis of Egg-Size Variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aashish R; Miles, Cecelia M; Lippert, Nodia R; Brown, Christopher D; White, Kevin P; Kreitman, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complete genome resequencing of populations holds great promise in deconstructing complex polygenic traits to elucidate molecular and developmental mechanisms of adaptation. Egg size is a classic adaptive trait in insects, birds, and other taxa, but its highly polygenic architecture has prevented high-resolution genetic analysis. We used replicated experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster and whole-genome sequencing to identify consistent signatures of polygenic egg-size adaptation. A generalized linear-mixed model revealed reproducible allele frequency differences between replicated experimental populations selected for large and small egg volumes at approximately 4,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several hundred distinct genomic regions contain clusters of these SNPs and have lower heterozygosity than the genomic background, consistent with selection acting on polymorphisms in these regions. These SNPs are also enriched among genes expressed in Drosophila ovaries and many of these genes have well-defined functions in Drosophila oogenesis. Additional genes regulating egg development, growth, and cell size show evidence of directional selection as genes regulating these biological processes are enriched for highly differentiated SNPs. Genetic crosses performed with a subset of candidate genes demonstrated that these genes influence egg size, at least in the large genetic background. These findings confirm the highly polygenic architecture of this adaptive trait, and suggest the involvement of many novel candidate genes in regulating egg size. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, D K; Lack, J B; Mathur, V; Schlötterer, C; Schmidt, P S; Pool, J E; Flatt, T

    2015-04-01

    Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether life history also varies predictably with geography in the ancestral Afro-tropical range has not been investigated systematically. Here, we have examined life history variation among populations of D. melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa. Viability and reproductive diapause did not vary with geography, but body size increased with altitude, latitude and longitude. Early fecundity covaried positively with altitude and latitude, whereas lifespan showed the opposite trend. Examination of genetic variance-covariance matrices revealed geographic differentiation also in trade-off structure, and QST -FST analysis showed that life history differentiation among populations is likely shaped by selection. Together, our results suggest that geographic and/or climatic factors drive adaptive phenotypic differentiation among ancestral African populations and confirm the widely held notion that latitude and altitude represent parallel gradients. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Stable polymorphism for mutant eye colour genes in populations of Drosophila melanogaster in two different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, C; Ménsua, J L

    1988-09-30

    In previous work analyzing variability of eye colour alleles existing in natural populations of D. melanogaster, it was observed that the number of females heterozygous for some eye colour alleles was greater in a wine cellar population than in populations outside this cellar. In order to determine which mechanisms caused these eye colour alleles to be favored in the heterozygotes, the changes in the frequency of four eye colour alleles frequently seen in the cellar population (se77o, sf77m, cd77o and multichromosomal 77o) was studied in artificial populations. Two different culture media, one supplemented with 10% ethanol and the other without ethanol were used. It was found that each of the four mutants reached similar equilibrium frequencies in both media, though the safranin allele (sf77m) equilibrium frequency was significantly higher in the alcohol medium. A significant excess of heterozygotes were also observed in these populations.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  1. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  2. Seasonal stress drives predictable changes in inbreeding depression in field-tested captive populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Laramy S; Nunney, Leonard

    2012-09-22

    Recent meta-analyses conducted across a broad range of taxa have demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the change in magnitude of inbreeding depression under stress and stress level, measured as fitness loss in outbred individuals. This suggests that a general underlying response may link stress and inbreeding depression. However, this relationship is based primarily on laboratory data, and it is unknown whether natural environments with multiple stressors and fluctuating stress levels alter how stress affects inbreeding depression. To test whether the same pattern persists in the field, we investigated the effect of seasonal variation on stress level and inbreeding depression in a 3-year field study measuring the productivity of captive populations of inbred and outbred Drosophila melanogaster. We found cold winter temperatures were most stressful and induced the greatest inbreeding depression. Furthermore, these data, collected under natural field conditions, conformed to the same predictive linear relationship seen in Drosophila laboratory studies, with inbreeding depression increasing by 0.17 lethal equivalents for every 10 per cent increase in stress level. Our results suggest that under natural conditions stress level is a primary determinant of the magnitude of inbreeding depression and should be considered when assessing extinction vulnerability in small populations.

  3. Comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgro, Carla M.; Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2010-01-01

    We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics...

  4. Multiple Modes of Positive Selection Shaping the Patterns of Incomplete Selective Sweeps over African Populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vy, Ha My T; Won, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuseob

    2017-11-01

    It remains a challenge in evolutionary genetics to elucidate how beneficial mutations arise and propagate in a population and how selective pressures on mutant alleles are structured over space and time. By identifying "sweeping haplotypes (SHs)" that putatively carry beneficial alleles and are increasing (or have increased) rapidly in frequency, and surveying the geographic distribution of SH frequencies, we can indirectly infer how selective sweeps unfold in time and thus which modes of positive selection underlie those sweeps. Using population genomic data from African Drosophila melanogaster, we identified SHs from 37 candidate loci under selection. At more than half of loci, we identify single SHs. However, many other loci harbor multiple independent SHs, namely soft selective sweeps, either due to parallel evolution across space or a high beneficial mutation rate. At about a quarter of the loci, intermediate SH frequencies are found across multiple populations, which cannot be explained unless a certain form of frequency-dependent positive selection, such as heterozygote advantage, is invoked given the reasonable range of migration rates between African populations. At one locus, many independent SHs are observed over multiple populations but always together with ancestral haplotypes. This complex pattern is compatible with a large number of mutational targets in a gene and frequency-dependent selection on new variants. We conclude that very diverse modes of positive selection are operating at different sets of loci in D. melanogaster populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Gustatory Processing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin

    2018-01-07

    The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output. This review discusses the molecules and cells that detect taste compounds in the periphery and the circuits that process taste information in the brain. These studies are providing insight into how the detection of taste compounds regulates feeding decisions.

  6. Radioresistance and radiosensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reguly, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms controlling radioresistant in Drosophila the sensibility of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster to sex-linked recessive lethal mutations induced by 5kR Cobalt-60 gamma radiation and 0,006 M EMS or 0,25% of caffeine was determined. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Experimental population genetics of meiotic drive systems. I. Pseudo-Y chromosomal drive as a means of eliminating cage populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental population genetics of Y-chromosome drive in Drosophila melanogaster is approximated by studying the behavior of T(Y;2),SD lines. These exhibit ''pseudo-Y'' drive through the effective coupling of the Y chromosome to the second chromosome meiotic drive locus, segregation distorter (SD). T(Y;2),SD males consequently produce only male offspring. When such lines are allowed to compete against structurally normal SD+ flies in population cages, T(Y;2),SD males increase in frequency according to the dynamics of a simple haploid selection model until the cage population is eliminated as a result of a deficiency in the number of adult females. Cage population extinction generally occurs within about seven generations

  8. Nearly Neutral Evolution Across the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, David Castellano; James, Jennifer; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Under the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution the proportion of effectively neutral mutations is expected to depend upon the effective population size (Ne). Here we investigate whether this is the case across the genome of Drosophila melanogaster using polymorphism data from 128 North...

  9. Deep sequencing of natural and experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster reveals biases in the spectrum of new mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Zoe June; Tilk, Susanne; Park, Jane; Siegal, Mark L; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2017-12-01

    Mutations provide the raw material of evolution, and thus our ability to study evolution depends fundamentally on having precise measurements of mutational rates and patterns. We generate a data set for this purpose using (1) de novo mutations from mutation accumulation experiments and (2) extremely rare polymorphisms from natural populations. The first, mutation accumulation (MA) lines are the product of maintaining flies in tiny populations for many generations, therefore rendering natural selection ineffective and allowing new mutations to accrue in the genome. The second, rare genetic variation from natural populations allows the study of mutation because extremely rare polymorphisms are relatively unaffected by the filter of natural selection. We use both methods in Drosophila melanogaster , first generating our own novel data set of sequenced MA lines and performing a meta-analysis of all published MA mutations (∼2000 events) and then identifying a high quality set of ∼70,000 extremely rare (≤0.1%) polymorphisms that are fully validated with resequencing. We use these data sets to precisely measure mutational rates and patterns. Highlights of our results include: a high rate of multinucleotide mutation events at both short (∼5 bp) and long (∼1 kb) genomic distances, showing that mutation drives GC content lower in already GC-poor regions, and using our precise context-dependent mutation rates to predict long-term evolutionary patterns at synonymous sites. We also show that de novo mutations from independent MA experiments display similar patterns of single nucleotide mutation and well match the patterns of mutation found in natural populations. © 2017 Assaf et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Die induzierbare antivirale Immunantwort von Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Cordula

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde Drosophila melanogaster als Modell ge- nutzt, um die angeborene Immunantwort gegen virale Infektionen zu studie- ren. Wir untersuchten mit Hilfe von genomweiten microarrays das Transkriptom von Fliegen, welche entweder mit dem Drosophila C Virus (DCV), dem Flock- house Virus (FHV) oder dem Sindbis Virus (SINV) infiziert waren. Infektion mit diesen drei positiv orientierten Einzelstrang RNS Viren führte zu einer starken transkriptionellen Antwort, welche deutlic...

  11. Unraveling the evolutionary scenario of the hobo element in populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in South America using the TPE repeats as markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani T. Ragagnin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are nucleotide sequences found in most studied genomes. These elements are highly diversified and have a large variation in nucleotide structure and mechanisms of transposition. hobo is a member of class II, belonging to hAT superfamily, described inDrosophila melanogaster, and it presents in its Open Reading Frame, a repetitive region encoding the amino acids threonine-proline-glutamic acid (TPE, which shows variability in the number of repeats in some regions of the world. Due to this variability some evolutionary scenarios of the hobo element are discussed, such as the scenario of the invasion of hobo element in populations ofD. melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated 22 DNA sequences of D. melanogaster and seven sequences ofD. simulans, both from South America, to check the number of repetitions of TPE, in order to clarify the evolutionary scenario of thehobo element in these populations. Our results showed a monomorphism in populations of both species in South America, with only three TPE repeats. Hence, we discuss and propose an evolutionary scenario of the invasion of the hobo element in populations of D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

  12. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... As an experimental model system, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been seminal in shaping our understanding of the circadian clockwork. The wealth of genetic tools at our disposal over the past four decades has enabled discovery of the genetic and molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity.

  13. Radioresistance and radiosensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reguly, M.L.; Marques, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms of radioresistance in Drosophila are studied. The mutagenic effects of 5KR of 60 Cobalt gamma radiation and of 0,006M dose of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) on four D. Melanogaster strains (RC 1 , CO 3 , BUE and LEN) are investigated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, N.E.; Clausen, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 angstrom resolution...

  15. Mapping selection within Drosophila melanogaster embryo's anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Castellano, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gen...

  16. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X ...

  17. Neural coding in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster: How do small neural populations support visually guided behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Alex D M; Wystrach, Antoine; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2017-10-01

    All organisms wishing to survive and reproduce must be able to respond adaptively to a complex, changing world. Yet the computational power available is constrained by biology and evolution, favouring mechanisms that are parsimonious yet robust. Here we investigate the information carried in small populations of visually responsive neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These so-called 'ring neurons', projecting to the ellipsoid body of the central complex, are reported to be necessary for complex visual tasks such as pattern recognition and visual navigation. Recently the receptive fields of these neurons have been mapped, allowing us to investigate how well they can support such behaviours. For instance, in a simulation of classic pattern discrimination experiments, we show that the pattern of output from the ring neurons matches observed fly behaviour. However, performance of the neurons (as with flies) is not perfect and can be easily improved with the addition of extra neurons, suggesting the neurons' receptive fields are not optimised for recognising abstract shapes, a conclusion which casts doubt on cognitive explanations of fly behaviour in pattern recognition assays. Using artificial neural networks, we then assess how easy it is to decode more general information about stimulus shape from the ring neuron population codes. We show that these neurons are well suited for encoding information about size, position and orientation, which are more relevant behavioural parameters for a fly than abstract pattern properties. This leads us to suggest that in order to understand the properties of neural systems, one must consider how perceptual circuits put information at the service of behaviour.

  18. Evolution of robust circadian clocks in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant dark for over 330 generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K. L.; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (˜330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.

  19. The translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Attrill, Helen; Lasko, Paul

    2017-01-02

    Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical 'translation factors'. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation. The collection comprises 43 initiation factors, 12 elongation factors, 3 release factors and 6 recycling factors, totaling 64 of which 55 are cytoplasmic and 9 are mitochondrial. We also provide an overview of notable findings and particular insights derived from Drosophila about these factors. This catalog, together with the incorporation of the improved nomenclature and GO annotation into FlyBase, will greatly facilitate access to information about the functional roles of these important proteins.

  20. Proteome reference map of Drosophila melanogaster head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Ren; Huang, Shun-Hong; Lee, Chi-Ching; Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Chan, Hsin-Tzu; Lin, Kuo-Sen; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2012-06-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a genetic model organism to understand the fundamental molecular mechanisms in human biology including memory formation that has been reported involving protein synthesis and/or post-translational modification. In this study, we employed a proteomic platform based on fluorescent 2DE and MALDI-TOF MS to build a standard D. melanogaster head proteome map for proteome-proteome comparison. In order to facilitate the comparison, an interactive database has been constructed for systematically integrating and analyzing the proteomes from different conditions and further implicated to study human diseases related to D. melanogaster model. In summary, the fundamental head proteomic database and bioinformatic analysis will be useful for further elucidating the biological mechanisms such as memory formation and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The sexually antagonistic genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When selective pressures differ between males and females, the genes experiencing these conflicting evolutionary forces are said to be sexually antagonistic. Although the phenotypic effect of these genes has been documented in both wild and laboratory populations, their identity, number, and location remains unknown. Here, by combining data on sex-specific fitness and genome-wide transcript abundance in a quantitative genetic framework, we identified a group of candidate genes experiencing sexually antagonistic selection in the adult, which correspond to 8% of Drosophila melanogaster genes. As predicted, the X chromosome is enriched for these genes, but surprisingly they represent only a small proportion of the total number of sex-biased transcripts, indicating that the latter is a poor predictor of sexual antagonism. Furthermore, the majority of genes whose expression profiles showed a significant relationship with either male or female adult fitness are also sexually antagonistic. These results provide a first insight into the genetic basis of intralocus sexual conflict and indicate that genetic variation for fitness is dominated and maintained by sexual antagonism, potentially neutralizing any indirect genetic benefits of sexual selection.

  2. Characterization of Autophagic Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Kumar, S; Denton, D

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying autophagy during animal development due to the availability of genetic reagents and opportunity for in vivo cell biological analysis. The regulation and mechanism of autophagy are highly evolutionarily conserved and the role of autophagy has been characterized during various stages of Drosophila development as well as following starvation. Studies in Drosophila have revealed novel insights into the role of distinct components of the autophagy machinery. This chapter describes protocols for examining autophagy during Drosophila development. A crucial step in the induction of autophagy is the incorporation of Atg8a into the autophagosome. This can be measured as autophagic puncta using live fluorescent imaging, immunostaining, or immunoblot analysis of LC3/Atg8a processing. The level of autophagy can also be examined using other specific components of the autophagy pathway as markers detected by immunofluorescent imaging. Based on the distinct morphology of autophagy, it can also be examined by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, one of the advantages of using Drosophila as a model is the ability to undertake genetic analysis of individual components of the autophagy machinery. Current approaches that can be used to monitor autophagy, including the overall flux and individual steps in Drosophila melanogaster, will be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comprehensive Study of Genic Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila Melanogaster. IV. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and the Role of History Vs. Selection in the Genetic Structure of Geographic Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, L. R.; Singh, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary studies with restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster revealed considerable variation in terms of nucleotide sequence and overall size. In this report we present data from more isofemale lines and more restriction enzymes, and explore the utility of the data in inferring a colonization history of this species. Size variation in the noncoding A + T-rich region is particularly plentiful, with size varian...

  4. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-01-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound 125 I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to 125 I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to 125 I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development

  5. Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2017-06-01

    Pigmentation is a morphologically simple but highly variable trait that often has adaptive significance. It has served extensively as a model for understanding the development and evolution of morphological phenotypes. Abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster has been particularly useful, allowing researchers to identify the loci that underlie inter- and intraspecific variations in morphology. Hitherto, however, D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation has been largely assayed qualitatively, through scoring, rather than quantitatively, which limits the forms of statistical analysis that can be applied to pigmentation data. This work describes a new methodology that allows for the quantification of various aspects of the abdominal pigmentation pattern of adult D. melanogaster. The protocol includes specimen mounting, image capture, data extraction, and analysis. All the software used for image capture and analysis feature macros written for open-source image analysis. The advantage of this approach is the ability to precisely measure pigmentation traits using a methodology that is highly reproducible across different imaging systems. While the technique has been used to measure variation in the tergal pigmentation patterns of adult D. melanogaster, the methodology is flexible and broadly applicable to pigmentation patterns in myriad different organisms.

  6. Gut-associated microbes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate mechanisms that underlie the complex relationships between a host and its microbiota. In addition to the many genetic resources and tools Drosophila provides, its associated microbiota is relatively simple (1–30 taxa), in contrast to the complex diversity associated with vertebrates (> 500 taxa). These attributes highlight the potential of this system to dissect the complex cellular and molecular interactions that occur between a host and its microbiota. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the composition of gut-associated microbes of Drosophila and their impact on host physiology. We also discuss these interactions in the context of their natural history and ecology and describe some recent insights into mechanisms by which Drosophila and its gut microbiota interact. “Workers with Drosophila have been considered fortunate in that they deal with the first multicellular invertebrate to be cultured monoxenically (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910); the first to be handled axenically on a semisynthetic diet (Guyenot, 1917); and the first to be grown on a defined diet (Schultz et al., 1946). This list of advantages is somewhat embarrassing, since it implies an interest in nutrition that, in reality, was only secondary. The very first studies were concerned with the reduction of variability in genetic experiments (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910) and standardization of the nutritional environment.” -James Sang, 1959 Ann NY Acad 1 PMID:22572876

  7. Identification and characterization of novel natural pathogen of Drosophila melanogaster isolated from wild captured Drosophila spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karan; Zulkifli, Mohammad; Prasad, N G

    2016-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model system for the study of evolutionary ecology of immunity. However, a large number of studies have used non natural pathogens as very few natural pathogens have been isolated and identified. Our aim was to isolate and characterize natural pathogen/s of D. melanogaster. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from wild caught Drosophila spp., identified as a new strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. succinus and named PK-1. This strain induced substantial mortality (36-62%) in adults of several laboratory populations of D. melanogaster. PK-1 grew rapidly within the body of the flies post infection and both males and females had roughly same number of colony forming units. Mortality was affected by mode of infection and dosage of the pathogen. However mating status of the host had no effect on mortality post infection. Given that there are very few known natural bacterial pathogens of D. melanogaster and that PK-1 can establish a sustained infection across various outbred and inbred populations of D. melanogaster this new isolate is a potential resource for future studies on immunity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Wolfgang [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, Nils Egil [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Clausen, Anders Ranegaard [Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden); Willer, Mette [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Gojkovic, Zoran [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Piskur, Jure, E-mail: Jure.Piskur@cob.lu.se [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  9. Crystal structure of enolase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Xu, Baokui; Liu, Xueyan; Zhang, Zhen; Su, Zhongliang

    2017-04-01

    Enolase is an important enzyme in glycolysis and various biological processes. Its dysfunction is closely associated with diseases. Here, the enolase from Drosophila melanogaster (DmENO) was purified and crystallized. A crystal of DmENO diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Like most enolases, DmENO forms a homodimer with conserved residues in the dimer interface. DmENO possesses an open conformation in this structure and contains conserved elements for catalytic activity. This work provides a structural basis for further functional and evolutionary studies of enolase.

  10. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  11. A comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgrò, C M; Overgaard, J; Kristensen, T N

    2010-01-01

    We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics......, particularly for hardened flies, suggesting that tropical populations have a greater hardening response. A similar pattern was evident for ramping heat knockdown time at 0.06 °C min-1 increase. There was no cline for ramping heat knockdown temperature (CTmax) at 0.1 °C min-1 increase. Acute (static) heat...... resistance depend on assay methods. Genetic correlations in thermotolerance across life stages and evolutionary potential for critical thermal limits should be the focus of future studies....

  12. Genetic consequences of the combined effect of ionizing radiation and copper vitriol on experimental Drosophila melanogaster populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkova, I.V.; Anoshenko, I.P.; Malei, L.P.; Pechkovskaya, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of the combined effect of gamma-irradiation (15 Gy/generation) and copper vitriol (1 mM concentration) on experimental Dr. melanogaster population with the help of the tests of morphogenetic variability and dominant lethal mutations (DLM). The frequency of morphogenetically changed phenotypes increased under the influence of mutagenic factors of diverse origin and their spectrum was practically unchanged. The DLM test has shown that irradiation and the combined effect of chemical and physical factors exerted a damaging effect, while Cu salt acted as sensitizer considerably intensifying radiation effect. (authors)

  13. Effect of Hawthorn on Drosophila Melanogaster Antioxidant-Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effects of various doses of hawthorn extract on Drosophila lifespan, antioxidant enzyme activity and expression of antioxidant-related regulation genes. Methods: Experiments with Drosophila as an animal model were conducted. The effects of hawthorn on Drosophila melanogaster antioxidant related ...

  14. Linking inbreeding effects in captive populations with fitness in the wild: Release of replicated Drosophila melanogaster lines under different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2008-01-01

    Inbreeding effects have been detected in captive populations of threatened species, but the extent to which these effects translate into fitness under field conditions is mostly unknown. We address this issue by comparing the performance of replicated noninbred and inbred Drosophila lines under...... conditions and involve traits not easily measured under laboratory conditions. More generally, inbreeding effects measured in captive populations may not necessarily predict their field performance, and programs to purge captive populations of deleterious alleles may not necessarily lead to fitness benefits...

  15. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most well studied genetic model organisms; nonetheless, its genome still contains unannotated coding and non-coding genes, transcripts, exons and RNA editing sites. Full discovery and annotation are pre-requisites for understanding how the regulation of transcription, splicing and RNA editing directs the development of this complex organism. Here we used RNA-Seq, tiling microarrays and cDNA sequencing to explore the transcriptome in 30 distinct developmental stages. We identified 111,195 new elements, including thousands of genes, coding and non-coding transcripts, exons, splicing and editing events, and inferred protein isoforms that previously eluded discovery using established experimental, prediction and conservation-based approaches. These data substantially expand the number of known transcribed elements in the Drosophila genome and provide a high-resolution view of transcriptome dynamics throughout development. Drosophila melanogaster is an important non-mammalian model system that has had a critical role in basic biological discoveries, such as identifying chromosomes as the carriers of genetic information and uncovering the role of genes in development. Because it shares a substantial genic content with humans, Drosophila is increasingly used as a translational model for human development, homeostasis and disease. High-quality maps are needed for all functional genomic elements. Previous studies demonstrated that a rich collection of genes is deployed during the life cycle of the fly. Although expression profiling using microarrays has revealed the expression of, 13,000 annotated genes, it is difficult to map splice junctions and individual base modifications generated by RNA editing using such approaches. Single-base resolution is essential to define precisely the elements that comprise the Drosophila transcriptome. Estimates of the number of transcript isoforms are less accurate than estimates of the number of genes

  16. Structure of PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Zhubing; Zhang, Min; Cheng, Dianlin

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays essential roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and chromatin metabolism. The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) has been purified and crystallized. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays essential roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and chromatin metabolism. The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) was purified and crystallized. The crystal of DmPCNA diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 151.16, c = 38.28 Å. The structure of DmPCNA was determined by molecular replacement. DmPCNA forms a symmetric homotrimer in a head-to-tail manner. An interdomain connector loop (IDCL) links the N- and C-terminal domains. Additionally, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contact each other through hydrophobic associations. Compared with human PCNA, the IDCL of DmPCNA has conformational changes, which may explain their difference in function. This work provides a structural basis for further functional and evolutionary studies of PCNA

  17. Flavonoids and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotibrán, América Nitxin Castañeda; Ordaz-Téllez, María Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2011-11-27

    Flavonoids are a family of antioxidants that are widely represented in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes, and chocolate, as well as in popular beverages, such as red wine, coffee, and tea. The flavonoids chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and quercetin 3β-d-glycoside were investigated for genotoxicity using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). This test makes use of two recessive wing cell markers: multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr(3)), which are mutations located on the left arm of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster and are indicative of both mitotic recombination and various types of mutational events. In order to test the antioxidant capacities of the flavonoids, experiments were conducted with various combinations of oxidants and polyphenols. Oxidative stress was induced using hydrogen peroxide, the Fenton reaction and paraquat. Third-instar transheterozygous larvae were chronically treated for all experiments. The data obtained in this study showed that, at the concentrations tested, the flavonoids did not induce somatic mutations or recombination in D. melanogaster with the exception of quercetin, which proved to be genotoxic at only one concentration. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and the Fenton reaction did not induce mutations in the wing somatic assay of D. melanogaster, while paraquat and combinations of flavonoids produced significant numbers of small single spots. Quercetin 3β-d-glycoside mixed with paraquat was shown to be desmutagenic. Combinations of the oxidants with the other flavonoids did not show any antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide sequencing and an open reading frame analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) susceptible (91-C) and resistant (91-R) Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drosophila melanogaster 91-R and 91-C strains are of common origin, however, 91-R has been intensely selected for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance over six decades while 91-C has been maintained as the non-selected control strain. These fly strains represent a unique genetic res...

  19. The effect of population density on the elimination dynamics of a recessive lethal mutation l(2)M167(DTS) from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulikov, A. M.; Marec, František; Mitrofanov, V. G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2005), s. 249-255 ISSN 1022-7954 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 02-04-50021; Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Dynamics of Gene Pools in Plants, Animals, and Humans"(RU) 10002-251/P-24/154-150/2004-04 -111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2005

  20. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  2. The Ran pathway in Drosophila melanogaster mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Wakefield

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance and regulation of the microtubule (MT-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs - a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that, far from being superfluous, it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation.

  3. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  4. Induction of morphological aberrations by enzyme inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.; Bijlsma, R.; de Boer, I.M.; den Hollander, J.

    1969-01-01

    Zusatz zum Futter vonDrosophila melanogaster von 5-Fluoro-2-deoxyuridin oder Aminopterin induziert überzählige Skutellar- und Dorsozentralborsten sowie gekerbte Flügel. Diese Modifikationen wurden als Konsequenz von Enzymhemmung interpretiert.

  5. Investigations of the fate of radiation-induced mutations in dependence of selection and recombination with recessive gene marks in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfriem, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three dichromosomal experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster were started with heterozygons dp b/+ +- animals with identical dp b- and + +- II-chromosomes for all three populations. The male ++/++- parents had been exposed to 9000 r prior to the experiments. In 7 random samples of the first 15 generations of the experiment, the incidence of the mutant alleles dp and b, the exchange inequilibrium between the alleles of the two labelled loci, and the letthal factor frequency were investigatet. It was found that - The b allele had an equilibrium frequency of about 57% in all populations, while the frequency of the dp allele decreased to about 10% within the first 15 generations. - The association values a as measures of an exchange inequilibrium showed a fast development towards exchange inequilibrium within these 15 generations for the three populations. - The incidence of lethal factors remained constant throughout the generations for the tested type ++ and + b chromosomes, in irradiated ++- chromosomes, it was higher on an average than in the + b- chromosomes. The total lethal factor incidence was about 30%. - The alleling rate of lethal factors and the viability values of several distinguishable genotypes indicated individualities of the three populations in spite of their identical behaviour. In two of the three populations, the near-constant incidence of lethal factors was supposed to be due to a small number of lethal which accurred with high frequency. (orig.) [de

  6. An Intronic Polymorphism in couch potato Is Not Distributed Clinally in European Drosophila melanogaster Populations nor Does It Affect Diapause Inducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Fedele, Giorgio; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2016-01-01

    couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward. A second downstream SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with the first has been claimed to be primarily responsible for the latitudinal cline in diapause incidence in USA populations.Here, we investigate the frequencies of these two cpo SNPs in populations of Drosophila throughout continental Europe. The advantage of studying cpo variation in Europe is the very low frequency of In(3R)Payne, which we reveal here, does not appear to be clinally distributed. We observe a very different geographical scenario for cpo variation from the one in North America, suggesting that the downstream SNP does not play a role in diapause. In an attempt to verify whether the SNPs influence diapause we subsequently generated lines with different combinations of the two cpo SNPs on known timeless (tim) genetic backgrounds, because polymorphism in the clock gene tim plays a significant role in diapause inducibility. Our results reveal that the downstream cpo SNP does not seem to play any role in diapause induction in European populations in contrast to the upstream coding cpo SNP. Consequently, all future diapause studies on strains of D. melanogaster should initially determine their tim and cpo status.

  7. MicroRNA function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthew, Richard W; Agbu, Pamela; Giri, Ritika

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of animal genomes. This review article discusses the relationship between microRNA-mediated regulation and the biology of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the roles that microRNAs play in tissue growth, germ cell development, hormone action, and the development and activity of the central nervous system. We also discuss the ways in which microRNAs affect robustness. Many gene regulatory networks are robust; they are relatively insensitive to the precise values of reaction constants and concentrations of molecules acting within the networks. MicroRNAs involved in robustness appear to be nonessential under uniform conditions used in conventional laboratory experiments. However, the robust functions of microRNAs can be revealed when environmental or genetic variation otherwise has an impact on developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  9. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  10. Relative frequencies of deletereo genes in populations of droshopila Melanogaster from Laguna Verde, Veracruz; Frecuencias relativas de genes deletereos en poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster originarias de Laguna Verde, Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V. M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In order to obtain data about the possible changes and/or damages that could cause the operation of the reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to the populations of drosophila Melanogaster that lives in the zone, one carried out one series of biannual collections (summer and winter) during the years 1991-1992 and 1996-1998 to obtain individuals of this species and to subject them to a battery of tests. The flies of this species that it was possible to capture were transported to the Biology Laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, where they were put under in individual form a series of you cross they allowed that us in the third generation to detect the presence of deletereo genes that following their viability were catalogued like normal, lethal or less lethal according to the methodology of Wallace. This way a total of 933 second chromosomes was analyzed to leave of them the relative frequencies were calculated of each one of the categories, for each sample station. The result of the applied statistical test indicates us that not significant difference exists among the populations and that the differences of having them must only to the environment changes something that usually happen in all the population. For what we can point out that the presence of the reactors does not seem to influence negatively in the behavior of the population that lives in the zone. (Author)

  11. Dispersão ativa em Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera; Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador de Carvalho

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Em uma floresta remanescente do "mato grosso goiano" (Goiânia, GO, Brasil, moscas marcadas e mutantes "white" de Drosophila melanogaster foram soltos na intersecção de dois eixos ortogonais. Foram colocadas armadilhas a intervalos de 20 m nesses eixos. Coletas periódicas, a cada meia hora, das 08:30 às 17:00 hs foram realizadas, para estudar a dispersão das moscas no meio natural e para inferir a significância do componente genético nessa dispersão. Os dados obtidos sugerem as seguintes conclusões: foi detectada dispersão ativa; essa dispersão ativa depende do genótipo (foi maior no tipo selvagem que no mutante "white"; os padrões de dispersão mudaram de acordo com o tempo; uma mobilidade presumível de 120 m/h foi detectada; uma estimativa aproximada da densidade populacional sugere valores de cerca de 25.000 moscas/3.600m² para o grupo melanogaster e de cerca de 50.000 moscas/3.600m² para as Drosophila em geral; a freqüência da captura mudou durante o período.In a remaining wood of the "mato grosso goiano" (Goiânia, Go, Brazil, Drosophila melanogaster marked flies as well as "white" mutants were released at the inter-section of two orthogonal axis. Traps were disposed at intervals of 20m over these axis. Every half hour, from 08:30 to 17:00, periodics collects were performed to study the dispersion of the flies in natural environement as well as to infer about the significance of the genetic component in this dispersion. The obtained data suggest the following conclusions: acitve dispersion was detected; this active dispersion is genotype dependent (it was bigger in the wild type than the " white" mutante; the dispersion patterns changed according to time; a presumiblemobility potential of 120m/hour was detected; an approximate estimate of the population density suggest values of about 25,000 flies/3,600m² for the melanogaster group and about 50,000 flies 3,600m² for Drosophila in general; the frequence of capture

  12. Ionizing radiation causes the stress response in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruntenko, N.E.; Zakharenko, L.P.; Raushenbakh, I.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Potentiality of the stress-reaction arising in Drosophila melanogaster under gamma-irradiation of the source with 137 Cs (irradiation dose is 10 Gy , radiation dose rate amounts 180 c Gy/min) is studied. It is shown that radiation induces the stress-reaction in Drosophila resulting in alterations in energetic metabolism (biogenic amines metabolic system) and in reproductive function [ru

  13. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  14. Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster Natural Populations. Fitness Effects and Evolutionary History of a Natural Insertion and Molecular Effects of Several Transposable Elements on Immune-Related Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ullastres i Coll, Anna

    2017-01-01

    [eng] A major challenge of modern Biology is elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation. While there are many SNP-based studies trying to elucidate the genetic basis of genotype-phenotype relationships, the role of transposable element (TE)-induced mutations is understudied. Recent evidences demonstrate that TEs are a powerful tool to identify the genetic basis of adaptive phenotypic traits. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to study adaptation because it is original from subtropical ...

  15. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  16. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rosas-Arellano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated.

  17. Field tests reveal genetic variation for performance atlow temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Jensen, Louise Toft

    2010-01-01

    investigated a population of Drosophila melanogaster for performance at low temperature conditions in the field using release recapture assays and in the laboratory using standard cold resistance assays. The aim of the study was to get a better understanding of the nature and underlying mechanisms of the trait...

  18. Experimental evolution of slowed cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Hollis, Brian

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive output and cognitive performance decline in parallel during aging, but it is unknown whether this reflects a shared genetic architecture or merely the declining force of natural selection acting independently on both traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test for the presence of genetic variation for slowed cognitive aging, and assess its independence from that responsible for other traits' decline with age. Replicate experimental populations experienced either joint selection on learning and reproduction at old age (Old + Learning), selection on late-life reproduction alone (Old), or a standard two-week culture regime (Young). Within 20 generations, the Old + Learning populations evolved a slower decline in learning with age than both the Old and Young populations, revealing genetic variation for cognitive aging. We found little evidence for a genetic correlation between cognitive and demographic aging: although the Old + Learning populations tended to show higher late-life fecundity than Old populations, they did not live longer. Likewise, selection for late reproduction alone did not result in improved late-life learning. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila harbor genetic variation for cognitive aging that is largely independent from genetic variation for demographic aging and suggest that these two aspects of aging may not necessarily follow the same trajectories. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Erich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Mohanty, Sonaly

    2007-01-01

    % of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis...... matching approximately 50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of proteotypic peptides should enable fast, targeted and quantitative proteomic studies to elucidate the systems biology of this model organism....

  20. Inverse European Latitudinal Cline at the timeless Locus of Drosophila melanogaster Reveals Selection on a Clock Gene: Population Genetics of ls-tim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Vanin, Stefano; Costa, Rodolfo; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-02-01

    The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography. From population analyses of ls-tim frequencies collected on the eastern side of the Iberian Peninsula, we show that ls-tim frequencies are inverted compared with those in Italy. This pattern is consistent with a scenario of directional selection rather than latitude-associated balancing selection. Neutrality tests further reveal the signature of directional selection at the ls-tim site, which is reduced a few kb pairs either side of ls-tim. A reanalysis of allele frequencies from a large number of microsatellite loci do not demonstrate any frequent ls-tim-like spatial patterns, so a general demographic effect or population expansion from southeastern Italy cannot readily explain current ls-tim frequencies. Finally, a revised estimate of the age of ls-tim allele using linkage disequilibrium and coalescent-based approaches reveals that it may be only 300 to 3000 years old, perhaps explaining why it has not yet gone to fixation. ls-tim thus provides a rare temporal snapshot of a new allele that has come under selection before it reaches equilibrium.

  1. Mutagenic effects of irradiated glucose in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.B.; Rao, K.P.; Nandan, S.D.; Rao, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of irradiated glucose were studied using the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster. Oregon K males of D. melanogaster reared on a medium containing 20 or 40% glucose irradiated with a dose of 0.02, 0.10, 0.20, 2 or 5 Mrad #betta#-rays were scored for the induction of sex-linked recessive lethals. The results showed no significant increase in the frequency of X-lethals in Drosophila at any of the dose levels. (author)

  2. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which

  3. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  4. mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X ...

  5. The metabolic profile of long-lived Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Pedersen, Simon Metz Mariendal; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the age-related changes in the metabolic profile of male Drosophila melanogaster and compared the metabolic profile of flies selected for increased longevity to that of control flies of equal age. We found clear differences in metabolite composition between selection regimes...

  6. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri Moghadam, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...

  7. Characterization of reproductive dormancy in male Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubrak, O. I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, U.; Nylin, S.; Nässel, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 24 (2016), č. článku 572. ISSN 1664-042X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster * diapause * reproduction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2016.00572/full

  8. Evolutionary consequences of altered atmospheric oxygen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Charette

    Full Text Available Twelve replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster, all derived from a common ancestor, were independently evolved for 34+ generations in one of three treatment environments of varying PO(2: hypoxia (5.0-10.1 kPa, normoxia (21.3 kPa, and hyperoxia (40.5 kPa. Several traits related to whole animal performance and metabolism were assayed at various stages via "common garden" and reciprocal transplant assays to directly compare evolved and acclimatory differences among treatments. Results clearly demonstrate the evolution of a greater tolerance to acute hypoxia in the hypoxia-evolved populations, consistent with adaptation to this environment. Greater hypoxia tolerance was associated with an increase in citrate synthase activity in fly homogenate when compared to normoxic (control populations, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial volume density in these populations. In contrast, no direct evidence of increased performance of the hyperoxia-evolved populations was detected, although a significant decrease in the tolerance of these populations to acute hypoxia suggests a cost to adaptation to hyperoxia. Hyperoxia-evolved populations had lower productivity overall (i.e., across treatment environments and there was no evidence that hypoxia or hyperoxia-evolved populations had greatest productivity or longevity in their respective treatment environments, suggesting that these assays failed to capture the components of fitness relevant to adaptation.

  9. Experimental evolution under hyper-promiscuity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer C; Joag, Richa; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina; Radwan, Jacek; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-16

    The number of partners that individuals mate with over their lifetime is a defining feature of mating systems, and variation in mate number is thought to be a major driver of sexual evolution. Although previous research has investigated the evolutionary consequences of reductions in the number of mates, we know little about the costs and benefits of increased numbers of mates. Here, we use a genetic manipulation of mating frequency in Drosophila melanogaster to create a novel, highly promiscuous mating system. We generated D. melanogaster populations in which flies were deficient for the sex peptide receptor (SPR) gene - resulting in SPR- females that mated more frequently - and genetically-matched control populations, and allowed them to evolve for 55 generations. At several time-points during this experimental evolution, we assayed behavioural, morphological and transcriptional reproductive phenotypes expected to evolve in response to increased population mating frequencies. We found that males from the high mating frequency SPR- populations evolved decreased ability to inhibit the receptivity of their mates and decreased copulation duration, in line with predictions of decreased per-mating investment with increased sperm competition. Unexpectedly, SPR- population males also evolved weakly increased sex peptide (SP) gene expression. Males from SPR- populations initially (i.e., before experimental evolution) exhibited more frequent courtship and faster time until mating relative to controls, but over evolutionary time these differences diminished or reversed. In response to experimentally increased mating frequency, SPR- males evolved behavioural responses consistent with decreased male post-copulatory investment at each mating and decreased overall pre-copulatory performance. The trend towards increased SP gene expression might plausibly relate to functional differences in the two domains of the SP protein. Our study highlights the utility of genetic

  10. Natural selection in a population of Drosophila melanogaster explained by changes in gene expression caused by sequence variation in core promoter regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-02-09

    Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence variation in gene regulatory regions in natural populations is an important challenge for evolutionary biology because natural selection for such variations could promote adaptive phenotypic evolution. Recently, whole-genome sequence analyses have identified regulatory regions subject to natural selection. However, these studies could not identify the relationship between sequence variation in the detected regions and change in gene expression levels. We analyzed sequence variations in core promoter regions, which are critical regions for gene regulation in higher eukaryotes, in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified core promoter sequence variations associated with differences in gene expression levels subjected to natural selection. Among the core promoter regions whose sequence variation could change transcription factor binding sites and explain differences in expression levels, three core promoter regions were detected as candidates associated with purifying selection or selective sweep and seven as candidates associated with balancing selection, excluding the possibility of linkage between these regions and core promoter regions. CHKov1, which confers resistance to the sigma virus and related insecticides, was identified as core promoter regions that has been subject to selective sweep, although it could not be denied that selection for variation in core promoter regions was due to linked single nucleotide polymorphisms in the regulatory region outside core promoter regions. Nucleotide changes in core promoter regions of CHKov1 caused the loss of two basal transcription factor binding sites and acquisition of one transcription factor binding site, resulting in decreased gene expression levels. Of nine core promoter regions regions associated with balancing selection, brat, and CG9044 are associated with neuromuscular junction development, and Nmda1 are associated with learning

  11. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  12. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  13. Related male Drosophila melanogaster reared together as larvae fight less and sire longer lived daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C; Johnson, Fern; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Competition over access to reproductive opportunities can lead males to harm females. However, recent work has shown that, in Drosophila melanogaster, male competition and male harm of females are both reduced under conditions simulating male-specific population viscosity (i.e., in groups where males are related and reared with each other as larvae). Here, we seek to replicate these findings and investigate whether male population viscosity can have repercussions for the fitness of offspring ...

  14. Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel; Ringo, John M.; Hefetz, Abraham; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. When the isolated populations were mixed, “molasses flies” preferred to mate with other molasses flies and “starch flies” preferred to mate with other starch flies. The mating preference appeared after only one generation and was maintained...

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  16. Parallel Evolution of Copy-Number Variation across Continents in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Begun, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic differentiation across populations that is maintained in the presence of gene flow is a hallmark of spatially varying selection. In Drosophila melanogaster, the latitudinal clines across the eastern coasts of Australia and North America appear to be examples of this type of selection, with recent studies showing that a substantial portion of the D. melanogaster genome exhibits allele frequency differentiation with respect to latitude on both continents. As of yet there has been no genome-wide examination of differentiated copy-number variants (CNVs) in these geographic regions, despite their potential importance for phenotypic variation in Drosophila and other taxa. Here, we present an analysis of geographic variation in CNVs in D. melanogaster. We also present the first genomic analysis of geographic variation for copy-number variation in the sister species, D. simulans, in order to investigate patterns of parallel evolution in these close relatives. In D. melanogaster we find hundreds of CNVs, many of which show parallel patterns of geographic variation on both continents, lending support to the idea that they are influenced by spatially varying selection. These findings support the idea that polymorphic CNVs contribute to local adaptation in D. melanogaster. In contrast, we find very few CNVs in D. simulans that are geographically differentiated in parallel on both continents, consistent with earlier work suggesting that clinal patterns are weaker in this species. PMID:26809315

  17. Isolation of protease-free alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Drosophila simulans and several homozygous and heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilda, T; Lamme, DA; Collu, G; Jekel, PA; Reinders, P; Beintema, JJ

    The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from several naturally occurring ADH variants of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans Lc,as isolated. Affinity chromatography with the ligand Cibacron Blue and elution with NAD(+) showed similar behavior for D. melanogaster ADH-FF, ADH-71k, and D.

  18. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular and neuronal mechanisms allowing females to integrate signals from both environmental and social sources to produce those behavioral outputs. We pay attention to how an understanding of D. melanogaster female reproductive behaviors contributes to a wider understanding of evolutionary processes such as pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection as well as sexual conflict. Within each section, we attempt to connect the theories that pertain to the evolution of female reproductive behaviors with the molecular and neurobiological data that support these theories. We draw attention to the fact that the evolutionary and mechanistic basis of female reproductive behaviors, even in a species as extensively studied as D. melanogaster, remains poorly understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-07

    Dec 7, 2008 ... system for the study of circadian rhythms primarily due to the availability of molecular genetic tools that enabled iden- tification of genes, proteins and neuronal groups that are es- sential components of the circadian machinery. Further, D. melanogaster exhibits robust and relatively easily measur-.

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More recently, detailed investigation leading to the anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological characterization of the various neuronal subgroups that comprise the circadian machinery has revealed pathways through which these neurons come together to act as a neuronal circuit. Thus the D. melanogaster ...

  1. BM2(reinverted) of Drosophila melanogaster is

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -chromosome (Lucchesi et al. 2005). Dosage compensation and the phenomenon of. Keywords. dosage compensation; histone acetylation; chromatin remodelling; H4K16; MOF; Drosophila. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 87, No. 3, December 2008.

  2. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Emerging Translational Model of Human Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Chi, Thomas; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kim, Man Su; Hirata, Taku; Romero, Michael F.; Dow, Julian A.T.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The limitations imposed by human clinical studies and mammalian models of nephrolithiasis have hampered the development of effective medical treatments and preventative measures for decades. The simple but elegant Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful translational model of human disease, including nephrolithiasis and may provide important information essential to our understanding of stone formation. We present the current state of research using D. melanogaster as a model of human nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the English language literature was performed using PUBMED. When necessary, authoritative texts on relevant subtopics were consulted. Results The genetic composition, anatomic structure and physiologic function of Drosophila Malpighian tubules are remarkably similar to those of the human nephron. The direct effects of dietary manipulation, environmental alteration, and genetic variation on stone formation can be observed and quantified in a matter of days. Several Drosophila models of human nephrolithiasis, including genetically linked and environmentally induced stones, have been developed. A model of calcium oxalate stone formation is among the most recent fly models of human nephrolithiasis. Conclusions The ability to readily manipulate and quantify stone formation in D. melanogaster models of human nephrolithiasis presents the urologic community with a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23500641

  3. Trait specific consequences of fast and slow inbreeding: lessonsfrom captive populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    or 2 generations. These inbred lines were contrasted to non-inbred control lines. We investigated the effect of inbreeding and inbreeding rate in traits associated with fitness including heat, cold and desiccation stress resistance, egg-to-adult viability, development time, productivity, metabolic rate......The increased homozygosity due to inbreeding leads to expression of deleterious recessive alleles, which may cause inbreeding depression in small populations. The severity of inbreeding depression has been suggested to depend on the rate of inbreeding, with slower inbreeding being more effective...... and heat stress conditions. Reduced viability and increased developmental time were observed at stressful temperatures and inbreeding depression was on average more severe at stressful compared to benign temperatures...

  4. Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity at the Regions Encompassing the Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptide (dilp) Genes: Demography vs. Positive Selection in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao-Rico, Sara; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the insulin-signaling pathway controls some life history traits, such as fertility and lifespan, and it is considered to be the main metabolic pathway involved in establishing adult body size. Several observations concerning variation in body size in the Drosophila genus are suggestive of its adaptive character. Genes encoding proteins in this pathway are, therefore, good candidates to have experienced adaptive changes and to reveal the footprint of positive selection. The Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) are the ligands that trigger the insulin-signaling cascade. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are several peptides that are structurally similar to the single mammalian insulin peptide. The footprint of recent adaptive changes on nucleotide variation can be unveiled through the analysis of polymorphism and divergence. With this aim, we have surveyed nucleotide sequence variation at the dilp1-7 genes in a natural population of D. melanogaster. The comparison of polymorphism in D. melanogaster and divergence from D. simulans at different functional classes of the dilp genes provided no evidence of adaptive protein evolution after the split of the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. However, our survey of polymorphism at the dilp gene regions of D. melanogaster has provided some evidence for the action of positive selection at or near these genes. The regions encompassing the dilp1-4 genes and the dilp6 gene stand out as likely affected by recent adaptive events. PMID:23308258

  5. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila ...

  6. Radiation effects on the drosophila melanogaster genoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arceo-Maldonado, C.

    1989-01-01

    When DNA of living beings has been damaged, the cells show different responses depending on their physiological state. Repair mechanisms can be classified into two groups: constitutive which are always present in the cells and inductible, which must be stimulated to show themselves. It is suggested that a repair mechanism exists in the drosophila ovules which act upon the damage present in mature spermatozoids. Our aim is to verify whether or not a radiation dosis applied to the female drosophila will modify the frequency of individuals which have lost the paternal sex chromosomes. YW/YW virgin females and XEZ males and fbb-/bS Y y + y were mated for two days in order to collect radiation treated spermatozoids. The results were consistent as to the parameters being evaluated and lead one to suppose that the radiation applied to the female drosophila produced some changes in the ovule metabolism which reduced the frequency of individuals with lost chromosomes. It is believed that ionizing radiation interferes with the repair mechanisms that are existent and constitutive, retarding and hindering the restoration of chromosome fragments and this brings about death of the zygote or death of the eggs which lessens the frequencies of individuals carriers of chromosomic aberrations. Ionizing radiations applied to the female drosophila modifies the frequency of loss of patternal chromosomes and comes about when the radiation dose to the female is 700 rad. (Author)

  7. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-07

    Dec 7, 2008 ... large variety of tissues in the fly such as the eye, brain, pro- boscis, antennae, wings, abdomen, Malpighian tubules and testes (Plautz et al. 1997; Giebultowicz 2001). Although cell-autonomous circadian function is attributed to several tissues in Drosophila, circadian pacemaker neurons located in the brain ...

  8. Sex determining signal in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Drosophila; sex determination; X/A ratio; Sex-lethal. Sexual dimorphism is the most striking naturally occurring phenotypic variation that is a direct outcome of a simple. Mendelian segregation. Molecular genetic dissection of mechanisms underlying sexual development in organisms ranging from flies to humans has been a ...

  9. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  10. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Drosophila, a hierarchy of regulatory genes control somatic sexual differences (Baker 1989; Burtis and ... also function independently of dsx to regulate other aspects of sexual differentiation in tissue-specific manner. .... bination, for facilitating the analysis of single and double mutant genotypes. Double homozygote males ...

  11. Sexual selection and immune function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kurt A; Nunney, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of immune function depends not only on variation in genes contributing directly to the immune response, but also on genetic variation in other traits indirectly affecting immunocompetence. In particular, sexual selection is predicted to trade-off with immunocompetence because the extra investment of resources needed to increase sexual competitiveness reduces investment in immune function. Additional possible immunological consequences of intensifying sexual selection include an exaggeration of immunological sexual dimorphism, and the reduction of condition-dependent immunological costs due to selection of 'good genes' (the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, ICHH). We tested for these evolutionary possibilities by increasing sexual selection in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 58 generations by reestablishing a male-biased sex ratio at the start of each generation. Sexually selected flies were larger, took longer to develop, and the males were more sexually competitive than males from control (equal sex ratio) lines. We found support for the trade-off hypothesis: sexually selected males were found to have reduced immune function compared to control males. However, we found no evidence that sexual selection promoted immunological sexual dimorphism because females showed a similar reduction in immune function. We found no evidence of evolutionary changes in the condition-dependent expression of immunocompetence contrary to the expectations of the ICHH. Lastly, we compared males from the unselected base population that were either successful (IS) or unsuccessful (IU) in a competitive mating experiment. IS males showed reduced immune function relative to IU males, suggesting that patterns of phenotypic correlation largely mirror patterns of genetic correlation revealed by the selection experiment. Our results suggest increased disease susceptibility could be an important cost limiting increases in sexual competitiveness in

  12. Three-dimensional imaging of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeanne McGurk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The major hindrance to imaging the intact adult Drosophila is that the dark exoskeleton makes it impossible to image through the cuticle. We have overcome this obstacle and describe a method whereby the internal organs of adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D by bleaching and clearing the adult and then imaging using a technique called optical projection tomography (OPT. The data is displayed as 2D optical sections and also in 3D to provide detail on the shape and structure of the adult anatomy.We have used OPT to visualize in 2D and 3D the detailed internal anatomy of the intact adult Drosophila. In addition this clearing method used for OPT was tested for imaging with confocal microscopy. Using OPT we have visualized the size and shape of neurodegenerative vacuoles from within the head capsule of flies that suffer from age-related neurodegeneration due to a lack of ADAR mediated RNA-editing. In addition we have visualized tau-lacZ expression in 2D and 3D. This shows that the wholemount adult can be stained without any manipulation and that this stain penetrates well as we have mapped the localization pattern with respect to the internal anatomy.We show for the first time that the intact adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D using OPT, also we show that this method of clearing is also suitable for confocal microscopy to image the brain from within the intact head. The major advantage of this is that organs can be represented in 3D in their natural surroundings. Furthermore optical sections are generated in each of the three planes and are not prone to the technical limitations that are associated with manual sectioning. OPT can be used to dissect mutant phenotypes and to globally map gene expression in both 2D and 3D.

  13. Studies on maternal repair in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.

    1976-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis is mainly concerned with studies on the nature of the repair mechanism(s) operating in Drosophila oocytes, and which act on chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation of post-meiotic male germ-cells. Caffeine treatment of the females has been used as an analytical tool to gain an insight into the nature of this repair mechanism and its genetic basis

  14. Analysis of a new morphogenetic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mglinets, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism for mutations monster and yellow was induced by gamma-irradiation of Drosophila melanogaster y/y; Dp(1; 2)sc 19 M(2)z/mn d embryos and larvae. Frequencies of mosaicism increased with the age of treated larvae, especially in the end of the 2nd larval instar. Autonomous expression of mn was observed throughout the whole range of larval age studied, though neither for all y/y spots nor for all parts of the spots. Dissimilarities in dynamics of mosaic spots and duplication induction suggest that the latter are not due to mn expression in somatic clones

  15. Host-microbe interactions in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eKuraishi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many insect species subsist on decaying and contaminated matter and are thus exposed to large quantities of microorganisms. To control beneficial commensals and combat infectious pathogens, insects must be armed with efficient systems for microbial recognition, signaling pathways, and effector molecules. The molecular mechanisms regulating these host-microbe interactions in insects have been largely clarified in Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful genetic and genomic tools. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing mainly on the relationships between microbes and epithelial cells in the intestinal tract where the host exposure to the external environment is most frequent.

  16. Sigma virus and mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquin, S.L.A.

    1977-01-01

    - The objectives of these experiments have been (1) to verify and evidence more fully the action of sigma in causing recessive lethal mutation on the X chromosome of Drosophila, both in the male and the female germ line; (2) to extend the study of sigma-induced recessive lethal mutation to the Drosophila autosomes; (3) to explore the possibility that this mutagenesis is site-directed; (4) to study the effects of sigma virus in conjunction with radiation in increasing non-disjunction and dominant lethality. The virus increases the rate of radiation-induced nondisjunction by altering meiotic chromosomal behavior. Percentage of non-disjunction with 500 rads of x-rays in the virus-free flies was 0.176, while in sigma-containing lines it was 0.333. With high doses of either x or neutron radiation, the presence of the virus enhances the frequency of dominant lethality. The difference is especially significant with the fast neutrons. The results indicate that sigma, and presumably other viruses, are indeed environmental mutagens and are, therefore, factors in the rate of background or spontaneous mutation

  17. A pulsed magnetic stress applied to Drosophila melanogaster flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle Side, D; Giuffreda, E; Nassisi, V; Velardi, L; Bozzetti, M P; Friscini, A; Specchia, V

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a system to feed pulsed magnetic stress to biological samples. The device is based on a RLC circuit that transforms the energy stored in a high voltage capacitor into a magnetic field inside a coil. The field has been characterized and we found that charging the capacitor with 24 kV results in a peak field of 0.4 T. In order to test its effect, we applied such a stress to the Drosophila melanogaster model and we examined its bio-effects. We analysed, in the germ cells, the effects on the control of specific DNA repetitive sequences that are activated after different environmental stresses. The deregulation of these sequences causes genomic instability and chromosomes breaks leading to sterility. The magnetic field treatment did not produce effects on repetitive sequences in the germ cells of Drosophila. Hence, this field doesn't produce deleterious effects linked to repetitive sequences derepression.

  18. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Organism of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Paulus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has been utilized to model human brain diseases. In most of these invertebrate transgenic models, some aspects of human disease are reproduced. Although investigation of rodent models has been of significant impact, invertebrate models offer a wide variety of experimental tools that can potentially address some of the outstanding questions underlying neurological disease. This review considers what has been gleaned from invertebrate models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, metabolic diseases such as Leigh disease, Niemann-Pick disease and ceroid lipofuscinoses, tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy as well as CNS injury. It is to be expected that genetic tools in Drosophila will reveal new pathways and interactions, which hopefully will result in molecular based therapy approaches.

  19. A pulsed magnetic stress applied to Drosophila melanogaster flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Bozzetti, M. P.; Friscini, A.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.; Specchia, V.; Velardi, L.

    2014-04-01

    We report the development of a system to feed pulsed magnetic stress to biological samples. The device is based on a RLC circuit that transforms the energy stored in a high voltage capacitor into a magnetic field inside a coil. The field has been characterized and we found that charging the capacitor with 24 kV results in a peak field of 0.4 T. In order to test its effect, we applied such a stress to the Drosophila melanogaster model and we examined its bio-effects. We analysed, in the germ cells, the effects on the control of specific DNA repetitive sequences that are activated after different environmental stresses. The deregulation of these sequences causes genomic instability and chromosomes breaks leading to sterility. The magnetic field treatment did not produce effects on repetitive sequences in the germ cells of Drosophila. Hence, this field doesn't produce deleterious effects linked to repetitive sequences derepression.

  20. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  1. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Agosto, Julian A.; McCabe, Edward R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol, the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization. We analyzed the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and identified five GK orthologs, including two loci with sequence homology to the mammalian Xp21 GK protein. Using a combination of sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons of orthologs between species, we characterized functional domains in the protein required for GK activity. Our findings include additional conserved domains that suggest novel nuclear and mitochondrial functions for glycerol kinase in apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Investigation of GK function in Drosophila will inform us about the role of this enzyme in development and will provide us with a tool to examine genetic modifiers of human metabolic disorders. PMID:16545593

  2. Study of radioadaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkova, I.V.; Aksyutik, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    We study radioadaptive response in the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages using the test of dominant lethal mutations (DLM). AR was not revealed at the stages of 14-7 and 7--1 oocytes in the studied Drosophila stock. It is likely to be associated with a genetic constitution of the Drosophila strain under study. (authors)

  3. Pomegranate juice enhances healthy lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy eVenkatasubramanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploring innovative ways to ensure healthy ageing of populations is a pre-requisite to contain rising healthcare costs. Scientific research into the principles and practices of traditional medicines can provide new insights and simple solutions to lead a healthy life. Rasayana is a dedicated branch of Ayurveda (an Indian medicine that deals with methods to increase vitality and delay aging through the use of diet, herbal supplements and other lifestyle practices. The life-span and health-span enhancing actions of the fruits of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., a well-known Rasayana, were tested on Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly model. Supplementation of standard corn meal with 10% (v/v pomegranate juice (PJ extended the life-span of male and female flies by 18% and 8% respectively. When male and female flies were mixed and reared together, there was 19% increase in the longevity of PJ fed flies, as assessed by MSD, the median survival day (24.8. MSD for control and resveratrol (RV groups was at 20.8 and 23.1 days respectively. A two-fold enhancement in fecundity, improved resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2 and paraquat induced and to Candida albicans infection were observed in PJ fed flies. Further, the flies in the PJ fed group were physically active over an extended period of time, as assessed by the climbing assay. PJ thus outperformed both control and RV groups in the life-span and health-span parameters tested. This study provides the scope to explore the potential of PJ as a nutraceutical to improve health span and lifespan in humans.

  4. Resources for Functional Genomics Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephanie E.; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Kevin; Housden, Benjamin E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become a system of choice for functional genomic studies. Many resources, including online databases and software tools, are now available to support design or identification of relevant fly stocks and reagents or analysis and mining of existing functional genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, etc. datasets. These include large community collections of fly stocks and plasmid clones, “meta” information sites like FlyBase and FlyMine, and an increasing number of more specialized reagents, databases, and online tools. Here, we introduce key resources useful to plan large-scale functional genomics studies in Drosophila and to analyze, integrate, and mine the results of those studies in ways that facilitate identification of highest-confidence results and generation of new hypotheses. We also discuss ways in which existing resources can be used and might be improved and suggest a few areas of future development that would further support large- and small-scale studies in Drosophila and facilitate use of Drosophila information by the research community more generally. PMID:24653003

  5. Simulating Evolution of Drosophila melanogaster Ebony Mutants Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Glennie

    2009-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are generally quite easy to understand and work with, and they are a popular choice in many cases. One area in which genetic algorithms are widely and successfully used is artificial life where they are used to simulate evolution of artificial creatures. However, despite...... their suggestive name, simplicity and popularity in artificial life, they do not seem to have gained a footing within the field of population genetics to simulate evolution of real organisms --- possibly because genetic algorithms are based on a rather crude simplification of the evolutionary mechanisms known...... today. However, in this paper we report how a standard genetic algorithm is used to successfully simulate evolution of ebony mutants in a population of Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster). The results show a remarkable resemblance to the evolution observed in real biological experiments with ebony...

  6. Parallel Evolution of Copy-Number Variation across Continents in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Begun, David J

    2016-05-01

    Genetic differentiation across populations that is maintained in the presence of gene flow is a hallmark of spatially varying selection. In Drosophila melanogaster, the latitudinal clines across the eastern coasts of Australia and North America appear to be examples of this type of selection, with recent studies showing that a substantial portion of the D. melanogaster genome exhibits allele frequency differentiation with respect to latitude on both continents. As of yet there has been no genome-wide examination of differentiated copy-number variants (CNVs) in these geographic regions, despite their potential importance for phenotypic variation in Drosophila and other taxa. Here, we present an analysis of geographic variation in CNVs in D. melanogaster. We also present the first genomic analysis of geographic variation for copy-number variation in the sister species, D. simulans, in order to investigate patterns of parallel evolution in these close relatives. In D. melanogaster we find hundreds of CNVs, many of which show parallel patterns of geographic variation on both continents, lending support to the idea that they are influenced by spatially varying selection. These findings support the idea that polymorphic CNVs contribute to local adaptation in D. melanogaster In contrast, we find very few CNVs in D. simulans that are geographically differentiated in parallel on both continents, consistent with earlier work suggesting that clinal patterns are weaker in this species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Natsu; Abbott, Jessica K; Kjærandsen, Jostein; Takahashi, Yuma; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-10-21

    Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light environments display vivid and stable structural color patterns, called "wing interference patterns" (WIPs). Such WIPs were hypothesized to function in sexual selection among small insects with wing displays, but this has not been experimentally verified. Here, to our knowledge we present the first experimental evidence that WIPs in males of Drosophila melanogaster are targets of mate choice from females, and that two different color traits--saturation and hue--experience directional and stabilizing sexual selection, respectively. Using isogenic lines from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, we compare attractiveness of different male WIPs against black and white visual backgrounds. We show that males with more vivid wings are more attractive to females than are males with dull wings. Wings with a large magenta area (i.e., intermediate trait values) were also preferred over those with a large blue or yellow area. These experimental results add a visual element to the Drosophila mating array, integrating sexual selection with elements of genetics and evo-devo, potentially applicable to a wide array of small insects with hyaline wings. Our results further underscore that the mode of sexual selection on such visual signals can differ profoundly between different color components, in this case hue and saturation.

  8. Genetic changeover in Drosophila populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, B.

    1986-01-01

    Three populations of Drosophila melanogaster that were daughter populations of two others with histories of high, continuous radiation exposure [population 5 (irradiated, small population size) gave rise to populations 17 (small) and 18 (large); population 6 (irradiated, large population size) gave rise to population 19 (large)] were maintained for 1 year with no radiation exposure. The frequency with which random combinations of second chromosomes taken from population 19 proved to be lethal changed abruptly after about 8 months, thus revealing the origin of a selectively favored element in that population. (This element may or may not have been the cause of the lethality.) A comparison of the loss of lethals in populations 17 and 18 with a loss that occurred concurrently in the still-irradiated population 5 suggests that a second, selectively favored element had arisen in that population just before populations 17 and 18 were split off. This element was on a nonlethal chromosome. The result in population 5 was the elimination of many lethals from that population, followed by a subsequent increase as mutations occurred in the favored nonlethal chromosome. Populations 17 and 18, with no radiation exposure, underwent a loss of lethals with no subsequent increase. The events described here, as well as others to be described elsewhere, suggest that populations may be subject to episodic periods of rapid gene frequency changes that occur under intense selection pressure. In the instances in which the changeover was revealed by the elimination of preexisting lethals, earlier lethal frequencies were reduced by approximately one-half; the selectively favored elements appear, then, to be favored in the heterozygous--not homozygous--condition

  9. The neurogenetics of group behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Schneider, Jonathan; Levine, Joel D

    2017-01-01

    Organisms rarely act in isolation. Their decisions and movements are often heavily influenced by direct and indirect interactions with conspecifics. For example, we each represent a single node within a social network of family and friends, and an even larger network of strangers. This group membership can affect our opinions and actions. Similarly, when in a crowd, we often coordinate our movements with others like fish in a school, or birds in a flock. Contributions of the group to individual behaviors are observed across a wide variety of taxa but their biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. With the advent of powerful computational tools as well as the unparalleled genetic accessibility and surprisingly rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster, researchers now have a unique opportunity to investigate molecular and neuronal determinants of group behavior. Conserved mechanisms and/or selective pressures in D. melanogaster can likely inform a much wider phylogenetic scale. Here, we highlight two examples to illustrate how quantitative and genetic tools can be combined to uncover mechanisms of two group behaviors in D. melanogaster: social network formation and collective behavior. Lastly, we discuss future challenges towards a full understanding how coordinated brain activity across many individuals gives rise to the behavioral patterns of animal societies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Characterization of Reproductive Dormancy in MaleDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nylin, Sören; Nässel, Dick R

    2016-01-01

    Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster , dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D. melanogaster , and its physiology is poorly known in most insects. Here we show that unmated 3-6 h old male flies placed at low temperature (11°C) and short photoperiod (10 Light:14 Dark) enter a state of dormancy with arrested spermatogenesis and development of testes and male accessory glands. Over 3 weeks of diapause we see a dynamic increase in stored carbohydrates and an initial increase and then a decrease in lipids. We also note an up-regulated expression of genes involved in metabolism, stress responses and innate immunity. Interestingly, we found that male flies that entered reproductive dormancy do not attempt to mate females kept under non-diapause conditions (25°C, 12L:12D), and conversely non-diapausing males do not mate females in dormancy. In summary, our study shows that male D. melanogaster can enter reproductive dormancy. However, our data suggest that dormant male flies deplete stored nutrients faster than females, studied earlier, and that males take longer to recover reproductive capacity after reintroduction to non-diapause conditions.

  11. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C

    2017-04-01

    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO 4 , even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO 4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  13. Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Down

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the repertoire of transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs that form the building blocks of promoters and other regulatory elements. Identifying these experimentally is very laborious, and the number of TFBMs discovered remains relatively small, especially when compared with the hundreds of transcription factor genes predicted in metazoan genomes. We have used a recently developed statistical motif discovery approach, NestedMICA, to detect candidate TFBMs from a large set of Drosophila melanogaster promoter regions. Of the 120 motifs inferred in our initial analysis, 25 were statistically significant matches to previously reported motifs, while 87 appeared to be novel. Analysis of sequence conservation and motif positioning suggested that the great majority of these discovered motifs are predictive of functional elements in the genome. Many motifs showed associations with specific patterns of gene expression in the D. melanogaster embryo, and we were able to obtain confident annotation of expression patterns for 25 of our motifs, including eight of the novel motifs. The motifs are available through Tiffin, a new database of DNA sequence motifs. We have discovered many new motifs that are overrepresented in D. melanogaster promoter regions, and offer several independent lines of evidence that these are novel TFBMs. Our motif dictionary provides a solid foundation for further investigation of regulatory elements in Drosophila, and demonstrates techniques that should be applicable in other species. We suggest that further improvements in computational motif discovery should narrow the gap between the set of known motifs and the total number of transcription factors in metazoan genomes.

  14. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    latitude temperate populations of D. melanogaster (Eanes. 1999; Verrelli and Eanes 2001b). It is surmised that the higher ADH and α-GPDH activities facilitate lipid stor- age. Higher lipid storage might increase longevity or fecundity. Higher PGM activity is strongly related to higher glycogen content in adult flies (Verrelli and ...

  15. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Body size may be measured as fresh weight, wing length, wing area or thorax length. .... starvation resistance. Indeed, a latitudinal cline for star- vation resistance and desiccation resistance is present in. Indian populations of D. melanogaster (Karan et al. 1998). ..... 215 effects. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the insulin-.

  16. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  17. Specialized Cortex Glial Cells Accumulate Lipid Droplets in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Viktor; Barti, Benjámin; Lippai, Mónika; Sass, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are common organelles of the majority of eukaryotic cell types. Their biological significance has been extensively studied in mammalian liver cells and white adipose tissue. Although the central nervous system contains the highest relative amount and the largest number of different lipid species, neither the spatial nor the temporal distribution of LDs has been described. In this study, we used the brain of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the neuroanatomy of LDs. We demonstrated that LDs are exclusively localised in glial cells but not in neurons in the larval nervous system. We showed that the brain’s LD pool, rather than being constant, changes dynamically during development and reaches its highest value at the beginning of metamorphosis. LDs are particularly enriched in cortex glial cells located close to the brain surface. These specialized superficial cortex glial cells contain the highest amount of LDs among glial cell types and encapsulate neuroblasts and their daughter cells. Superficial cortex glial cells, combined with subperineurial glial cells, express the Drosophila fatty acid binding protein (Dfabp), as we have demonstrated through light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. To the best of our best knowledge this is the first study that describes LD neuroanatomy in the Drosophila larval brain. PMID:26148013

  18. Specialized Cortex Glial Cells Accumulate Lipid Droplets in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Viktor; Barti, Benjámin; Lippai, Mónika; Sass, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are common organelles of the majority of eukaryotic cell types. Their biological significance has been extensively studied in mammalian liver cells and white adipose tissue. Although the central nervous system contains the highest relative amount and the largest number of different lipid species, neither the spatial nor the temporal distribution of LDs has been described. In this study, we used the brain of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the neuroanatomy of LDs. We demonstrated that LDs are exclusively localised in glial cells but not in neurons in the larval nervous system. We showed that the brain's LD pool, rather than being constant, changes dynamically during development and reaches its highest value at the beginning of metamorphosis. LDs are particularly enriched in cortex glial cells located close to the brain surface. These specialized superficial cortex glial cells contain the highest amount of LDs among glial cell types and encapsulate neuroblasts and their daughter cells. Superficial cortex glial cells, combined with subperineurial glial cells, express the Drosophila fatty acid binding protein (Dfabp), as we have demonstrated through light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. To the best of our best knowledge this is the first study that describes LD neuroanatomy in the Drosophila larval brain.

  19. Restriction Map Variation at the Adh Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster in Inverted and Noninverted Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Aguade, M.

    1988-01-01

    Restriction map variation among 39 Standard and 40 In(2L)t chromosomes extracted from a Spanish natural population of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated for a 2.7-kb region encompassing the Adh locus with ten four-cutter restriction enzymes. A total of 20 polymorphisms were detected, representing 15 restriction site polymorphisms, 4 length polymorphisms and the allozyme polymorphism. Variation at the DNA level was compared among St-Adh(F), St-Adh(S) and t-Adh(S) chromosomes. t-Adh(S) ch...

  20. Behavioural plasticity in support of a benefit for aggregation pheromone use in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, LEM

    We explored behavioural plasticity in the use of aggregation pheromone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Based on previous field observations, we formulated two hypotheses on a benefit of using aggregation pheromone for aggregated oviposition. One hypothesis

  1. Polymorphism patterns in two tightly linked developmental genes, Idgf1 and Idgf3, of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žurovcová, Martina; Ayala, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 162, - (2002), s. 177-188 ISSN 0016-6731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.483, year: 2002

  2. Proteomic characterization of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Cornelis Joseph; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  3. Metabolic and functional characterization of effects of developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Karlsson, Goran B

    2017-01-01

    , and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range. We obtained metabolic profiles and reaction norms...

  4. Wolbachia variants induce differential protection to viruses in Drosophila melanogaster: a phenotypic and phylogenomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chrostek

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are intracellular bacterial symbionts that are able to protect various insect hosts from viral infections. This tripartite interaction was initially described in Drosophila melanogaster carrying wMel, its natural Wolbachia strain. wMel has been shown to be genetically polymorphic and there has been a recent change in variant frequencies in natural populations. We have compared the antiviral protection conferred by different wMel variants, their titres and influence on host longevity, in a genetically identical D. melanogaster host. The phenotypes cluster the variants into two groups--wMelCS-like and wMel-like. wMelCS-like variants give stronger protection against Drosophila C virus and Flock House virus, reach higher titres and often shorten the host lifespan. We have sequenced and assembled the genomes of these Wolbachia, and shown that the two phenotypic groups are two monophyletic groups. We have also analysed a virulent and over-replicating variant, wMelPop, which protects D. melanogaster even better than the closely related wMelCS. We have found that a ~21 kb region of the genome, encoding eight genes, is amplified seven times in wMelPop and may be the cause of its phenotypes. Our results indicate that the more protective wMelCS-like variants, which sometimes have a cost, were replaced by the less protective but more benign wMel-like variants. This has resulted in a recent reduction in virus resistance in D. melanogaster in natural populations worldwide. Our work helps to understand the natural variation in wMel and its evolutionary dynamics, and inform the use of Wolbachia in arthropod-borne disease control.

  5. Genetic effects induced by neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster I. Determination of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin, A.; Paredes, L.C.; Zambrano, F.; Guzman-Rincon, J.; Urena-Nunez, F.

    2001-01-01

    A method to obtain the absorbed dose in Drosophila melanogaster irradiated in the thermal column facility of the Triga Mark III Reactor has been developed. The method is based on the measurements of neutron activation of gold foils produced by neutron capture to obtain the neutron fluxes. These fluxes, combined with the calculations of kinetic energy released per unit mass, enables one to obtain the absorbed doses in Drosophila melanogaster

  6. Evidence that natural selection maintains genetic variation for sleep in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetec, Nicolas; Zhao, Li; Saelao, Perot; Chiu, Joanna C; Begun, David J

    2015-03-13

    Drosophila melanogaster often shows correlations between latitude and phenotypic or genetic variation on different continents, which suggests local adaptation with respect to a heterogeneous environment. Previous phenotypic analyses of latitudinal clines have investigated mainly physiological, morphological, or life-history traits. Here, we studied latitudinal variation in sleep in D. melanogaster populations from North and Central America. In parallel, we used RNA-seq to identify interpopulation gene expression differences. We found that in D. melanogaster the average nighttime sleep bout duration exhibits a latitudinal cline such that sleep bouts of equatorial populations are roughly twice as long as those of temperate populations. Interestingly, this pattern of latitudinal variation is not observed for any daytime measure of activity or sleep. We also found evidence for geographic variation for sunrise anticipation. Our RNA-seq experiment carried out on heads from a low and high latitude population identified a large number of gene expression differences, most of which were time dependent. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in circadian regulated genes and enriched in genes potentially under spatially varying selection. Our results are consistent with a mechanistic and selective decoupling of nighttime and daytime activity. Furthermore, the present study suggests that natural selection plays a major role in generating transcriptomic variation associated with circadian behaviors. Finally, we identified genomic variants plausibly causally associated with the observed behavioral and transcriptomic variation.

  7. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigby, Stuart; Perry, Jennifer C; Kim, Yon-Hee; Sirot, Laura K

    2016-03-01

    Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment.We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large and small (i.e. high and low condition) adult phenotypes, respectively.As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females. However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources.Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus responded to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with (i) small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and (ii) small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with (i) males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and (ii) females perceiving high density as signalling abundant

  8. Phenomenon of life span instability in Drosophila melanogaster: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, D.M.; Obukhova, L.K.; Okladnova, O.V.; Akifyev, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of life span (LS) have been studied in successive generations of postirradiation and control groups of Drosophila melanogaster, strain D-32, after a single exposure to Co 60 γ-quantum irradiation. It has been shown using mathematical procedures that in all postirradiation generations, with one exception, survival curves retain their canonical shape. This is indicative of the unchangeable nature of LS distribution. The means LS of the progeny of irradiated parents either coincides with control values or can be higher or lower. Moreover, single irradiation results in an altered time-scanning of LS variations in successive generations as compared with controls. The possible origin of LS instability is discussed. (author)

  9. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Peter V; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Schwartz, Yuri B; Minoda, Aki; Riddle, Nicole C; Ernst, Jason; Sabo, Peter J; Larschan, Erica; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Gu, Tingting; Linder-Basso, Daniela; Plachetka, Annette; Shanower, Gregory; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Luquette, Lovelace J; Xi, Ruibin; Jung, Youngsook L; Park, Richard W; Bishop, Eric P; Canfield, Theresa K; Sandstrom, Richard; Thurman, Robert E; MacAlpine, David M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kellis, Manolis; Elgin, Sarah C R; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Karpen, Gary H; Park, Peter J

    2011-03-24

    Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns. Integrative analysis with other data (non-histone chromatin proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, GRO-Seq reads produced by engaged polymerase, short/long RNA products) reveals discrete characteristics of chromosomes, genes, regulatory elements and other functional domains. We find that active genes display distinct chromatin signatures that are correlated with disparate gene lengths, exon patterns, regulatory functions and genomic contexts. We also demonstrate a diversity of signatures among Polycomb targets that include a subset with paused polymerase. This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function.

  10. In vivo super-resolution RESOLFT microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorrenberg, Sebastian; Grotjohann, Tim; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Herzig, Alf; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-06-29

    Despite remarkable developments in diffraction unlimited super-resolution microscopy, in vivo nanoscopy of tissues and model organisms is still not satisfactorily established and rarely realized. RESOLFT nanoscopy is particularly suited for live cell imaging because it requires relatively low light levels to overcome the diffraction barrier. Previously, we introduced the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2, which facilitated fast RESOLFT nanoscopy (Grotjohann et al., 2012). In that study, as in most other nanoscopy studies, only cultivated single cells were analyzed. Here, we report on the use of rsEGFP2 for live-cell RESOLFT nanoscopy of sub-cellular structures of intact Drosophila melanogaster larvae and of resected tissues. We generated flies expressing fusion proteins of alpha-tubulin and rsEGFP2 highlighting the microtubule cytoskeleton in all cells. By focusing through the intact larval cuticle, we achieved lateral resolution of.

  11. Estimating spontaneous mutation rates at enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Terumi; Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki; Harada, Ko; Kusakabe, Shin-ichi

    1990-04-01

    Spontaneous mutations were accumulated for 1,620,826 allele-generations on chromosomes that originated from six stem second chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Only null-electromorph mutations were detected. Band-electromorph mutations were not found. The average rate of null-electromorph mutations was 2.71 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. The 95% confidence interval (μ n ) was 1.97 x 10 -5 n -5 per locus per generation. The upper 95% confidence limit of the band-electromorph mutation rate (μ B ) was 2.28 x 10 -6 per locus per generation. It appeared that null mutations were induced by movable genetic elements and that the mutation rates were different from chromosome to chromosome. (author)

  12. Studies on mutagen-sensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, W.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of defects in DNA repair processes on X-ray-induced genetic damage in post-meiotic male germ cell stages of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using the 'maternal effects approach'. Basc males were irradiated in N 2 , air or O 2 either as 48-h-old pupae (to sample spermatids) or as 3-4-day-old adults (to sample mature spermatozoa) and mated to females of 3 repair-deficient strains. Simultaneous controls involving mating of males to repair-proficient females (mei + ) were run. The frequencies of sex-linked recessive lethals and of autosomal translocations were determined following standard genetic procedures. The responses elicited in the different crosses with repair-deficient females were compared with those in mei + crosses. (Auth.)

  13. The effects of chronic low dose irradiation on drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Yuraneva, I.N.; Taskaev, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of the chronic gamma-irradiation in the dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h on the rate of genetic variability and on the life-span in the laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster with genotypic distinguishes in mobile genetic elements and defects in the DNA repair processes. It is shown that the radiation-induced alteration of the traits under study depends from genotype of investigated strains. In the different strains we have observed an increase as well as a decrease of the mutation rate and life-span. Also it was established that irradiation leads to the frequencies of the GD-sterility and mutability of the snw and h(w+) in the P-M and H-E dysgenic crosses. The obtained results suggest that mobile genetic elements play an important role in the forming of genetic effects in response to low dose irradiation. (author)

  14. Genetic effects of low-dose irradiation in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnulin, V.G.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Yuraneva, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of chronic γ-irradiation at the dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h on the rate of genetic variability in the laboratory strains of Drosophila Melanogaster with genotypic distinguishes by families of mobile genetic elements and of systems of hybrid disgenesis and also violations in reparation processes control mechanisms. It was shown that the rates of induction of recessive lethal mutations depended on genotype of investigated strains. In the different strains an increase as well as a decrease of the mutation rate were observed. Also in was established that irradiation leads to the increase in frequencies of the gonads sterility and mutability of the sn w and h(w + ) in the P-M and H-E dysgenic crosses. Obtained results suggest that mobile genetic elements play an important role in the forming of genetic effects in response to low dose irradiation [ru

  15. Mechanisms of LTR-Retroelement Transposition: Lessons from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, Lidia; Kim, Alexander

    2017-04-16

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occupy a special place among all mobile genetic element families. The structure of LTR retrotransposons that have three open reading frames is identical to DNA forms of retroviruses that are integrated into the host genome. Several lines of evidence suggest that LTR retrotransposons share a common ancestry with retroviruses and thus are highly relevant to understanding mechanisms of transposition. Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptionally convenient model for studying the mechanisms of retrotransposon movement because many such elements in its genome are transpositionally active. Moreover, two LTRretrotransposons of D. melanogaster, gypsy and ZAM, have been found to have infectious properties and have been classified as errantiviruses. Despite numerous studies focusing on retroviral integration process, there is still no clear understanding of integration specificity in a target site. Most LTR retrotransposons non-specifically integrate into a target site. Site-specificity of integration at vertebrate retroviruses is rather relative. At the same time, sequence-specific integration is the exclusive property of errantiviruses and their derivatives with two open reading frames. The possible basis for the errantivirus integration specificity is discussed in the present review.

  16. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  17. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J; Levine, Joel D; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these

  18. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  19. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster White Mutant w1118 Undergo Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ferreiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Key scientific discoveries have resulted from genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster, using a multitude of transgenic fly strains, the majority of which are constructed in a genetic background containing mutations in the white gene. Here we report that white mutant flies from w1118 strain undergo retinal degeneration. We observed also that w1118 mutants have progressive loss of climbing ability, shortened life span, as well as impaired resistance to various forms of stress. Retinal degeneration was abolished by transgenic expression of mini-white+ in the white null background w1118. We conclude that beyond the classical eye-color phenotype, mutations in Drosophila white gene could impair several biological functions affecting parameters like mobility, life span and stress tolerance. Consequently, we suggest caution and attentiveness during the interpretation of old experiments employing white mutant flies and when planning new ones, especially within the research field of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. We also encourage that the use of w1118 strain as a wild-type control should be avoided.

  1. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of promoter architecture in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Landolin, Jane M.; Brown, James B.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Takahashi, Hazuki; Lassmann, Timo; Yu, Charles; Booth, Benjamin W.; Zhang, Dayu; Wan, Kenneth H.; Yang, Li; Boley, Nathan; Andrews, Justen; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Bickel, Peter J.; Carninci, Piero; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-10-20

    Core promoters are critical regions for gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. However, the boundaries of promoter regions, the relative rates of initiation at the transcription start sites (TSSs) distributed within them, and the functional significance of promoter architecture remain poorly understood. We produced a high-resolution map of promoters active in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo by integrating data from three independent and complementary methods: 21 million cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) tags, 1.2 million RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLMRACE) reads, and 50,000 cap-trapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs). We defined 12,454 promoters of 8037 genes. Our analysis indicates that, due to non-promoter-associated RNA background signal, previous studies have likely overestimated the number of promoter-associated CAGE clusters by fivefold. We show that TSS distributions form a complex continuum of shapes, and that promoters active in the embryo and adult have highly similar shapes in 95% of cases. This suggests that these distributions are generally determined by static elements such as local DNA sequence and are not modulated by dynamic signals such as histone modifications. Transcription factor binding motifs are differentially enriched as a function of promoter shape, and peaked promoter shape is correlated with both temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression. Our results contribute to the emerging view that core promoters are functionally diverse and control patterning of gene expression in Drosophila and mammals.

  3. Obp56h Modulates Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Shorter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions in insects are driven by conspecific chemical signals that are detected via olfactory and gustatory neurons. Odorant binding proteins (Obps transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that RNAi knockdown of Obp56h gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster enhances mating behavior by reducing courtship latency. The change in mating behavior that results from inhibition of Obp56h expression is accompanied by significant alterations in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC composition, including reduction in 5-tricosene (5-T, an inhibitory sex pheromone produced by males that increases copulation latency during courtship. Whole genome RNA sequencing confirms that expression of Obp56h is virtually abolished in Drosophila heads. Inhibition of Obp56h expression also affects expression of other chemoreception genes, including upregulation of lush in both sexes and Obp83ef in females, and reduction in expression of Obp19b and Or19b in males. In addition, several genes associated with lipid metabolism, which underlies the production of cuticular hydrocarbons, show altered transcript abundances. Our data show that modulation of mating behavior through reduction of Obp56h is accompanied by altered cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and implicate 5-T as a possible ligand for Obp56h.

  4. Quantification of Histamine and Carcinine in Drosophila melanogaster Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Borman, Ryan P; Wolin, Danielle C; Venton, B Jill

    2016-03-16

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter crucial to the visual processing of Drosophila melanogaster. It is inactivated by metabolism to carcinine, a β-alanyl derivative, and the same enzyme that controls that process also converts dopamine to N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Direct detection of histamine and carcinine has not been reported in single Drosophila brains. Here, we quantify histamine, carcinine, dopamine, and N-β-alanyl-dopamine in Drosophila tissues by capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (CE-FSCV). Limits of detection were low, 4 ± 1 pg for histamine, 10 ± 4 pg for carcinine, 2.8 ± 0.3 pg for dopamine, and 9 ± 3 pg for N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Tissue content was compared in the brain, eyes, and cuticle from wild-type (Canton S) and mutant (tan(3) and ebony(1)) strains. In tan(3) mutants, the enzyme that produces histamine from carcinine is nonfunctional, whereas in ebony(1) mutants, the enzyme that produces carcinine from histamine is nonfunctional. In all fly strains, the neurotransmitter content was highest in the eyes and there were no strain differences for tissue content in the cuticle. The main finding was that carcinine levels changed significantly in the mutant flies, whereas histamine levels did not. In particular, tan(3) flies had significantly higher carcinine levels in the eyes and brain than Canton S or ebony(1) flies. N-β-Alanyl-dopamine was detected in tan(3) mutants but not in other strains. These results show the utility of CE-FSCV for sensitive detection of histamine and carcinine, which allows a better understanding of their content and metabolism in different types of tissues to be obtained.

  5. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  6. Studies on a photoreactivating enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    A photoreactivating enzyme was purified from Schneider's Line No. 2 Drosophila melanogaster cultured cells. DEAE cellulose chromatography with high potassium phosphate buffer conditions was used to separate nucleic acids from the protein component of the crude cell extract. The protein pass-through fraction from DEAE cellulose was chromatographed on phosphocellulose followed by hydroxylapatite, using linear potassium phosphate gradients to elute the enzyme. Gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 resulted in a 4500-fold purification of the enzyme with a final recovery of 4%. The enzyme has an apparent gel filtration molecular weight of 32,900 (+/- 1350 daltons) and an isoelectric pH of 4.9. Optimum ionic strength for activity is 0.17 at pH 6.5 in potassium phosphate buffer. The action spectrum for photoreactivation in Drosophila has an optimum at 365 nm with a response to wavelengths in the range of 313 to 465 nm. Drosophila photoreactivating enzyme contains an essential RNA that is necessary for activity in vitro. The ability of the enzyme to photoreactivate dimers in vitro is abolished by treatment of the enzyme with ribonucleases, or by disruption of the enzyme-RNA complex by electrophoresis or adsorption to DEAE cellulose. The essential RNA is heterogeneous in size but contains a 10-12 base region that may interact with the active site of the enzyme, and thus is protected from degradation by contaminating RNase activities during purification. The RNA is thought to stabilize the photoreactivating enzyme by maintaining the enzyme in the proper configuration for binding to dimer-containing DNA. It is not known whether this RNA is essential for in vivo photoreactivation

  7. A genome-wide gene function prediction resource for Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Han Yan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting gene functions by integrating large-scale biological data remains a challenge for systems biology. Here we present a resource for Drosophila melanogaster gene function predictions. We trained function-specific classifiers to optimize the influence of different biological datasets for each functional category. Our model predicted GO terms and KEGG pathway memberships for Drosophila melanogaster genes with high accuracy, as affirmed by cross-validation, supporting literature evidence, and large-scale RNAi screens. The resulting resource of prioritized associations between Drosophila genes and their potential functions offers a guide for experimental investigations.

  8. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  9. Phenotypic and genetic effects of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Castañeda

    Full Text Available A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (covariances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile, using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (covariances of developmental traits, whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster.

  10. Phenotypic and Genetic Effects of Contrasting Ethanol Environments on Physiological and Developmental Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Luis E.; Nespolo, Roberto F.

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (co)variances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile), using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (co)variances of developmental traits), whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster. PMID:23505567

  11. Circadian Rhythms and Sleep inDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Sehgal, Amita

    2017-04-01

    The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster , including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research. Clock genes period and timeless were first discovered in large-scale Drosophila genetic screens developed in the 1970s. Feedback of period and timeless on their own transcription forms the core of the molecular clock, and accurately timed expression, localization, post-transcriptional modification, and function of these genes is thought to be critical for maintaining the circadian cycle. Regulators, including several phosphatases and kinases, act on different steps of this feedback loop to ensure strong and accurately timed rhythms. Approximately 150 neurons in the fly brain that contain the core components of the molecular clock act together to translate this intracellular cycling into rhythmic behavior. We discuss how different groups of clock neurons serve different functions in allowing clocks to entrain to environmental cues, driving behavioral outputs at different times of day, and allowing flexible behavioral responses in different environmental conditions. The neuropeptide PDF provides an important signal thought to synchronize clock neurons, although the details of how PDF accomplishes this function are still being explored. Secreted signals from clock neurons also influence rhythms in other tissues. SLEEP is, in part, regulated by the circadian clock, which ensures appropriate timing of sleep, but the amount and quality of sleep are also determined by other mechanisms that ensure a homeostatic balance between sleep and wake. Flies have been useful

  12. Lifespan Extension by the Antioxidant Curcumin in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Brianne K.; Suckow, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The interest in health benefits associated with consumption of anti-oxidants has led to investigations examining the possibility that diets rich in anti-oxidants promote lifespan extension. Studies using the standard fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) model of longevity have shown that the antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine prolong lifespan. Turmeric is a spice which has been consumed and used for medicinal purposes for many centuries in Asia. Interestingly, turmeric contains the powerful antioxidant, curcumin. To test the hypothesis that dietary curcumin prolongs lifespan, groups of 30 male D. melanogaster were cultured on media containing 1) no additive; 2) 0.5 mg of curcumin/gram of media; 3) 1.0 mg of curumin/gram of media; 4) 1.0μg of the superoxide dismutase inhibitor, disulfiram/gram of media; 5) 10 g of disulfiram/gram of media; 6) 0.5 mg curcumin and 1.0 g disulfiram/ gram of media; 7) 1.0 mg curcumin and 1.0 g disulfiram/ gram of media; 8) 0.5 mg curcumin and 10 g disulfiram/gram of media; or 9) 1.0 mg curcumin and 10 g disulfiram/gram of media. The number of live fruitflies was noted daily and mean lifespan determined for each treatment group. A significant (P≤0.05) increase in mean lifespan was noted only for the fruitflies maintained on 1.0 mg of curcumin/gram of media; this effect was reversed by addition of disulfiram. These results demonstrate that dietary curcumin prolongs lifespan and that this effect is associated with enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. PMID:23675008

  13. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-06-01

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H 2 O 2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, d

  14. Wolbachia influences the maternal transmission of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-09-02

    The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporation into the pole cells of the embryos. In parallel, maternal transmission of several endogenous retroviruses is well documented in D. melanogaster. Notably, gypsy retrovirus is expressed in permissive follicle cells and transferred to the oocyte and then to the offspring by integrating into their genomes. Here, we show that the presence of Wolbachia wMel reduces the rate of gypsy insertion into the ovo gene. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not modify the expression levels of gypsy RNA and envelope glycoprotein from either permissive or restrictive ovaries. Moreover, Wolbachia affects the pattern of distribution of the retroviral particles and the gypsy envelope protein in permissive follicle cells. Altogether, our results enlarge the knowledge of the antiviral activity of Wolbachia to include reducing the maternal transmission of endogenous retroviruses in D. melanogaster. Animals have established complex relationships with bacteria and viruses that spread horizontally among individuals or are vertically transmitted, i.e., from parents to offspring. It is well established that members of the genus Wolbachia, maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria present mainly in arthropods, reduce the replication of several RNA viruses transmitted horizontally. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Wolbachia diminishes the maternal transmission of gypsy, an endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesize that gypsy cannot efficiently integrate into the germ

  15. Adaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster heat shock proteins mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Moskalev, A.A.; Turysheva, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The members of the heat shock proteins (Hsp) family function as molecular chaperones and assist intracellular folding of newly synthesized proteins. Also it is possible that molecular chaperones are induced during adaptive response to oxidative stress and radiation. The aim of our research was to exam the role of heat shock proteins in adaptive response to oxidative stress after low dose rate gamma-irradiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophilamelanogaster strains were kindly provided by Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (University of state of Indiana, Bloomington, USA). We used wild type strain (CS), heat shock protein mutant strains (Hsp22, Hsp70, Hsp83), and heat shock factor mutant strain (Hsf). Strains were chronically exposured to adaptive dose of gamma-irradiation in dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h during all stages of life history (from the embrional stage to the stage of matured imago). The rate of absorbed dose was 60 cGy. For oxidative-stress challenge twodays old flies were starved in empty vials for 6 h and then transferred to vials containing only filter paper soaked with 20 mM paraquat in 5% sucrose solution. Survival data were collected after 26 h of treatment. Dead flies were counted daily. The obtained data were subjected to survival analysis by Kaplan and Meier method and presented as survival curves. Statistical analysis was held by non-parametric methods. To test the significance of the difference between the two age distributions Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Gehan-Braslow- Wilcoxon and Cox-Mantel tests were used for estimation of median life span differences. In addition the minimal and maximal life span, time of 90% death, and mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) were estimated. The obtained results will be discussed in presentation.

  16. Female Meiosis: Synapsis, Recombination, and Segregation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stacie E.; Miller, Danny E.; Miller, Angela L.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2018-01-01

    A century of genetic studies of the meiotic process in Drosophila melanogaster females has been greatly augmented by both modern molecular biology and major advances in cytology. These approaches, and the findings they have allowed, are the subject of this review. Specifically, these efforts have revealed that meiotic pairing in Drosophila females is not an extension of somatic pairing, but rather occurs by a poorly understood process during premeiotic mitoses. This process of meiotic pairing requires the function of several components of the synaptonemal complex (SC). When fully assembled, the SC also plays a critical role in maintaining homolog synapsis and in facilitating the maturation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) into mature crossover (CO) events. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating not only the structure, function, and assembly of the SC, but also the proteins that facilitate the formation and repair of DSBs into both COs and noncrossovers (NCOs). The events that control the decision to mature a DSB as either a CO or an NCO, as well as determining which of the two CO pathways (class I or class II) might be employed, are also being characterized by genetic and genomic approaches. These advances allow a reconsideration of meiotic phenomena such as interference and the centromere effect, which were previously described only by genetic studies. In delineating the mechanisms by which the oocyte controls the number and position of COs, it becomes possible to understand the role of CO position in ensuring the proper orientation of homologs on the first meiotic spindle. Studies of bivalent orientation have occurred in the context of numerous investigations into the assembly, structure, and function of the first meiotic spindle. Additionally, studies have examined the mechanisms ensuring the segregation of chromosomes that have failed to undergo crossing over. PMID:29487146

  17. The Release 6 reference sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Roger A; Carlson, Joseph W; Wan, Kenneth H; Park, Soo; Mendez, Ivonne; Galle, Samuel E; Booth, Benjamin W; Pfeiffer, Barret D; George, Reed A; Svirskas, Robert; Krzywinski, Martin; Schein, Jacqueline; Accardo, Maria Carmela; Damia, Elisabetta; Messina, Giovanni; Méndez-Lago, María; de Pablos, Beatriz; Demakova, Olga V; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N; Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Marra, Marco; Carvalho, A Bernardo; Dimitri, Patrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Zhimulev, Igor F; Rubin, Gerald M; Karpen, Gary H; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Drosophila melanogaster plays an important role in molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of heredity, development, metabolism, behavior, and human disease. The initial reference genome sequence reported more than a decade ago had a profound impact on progress in Drosophila research, and improving the accuracy and completeness of this sequence continues to be important to further progress. We previously described improvement of the 117-Mb sequence in the euchromatic portion of the genome and 21 Mb in the heterochromatic portion, using a whole-genome shotgun assembly, BAC physical mapping, and clone-based finishing. Here, we report an improved reference sequence of the single-copy and middle-repetitive regions of the genome, produced using cytogenetic mapping to mitotic and polytene chromosomes, clone-based finishing and BAC fingerprint verification, ordering of scaffolds by alignment to cDNA sequences, incorporation of other map and sequence data, and validation by whole-genome optical restriction mapping. These data substantially improve the accuracy and completeness of the reference sequence and the order and orientation of sequence scaffolds into chromosome arm assemblies. Representation of the Y chromosome and other heterochromatic regions is particularly improved. The new 143.9-Mb reference sequence, designated Release 6, effectively exhausts clone-based technologies for mapping and sequencing. Highly repeat-rich regions, including large satellite blocks and functional elements such as the ribosomal RNA genes and the centromeres, are largely inaccessible to current sequencing and assembly methods and remain poorly represented. Further significant improvements will require sequencing technologies that do not depend on molecular cloning and that produce very long reads. © 2015 Hoskins et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Question of the total gene number in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, G.; Watkins, W.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical analysis has been carried out on the distribution and allelism of nearly 500 sex-linked, X-ray-induced, cytologically normal and rearranged lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that were obtained by G. Lefevre. The mutations were induced in four different regions of the X chromosome: (1) 1A1-3E8, (2) 6D1-8A5, (3) 9E1-11A7 and (4) 19A1-20F4, which together comprise more than one-third of the entire chromosome.--The analysis shows that the number of alleles found at different loci does not fit a Poisson distribution, even when the proper procedures are taken to accommodate the truncated nature of the data. However, the allele distribution fits a truncated negative binomial distribution quite well, with cytologically normal mutations fitting better than rearrangement mutations. This indicates that genes are not equimutable, as required for the data to fit a Poisson distribution.--Using the negative binomial parameters to estimate the number of genes that did not produce a detectable lethal mutation in our experiment (n0) gave a larger number than that derived from the use of the Poisson parameter. Unfortunately, we cannot estimate the total numbers of nonvital loci, loci with undetectable phenotypes and loci having extremely low mutabilities. In any event, our estimate of the total vital gene number was far short of the total number of bands in the analyzed regions; yet, in several short intervals, we have found more vital genes than bands; in other intervals, fewer. We conclude that the one-band, one-gene hypothesis, in its literal sense, is not true; furthermore, it is difficult to support, even approximately.--The question of the total gene number in Drosophila will, not doubt, eventually be solved by molecular analyses, not by statistical analysis of mutation data or saturation studies

  19. Ethanol confers differential protection against generalist and specialist parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Zachary R; Schlenke, Todd A; Morran, Levi T; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-01-01

    As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D. melanogaster larvae. Given that ethanol tolerance is high in D. melanogaster and stronger in the specialist wasp than the generalist, we tested whether fly larvae could use ethanol as an anti-parasite defense and whether its effectiveness would differ against the two wasp species. We found that fly larvae benefited from eating ethanol-containing food during exposure to L. heterotoma; we observed a two-fold decrease in parasitization intensity and a 24-fold increase in fly survival to adulthood. Although host ethanol consumption did not affect L. boulardi parasitization rates or intensities, it led to a modest increase in fly survival. Thus, ethanol conferred stronger protection against the generalist wasp than the specialist. We tested whether fly larvae can self-medicate by seeking ethanol-containing food after being attacked by wasps, but found no support for this hypothesis. We also allowed female flies to choose between control and ethanol-containing oviposition sites in the presence vs. absence of wasps and generally found significant preferences for ethanol regardless of wasp presence. Overall, our results suggest that D. melanogaster larvae obtain protection from certain parasitoid wasp species through their mothers' innate oviposition preferences for ethanol-containing food sources.

  20. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  1. Plasticity of the chemoreceptor repertoire in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Shanshan Zhou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For most organisms, chemosensation is critical for survival and is mediated by large families of chemoreceptor proteins, whose expression must be tuned appropriately to changes in the chemical environment. We asked whether expression of chemoreceptor genes that are clustered in the genome would be regulated independently; whether expression of certain chemoreceptor genes would be especially sensitive to environmental changes; whether groups of chemoreceptor genes undergo coordinated rexpression; and how plastic the expression of chemoreceptor genes is with regard to sex, development, reproductive state, and social context. To answer these questions we used Drosophila melanogaster, because its chemosensory systems are well characterized and both the genotype and environment can be controlled precisely. Using customized cDNA microarrays, we showed that chemoreceptor genes that are clustered in the genome undergo independent transcriptional regulation at different developmental stages and between sexes. Expression of distinct subgroups of chemoreceptor genes is sensitive to reproductive state and social interactions. Furthermore, exposure of flies only to odor of the opposite sex results in altered transcript abundance of chemoreceptor genes. These genes are distinct from those that show transcriptional plasticity when flies are allowed physical contact with same or opposite sex members. We analyzed covariance in transcript abundance of chemosensory genes across all environmental conditions and found that they segregated into 20 relatively small, biologically relevant modules of highly correlated transcripts. This finely pixilated modular organization of the chemosensory subgenome enables fine tuning of the expression of the chemoreceptor repertoire in response to ecologically relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  2. Rhythmic changes in synapse numbers in Drosophila melanogaster motor terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ruiz

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the morphology of the neuromuscular junction of the flight motor neuron MN5 in Drosophila melanogaster undergoes daily rhythmical changes, with smaller synaptic boutons during the night, when the fly is resting, than during the day, when the fly is active. With electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy, we searched for a rhythmic change in synapse numbers in this neuron, both under light:darkness (LD cycles and constant darkness (DD. We expected the number of synapses to increase during the morning, when the fly has an intense phase of locomotion activity under LD and DD. Surprisingly, only our DD data were consistent with this hypothesis. In LD, we found more synapses at midnight than at midday. We propose that under LD conditions, there is a daily rhythm of formation of new synapses in the dark phase, when the fly is resting, and disassembly over the light phase, when the fly is active. Several parameters appeared to be light dependent, since they were affected differently under LD or DD. The great majority of boutons containing synapses had only one and very few had either two or more, with a 70∶25∶5 ratio (one, two and three or more synapses in LD and 75∶20∶5 in DD. Given the maintenance of this proportion even when both bouton and synapse numbers changed with time, we suggest that there is a homeostatic mechanism regulating synapse distribution among MN5 boutons.

  3. Physiological Effects of l-Theanine on Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xue

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been consumed as the most popular drink in East Asia for centuries, and is believed to have a wide range of health benefits. l-Theanine, the major component of the free amino acids in green tea, has been reported to display neuronal protection and tumor inhibition in vitro, but its physiological effects on animal development and behavior remain elusive. In this report, we used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism to investigate the physiological effects of L-theanine. Flies were fed with three different concentrations of theanine as a dietary supplement after eclosion, and were examined for a variety of physiological parameters at different time points. We found theanine treatment results in significantly increased locomotion and courtship ability, and decreased resistance against wet and dry starvation in males, but not in females. Furthermore, theanine application diminished UV tolerance in females, but not in males. However, we did not perceive distinguishable effect of theanine on animal development, life span, weight, and tolerance of heat and anoxia. This work represents the first comprehensive physiological investigation of L-theanine at the whole animal level, and shall shed light on the mechanistic study of theanine in the future.

  4. The cuticular nature of corneal lenses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aaron L; Charlton-Perkins, Mark; Buschbeck, Elke K; Cook, Tiffany A

    2017-07-01

    The dioptric visual system relies on precisely focusing lenses that project light onto a neural retina. While the proteins that constitute the lenses of many vertebrates are relatively well characterized, less is known about the proteins that constitute invertebrate lenses, especially the lens facets in insect compound eyes. To address this question, we used mass spectrophotometry to define the major proteins that comprise the corneal lenses from the adult Drosophila melanogaster compound eye. This led to the identification of four cuticular proteins: two previously identified lens proteins, drosocrystallin and retinin, and two newly identified proteins, Cpr66D and Cpr72Ec. To determine which ommatidial cells contribute each of these proteins to the lens, we conducted in situ hybridization at 50% pupal development, a key age for lens secretion. Our results confirm previous reports that drosocrystallin and retinin are expressed in the two primary corneagenous cells-cone cells and primary pigment cells. Cpr72Ec and Cpr66D, on the other hand, are more highly expressed in higher order interommatidial pigment cells. These data suggest that the complementary expression of cuticular proteins give rise to the center vs periphery of the corneal lens facet, possibly facilitating a refractive gradient that is known to reduce spherical aberration. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for future studies aimed at understanding the cuticular basis of corneal lens function in holometabolous insect eyes.

  5. Genetic analysis of the claret locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, W.; Nelson, C.R.; Szauter, P.

    1989-01-01

    The claret (ca) locus of Drosophila melanogaster comprises two separately mutable domains, one responsible for eye color and one responsible for proper disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis and early cleavage divisions. Previously isolated alleles are of three types: (1) alleles of the claret (ca) type that affect eye color only, (2) alleles of the claret-nondisjunctional (ca nd ) type that affect eye color and chromosome behavior, and (3) a meiotic mutation, non-claret disjunctional (ncd), that affects chromosome behavior only. In order to investigate the genetic structure of the claret locus, the authors have isolated 19 radiation-induced alleles of claret on the basis of the eye color phenotype. Two of these 19 new alleles are of the ca nd type, while 17 are of the ca type, demonstrating that the two domains do not often act as a single target for mutagenesis. This suggests that the two separately mutable functions are likely to be encoded by separate or overlapping genes rather than by a single gene. One of the new alleles of the ca nd type is a chromosome rearrangement with a breakpoint at the position of the claret locus. If this breakpoint is the cause of the mutant phenotype and there are no other mutations associated with the rearrangement, the two functions must be encoded by overlapping genes

  6. The impact of green tea polyphenols on development and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry E; Pham, Hoang M; Barbour, Julia; Tran, Phillip; Van Nguyen, Benjamin; Hogan, Sean P; Homo, Richelle L; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Although, green tea has numerous health benefits, adverse effects with excessive consumption have been reported. Using Drosophila melanogaster , a decrease in male fertility with green tea was evidenced. Here, the extent of green tea toxicity on development and reproduction was investigated. Drosophila melanogaster embryos and larvae were exposed to various doses of green tea polyphenols (GTP). Larvae exposed to 10 mg/mL GTP were slower to develop, emerged smaller, and exhibited a dramatic decline in the number of emerged offspring. GTP protected flies against desiccation but sensitized them to starvation and heat stress. Female offspring exhibited a decline in reproductive output and decreased survival while males were unaffected. GTP had a negative impact on reproductive organs in both males and females (e.g., atrophic testes in males, absence of mature eggs in females). Collectively, the data show that high doses of GTP adversely affect development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster .

  7. Gene expression variation in Drosophila melanogaster due to rare transposable element insertion alleles of large effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Julie M; Thornton, Kevin R; Long, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements are a common source of genetic variation that may play a substantial role in contributing to gene expression variation. However, the contribution of transposable elements to expression variation thus far consists of a handful of examples. We used previously published gene expression data from 37 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform a genome-wide assessment of the effects of transposable elements on gene expression. We found thousands of transcripts with transposable element insertions in or near the transcript and that the presence of a transposable element in or near a transcript is significantly associated with reductions in expression. We estimate that within this example population, ∼2.2% of transcripts have a transposable element insertion, which significantly reduces expression in the line containing the transposable element. We also find that transcripts with insertions within 500 bp of the transcript show on average a 0.67 standard deviation decrease in expression level. These large decreases in expression level are most pronounced for transposable element insertions close to transcripts and the effect diminishes for more distant insertions. This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of gene expression variation due to transposable elements and suggests that transposable elements are an important class of mutation underlying expression variation in Drosophila and likely in other systems, given the ubiquity of these mobile elements in eukaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Drosophila melanogaster as a model host for the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josée Castonguay-Vanier

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colonization with bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is associated with fast health decline among individuals with cystic fibrosis. In order to investigate the virulence of the Bcc, several alternative infection models have been developed. To this end, the fruit fly is increasingly used as surrogate host, and its validity to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships has been demonstrated with a variety of microorganisms. Moreover, its relevance as a suitable alternative to mammalian hosts has been confirmed with vertebrate organisms.The aim of this study was to establish Drosophila melanogaster as a surrogate host for species from the Bcc. While the feeding method proved unsuccessful at killing the flies, the pricking technique did generate mortality within the populations. Results obtained with the fruit fly model are comparable with results obtained using mammalian infection models. Furthermore, validity of the Drosophila infection model was confirmed with B. cenocepacia K56-2 mutants known to be less virulent in murine hosts or in other alternative models. Competitive index (CI analyses were also performed using the fruit fly as host. Results of CI experiments agree with those obtained with mammalian models.We conclude that Drosophila is a useful alternative infection model for Bcc and that fly pricking assays and competition indices are two complementary methods for virulence testing. Moreover, CI results indicate that this method is more sensitive than mortality tests.

  9. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth G; Sanderson, Brian J; McNeil, Casey L; Long, Anthony D; Macdonald, Stuart J

    2014-05-01

    Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  10. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  11. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...

  12. Optimising homing endonuclease gene drive performance in a semi-refractory species: the Drosophila melanogaster experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk-Sang Chan

    Full Text Available Homing endonuclease gene (HEG drive is a promising insect population control technique that employs meganucleases to impair the fitness of pest populations. Our previous studies showed that HEG drive was more difficult to achieve in Drosophila melanogaster than Anopheles gambiae and we therefore investigated ways of improving homing performance in Drosophila. We show that homing in Drosophila responds to increased expression of HEGs specifically during the spermatogonia stage and this could be achieved through improved construct design. We found that 3'-UTR choice was important to maximise expression levels, with HEG activity increasing as we employed Hsp70, SV40, vasa and βTub56D derived UTRs. We also searched for spermatogonium-specific promoters and found that the Rcd-1r promoter was able to drive specific expression at this stage. Since Rcd-1 is a regulator of differentiation in other species, it suggests that Rcd-1r may serve a similar role during spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Contrary to expectations, a fragment containing the entire region between the TBPH gene and the bgcn translational start drove strong HEG expression only during late spermatogenesis rather than in the germline stem cells and spermatogonia as expected. We also observed that the fraction of targets undergoing homing was temperature-sensitive, falling nearly four-fold when the temperature was lowered to 18°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates how a few simple measures can lead to substantial improvements in the HEG-based gene drive strategy and reinforce the idea that the HEG approach may be widely applicable to a variety of insect control programs.

  13. Starvation-Induced Dietary Behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Afzal, Ahmed Jawaad; Tariq, Muhammad

    2015-09-24

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are classified as herbivores and known to feed on non-carnivorous diet under normal conditions. However, when nutritionally challenged these larvae exhibit cannibalistic behaviour by consuming a diet composed of larger conspecifics. Herein, we report that cannibalism in Drosophila larvae is confined not only to scavenging on conspecifics that are larger in size, but also on their eggs. Moreover, such cannibalistic larvae develop as normally as those grown on standard cornmeal medium. When stressed, Drosophila melanogaster larvae can also consume a carnivorous diet derived from carcasses of organisms belonging to diverse taxonomic groups, including Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, and Lycosidae sp. While adults are ill-equipped to devour conspecific carcasses, they selectively oviposit on them and also consume damaged cadavers of conspecifics. Thus, our results suggest that nutritionally stressed Drosophila show distinct as well as unusual feeding behaviours that can be classified as detritivorous, cannibalistic and/or carnivorous.

  14. Interocellar bristles in Drosophila melanogaster : Part 3: Response to disruptive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xamena, N; Marcos, R; Creus, A

    1982-12-01

    A population of Drosophila melanogaster has been exposed to disruptive selection for interocellar bristle number for fifteen generations. Two different mating systems have been employed: quasi-random and mating-choice.The expected results of an increase in phenotypic variance and divergence of extreme mating groups were not found when the mating-choice system was used, while a clear divergence (2.04% of overlap) was found at the end of the experiment in one line where the quasi-random system (QR1) had been used.A possible explanation for our results, which is also suggested by those of several other authors, could be that of hybrid vigor. Thus, the reason for the absence of effect in MCh may be that the progeny of "hybrid" matings are likely to be less inbred and therefore have higher viability, mating ability and egg production.

  15. Divergence of Drosophila melanogaster repeatomes in response to a sharp microclimate contrast in Evolution Canyon, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Bun; Oh, Jung Hun; McIver, Lauren J; Rashkovetsky, Eugenia; Michalak, Katarzyna; Garner, Harold R; Kang, Lin; Nevo, Eviatar; Korol, Abraham B; Michalak, Pawel

    2014-07-22

    Repeat sequences, especially mobile elements, make up large portions of most eukaryotic genomes and provide enormous, albeit commonly underappreciated, evolutionary potential. We analyzed repeatomes of Drosophila melanogaster that have been diverging in response to a microclimate contrast in Evolution Canyon (Mount Carmel, Israel), a natural evolutionary laboratory with two abutting slopes at an average distance of only 200 m, which pose a constant ecological challenge to their local biotas. Flies inhabiting the colder and more humid north-facing slope carried about 6% more transposable elements than those from the hot and dry south-facing slope, in parallel to a suite of other genetic and phenotypic differences between the two populations. Nearly 50% of all mobile element insertions were slope unique, with many of them disrupting coding sequences of genes critical for cognition, olfaction, and thermotolerance, consistent with the observed patterns of thermotolerance differences and assortative mating.

  16. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  17. Using whole-genome sequence data to predict quantitative trait phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Ober

    Full Text Available Predicting organismal phenotypes from genotype data is important for plant and animal breeding, medicine, and evolutionary biology. Genomic-based phenotype prediction has been applied for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping platforms, but not using complete genome sequences. Here, we report genomic prediction for starvation stress resistance and startle response in Drosophila melanogaster, using ∼2.5 million SNPs determined by sequencing the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel population of inbred lines. We constructed a genomic relationship matrix from the SNP data and used it in a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP model. We assessed predictive ability as the correlation between predicted genetic values and observed phenotypes by cross-validation, and found a predictive ability of 0.239±0.008 (0.230±0.012 for starvation resistance (startle response. The predictive ability of BayesB, a Bayesian method with internal SNP selection, was not greater than GBLUP. Selection of the 5% SNPs with either the highest absolute effect or variance explained did not improve predictive ability. Predictive ability decreased only when fewer than 150,000 SNPs were used to construct the genomic relationship matrix. We hypothesize that predictive power in this population stems from the SNP-based modeling of the subtle relationship structure caused by long-range linkage disequilibrium and not from population structure or SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with causal variants. We discuss the implications of these results for genomic prediction in other organisms.

  18. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Versace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  19. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B. R. Guru; Murthy, N. Anjaneya; Hegde, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Du...

  20. The genetic effects induced by an irradiation in low doses at Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Taskaev, A.I.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    The review generalizes the results obtained in researches of genetic radiation effects for Drosophila melanogaster from contamination regions near the Chernobylsk NPP. The results of laboratory investigations of low dose irradiation effects on genotype variability and lifetime of Drosophila are presented too. It supposed that the main effect of low dose irradiation is caused by the induced genetic instability against the background of which the realization of different-directed radiobiological reactions is possible [ru

  1. Localization of tRNAsup(asp)2 genes from Drosophila melanogaster by 'in situ' hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Egg, A.H.; Kubli, E.

    1978-01-01

    Transfer RNAsup(asp) 2 delta was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The tRNA was iodinated 'in vitro' with Na[ 125 I] and hybridized 'in situ' to salivary gland chromosomes from Drosophila. Subsequent autoradiography allowed the localization of the genes for tRNAsup(asp) 2 delta to the left arm of the second chromosome in the regions 29 D and E. (orig.) [de

  2. Female mediation of competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Pitnick, Scott; Berben, Kirstin S; Blengini, Cecilia S; Belote, John M; Manier, Mollie K

    2013-06-25

    How females store and use sperm after remating can generate postcopulatory sexual selection on male ejaculate traits. Variation in ejaculate performance traits generally is thought to be intrinsic to males but is likely to interact with the environment in which sperm compete (e.g., the female reproductive tract). Our understanding of female contributions to competitive fertilization success is limited, however, in part because of the challenges involved in observing events within the reproductive tract of internally fertilizing species while discriminating among sperm from competing males. Here, we used females from crosses among isogenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, each mated to two genetically standardized males (the first with green- and the second with red-tagged sperm heads) to demonstrate heritable variation in female remating interval, progeny production rate, sperm-storage organ morphology, and a number of sperm performance, storage, and handling traits. We then used multivariate analyses to examine relationships between this female-mediated variation and competitive paternity. In particular, the timing of female ejection of excess second-male and displaced first-male sperm was genetically variable and, by terminating the process of sperm displacement, significantly influenced the relative numbers of sperm from each male competing for fertilization, and consequently biased paternity. Our results demonstrate that females do not simply provide a static arena for sperm competition but rather play an active and pivotal role in postcopulatory processes. Resolving the adaptive significance of genetic variation in female-mediated mechanisms of sperm handling is critical for understanding sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the coevolution of male and female reproductive traits.

  3. Light-induced vitamin deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, B G; Scharloo, W; Thörig, G E

    1997-01-01

    Illumination by visible light (400 Ix) of cultures containing larvae of Drosophila melanogaster can reduce survival (Bruins et al., Insect Biochemistry 21:535-539, 1991). Here we show that the effect of light depends on the presence of propionic or acetic acid in the food medium. We also show that survival is far more affected by illumination of the yeast food media than by direct illumination of the eggs and developing larvae. It is shown that addition of antioxidants to the food prevents light induced mortality. The action of antioxidants suggests that free radicals are important in light induced mortality. We also showed that both yeast and riboflavin (vitamin B2) solutions illuminated with visible light (400 Ix) generate hydrogen peroxide. Other vitamin and amino acid solutions do not produce peroxide in measurable amounts. However, the concentration of photogenerated hydrogen peroxide is far too low to explain the death of eggs and developing larvae upon exposure to light. A 400 Ix light treatment destroys the capability of yeast food media to support survival of larvae. Addition of vitamin C, carotene, tryptophan, nipagin, uric acid, or sucrose to the light treated medium does not restore viability. It is restored when riboflavin is added to the photo-inactivated yeast. A high concentration of pyridoxine also produced an improvement in survival. When riboflavin is treated with light, it cannot support survival on synthetic food media nor can it restore survival on light treated yeast food media. These results show that riboflavin (or a derivative) is a major light sensitive compound of yeast, which can be degraded by light. Light induced loss of riboflavin leads to mortality, because this is an essential dietary vitamin. The vitamin degradation can be prevented by dietary antioxidants. A chromatographic analysis confirms this conclusion.

  4. Autosomal mutations affecting Y chromosome loops in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci Romano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster harbors several genes required for male fertility. The genes for these fertility factors are very large in size and contain conspicuous amounts of repetitive DNA and transposons. Three of these loci (ks-1, kl-3 and kl-5 have the ability to develop giant lampbrush-like loops in primary spermatocytes, a cytological manifestation of their active state in these cells. Y-loops bind a number of non-Y encoded proteins, but the mechanisms regulating their development and their specific functions are still to be elucidated. Results Here we report the results of a screen of 726 male sterile lines to identify novel autosomal genes controlling Y-loop function. We analyzed mutant testis preparations both in vivo and by immunofluorescence using antibodies directed against Y-loop-associated proteins. This screen enabled us to isolate 17 mutations at 15 loci whose wild-type function is required for proper Y-loop morphogenesis. Six of these loci are likely to specifically control loop development, while the others display pleiotropic effects on both loops and meiotic processes such as spermiogenesis, sperm development and maturation. We also determined the map position of the mutations affecting exclusively Y-loop morphology. Conclusion Our cytological screening permitted us to identify novel genetic functions required for male spermatogenesis, some of which show pleiotropic effects. Analysis of these mutations also shows that loop development can be uncoupled from meiosis progression. These data represent a useful framework for the characterization of Y-loop development at a molecular level and for the study of the genetic control of heterochromatin.

  5. Courtship initiation is stimulated by acoustic signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Ejima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding a mating partner is a critical task for many organisms. It is in the interest of males to employ multiple sensory modalities to search for females. In Drosophila melanogaster, vision is thought to be the most important courtship stimulating cue at long distance, while chemosensory cues are used at relatively short distance. In this report, we show that when visual cues are not available, sounds produced by the female allow the male to detect her presence in a large arena. When the target female was artificially immobilized, the male spent a prolonged time searching before starting courtship. This delay in courtship initiation was completely rescued by playing either white noise or recorded fly movement sounds to the male, indicating that the acoustic and/or seismic stimulus produced by movement stimulates courtship initiation, most likely by increasing the general arousal state of the male. Mutant males expressing tetanus toxin (TNT under the control of Gr68a-GAL4 had a defect in finding active females and a delay in courtship initiation in a large arena, but not in a small arena. Gr68a-GAL4 was found to be expressed pleiotropically not only in putative gustatory pheromone receptor neurons but also in mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that Gr68a-positive mechanosensory neurons, not gustatory neurons, provide motion detection necessary for courtship initiation. TNT/Gr68a males were capable of discriminating the copulation status and age of target females in courtship conditioning, indicating that female discrimination and formation of olfactory courtship memory are independent of the Gr68a-expressing neurons that subserve gustation and mechanosensation. This study suggests for the first time that mechanical signals generated by a female fly have a prominent effect on males' courtship in the dark and leads the way to studying how multimodal sensory information and arousal are integrated in behavioral decision making.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster as a Versatile Model Organism in Food and Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Stefanie; Lüersen, Kai; Wagner, Anika E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2018-04-18

    Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used in the biological sciences as a model organism. Drosophila has a relatively short life span of 60-80 days, which makes it attractive for life span studies. Moreover, approximately 60% of the fruit fly genes are orthologs to mammals. Thus, metabolic and signal transduction pathways are highly conserved. Maintenance and reproduction of Drosophila do not require sophisticated equipment and are rather cheap. Furthermore, there are fewer ethical issues involved in experimental Drosophila research compared with studies in laboratory rodents, such as rats and mice. Drosophila is increasingly recognized as a model organism in food and nutrition research. Drosophila is often fed complex solid diets based on yeast, corn, and agar. There are also so-called holidic diets available that are defined in terms of their amino acid, fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, and trace element compositions. Feed intake, body composition, locomotor activity, intestinal barrier function, microbiota, cognition, fertility, aging, and life span can be systematically determined in Drosophila in response to dietary factors. Furthermore, diet-induced pathophysiological mechanisms including inflammation and stress responses may be evaluated in the fly under defined experimental conditions. Here, we critically evaluate Drosophila melanogaster as a versatile model organism in experimental food and nutrition research, review the corresponding data in the literature, and make suggestions for future directions of research.

  7. The Discovery, Distribution, and Evolution of Viruses Associated with Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Claire L; Waldron, Fergal M; Robertson, Shaun; Crowson, Daisy; Ferrari, Giada; Quintana, Juan F; Brouqui, Jean-Michel; Bayne, Elizabeth H; Longdon, Ben; Buck, Amy H; Lazzaro, Brian P; Akorli, Jewelna; Haddrill, Penelope R; Obbard, Darren J

    2015-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable invertebrate model for viral infection and antiviral immunity, and is a focus for studies of insect-virus coevolution. Here we use a metagenomic approach to identify more than 20 previously undetected RNA viruses and a DNA virus associated with wild D. melanogaster. These viruses not only include distant relatives of known insect pathogens but also novel groups of insect-infecting viruses. By sequencing virus-derived small RNAs, we show that the viruses represent active infections of Drosophila. We find that the RNA viruses differ in the number and properties of their small RNAs, and we detect both siRNAs and a novel miRNA from the DNA virus. Analysis of small RNAs also allows us to identify putative viral sequences that lack detectable sequence similarity to known viruses. By surveying >2,000 individually collected wild adult Drosophila we show that more than 30% of D. melanogaster carry a detectable virus, and more than 6% carry multiple viruses. However, despite a high prevalence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont--which is known to be protective against virus infections in Drosophila--we were unable to detect any relationship between the presence of Wolbachia and the presence of any virus. Using publicly available RNA-seq datasets, we show that the community of viruses in Drosophila laboratories is very different from that seen in the wild, but that some of the newly discovered viruses are nevertheless widespread in laboratory lines and are ubiquitous in cell culture. By sequencing viruses from individual wild-collected flies we show that some viruses are shared between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our results provide an essential evolutionary and ecological context for host-virus interaction in Drosophila, and the newly reported viral sequences will help develop D. melanogaster further as a model for molecular and evolutionary virus research.

  8. Irradiation-resistance conferred by superoxide dismutase: possible adaptive role of a natural polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, T.X.; Moya, A.; Ayala, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The toxic effects of ionizing radiation to DNA are thought to be due to the generation of the superoxide radical, 02-. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), which scavenges 02-., has been invoked as a protecting enzyme against ionizing radiation in viruses, bacteria, mammalian cells in culture, and live mice. We now demonstrate that SOD is involved in the resistance of Drosophila melanogaster against irradiation. The protection is greatest when flies carry the S form of the enzyme (which exhibits highest in vitro specific activity), intermediate when they carry the F form of the enzyme, and lowest when they are homozygous for N, an allele that reduces the amount of the enzyme to 3.5% of the normal level. Natural selection experiments show that the fitness of the high-activity S allele is increased in an irradiated population relative to the nonirradiated control. These results point towards a possible adaptive function of the S/F polymorphism found in natural populations of D. melanogaster

  9. Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment withDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Nylin, Sören; Flatt, Thomas; Nässel, Dick R; Leimar, Olof

    2017-06-01

    A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold shock sometimes preceded starvation and sometimes benign conditions; and a third where conditions were always benign. Using six replicate populations per selection regime, we found that selected flies increased their starvation resistance, most strongly for the regime where cold and starvation were reliably combined, and this occurred without decreased fecundity or extended developmental time. The selected flies became stress resistant, displayed a pronounced increase in early life food intake and resource storage. In contrast to previous experiments selecting for increased starvation resistance in D. melanogaster , we did not find increased storage of lipids as the main response, but instead that, in particular for females, storage of carbohydrates was more pronounced. We argue that faster mobilization of carbohydrates is advantageous in fluctuating environments and conclude that the phenotype that evolved in our experiment corresponds to a compromise between the requirements of stressful and benign environments.

  10. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Bastide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  11. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Héloïse; Betancourt, Andrea; Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stöbe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  12. Drosophila Melanogaster as a Model System for Studies of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Westermark, Gunilla Torstensdotter

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research supports that aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) leads to cell death and this makes islet amyloid a plausible cause for the reduction of beta cell mass, demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes. IAPP is produced by the beta cells as a prohormone, and proIAPP is processed into IAPP by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 in the secretory granules. Little is known about the pathogenesis for islet amyloid and which intracellular mechanisms are involved in amyloidogenesis and induction of cell death. Methodology/Principal Findings We have established expression of human proIAPP (hproIAPP), human IAPP (hIAPP) and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) in Drosophila melanogaster, and compared survival of flies with the expression driven to different cell populations. Only flies expressing hproIAPP in neurons driven by the Gal4 driver elavC155,Gal4 showed a reduction in lifespan whereas neither expression of hIAPP or mIAPP influenced survival. Both hIAPP and hproIAPP expression caused formation of aggregates in CNS and fat body region, and these aggregates were both stained by the dyes Congo red and pFTAA, both known to detect amyloid. Also, the morphology of the highly organized protein granules that developed in the fat body of the head in hIAPP and hproIAPP expressing flies was characterized, and determined to consist of 15.8 nm thick pentagonal rod-like structures. Conclusions/Significance These findings point to a potential for Drosophila melanogaster to serve as a model system for studies of hproIAPP and hIAPP expression with subsequent aggregation and developed pathology. PMID:21695120

  13. Effect of low-level intensity EHF radiation on endurance and reproductivity of Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhbazov, V.G.; Chepel', L.M.; Bulgakov, B.M.; Sirenko, S.P.; Belous, O.I.; Fisun, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the low-intensity microwaves on three gene-radiations of the imago Drosophila Melanogaster has been investigated out. The radiation source was tuned from 37 to 53 GHz. The thermoimmunity and reproductivity of the first generation of females and males of imago after processing by radiation. The obtained effect can be considered as physiological heterosis

  14. allele of the noncoding hsrω gene of Drosophila melanogaster is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Martinez P. et al. 2000 Identification of genes that modify ataxin-1-induced neurodegeneration. Nature 408, 101–. 106. Lakhotia S. C. 2003 The non-coding, developmentally active and stress inducible hsrω gene of Drosophila melanogaster ...

  15. EFFECTS ON ADH ACTIVITY AND DISTRIBUTION, FOLLOWING SELECTION FOR TOLERANCE TO ETHANOL IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KERVER, JWM; WOLF, W; KAMPING, A; VANDELDEN, W

    1992-01-01

    Strains of Drosophila melanogaster homozygous for either the Adh(F) or the Adh(S) allele were kept on food supplemented with ethanol for 20 generations. These strains (FE and SE) were tested for tolerance to ethanol and compared with control strains (FN and SN). The E strains showed increased

  16. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  17. Drosophila melanogaster females change mating behaviour and offspring production based on social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Stepek, Nancy; Azanchi, Reza; Levine, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, biological rhythms, aggression and mating are modulated by group size and composition. However, the fitness significance of this group effect is unknown. By varying the composition of groups of males and females, we show that social context affects reproductive behaviour

  18. Autosomal control of the Y-chromosome kl-3 loop of Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piergentili, R.; Bonaccorsi, S.; Raffa, G.D.; Pisano, C.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Mencarelli, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster carries a limited number of loci necessary for male fertility that possess a series of unconventional features that still hinder a definition of their biological role: they have extremely large sizes; accommodate huge amounts of repetitive DNA; and develop

  19. allele of the noncoding hsrω gene of Drosophila melanogaster is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drosophila melanogaster is not responsible for male sterility as reported earlier ... gene, the pl alleles were brought in trans with hsrω05241 or with the ... The progeny hsrω05241/ry. − females were crossed with TM3/TM6B males (for details of the var- ious mutant genes and balancer chromosomes, see Lindslay and Zimm ...

  20. Consistent effects of a major QTL for thermal resistance in field-released Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Norry, Fabian M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers can be used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thermal resistance and this has allowed characterization of a major QTL for knockdown resistance to high temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. The QTL showed trade-off associations with cold resistance under lab...

  1. Proteomic characterization of a temperature-sensitive conditional lethal in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Codrea, M.C; Vermeulen, Corneel

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation that is expressed only under specific environmental conditions can contribute to additional adverse effects of inbreeding if environmental conditions change. We present a proteomic characterization of a conditional lethal found in an inbred line of Drosophila melanogaster. The l...

  2. Structural studies of nucleoside analog and feedback inhibitor binding to Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Niels Egil; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Eklund, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (dNK) has a high turnover rate and a wide substrate range that makes it a very good candidate for gene therapy. This concept is based on introducing a suicide gene into malignant cells in order to activate a pro...

  3. Bowman-Birk inhibitor affects pathways associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is toxic when fed to certain insects, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary BBI has been demonstrated to slow growth and increase insect mortality by inhibiting the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin, resulting in a reduced supply of amino acid...

  4. Pharmacodynamic study on insomnia-curing effects of Shuangxia Decoction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Degejin; Geng, Di; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Yan; Xi, Yuan; Wang, Wen-Qi; Tang, Hua-Qi; Xu, Bing; Lin, Hong-Ying; Sun, Yi-Kun

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to establish a pharmacodynamic method using the pySolo software to explore the influence of freeze-dried powders of Shuangxia Decoction (SXD) on the sleep of normal Drosophila melanogaster and the Drosophila melanogaster whose sleep was divested by light. The dose-effect and the time-effect relationships of SXD on sleep were examined. The effect-onset concentration of SXD was 0.25%, the plateau appeared at the concentration of 2.5% and the total sleep time showed a downtrend when the concentration was greater than 2.5%. The sleep time was the longest on the fourth day after SXD was given. The fruit fly sleep deprivation model was repeated by light stimulation at night. The middle dosage group (2.5%) had the best insomnia-curing effect. In conclusion, using the pySolo software, an approach for the pharmacodynamics study was established with Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to determine the insomnia-curing effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our results demonstrated the reliability of this method. The freeze-dried powders of SXD could effectively improve the sleep quality of Drosophila melanogaster. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...

  6. Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Wheat Germ Agglutinin and Starvation in Drosophila melanogaster Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    One function of plant lectins such as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is to serve as defenses against herbivorous insects. The midgut is one critical site affected by dietary lectins. We observed marked cellular, structural, and gene expression changes in the midguts of Drosophila melanogaster third-i...

  7. Structure of glutaminyl cyclase from Drosophila melanogaster in space group I4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenko, Petr; Koch, B.; Rahfeld, J.-U.; Schilling, S.; Demuth, H.-U.; Stubbs, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2013), s. 358-361 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glutaminyl cyclases * Drosophila melanogaster * soaking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2013

  8. Influence of incorporated radionuclides on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshel', N.M.; Vajserman, O.M.; Vojtenko, V.P.; Kutlakhmedov, Yu.O.; Mikhjejev, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    Influence of incorporated radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster was studied. External irradiation modified the formation of cumulative dose of incorporated radionuclides. All influences leaded to significant (p 90 Sr was higher comparing to 137 Cs

  9. Somatic mutation and recombination induced by fast neutrons in the wing spot test of Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman R, J.; Varela, A.; Policroniades, R.; Delfin, A.; Graf, U.

    1994-01-01

    In the last decades, a large number of studies have been undertaken to evaluate the biological effects of gamma and X rays in Drosophila melanogaster. The majority of these investigations were performed on female and male germ cells. However, comparatively little is known in relation to the biological effects of fast neutrons, and especially in relation to their effects in somatic cells. (Author)

  10. Metabolomic profiling of rapid cold hardening and cold shock in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    study used untargeted (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling to examine the metabolomic response in Drosophila melanogaster during the 72 h following RCH and cold shock treatment. These findings are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of RCH that are measured in terms of survival and reproductive...

  11. Pervasive gene expression responses to a fluctuating diet in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandveld, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Joost; Mulder, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important concept in life-history evolution, and most organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, show a plastic life-history response to diet. However, little is known about how these life-history responses are mediated. In this study, we compared adult female flies...

  12. Editor's Highlight: Genetic Targets of Acute Toluene Inhalation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpretation and use of data from high-throughput assays for chemical toxicity require links between effects at molecular targets and adverse outcomes in whole animals. The well-characterized genome of Drosophila melanogaster provides a potential model system by which phenotypi...

  13. Lethality and Developmental Delay of Drosophila melanogaster Following Ingestion of Selected Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens secretes antimicrobial compounds that promote plant health and provide protection from pathogens. We used a non-invasive feeding assay to study the toxicity of P. fluorescens strains Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains of P. fluorescens varie...

  14. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke

    2011-01-01

    in benign and stressful environments using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Male sterility was compared in 21 inbred lines and five non-inbred control lines at 25.0 and 29.0 °C. The effect of inbreeding on sterility was significant only at 29.0 °C. This stress-induced increase in sterility...

  15. Three Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens Exhibit Differential Toxicity Against Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested for toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster in an insect feeding assay. Insect eggs were placed on the surface of a non-nutritive agar plate supplemented with a food source that was non-inoculated or inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf0-1, SBW25, or Pf-...

  16. Structural basis for the changed substrate specificity of Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase mutant N64D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welin, M.; Skovgaard, T.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) double mutant N45D/N64D was identified during a previous directed evolution study. This mutant enzyme had a decreased activity towards the natural substrates and decreased feedback inhibition with dTTP, whereas the activity with 3...

  17. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Huang, Wen; Mackay, Trudy F C; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M Hunter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  20. The influence of sterol metabolism upon radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila melanogaster in the yeast-drosophila system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitsij, V.V.; Luchnikova, E.M.; Inge-Vechtomov, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of sterol metabolism upon induced Drosophila melanogaster mutagenesis in an ecology-genetic yeast-drosophila system has been studied. The sterol deficit in fly organism has been created for account of using as food substrate for fremales of biomass of saccharomyces cerevisiae living cells of 9-2-PZ12 train with nyssup(r1) locus mutation which blocks the ergosterol synthesis. It has been found that the Drosophila females content on mutant yeast increases the frequency of losses and non discrepancy of X-chromosomes induced by X-radiation (1000 R). Addition into yeast biomass of 0.1 % cholesterol solution in 10 %-ethanol reduces the oocytes resistance to X-radiation up to control level. Possible hormonal and membrane mechanisms of increasing radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in organism resistance to damaging factors are discussed

  1. Natural Genetic Variation and Candidate Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Valeria Paula; Mensch, Julián; Hasson, Esteban; Fanara, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a complex character associated to several fitness related traits that vary within and between species as a consequence of environmental and genetic factors. Latitudinal and altitudinal clines for different morphological traits have been described in several species of Drosophila and previous work identified genomic regions associated with such variation in D. melanogaster. However, the genetic factors that orchestrate morphological variation have been barely studied. Here, our main objective was to investigate genetic variation for different morphological traits associated to the second chromosome in natural populations of D. melanogaster along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Argentina. Our results revealed weak clinal signals and a strong population effect on morphological variation. Moreover, most pairwise comparisons between populations were significant. Our study also showed important within-population genetic variation, which must be associated to the second chromosome, as the lines are otherwise genetically identical. Next, we examined the contribution of different candidate genes to natural variation for these traits. We performed quantitative complementation tests using a battery of lines bearing mutated alleles at candidate genes located in the second chromosome and six second chromosome substitution lines derived from natural populations which exhibited divergent phenotypes. Results of complementation tests revealed that natural variation at all candidate genes studied, invected, Fasciclin 3, toucan, Reticulon-like1, jing and CG14478, affects the studied characters, suggesting that they are Quantitative Trait Genes for morphological traits. Finally, the phenotypic patterns observed suggest that different alleles of each gene might contribute to natural variation for morphological traits. However, non-additive effects cannot be ruled out, as wild-derived strains differ at myriads of second chromosome loci that may interact

  2. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  3. The mechanisms underlying α-amanitin resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: a microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Mitchell

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of toxin resistance in animals has important consequences for the ecology of species and our economy. Pesticide resistance in insects has been a subject of intensive study; however, very little is known about how Drosophila species became resistant to natural toxins with ecological relevance, such as α-amanitin that is produced in deadly poisonous mushrooms. Here we performed a microarray study to elucidate the genes, chromosomal loci, molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components that contribute to the α-amanitin resistance phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster. We suggest that toxin entry blockage through the cuticle, phase I and II detoxification, sequestration in lipid particles, and proteolytic cleavage of α-amanitin contribute in concert to this quantitative trait. We speculate that the resistance to mushroom toxins in D. melanogaster and perhaps in mycophagous Drosophila species has evolved as cross-resistance to pesticides, other xenobiotic substances, or environmental stress factors.

  4. Prolonged stress induces adaptation of drosophila population to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, I. B.; Glushkova, I. V.; Aksyutik, T. V.

    2003-01-01

    We studied natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from radio-contaminated area (Vetka district of Gomel region with 24 Ci/km 2 of 137 Cs and 0.5 Cu/km 2 of 90 Sr) and from Berezynski Natural Reserve as a control area (region of Chernobyl catastrophe). Population samples were caught in 2000-2001 years. Natural insect populations from radio-contaminated areas are more resistant to additional irradiation than control populations. Keeping of natural populations under laboratory or vivarium conditions is a strong stress (limited space, overpopulation, other than in nature temperature and light conditions), which increases mutation process and induces unspecific adaptation. (authors)

  5. The recent invasion of natural Drosophila simulans populations by the P-element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Robert; Hill, Tom; Nolte, Viola; Betancourt, Andrea J; Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-05-26

    The P-element is one of the best understood eukaryotic transposable elements. It invaded Drosophila melanogaster populations within a few decades but was thought to be absent from close relatives, including Drosophila simulans. Five decades after the spread in D. melanogaster, we provide evidence that the P-element has also invaded D. simulans. P-elements in D. simulans appear to have been acquired recently from D. melanogaster probably via a single horizontal transfer event. Expression data indicate that the P-element is processed in the germ line of D. simulans, and genomic data show an enrichment of P-element insertions in putative origins of replication, similar to that seen in D. melanogaster. This ongoing spread of the P-element in natural populations provides a unique opportunity to understand the dynamics of transposable element spread and the associated piwi-interacting RNAs defense mechanisms.

  6. Direct estimation of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Haag-Liautard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variants are widely used in evolutionary genetics as markers for population history and to estimate divergence times among taxa. Inferences of species history are generally based on phylogenetic comparisons, which assume that molecular evolution is clock-like. Between-species comparisons have also been used to estimate the mutation rate, using sites that are thought to evolve neutrally. We directly estimated the mtDNA mutation rate by scanning the mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster lines that had undergone approximately 200 generations of spontaneous mutation accumulation (MA. We detected a total of 28 point mutations and eight insertion-deletion (indel mutations, yielding an estimate for the single-nucleotide mutation rate of 6.2 x 10(-8 per site per fly generation. Most mutations were heteroplasmic within a line, and their frequency distribution suggests that the effective number of mitochondrial genomes transmitted per female per generation is about 30. We observed repeated occurrences of some indel mutations, suggesting that indel mutational hotspots are common. Among the point mutations, there is a large excess of G-->A mutations on the major strand (the sense strand for the majority of mitochondrial genes. These mutations tend to occur at nonsynonymous sites of protein-coding genes, and they are expected to be deleterious, so do not become fixed between species. The overall mtDNA mutation rate per base pair per fly generation in Drosophila is estimated to be about 10x higher than the nuclear mutation rate, but the mitochondrial major strand G-->A mutation rate is about 70x higher than the nuclear rate. Silent sites are substantially more strongly biased towards A and T than nonsynonymous sites, consistent with the extreme mutation bias towards A+T. Strand-asymmetric mutation bias, coupled with selection to maintain specific nonsynonymous bases, therefore provides an explanation for the extreme base

  7. Patterns of physiological decline due to age and selection in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Parvin; Wilson, Julian B; Mueller, Laurence D; Rose, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    In outbred sexually reproducing populations, age-specific mortality rates reach a plateau in late life following the exponential increase in mortality rates that marks aging. Little is known about what happens to physiology when cohorts transition from aging to late life. We measured age-specific values for starvation resistance, desiccation resistance, time-in-motion, and geotaxis in ten Drosophila melanogaster populations: five populations selected for rapid development and five control populations. Adulthood was divided into two stages, the aging phase and the late-life phase according to demographic data. Consistent with previous studies, we found that populations selected for rapid development entered the late-life phase at an earlier age than the controls. Age-specific rates of change for all physiological phenotypes showed differences between the aging phase and the late-life phase. This result suggests that late life is physiologically distinct from aging. The ages of transitions in physiological characteristics from aging to late life statistically match the age at which the demographic transition from aging to late life occurs, in all cases but one. These experimental results support evolutionary theories of late life that depend on patterns of decline and stabilization in the forces of natural selection. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of long-term evolutionary domestication in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark A; Long, Anthony D; Greenspan, Zachary S; Greer, Lee F; Burke, Molly K; Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy C; Rizza, Cristina L; Mueller, Laurence D; Rose, Michael R

    2016-12-22

    Experimental evolutionary genomics now allows biologists to test fundamental theories concerning the genetic basis of adaptation. We have conducted one of the longest laboratory evolution experiments with any sexually-reproducing metazoan, Drosophila melanogaster. We used next-generation resequencing data from this experiment to examine genome-wide patterns of genetic variation over an evolutionary time-scale that approaches 1,000 generations. We also compared measures of variation within and differentiation between our populations to simulations based on a variety of evolutionary scenarios. Our analysis yielded no clear evidence of hard selective sweeps, whereby natural selection acts to increase the frequency of a newly-arising mutation in a population until it becomes fixed. We do find evidence for selection acting on standing genetic variation, as independent replicate populations exhibit similar population-genetic dynamics, without obvious fixation of candidate alleles under selection. A hidden-Markov model test for selection also found widespread evidence for selection. We found more genetic variation genome-wide, and less differentiation between replicate populations genome-wide, than arose in any of our simulated evolutionary scenarios.

  9. Rapid evolution of the intersexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Fuentes, Sara; Hesketh, Jack; Hill, Mark S; Innocenti, Paolo; Morrow, Edward H; Fowler, Kevin; Reuter, Max

    2016-04-01

    Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution toward optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the "LHM " population in which SA had previously been described. Both had been maintained under identical, controlled conditions, and separated for around 200 generations. Although heritabilities of male and female fitness were similar, the intersexual genetic correlation differed significantly, being negative in one replicate (indicating SA) but close to zero in the other. Using population sequencing, we show that phenotypic differences were associated with population divergence in allele frequencies at nonrandom loci across the genome. Large frequency changes were more prevalent in the population without SA and were enriched at loci mapping to genes previously shown to have sexually antagonistic relationships between expression and fitness. Our data suggest that rapid evolution toward SA resolution has occurred in one of the populations and open avenues toward studying the genetics of SA and its resolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. The Drosophila melanogaster methuselah gene: a novel gene with ancient functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Araújo

    Full Text Available The Drosophila melanogaster G protein-coupled receptor gene, methuselah (mth, has been described as a novel gene that is less than 10 million years old. Nevertheless, it shows a highly specific expression pattern in embryos, larvae, and adults, and has been implicated in larval development, stress resistance, and in the setting of adult lifespan, among others. Although mth belongs to a gene subfamily with 16 members in D. melanogaster, there is no evidence for functional redundancy in this subfamily. Therefore, it is surprising that a novel gene influences so many traits. Here, we explore the alternative hypothesis that mth is an old gene. Under this hypothesis, in species distantly related to D. melanogaster, there should be a gene with features similar to those of mth. By performing detailed phylogenetic, synteny, protein structure, and gene expression analyses we show that the D. virilis GJ12490 gene is the orthologous of mth in species distantly related to D. melanogaster. We also show that, in D. americana (a species of the virilis group of Drosophila, a common amino acid polymorphism at the GJ12490 orthologous gene is significantly associated with developmental time, size, and lifespan differences. Our results imply that GJ12490 orthologous genes are candidates for developmental time and lifespan differences in Drosophila in general.

  11. Differential strengths of positive selection revealed by hitchhiking effects at small physical scales in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Langley, Charles H; Begun, David J

    2014-04-01

    The long time scale of adaptive evolution makes it difficult to directly observe the spread of most beneficial mutations through natural populations. Therefore, inferring attributes of beneficial mutations by studying the genomic signals left by directional selection is an important component of population genetics research. One kind of signal is a trough in nearby neutral genetic variation due to selective fixation of initially rare alleles, a phenomenon known as "genetic hitchhiking." Accumulated evidence suggests that a considerable fraction of substitutions in the Drosophila genome results from positive selection, most of which are expected to have small selection coefficients and influence the population genetics of sites in the immediate vicinity. Using Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data, we found that the heterogeneity in synonymous polymorphism surrounding different categories of coding fixations is readily observable even within 25 bp of focal substitutions, which we interpret as the result of small-scale hitchhiking effects. The strength of natural selection on different sites appears to be quite heterogeneous. Particularly, neighboring fixations that changed amino acid polarities in a way that maintained the overall polarities of a protein were under stronger selection than other categories of fixations. Interestingly, we found that substitutions in slow-evolving genes are associated with stronger hitchhiking effects. This is consistent with the idea that adaptive evolution may involve few substitutions with large effects or many substitutions with small effects. Because our approach only weakly depends on the numbers of recent nonsynonymous substitutions, it can provide a complimentary view to the adaptive evolution inferred by other divergence-based evolutionary genetic methods.

  12. Effects of arsenic upon the no-disyuntion and X chromosome loss mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez C, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    In the present investigation we make the analysis of the effect of the sodium arsenite chemistry in concentration 0.2 m M over the events of no-disyuntion and chromosome loss X in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila lineages used for this assay were: females (y 2 w a / y 2 w a ; e/e) and males (X C2 yf bb- / B s Y y+). Those lineages were propagated and isolated for to be used after in the assays. Subsequently these, we make some links types with these individuals with the object to observed the effects of the oral administration of sodium arsenite in the adult individuals, in each one, we induce a damage in the sperm of the male with gamma radiation (25 Gy) and was observed immediately the results of the different assay applied in the first generation (F 1 ). Finally, we analyze and compare the results in contrast with and other investigation we find that the chemistry cause a significant increment in the chromosome loss X either the No-disyuntion was not significative. Also, the arsenite sodium increment the male descendant productivity, so, we deduced that the sodium arsenite do not cause an inhibition of the reparation mechanisms present in the Drosophila melanogaster female ovocites, but the chemistry operated like a modulator of this mechanisms, and prevent an increment of the damage provoked for the gamma radiation over the Drosophila melanogaster male sperm. (Author)

  13. Análisis molecular del gen longitudinals lacking en Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Cordobés Padilla, Eligio

    2016-01-01

    El gen longitudinals lacking (lola) desempeña un importante papel en el desarrollo del sistema nervioso de Drosophila melanogaster. Se ha comprobado su implicación en un elevado número de procesos relacionados con el crecimiento y la orientación de los axones. En el presente trabajo se realizó un análisis molecular de lola en D. melanogaster; para ello, se localizó el punto exacto de una inserción de un elemento P modificado (PlacW) que caracteriza la línea 5D2, y se observó la expresión espa...

  14. Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, B L; Gupta, T; Scavotto, R

    2018-02-01

    Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioural thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs. immobile life stages. We found no variation among populations in adult thermal tolerance, but embryonic thermal tolerance was higher in tropical strains than in temperate strains. We further report that embryos live closer to their upper thermal limits than adults - that is, thermal safety margins are smaller for embryos than adults. F1 hybrid embryos from crosses between temperate and tropical populations had thermal tolerance that matched that of tropical embryos, suggesting the dominance of heat-tolerant alleles. Together, our findings suggest that thermal selection has led to divergence in embryonic thermal tolerance but that selection for divergent thermal tolerance may be limited in adults. Further, our results suggest that thermal traits should be measured across life stages to better predict adaptive limits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Frequencies of chromosomal inversions in Drosophila melanogaster in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Itoh

    Full Text Available In order to investigate genetic impact of a large amount of radionuclides released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, we surveyed 2,304 haploid genomes of Drosophila melanogaster collected in three localities in Fukushima in 2012 and 2013 for chromosomal inversions. No unique inversion was found in 298 genomes in 2012 and only two in 2,006 genomes in 2013. The observed frequencies were even lower than the long-term average frequency of unique inversions in Japan. The common cosmopolitan inversions were also examined in Fukushima, Kyoto, and Iriomote (Okinawa in 2012. Among three samples in Fukushima, the flies in Iizaka, where environmental radiation level was the highest, showed the lowest frequency of In(2Lt, but the highest frequency of In(3RP, contrary to the expectation of decreasing of their frequencies in higher polluted areas. These results suggest that, at this level of genetic analysis, Fukushima populations of D. melanogaster would not have been negatively impacted following the release of radionuclides. Transposable P-element mobility was not likely to induce DNA damage solely or synergistically with radioactivity, because their transposition activity was totally repressed in the Fukushima strains. However, it should be noted that, because of limitations in access to the exclusion zone, we could only sample the populations in areas of relatively low radioactive contamination (0.39-0.63 μSv/h. Therefore, the present study is likely to be underpowered to detect any effects that might be expected in heavily contaminated areas.

  16. Frequencies of chromosomal inversions in Drosophila melanogaster in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masanobu; Kajihara, Ryutaro; Kato, Yasuko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Yutaka

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate genetic impact of a large amount of radionuclides released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, we surveyed 2,304 haploid genomes of Drosophila melanogaster collected in three localities in Fukushima in 2012 and 2013 for chromosomal inversions. No unique inversion was found in 298 genomes in 2012 and only two in 2,006 genomes in 2013. The observed frequencies were even lower than the long-term average frequency of unique inversions in Japan. The common cosmopolitan inversions were also examined in Fukushima, Kyoto, and Iriomote (Okinawa) in 2012. Among three samples in Fukushima, the flies in Iizaka, where environmental radiation level was the highest, showed the lowest frequency of In(2L)t, but the highest frequency of In(3R)P, contrary to the expectation of decreasing of their frequencies in higher polluted areas. These results suggest that, at this level of genetic analysis, Fukushima populations of D. melanogaster would not have been negatively impacted following the release of radionuclides. Transposable P-element mobility was not likely to induce DNA damage solely or synergistically with radioactivity, because their transposition activity was totally repressed in the Fukushima strains. However, it should be noted that, because of limitations in access to the exclusion zone, we could only sample the populations in areas of relatively low radioactive contamination (0.39-0.63 μSv/h). Therefore, the present study is likely to be underpowered to detect any effects that might be expected in heavily contaminated areas.

  17. The Drosophila melanogaster model for Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Implications for etiology and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Dale

    2016-06-01

    Discovery of genetic alterations that cause human birth defects provide key opportunities to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and family counseling. Frequently, however, these opportunities are limited by the lack of knowledge about the normal functions of the affected genes. In many cases, there is more information about the gene's orthologs in model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Despite almost a billion years of evolutionary divergence, over three-quarters of genes linked to human diseases have Drosophila homologs. With a short generation time, a twenty-fold smaller genome, and unique genetic tools, the conserved functions of genes are often more easily elucidated in Drosophila than in other organisms. Here we present how this applies to Cornelia de Lange syndrome, as a model for how Drosophila can be used to increase understanding of genetic syndromes caused by mutations with broad effects on gene transcription and exploited to develop novel therapies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Related male Drosophila melanogaster reared together as larvae fight less and sire longer lived daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C; Johnson, Fern; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2015-07-01

    Competition over access to reproductive opportunities can lead males to harm females. However, recent work has shown that, in Drosophila melanogaster, male competition and male harm of females are both reduced under conditions simulating male-specific population viscosity (i.e., in groups where males are related and reared with each other as larvae). Here, we seek to replicate these findings and investigate whether male population viscosity can have repercussions for the fitness of offspring in the next generation. We show that groups of unrelated-unfamiliar (i.e., unrelated individuals raised apart) males fight more intensely than groups of related-familiar males (i.e., full siblings raised together as larvae), supporting previous findings, and that exposure to a female is required to trigger these differential patterns of male-male competition. Importantly, we show that differences in male-male competition can be associated with transgenerational effects: the daughters of females exposed to unrelated-unfamiliar males suffered higher mortality than the daughters of females exposed to related-familiar males. Collectively, these results suggest that population structure (i.e., variation in the relatedness and/or larval familiarity of local male groups) can modulate male-male competition with important transgenerational consequences.

  19. The effect of sexual harassment on lethal mutation rate in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Immler, Simone; Løvlie, Hanne; Flis, Ilona; Friberg, Urban

    2013-01-07

    The rate by which new mutations are introduced into a population may have far-reaching implications for processes at the population level. Theory assumes that all individuals within a population have the same mutation rate, but this assumption may not be true. Compared with individuals in high condition, those in poor condition may have fewer resources available to invest in DNA repair, resulting in elevated mutation rates. Alternatively, environmentally induced stress can result in increased investment in DNA repair at the expense of reproduction. Here, we directly test whether sexual harassment by males, known to reduce female condition, affects female capacity to alleviate DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies. Female gametes can repair double-strand DNA breaks in sperm, which allows manipulating mutation rate independently from female condition. We show that male harassment strongly not only reduces female fecundity, but also reduces the yield of dominant lethal mutations, supporting the hypothesis that stressed organisms invest relatively more in repair mechanisms. We discuss our results in the light of previous research and suggest that social effects such as density and courtship can play an important and underappreciated role in mediating condition-dependent mutation rate.

  20. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a B-type (cricket-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M

    2001-01-01

    and nonamidated C terminus. We have previously reported the structure of an A-type allatostatin preprohormone from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a B-type prepro-allatostatin from Drosophila (DAP-B). DAP-B is 211 amino acid residues long and contains one copy each...

  1. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a C-type (Manduca sexta-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M

    2001-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report on the cloning of a Drosophila C-type allatostatin preprohormone (DAP-C). DAP-C is 121 amino acid residues long and contains one copy of a peptide sequence that in its processed form has the sequence Y in position 4) from the Manduca sexta C-type allatostatin. The DAP...

  2. Mapping Linked Genes in "Drosophila Melanogaster" Using Data from the F2 Generation of a Dihybrid Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is a commonly utilized organism for testing hypotheses about inheritance of traits. Students in both high school and university labs study the genetics of inheritance by analyzing offspring of appropriate "Drosophila" crosses to determine inheritance patterns, including gene linkage. However, most genetics investigations…

  3. Irradiated cocoa tested in the wing spot assay in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmering, S.; Olvera, O.; Cruces, M.P.; Pimentel, E.; Arceo, C.; Rosa, M.E. de la; Guzman, J.

    1992-01-01

    The result of treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with irradiated cocoa as scored in the somatic wing spot test is described. The test has been used previously in the evaluation of irradiated food and has registrated a significantly greater number of positives among chemicals tested than germ line counterparts. Irradiated cocoa has thus far been reported negative in other mutagenicity assays including those employing salmonella and Drosophila germ cells and mammalian cells. The wing spot test as described in Graf et al. was employed. Females of the genotype mwh were mated with flr 3 /TM3; Ser males. (author). 9 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Identifying neuropeptide and protein hormone receptors in Drosophila melanogaster by exploiting genomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Williamson, Michael; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    insect genome, that of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, was sequenced in 2000, and about 200 GPCRs have been annnotated in this model insect. About 50 of these receptors were predicted to have neuropeptides or protein hormones as their ligands. Since 2000, the cDNAs of most of these candidate...... receptors have been cloned and for many receptors the endogenous ligand has been identified. In this review, we will give an update about the current knowledge of all Drosophila neuropeptide and protein hormone receptors, and discuss their phylogenetic relationships. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Feb...

  5. Anti-Aging Effect of Riboflavin Via Endogenous Antioxidant in Fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y-X; Ruan, M-H; Luan, J; Feng, X; Chen, S; Chu, Z-Y

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of riboflavin on aging in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Experimental study. Naval Medical Research Institute. Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. After lifelong supplement of riboflavin, the lifespan and the reproduction of fruit flies were observed. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to mimic oxidative stress damage to fruit flies and the survival time was recorded. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese containing SOD (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) and lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. Riboflavin significantly prolonged the lifespan (Log rank χ2=16.677, Priboflavin supplement. Riboflavin prolonged the lifespan and increased the reproduction of fruit flies through anti-oxidative stress pathway involving enhancing the activity of SOD1 and CAT and inhibiting LF accumulation. Riboflavin deserves more attention for slowing human aging.

  6. Functional Characterization of CCHamide and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large and ancient superfamily of membraneproteins responsible for the transduction of extracellular signals to the inside of the cells. In thisPh.D. thesis, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) was used as a model organism to investigate a numberof topics...... is a newly discovered insect peptide hormone. The function of this novel peptide hasnot been well characterised. In this Ph.D. thesis, I identified CCHamide-2 peptides in endocrinecells of the gut and neurones of the brain of larvae and endocrine cells of the gut of adultDrosophila. Behavioural assays...... little is known about muscarinic acetylcholine receptorsignalling in insects. In this study, I found that two types of mAChRs occur in D. melanogaster, onecoupling to Gq (A-type) and the other to Gi (B-type). Both A- and B-type Dm-mAChRs can beactivated by acetylcholine (ACh), but the classical...

  7. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  8. The three-dimensional genome organization of Drosophila melanogaster through data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingjiao; Tjong, Harianto; Li, Xiao; Gong, Ke; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Chiolo, Irene; Alber, Frank

    2017-07-31

    Genome structures are dynamic and non-randomly organized in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes. To maximize the accuracy and coverage of three-dimensional genome structural models, it is important to integrate all available sources of experimental information about a genome's organization. It remains a major challenge to integrate such data from various complementary experimental methods. Here, we present an approach for data integration to determine a population of complete three-dimensional genome structures that are statistically consistent with data from both genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and lamina-DamID experiments. Our structures resolve the genome at the resolution of topological domains, and reproduce simultaneously both sets of experimental data. Importantly, this data deconvolution framework allows for structural heterogeneity between cells, and hence accounts for the expected plasticity of genome structures. As a case study we choose Drosophila melanogaster embryonic cells, for which both data types are available. Our three-dimensional genome structures have strong predictive power for structural features not directly visible in the initial data sets, and reproduce experimental hallmarks of the D. melanogaster genome organization from independent and our own imaging experiments. Also they reveal a number of new insights about genome organization and its functional relevance, including the preferred locations of heterochromatic satellites of different chromosomes, and observations about homologous pairing that cannot be directly observed in the original Hi-C or lamina-DamID data. Our approach allows systematic integration of Hi-C and lamina-DamID data for complete three-dimensional genome structure calculation, while also explicitly considering genome structural variability.

  9. The Adaptive Significance of Natural Genetic Variation in the DNA Damage Response of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetec, Nicolas; Cridland, Julie M; Zhao, Li; Begun, David J

    2016-03-01

    Despite decades of work, our understanding of the distribution of fitness effects of segregating genetic variants in natural populations remains largely incomplete. One form of selection that can maintain genetic variation is spatially varying selection, such as that leading to latitudinal clines. While the introduction of population genomic approaches to understanding spatially varying selection has generated much excitement, little successful effort has been devoted to moving beyond genome scans for selection to experimental analysis of the relevant biology and the development of experimentally motivated hypotheses regarding the agents of selection; it remains an interesting question as to whether the vast majority of population genomic work will lead to satisfying biological insights. Here, motivated by population genomic results, we investigate how spatially varying selection in the genetic model system, Drosophila melanogaster, has led to genetic differences between populations in several components of the DNA damage response. UVB incidence, which is negatively correlated with latitude, is an important agent of DNA damage. We show that sensitivity of early embryos to UVB exposure is strongly correlated with latitude such that low latitude populations show much lower sensitivity to UVB. We then show that lines with lower embryo UVB sensitivity also exhibit increased capacity for repair of damaged sperm DNA by the oocyte. A comparison of the early embryo transcriptome in high and low latitude embryos provides evidence that one mechanism of adaptive DNA repair differences between populations is the greater abundance of DNA repair transcripts in the eggs of low latitude females. Finally, we use population genomic comparisons of high and low latitude samples to reveal evidence that multiple components of the DNA damage response and both coding and non-coding variation likely contribute to adaptive differences in DNA repair between populations.

  10. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E.

    2015-01-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa–Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. PMID:26354524

  11. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  12. Genetic architecture of natural variation in cuticular hydrocarbon composition in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Böröczky, Katalin; Huang, Wen; Schal, Coby; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-11-14

    Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) prevent desiccation and serve as chemical signals that mediate social interactions. Drosophila melanogaster CHCs have been studied extensively, but the genetic basis for individual variation in CHC composition is largely unknown. We quantified variation in CHC profiles in the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and identified novel CHCs. We used principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs that explain the majority of CHC variation and identified polymorphisms in or near 305 and 173 genes in females and males, respectively, associated with variation in these PCs. In addition, 17 DGRP lines contain the functional Desat2 allele characteristic of African and Caribbean D. melanogaster females (more 5,9-C27:2 and less 7,11-C27:2, female sex pheromone isomers). Disruption of expression of 24 candidate genes affected CHC composition in at least one sex. These genes are associated with fatty acid metabolism and represent mechanistic targets for individual variation in CHC composition.

  13. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of Piper nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen R; Scott, Ian M; Sims, Steve; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John Thor

    2006-02-22

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), has insecticidal properties and could potentially be utilized as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Piperine extracted from P. nigrum has a biphasic effect upon cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity with an initial suppression followed by induction. In this study, an ethyl acetate extract of P. nigrum seeds was tested for insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of this same P. nigrum extract upon differential gene expression in D. melanogaster was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of 7380 genes. Treatment of D. melanogaster with P. nigrum extract led to a greater than 2-fold upregulation of transcription of the cytochrome P450 phase I metabolism genes Cyp 6a8, Cyp 9b2, and Cyp 12d1 as well as the glutathione-S-transferase phase II metabolism gene Gst-S1. These data suggests a complex effect of P. nigrum upon toxin metabolism.

  14. Reduced learning ability as a consequence of evolutionary adaptation to nutritional stress in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kolss, M.; Kawecki, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. 1. Dietary conditions affect cognitive abilities of many species, but it is unclear to what extent this physiological effect translates into an evolutionary relationship.2. A reduction of competitive ability under nutritional stress has been reported as a correlated response to selection for learning ability in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we test whether the reverse holds as well, i.e. whether an evolutionary adaptation to poor food conditions leads to a decrease in learning capac...

  15. Surface Display of Recombinant Drosophila melanogaster Acetylcholinesterase for Detection of Organic Phosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingquan; Qian Ba,; Yin, Jun; Wu, Songjie; Zhuan, Fangfang; Xu, Songci; Li, Junyang; Salazar, Joelle K.; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is commonly used for the detection of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides. However, the cost of this commercially available enzyme is high, making high-throughput insecticide detection improbable. In this study we constructed a new AChE yeast expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the expression of a highly reactive recombinant AChE originating from Drosophila melanogaster (DmAChE). Specifically, the coding sequence of DmAChE was fused w...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on lifespan and offspring physiology of male drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jiangyu; Gu Wei; Jiang Fangping; Han Hetong

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of γ-rays irradiation on adult longevity and physiological changes in F 1 generation.Male Drosophila melanogaster at 1 ∼ 2 days old were irradiated by γ-rays with doses of 5, 10, 15 and 30 Gy. In all experimental groups, mean lifespan, maximum lifespan and 90% of lethaldeath irradiated flies were reduced(at P 1 generation of irradiated group, body weight increased, but the capacity of physiological stress declined. (authors)

  17. Isoflurane Exposure Rescues Short-term Learning and Memory in Sleep-Disturbed Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Zena Chatila; Tyler Duerson; Alexa Pagliaro; Stela Petkova

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is known to play an important role in cognition, learning and memory. As Drosophila melanogaster have stable circadian rhythms and behavioral states similar to those of human sleep, they have been a useful model to investigate the effects of sleep on learning and memory. General anesthesia has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in humans. However, anesthesia also induces a behavioral state similar to sleep and may activate sleep pathways. This study examined learning and memory a...

  18. Kinetic response of a Drosophila melanogaster cell line to different medium formulations and culture conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, R.; Galesi, A. L. L; Jorge, S. A. C.; Piccoli, R. A. M.; Moraes, A. M.; Pereira, C. A.; Augusto, E. F. P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few years, Drosophila melanogaster cells have been employed for recombinant protein production purposes, and a comprehensive knowledge of their metabolism is essential for process optimization. In this work, the kinetic response of a Schneider S2 cell line, grown in shake flasks, in two different culture media, the serum-free SF900-II® and the serum-supplemented TC-100, was evaluated. Cell growth, amino acids and glucose uptake, and lactate synthesis were measured allowing the cal...

  19. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-04-21

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

  20. Radioprotective efficacy of bisarylidene cyclopentanone on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sarojini, B.K.; Musthafa Khaleel, V.; Ramesh, S.R.; Ramakrishna, M.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Present study was carried out for evaluating the radioprotective effect of bischalcone (2E, 5E) - 2,5-bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene) cyclopentanone (curcumin analog (CA)), on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster adults. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants included superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The oxidative stress was induced at 1.5 Gy. (author)

  1. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  2. Genetic Localization of Foraging (For): A Major Gene for Larval Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    de-Belle, J. S.; Hilliker, A. J.; Sokolowski, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Localizing genes for quantitative traits by conventional recombination mapping is a formidable challenge because environmental variation, minor genes, and genetic markers have modifying effects on continuously varying phenotypes. We describe ``lethal tagging,'' a method used in conjunction with deficiency mapping for localizing major genes associated with quantitative traits. Rover/sitter is a naturally occurring larval foraging polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster which has a polygenic pa...

  3. DNA damage-responsive Drosophila melanogaster gene is also induced by heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivino, A.A.; Smith, M.D.; Minton, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gene isolated by screening Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells for DNA damage regulation was also found to be regulated by heat shock. After UV irradiation or heat shock, induction is at the transcriptional level and results in the accumulation of a 1.0-kilobase polyadenylated transcript. The restriction map of the clone bears no resemblance to the known heat shock genes, which are shown to be uninduced by UV irradiation

  4. Neurotrophic actions of dopamine on the development of a serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Bhatt, Parag

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, serotonin functions both as a neurotransmitter to regulate larval feeding, and in the development of the stomatogastric feeding circuit. There is an inverse relationship between neuronal serotonin levels during late embryogenesis and the complexity of the serotonergic fibers projecting from the larval brain to the foregut, which correlate with perturbations in feeding, the functional output of the circuit. Dopamine does not modula...

  5. Sexual selection is ineffectual or inhibits the purging of deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Rundle, Howard D

    2012-07-01

    The effects of sexual selection on population mean fitness are unclear and a subject of debate. Recent models propose that, because reproductive success may be condition dependent, much of the genome may be a target of sexual selection. Under this scenario, mutations that reduce health, and thus nonsexual fitness, may also be deleterious with respect to reproductive success, meaning that sexual selection may contribute to the purging of deleterious alleles. We tested this hypothesis directly by subjecting replicate Drosophila melanogaster populations to two treatments that altered the opportunity for sexual selection and then tracked changes in the frequency of six separate deleterious alleles with recessive and visible phenotypic effects. While natural selection acted to decrease the frequency of all six mutations, the addition of sexual selection did not aid in the purging of any of them, and for three of them appears to have hampered it. Courtship and mating have harmful effects in this species and mate choice assays showed that males directed more courtship and mating behavior toward wild-type over mutant females, providing a likely explanation for sexual selection's cost. Whether this cost extends to other mutations (e.g., those lacking visible phenotypic effects) is an important topic for future research. © 2012 The Author(s).

  6. Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel; Ringo, John M; Hefetz, Abraham; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2010-11-16

    Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. When the isolated populations were mixed, "molasses flies" preferred to mate with other molasses flies and "starch flies" preferred to mate with other starch flies. The mating preference appeared after only one generation and was maintained for at least 37 generations. Antibiotic treatment abolished mating preference, suggesting that the fly microbiota was responsible for the phenomenon. This was confirmed by infection experiments with microbiota obtained from the fly media (before antibiotic treatment) as well as with a mixed culture of Lactobacillus species and a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from starch flies. Analytical data suggest that symbiotic bacteria can influence mating preference by changing the levels of cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromones. The results are discussed within the framework of the hologenome theory of evolution.

  7. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L

    2015-08-21

    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  8. Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel; Ringo, John M.; Hefetz, Abraham; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. When the isolated populations were mixed, “molasses flies” preferred to mate with other molasses flies and “starch flies” preferred to mate with other starch flies. The mating preference appeared after only one generation and was maintained for at least 37 generations. Antibiotic treatment abolished mating preference, suggesting that the fly microbiota was responsible for the phenomenon. This was confirmed by infection experiments with microbiota obtained from the fly media (before antibiotic treatment) as well as with a mixed culture of Lactobacillus species and a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from starch flies. Analytical data suggest that symbiotic bacteria can influence mating preference by changing the levels of cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromones. The results are discussed within the framework of the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:21041648

  9. Whole genome resequencing reveals natural target site preferences of transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S Linheiro

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that integrate into host genomes using diverse mechanisms with varying degrees of target site specificity. While the target site preferences of some engineered transposable elements are well studied, the natural target preferences of most transposable elements are poorly characterized. Using population genomic resequencing data from 166 strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we identified over 8,000 new insertion sites not present in the reference genome sequence that we used to decode the natural target preferences of 22 families of transposable element in this species. We found that terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon families present clade-specific target site duplications and target site sequence motifs. Additionally, we found that the sequence motifs at transposable element target sites are always palindromes that extend beyond the target site duplication. Our results demonstrate the utility of population genomics data for high-throughput inference of transposable element targeting preferences in the wild and establish general rules for terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon target site selection in eukaryotic genomes.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms for High Hydrostatic Pressure-Induced Wing Mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Guanjun; Ma, Junfeng; Wang, Bingying; Shen, Sile; Fu, Xueqi; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2015-10-08

    Although High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an important physical and chemical tool has been increasingly applied to research of organism, the response mechanisms of organism to HHP have not been elucidated clearly thus far. To identify mutagenic mechanisms of HHP on organisms, here, we treated Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) eggs with HHP. Approximately 75% of the surviving flies showed significant morphological abnormalities from the egg to the adult stages compared with control flies (p melanogaster induced by HHP were used to investigate the mutagenic mechanisms of HHP on organism. Thus 285 differentially expressed genes associated with wing mutations were identified using Affymetrix Drosophila Genome Array 2.0 and verified with RT-PCR. We also compared wing development-related central genes in the mutant flies with control flies using DNA sequencing to show two point mutations in the vestigial (vg) gene. This study revealed the mutagenic mechanisms of HHP-induced mutagenesis in D. melanogaster and provided a new model for the study of evolution on organisms.

  11. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  12. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is argued that adult body size clines, inversion frequency clines, and clines in allele frequency at loci involved in glycolysis and glycogen storage are part of the same adaptive strategy. Selection pressure is expected to differ at opposite ends of the clines. At high latitudes, selection on D. melanogaster would favour high ...

  13. NF-1 Dependent Gene Regulation in Drosophila Melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Yi

    2004-01-01

    .... We have used an Affymetrix whole genome chip, containing all 13,500 genes of the fruit fly Drosophila, to identify 93 genes with altered expression patterns in flies that have no NF1 protein compared...

  14. Carbon nano-onions for imaging the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mitrajit; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Saxena, Manav; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2011-11-18

    Real-time X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging are known methods used for biomedical diagnosis. By the oral administration of barium meal, X-ray imaging can be extended for use in soft tissue imaging. The oral ingestion of a fluorescent probe is a new approach to imaging a living species. Here, water-soluble carbon nano-onions are introduced as a nontoxic, fluorescent reagent enabling Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) to be imaged alive. It is demonstrated that these water-soluble carbon nano-onions, synthesized from wood waste, colorfully image all the development phases of Drosophila melanogaster from its egg to adulthood. Oral ingestion of up to 4 ppm of soluble carbon nano-onions allows the optical fluorescence microscopy imaging of all the stages of the fruit fly life cycle without showing any toxic effects. The fluorescent Drosophila melanogaster excretes this fluorescing material upon the withdrawal of carbon nano-onions from its food. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nuclear genomic control of naturally occurring variation in mitochondrial function in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells that play a crucial role in cellular survival and function. Mitochondrial function is under the control of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. While the latter has been the focus of most genetic research, we remain largely ignorant about the nuclear-encoded genomic control of inter-individual variability in mitochondrial function. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster as our model organism to address this question. Results We quantified mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiration rates and P:O ratio in mitochondria isolated from the thoraces of 40 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We found significant within-population genetic variability for all mitochondrial traits. Hence, we performed genome-wide association mapping and identified 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in mitochondrial respiration and efficiency (P ≤1 × 10-5). Gene-centered regression models showed that 2–3 SNPs can explain 31, 13, and 18% of the phenotypic variation in state 3, state 4, and P:O ratio, respectively. Most of the genes tagged by the SNPs are involved in organ development, second messenger-mediated signaling pathways, and cytoskeleton remodeling. One of these genes, sallimus (sls), encodes a component of the muscle sarcomere. We confirmed the direct effect of sls on mitochondrial respiration using two viable mutants and their coisogenic wild-type strain. Furthermore, correlation network analysis revealed that sls functions as a transcriptional hub in a co-regulated module associated with mitochondrial respiration and is connected to CG7834, which is predicted to encode a protein with mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein activity. This latter finding was also verified in the sls mutants. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the genetic factors regulating natural variation in mitochondrial function in D

  16. Genome-wide association analysis of oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Weber

    Full Text Available Aerobic organisms are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress resistance is a quantitative trait with population variation attributable to the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal system to study the genetics of variation for resistance to oxidative stress.We used 167 wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel for a genome-wide association study of acute oxidative stress resistance to two oxidizing agents, paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite. We found significant genetic variation for both stressors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in oxidative stress resistance were often sex-specific and agent-dependent, with a small subset common for both sexes or treatments. Associated SNPs had moderately large effects, with an inverse relationship between effect size and allele frequency. Linear models with up to 12 SNPs explained 67-79% and 56-66% of the phenotypic variance for resistance to paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite, respectively. Many genes implicated were novel with no known role in oxidative stress resistance. Bioinformatics analyses revealed a cellular network comprising DNA metabolism and neuronal development, consistent with targets of oxidative stress-inducing agents. We confirmed associations of seven candidate genes associated with natural variation in oxidative stress resistance through mutational analysis.We identified novel candidate genes associated with variation in resistance to oxidative stress that have context-dependent effects. These results form the basis for future translational studies to identify oxidative stress susceptibility/resistance genes that are evolutionary conserved and might play a role in human disease.

  17. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation Underlying Adult Foraging Behavior That Is Essential for Survival of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Yang, Qian; Chi, Wanhao; Turkson, Susie A; Du, Wei A; Kemkemer, Claus; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Long, Manyuan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2017-05-01

    Foraging behavior is critical for the fitness of individuals. However, the genetic basis of variation in foraging behavior and the evolutionary forces underlying such natural variation have rarely been investigated. We developed a systematic approach to assay the variation in survival rate in a foraging environment for adult flies derived from a wild Drosophila melanogaster population. Despite being such an essential trait, there is substantial variation of foraging behavior among D. melanogaster strains. Importantly, we provided the first evaluation of the potential caveats of using inbred Drosophila strains to perform genome-wide association studies on life-history traits, and concluded that inbreeding depression is unlikely a major contributor for the observed large variation in adult foraging behavior. We found that adult foraging behavior has a strong genetic component and, unlike larval foraging behavior, depends on multiple loci. Identified candidate genes are enriched in those with high expression in adult heads and, demonstrated by expression knock down assay, are involved in maintaining normal functions of the nervous system. Our study not only identified candidate genes for foraging behavior that is relevant to individual fitness, but also shed light on the initial stage underlying the evolution of the behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis Krams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus, and the percentage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C, a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  19. In vivo imaging of the Drosophila Melanogaster heart using a novel optical coherence tomography microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Susan D.; Choma, Michael A.; Israel, Steven; Wessells, Robert J.; Bodmer, Rolf; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Real time in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster heart using a newly designed OCT microscope allows accurate assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. D. melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic research for over a century, but in vivo evaluation of the heart has been limited by available imaging technology. The ability to assess phenotypic changes with micrometer-scale resolution noninvasively in genetic models such as D. melanogaster is needed in the advancing fields of developmental biology and genetics. We have developed a dedicated small animal OCT imaging system incorporating a state-of-the-art, real time OCT scanner integrated into a standard stereo zoom microscope which allows for simultaneous OCT and video imaging. System capabilities include A-scan, B-scan, and M-scan imaging as well as automated 3D volumetric acquisition and visualization. Transverse and sagittal B-mode scans of the four chambered D. melanogaster heart have been obtained with the OCT microscope and are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature. Further analysis by M-mode scanning is currently under way to assess cardiac function as a function of age and sex by determination of shortening fraction and ejection fraction. These studies create control cardiac data on the wild type D. melanogaster, allowing subsequent evaluation of phenotypic cardiac changes in this model after regulated genetic mutation.

  20. Effect of curcumin on aged Drosophila melanogaster: a pathway prediction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Niu, Xu-yan; Lu, Ai-ping; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2015-02-01

    To re-analyze the data published in order to explore plausible biological pathways that can be used to explain the anti-aging effect of curcumin. Microarray data generated from other study aiming to investigate effect of curcumin on extending lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster were further used for pathway prediction analysis. The differentially expressed genes were identified by using GeneSpring GX with a criterion of 3.0-fold change. Two Cytoscape plugins including BisoGenet and molecular complex detection (MCODE) were used to establish the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network based upon differential genes in order to detect highly connected regions. The function annotation clustering tool of Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used for pathway analysis. A total of 87 genes expressed differentially in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with curcumin were identified, among which 50 were up-regulated significantly and 37 were remarkably down-regulated in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with curcumin. Based upon these differential genes, PPI network was constructed with 1,082 nodes and 2,412 edges. Five highly connected regions in PPI networks were detected by MCODE algorithm, suggesting anti-aging effect of curcumin may be underlined through five different pathways including Notch signaling pathway, basal transcription factors, cell cycle regulation, ribosome, Wnt signaling pathway, and p53 pathway. Genes and their associated pathways in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with anti-aging agent curcumin were identified using PPI network and MCODE algorithm, suggesting that curcumin may be developed as an alternative therapeutic medicine for treating aging-associated diseases.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquito developmental genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta K Behura

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1 are components of developmental signaling pathways, 2 regulate fundamental developmental processes, 3 are critical for the development of tissues of vector importance, 4 function in developmental processes known to have diverged within insects, and 5 encode microRNAs (miRNAs that regulate developmental transcripts in Drosophila. While most fruit fly developmental genes are conserved in the three vector mosquito species, several genes known to be critical for Drosophila development were not identified in one or more mosquito genomes. In other cases, mosquito lineage-specific gene gains with respect to D. melanogaster were noted. Sequence analyses also revealed that numerous repetitive sequences are a common structural feature of Drosophila and mosquito developmental genes. Finally, analysis of predicted miRNA binding sites in fruit fly and mosquito developmental genes suggests that the repertoire of developmental genes targeted by miRNAs is species-specific. The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of developmental genes and processes in dipterans and other arthropods, serve as a resource for those pursuing analysis of mosquito development, and will promote the design and refinement of functional analysis experiments.

  2. Metabolomics with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in a Drosophila melanogaster Model of Surviving Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Veli; Amathieu, Roland; Triba, Mohamed N.; Clément, Marie-Jeanne; Reyes Uribe, Laura; Le Moyec, Laurence; Kaynar, Ata Murat

    2016-01-01

    Patients surviving sepsis demonstrate sustained inflammation, which has been associated with long-term complications. One of the main mechanisms behind sustained inflammation is a metabolic switch in parenchymal and immune cells, thus understanding metabolic alterations after sepsis may provide important insights to the pathophysiology of sepsis recovery. In this study, we explored metabolomics in a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of surviving sepsis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), to determine metabolite profiles. We used a model of percutaneous infection in Drosophila melanogaster to mimic sepsis. We had three experimental groups: sepsis survivors (infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with oral linezolid), sham (pricked with an aseptic needle), and unmanipulated (positive control). We performed metabolic measurements seven days after sepsis. We then implemented metabolites detected in NMR spectra into the MetExplore web server in order to identify the metabolic pathway alterations in sepsis surviving Drosophila. Our NMR metabolomic approach in a Drosophila model of recovery from sepsis clearly distinguished between all three groups and showed two different metabolomic signatures of inflammation. Sham flies had decreased levels of maltose, alanine, and glutamine, while their level of choline was increased. Sepsis survivors had a metabolic signature characterized by decreased glucose, maltose, tyrosine, beta-alanine, acetate, glutamine, and succinate. PMID:28009836

  3. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filošević

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila. We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per, Clock (Clk, and cycle (cyc. The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim and pigment dispersing factor (pdf mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor

  4. Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of Duguetia furfuracea Hydroalcoholic Extract in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duguetia furfuracea is frequently used as a medicinal plant in Brazil. However, studies have evidenced its cytotoxic, bactericide, and antitumor activities. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity of hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of D. furfuracea (HEDF in a Drosophila melanogaster model. Toxicity was assessed as changes in locomotor performance, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, MAPKs phosphorylation, and apoptosis induction after exposure to HEDF concentrations (1–50 mg/mL for 7 days. The phytoconstituents of the plant were screened for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, xanthones, chalcones, flavonoids, aurones, and phenolic acids. Exposure of adult flies to HEDF caused mitochondrial dysfunction, overproduction of ROS, and alterations in the activity of detoxifying enzymes GST, SOD and CAT. Induction of ERK phosphorylation and PARP cleavage was also observed, indicating occurrence of HEDF-induced cell stress and apoptotic cell death. In parallel, alterations in cholinesterase activity and impairments in negative geotaxis behavior were observed. Our study draws attention to the indiscriminate use of this plant by population and suggests oxidative stress as a major mechanism underlying its toxicity.

  5. Genetic and Genomic Response to Selection for Food Consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapow, Megan E.; Everett, Logan J.; Zhou, Shanshan; Gearhart, Alexander W.; Fay, Kairsten A.; Huang, Wen; Morozova, Tatiana V.; Arya, Gunjan H.; Turlapati, Lavanya; Armour, Genevieve St.; Hussain, Yasmeen N.; McAdams, Sarah E.; Fochler, Sophia; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption is an essential component of animal fitness; however, excessive food intake in humans increases risk for many diseases. The roles of neuroendocrine feedback loops, food sensing modalities, and physiological state in regulating food intake are well understood, but not the genetic basis underlying variation in food consumption. Here, we applied ten generations of artificial selection for high and low food consumption in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetric, with significant responses only for increased food consumption and minimal correlated responses in body mass and composition. We assessed the molecular correlates of selection responses by DNA and RNA sequencing of the selection lines. The high and low selection lines had variants with significantly divergent allele frequencies within or near 2,081 genes and 3,526 differentially expressed genes in one or both sexes. A total of 519 genes were both genetically divergent and differentially expressed between the divergent selection lines. We performed functional analyses of the effects of RNAi suppression of gene expression and induced mutations for 27 of these candidate genes that have human orthologs and the strongest statistical support, and confirmed that 25 (93%) affected the mean and/or variance of food consumption. PMID:27704301

  6. Genome-wide deficiency screen for the genomic regions responsible for heat resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teramura Kouhei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature adaptation is one of the most important determinants of distribution and population size of organisms in nature. Recently, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and gene expression profiling approaches have been used for detecting candidate genes for heat resistance. However, the resolution of QTL mapping is not high enough to examine the individual effects of various genes in each QTL. Heat stress-responsive genes, characterized by gene expression profiling studies, are not necessarily responsible for heat resistance. Some of these genes may be regulated in association with the heat stress response of other genes. Results To evaluate which heat-responsive genes are potential candidates for heat resistance with higher resolution than previous QTL mapping studies, we performed genome-wide deficiency screen for QTL for heat resistance. We screened 439 isogenic deficiency strains from the DrosDel project, covering 65.6% of the Drosophila melanogaster genome in order to map QTL for thermal resistance. As a result, we found 19 QTL for heat resistance, including 3 novel QTL outside the QTL found in previous studies. Conclusion The QTL found in this study encompassed 19 heat-responsive genes found in the previous gene expression profiling studies, suggesting that they were strong candidates for heat resistance. This result provides new insights into the genetic architecture of heat resistance. It also emphasizes the advantages of genome-wide deficiency screen using isogenic deficiency libraries.

  7. The effects of natural selection across molecular pathways in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanayagam, Jeffrey P; Garrigan, Daniel

    2015-09-21

    Whole-genome RNA interference post-transcriptional silencing (RNAi) is a widely used method for studying the phenotypic effects of knocking down individual genes. In this study, we use a population genomic approach to characterize the rate of evolution for proteins affecting 26 RNAi knockdown phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. We find that only two of the 26 RNAi knockdown phenotypes are enriched for rapidly evolving proteins: innate immunity and regulation of Hedgehog signaling. Among all genes associated with an RNAi knockdown phenotype, we note examples in which the adaptively evolving proteins play a well-defined role in a given molecular pathway. However, most adaptively evolving proteins are found to perform more general cellular functions. When RNAi phenotypes are grouped into categories according to cellular function, we find that genes involved in the greatest number of phenotypic categories are also significantly more likely to have a history of rapid protein evolution. We show that genes that have been demonstrated to have a measurable effect on multiple molecular phenotypes show higher rates of protein evolution than genes having an effect on a single category of phenotype. Defining pleiotropy in this way yields very different results than previous studies that define pleiotropy by the number of physical interactions, which show highly connected proteins tend to evolve more slowly than lowly connected proteins. We suggest that a high degree of pleiotropy may increase the likelihood of compensatory substitution, consistent with modern theoretical work on adaptation.

  8. RNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster: new targets and functionalconsequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2006-09-05

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice-sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene and studies in mouse, C. elegans, and Drosophila suggest its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses lead us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR including components of the actin cytoskeleton, and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function.

  9. Mapping Second Chromosome Mutations to Defined Genomic Regions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsai, Lily; Cook, Kevin R

    2018-01-04

    Hundreds of Drosophila melanogaster stocks are currently maintained at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center with mutations that have not been associated with sequence-defined genes. They have been preserved because they have interesting loss-of-function phenotypes. The experimental value of these mutations would be increased by tying them to specific genomic intervals so that geneticists can more easily associate them with annotated genes. Here, we report the mapping of 85 second chromosome complementation groups in the Bloomington collection to specific, small clusters of contiguous genes or individual genes in the sequenced genome. This information should prove valuable to Drosophila geneticists interested in processes associated with particular phenotypes and those searching for mutations affecting specific sequence-defined genes. Copyright © 2018 Kahsai,Cook.

  10. Mapping Second Chromosome Mutations to Defined Genomic Regions in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Kahsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Drosophila melanogaster stocks are currently maintained at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center with mutations that have not been associated with sequence-defined genes. They have been preserved because they have interesting loss-of-function phenotypes. The experimental value of these mutations would be increased by tying them to specific genomic intervals so that geneticists can more easily associate them with annotated genes. Here, we report the mapping of 85 second chromosome complementation groups in the Bloomington collection to specific, small clusters of contiguous genes or individual genes in the sequenced genome. This information should prove valuable to Drosophila geneticists interested in processes associated with particular phenotypes and those searching for mutations affecting specific sequence-defined genes.

  11. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  12. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Leena J.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. ► Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. ► Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. ► Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. ► Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of

  13. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model for Lead Neurotoxicology and Toxicogenomics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mark Ruden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model animal for studying the neurotoxicology of lead. It has been known since ancient Roman times that long-term exposure to low levels of lead results in behavioral abnormalities, such as what is now known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Because lead alters mechanisms that underlie developmental neuronal plasticity, chronic exposure of children, even at blood lead levels below the current CDC community action level (10 µg/dl, can result in reduced cognitive ability, increased likelihood of delinquency, behaviors associated with ADHD, changes in activity level, altered sensory function, delayed onset of sexual maturity in girls, and changes in immune function. In order to better understand how lead affects neuronal plasticity, we will describe recent findings from a Drosophila behavioral genetics laboratory, a Drosophila neurophysiology laboratory, and a Drosophila quantitative genetics laboratory who have joined forces to study the effects of lead on the Drosophila nervous system. Studying the effects of lead on Drosophila nervous system development will give us a better understanding of the mechanisms of Pb neurotoxicity in the developing human nervous system.

  14. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...

  15. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter

    be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0...

  17. Modern aspects of Drosophila melanogaster radiobiology. Apoptosis and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnulin, V.G.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the radioinduced change in life span of multicell organisms by deregulation of apoptosis processes. Radiation capacity to induce the apoptosis is shown in Drosophila as well. Assumption is made that radiation changes the rate of natural organism aging deregulating the control of apoptosis mechanisms [ru

  18. Handling Alters Aggression and "Loser" Effect Formation in "Drosophila Melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Severine; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    In "Drosophila," prior fighting experience influences the outcome of later contests: losing a fight increases the probability of losing second contests, thereby revealing "loser" effects that involve learning and memory. In these experiments, to generate and quantify the behavioral changes observed as consequences of losing…

  19. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  20. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  1. The role of Rdl in resistance to phenylpyrazoles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Emily J; Morton, Craig J; Daborn, Phillip J; Lumb, Christopher; Yang, Ying Ting; Ng, Hooi Ling; Parker, Michael W; Batterham, Philip

    2014-11-01

    Extensive use of older generation insecticides may result in pre-existing cross-resistance to new chemical classes acting at the same target site. Phenylpyrazole insecticides block inhibitory neurotransmission in insects via their action on ligand-gated chloride channels (LGCCs). Phenylpyrazoles are broad-spectrum insecticides widely used in agriculture and domestic pest control. So far, all identified cases of target site resistance to phenylpyrazoles are based on mutations in the Rdl (Resistance to dieldrin) LGCC subunit, the major target site for cyclodiene insecticides. We examined the role that mutations in Rdl have on phenylpyrazole resistance in Drosophila melanogaster, exploring naturally occurring variation, and generating predicted resistance mutations by mutagenesis. Natural variation at the Rdl locus in inbred strains of D. melanogaster included gene duplication, and a line containing two Rdl mutations found in a highly resistant line of Drosophila simulans. These mutations had a moderate impact on survival following exposure to two phenylpyrazoles, fipronil and pyriprole. Homology modelling suggested that the Rdl chloride channel pore contains key residues for binding fipronil and pyriprole. Mutagenesis of these sites and assessment of resistance in vivo in transgenic lines showed that amino acid identity at the Ala(301) site influenced resistance levels, with glycine showing greater survival than serine replacement. We confirm that point mutations at the Rdl 301 site provide moderate resistance to phenylpyrazoles in D. melanogaster. We also emphasize the beneficial aspects of testing predicted mutations in a whole organism to validate a candidate gene approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.

  3. Drosophila melanogaster--the model organism of choice for the complex biology of multi-cellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Texada, Michael J.; Munjaal, Ravi; Baker, Dean A.

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been intensely studied for almost 100 years. The sophisticated array of genetic and molecular tools that have evolved for analysis of gene function in this organism are unique. Further, Drosophila is a complex multi-cellular organism in which many aspects of development and behavior parallel those in human beings. These combined advantages have permitted research in Drosophila to make seminal contributions to the understanding of fundamental biological processes and ensure that Drosophila will continue to provide unique insights in the genomic era. An overview of the genetic methodologies available in Drosophila is given here, together with examples of outstanding recent contributions of Drosophila to our understanding of cell and organismal biology. The growing contribution of Drosophila to our knowledge of gravity-related responses is addressed.

  4. Charting the genotype-phenotype map: lessons from the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Trudy F C; Huang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture (causal molecular variants, their effects, and frequencies) of quantitative traits is important for precision agriculture and medicine and predicting adaptive evolution, but is challenging in most species. The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a collection of 205 inbred strains with whole genome sequences derived from a single wild population in Raleigh, NC, USA. The large amount of quantitative genetic variation, lack of population structure, and rapid local decay of linkage disequilibrium in the DGRP and outbred populations derived from DGRP lines present a favorable scenario for performing genome-wide association (GWA) mapping analyses to identify candidate causal genes, polymorphisms, and pathways affecting quantitative traits. The many GWA studies utilizing the DGRP have revealed substantial natural genetic variation for all reported traits, little evidence for variants with large effects but enrichment for variants with low P-values, and a tendency for lower frequency variants to have larger effects than more common variants. The variants detected in the GWA analyses rarely overlap those discovered using mutagenesis, and often are the first functional annotations of computationally predicted genes. Variants implicated in GWA analyses typically have sex-specific and genetic background-specific (epistatic) effects, as well as pleiotropic effects on other quantitative traits. Studies in the DGRP reveal substantial genetic control of environmental variation. Taking account of genetic architecture can greatly improve genomic prediction in the DGRP. These features of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits are likely to apply to other species, including humans. WIREs Dev Biol 2018, 7:e289. doi: 10.1002/wdev.289 This article is categorized under: Invertebrate Organogenesis > Flies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. EFFECT OF SOME BEVERAGES ON THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER SURVIVAL PERCENTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    SARIKAYA, Rabia; KARABAY, Kübra; ERKOÇ, Figen

    2018-01-01

     Energy drinksare a group of products that are advertised as being able to provide alertnessand energy, and conteract sleepiness. In this study, different types of energydrinks and some beverages have been evaluated for toxic effectsin Drosophilamelanogaster individual. During the experiments, 1.5 g medium waswettedwith5mLbeverages and100 third-instar larvae were chronically fed with theDrosophila instant medium. Feeding ended with pupation of the surviving larvae.The experiments wer...

  6. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (...

  7. CULTURE OF EMBRYONIC CELLS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIKAWA, M; FOX, A S

    1964-09-25

    Embryonic cells isolated from eggs ofDrosophila melanogasterhave been cultured continuously in a new medium. Generation time for cell division is 30 hours. Chromosome number remains constant for at least 10 days. Cells from embryos of the mutant maroon-like grow at the same rate as those from wild-type embryos, but cells from rosy-2 grow slower and at a lower optimum temperature.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter; Maltecca, Christian; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative genetic models recognize the potential for genotype by environment interaction, whereby different genotypes have different plastic responses to changes in macro-environmental conditions. Recently, it has been recognized that micro-environmental plasticity (‘residual’ variance) may also be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time...

  9. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Duque de la, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y 2 wsup(a)/y 2 wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  10. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR is required to neutralize the cellular immune response in a Drosophila melanogaster oral infection model

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Stefanie; Haller, Samantha; Drenkard, Eliana; Lee, Janice; Yu, Shen; Kocks, Christine; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of microbial infection necessitates a molecular dissection of host–pathogen relationships. Both Drosophila melanogaster and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been intensively studied. Here, we analyze the infection of D. melanogaster by P. aeruginosa by using mutants in both host and pathogen. We show that orally ingested P. aeruginosa crosses the intestinal barrier and then proliferates in the hemolymph, thereby causing the infected flies to die of bacteremia....

  12. Effects of acclimation temperature on thermal tolerance and membrane phospholipid composition in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Tomcala, Ales; Sørensen, Jesper G

    2008-01-01

    and the composition of membrane GPLs in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Long-term cold survival was significantly improved by low acclimation temperature. After 60h at 0 degrees C, more than 80% of the 15 degrees C-acclimated flies survived while none of the 25 degrees C-acclimated flies survived. Cold shock tolerance...... acclimation temperature and correlated with the changes in GPL composition in membranes of adult D. melanogaster. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  13. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Johanna; Willi, Michaela; Schoberleitner, Ines; Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sebald

    Full Text Available The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster.

  15. Incompatibility between X chromosome factor and pericentric heterochromatic region causes lethality in hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, M Victoria; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-06-01

    The Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that postzygotic reproductive isolation results from the evolution of incompatible epistatic interactions between species: alleles that function in the genetic background of one species can cause sterility or lethality in the genetic background of another species. Progress in identifying and characterizing factors involved in postzygotic isolation in Drosophila has remained slow, mainly because Drosophila melanogaster, with all of its genetic tools, forms dead or sterile hybrids when crossed to its sister species, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. To circumvent this problem, we used chromosome deletions and duplications from D. melanogaster to map two hybrid incompatibility loci in F(1) hybrids with its sister species. We mapped a recessive factor to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the X chromosome in D. simulans and D. mauritiana, which we call heterochromatin hybrid lethal (hhl), which causes lethality in F(1) hybrid females with D. melanogaster. As F(1) hybrid males hemizygous for a D. mauritiana (or D. simulans) X chromosome are viable, the lethality of deficiency hybrid females implies that a dominant incompatible partner locus exists on the D. melanogaster X. Using small segments of the D. melanogaster X chromosome duplicated onto the Y chromosome, we mapped a dominant factor that causes hybrid lethality to a small 24-gene region of the D. melanogaster X. We provide evidence suggesting that it interacts with hhl(mau). The location of hhl is consistent with the emerging theme that hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila involve heterochromatic regions and factors that interact with the heterochromatin.

  16. Research of the low dose gamma-irradiation influence on life span and aging speed of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Researches of radioinduced life span alteration of Drosophila which is carried out in our laboratory in 1996-2003 years, have revealed interrelation between mutations of several genes of DNA repair and apoptosis pathways with low doses ionizing irradiation and speed of aging. It was used Drosophila individuals, developing in conditions of a chronic low dose irradiation or on nutrition medium with apoptosis inducer etoposide addition. The exposition doze was 0.17 sGy/h. The absorbed doze for one generation (from an embryo stage up to an imago start, 10-12 days) corresponded 60 sGy. Etoposide treatment carried out on preimago stages (5 mkM in a nutrient medium n concentration). We investigated the life span after irradiation and etoposide treatment of Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations with defects of some genes of DNA repair machinery and apoptosis pathways in homozygous and heterozygous state, such as mei-41 (ATM homolog), two alleles of Dcp-1 (Drosophila caspase), dArk (Apaf-1 homolog), rpr, grim, hid, three alleles of th (IAP homolog), wg (Wnt family member). It is shown, that the irradiation and etoposide treatment of these strains results in life span change depending on a genotype of the investigated line. The results will be considering in the report. As well, the analysis of age-dependent change of nervous system activity (as the test of aging speed) of Drosophila melanogaster imago was carried out. It was shown, that the irradiation of strains with the increased apoptosis sensitivity results in elevated nervous - muscular activity of imago during all experiment periods. At th1 strain increase of activity in comparison with the control in the first week has made 41 %, and in two subsequent - about 80 %. Last week authentic increase did not observe. At th4 strain statistically significant increase of activity in comparison with the control observed in the first week of experiment (18 %), in the second (67 %) and the fourth (88 %). The

  17. Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of Cochlospermum regium in Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Wanderlene Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades the search for medical treatments based on alternative medicine has increased significantly, making knowledge of the plants commonly used as folk medicines extremely important. The plant Cochlospermum regium, a member of the Cochlospermaceae found in the Brazilian cerrado (a type of savanna, is known to have high depurative activity and to be effective not only in treating skin problems such as pimples, boils and blotches but also in curing gastritis and ulcers. We prepared aqueous extracts using 13, 19 and 25 gL-1 of dried C. regium root and investigated these extracts for possible mutagenic effects on Drosophila melanogaster germ cells. Mutagenesis was assessed using the ring-X loss (RXL test which can detect chromosome mosaicism, partial loss of the ring X chromosome and chromosome non-disjunction. Our results showed that at the concentrations tested C. regium extracts did not induce ring-X loss in D. melanogaster.

  18. Structure of glutaminyl cyclase from Drosophila melanogaster in space group I4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenko, Petr; Koch, Birgit; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Stubbs, Milton T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ligand-free glutaminyl cyclase from D. melanogaster has been determined in a novel crystal form belonging to space group I4. The structure of ligand-free glutaminyl cyclase (QC) from Drosophila melanogaster (DmQC) has been determined in a novel crystal form. The protein crystallized in space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.3, c = 72.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2 Å at the home source. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and was refined to an R factor of 0.169. DmQC exhibits a typical α/β-hydrolase fold. The electron density of three monosaccharides could be localized. The accessibility of the active site will facilitate structural studies of novel inhibitor-binding modes

  19. Non Linearity in Dominant Lethals Induced with Irradiation in Drosophila Melanogaster Non Linearity in Dominant Lethals Induced with Irradiation in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoenigsberg H. F.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo diseño experimental aquí presentado hizo posible el estudio de cada uno de los grupos de células germinales en la espermatogénesis de Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R. Los recuentos de los letales dominantes inducidos con Irradiación X permitieron el análisis detallado de la hipótesis sobre dosis-frecuencia para anormalidades cromosómicas. The design in the experiments permitted the study of daily batches of sperm cells. Counts of dominant lethals induced with X-irradiation consented a more detail analysis of the dose-frequency hypothesis for chromosome abnormalities.

  20. Somatic mutation and recombination induced with reactor thermal neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster; Mutacion y recombinacion somaticas inducidas con neutrones termicos de reactor en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano A, F.; Guzman R, J.; Paredes G, L.; Delfin L, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The SMART test of Drosophila melanogaster was used to quantify the effect over the somatic mutation and recombination induced by thermal and fast neutrons at the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the ININ at the power of 300 k W for times of 30, 60 and 120 minutes with total equivalent doses respectively of 20.8, 41.6 and 83.2 Sv. A linear relation between the radiation equivalent dose and the frequency of the genetic effects such as mutation and recombination was observed. The obtained results allow to conclude that SMART is a sensitive system to the induced damage by neutrons, so this can be used for studying its biological effects. (Author)

  1. SPONTANEOUS MUTATIONAL GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR FITNESS-RELATED TRAITS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jesús; López-Fanjul, Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Spontaneous mutations were allowed to accumulate for 104-161 generations in 113-176 inbred lines, independently maintained by a single brother-sister mating per generation, all of them derived from a completely homozygous population of Drosophila melanogaster. In each of two to three consecutive generations, all lines were scored for fecundity, egg-to-pupa and pupa-to-adult viabilities, both in the standard laboratory culture medium (ST) and in three harsh media differing from the former by a single factor: higher temperature (HT), higher NaCl concentration (HSC), or a much reduced concentration of nutrients (D). Relative to the standard medium, productivity (fecundity × viability) decreased by 25% (HT), 66% (HSC), and 80% (D). In each medium, mutational variances of those traits and mutational covariances between all possible pairs were calculated from the between-line divergence (codivergence). Mutational correlations between character states in different media were also obtained. Because we used inbred lines, those estimates were mainly due to the accumulation of mildly detrimental mutations, deleterious mutations of large effect being underrepresented. For all traits, mutational heritabilities ranged from 1.41 × 10 -4 to 11.24 × 10 -4 , and did not increase with intensified environmental harshness. Mutational correlations between character states in different media were usually not large (average absolute value 0.31), reflecting a high degree of environmental specificity of the mutations involved. In our results, mutations quasi-neutral in ST conditions and mildly detrimental in more stressful media were not, as a class, important. Mutational correlations between fecundity and egg-to-pupa viability were small and positive in all media. Those involving pupa-to-adult viability were positive in HT, nonsignificant in HSC, and negative in ST and D, showing how the genetic covariance structure of quantitative traits in populations may change in variable

  2. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Oana; Lera, Matthew P.; Sanchez, Max E.; Levic, Edina; Higgins, Laura A.; Shmygelska, Alena; Fahlen, Thomas F.; Nichol, Helen; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km) for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways. PMID:21264297

  3. Spaceflight Causes Increased Virulence of Serratia Marcescens on a Drosophila Melanogaster Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Wade, William; Clemens-Grisham, Rachel; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Lera, Matthew P.; Gresser, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, or the fruit fly, has long been an important organism for Earth-based research, and is now increasingly utilized as a model system to understand the biological effects of spaceflight. Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have shown altered immune responses in 3rd instar larvae and adult males following spaceflight, changes similar to those observed in astronauts. In addition, spaceflight has also been shown to affect bacterial physiology, as evidenced by studies describing altered virulence of Salmonella typhimurium following spaceflight and variation in biofilm growth patterns for the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during flight. We recently sent Serratia marcescens Db11, a Drosophila pathogen and an opportunistic human pathogen, to the ISS on SpaceX-5 (Fruit Fly Lab-01). S. marcescens samples were stored at 4degC for 24 days on-orbit and then allowed to grow for 120 hours at ambient station temperature before being returned to Earth. Upon return, bacteria were isolated and preserved in 50% glycerol or RNAlater. Storage, growth, and isolation for ground control samples were performed using the same procedures. Spaceflight and ground samples stored in 50% glycerol were diluted and injected into 5-7-day-old ground-born adult D. melanogaster. Lethality was significantly greater in flies injected with the spaceflight samples compared to those injected with ground bacterial samples. These results indicate a shift in the virulence profile of the spaceflight S. marcescens Db11 and will be further assessed with molecular biological analyses. Our findings strengthen the conclusion that spaceflight impacts the virulence of bacterial pathogens on model host organisms such as the fruit fly. This research was supported by NASA's ISS Program Office (ISSPO) and Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications (SLPSRA).

  4. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnovskii, P A; Kuzmin, I V; Nefedova, L N; Kima, A I

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus. In addition, the expression levels were measured after injection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which activate different immune response pathways, and exposure to various abiotic stress factors. The presence of functional D. melanogaster retrovirus gypsy was found to increase the Grp expression level in somatic tissues of the carcass, while exerting no effect on the Iris expression level. Activation of the immune response in D. melanogaster by bacteria Bacillus cereus increased the Grp expression level and did not affect Iris expression. As for the effects of abiotic stress factors (oxidative stress, starvation, and heat and cold stress), the Grp expression level increased in response to starvation in D. melanogaster females, and the Iris expression level was downregulated in heat shock and oxidative stress. Based on the findings, Grp was assumed to play a direct role in the immune response in D. melanogaster; Iris is not involved in immune responses, but and apparently performs a cell function that is inhibited in stress.

  5. Decoding the mechanism of motor plasticity during gait recovery after injury in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjeira, Raquel Filipa Gonçalves Fontes

    2017-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado, Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica (Engenharia Clínica e Instrumentação Médica) Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2017 Coordinated walking in vertebrates and multi-legged invertebrates, such as Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved network capable to control the movement in a fast, stable, and energy-efficient way. But sometimes due to physical challenges, aging and other factors, the reliable and stereotyped walking pro...

  6. The role of microRNAs in haematopoiesis and immunity of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana Gomes Campos de

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 A resposta imune de Drosophila melanogaster envolve múltiplas estratégias de defesa que são relativamente conservadas entre animais. De forma geral, esta resposta resulta da interacção entre uma componente humoral, também designada por imunidade sistémica, e uma componente celular, que implica a diferenciação de vários tipos de células especializadas. A imunidade sistémica consist...

  7. The measurement respiration selected mutants at a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    DOULOVÁ, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor´s thesis is concentrated in an experimental way. The main target was to compare the respiration and to find out the differences in the quantity of the produced carbon dioxide at the chosen lines of a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (class insect, order dipterous). Two concrete checking lines CantonS (a wild type) and White eyed (a white-eyed line) were compared with a mutant line AdoR- (a fruit fly with the mutation in adenosine receptor). It was supposed the control lines wil...

  8. Developmental studies on Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase and its induction by oxadiazolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaiti, A A; Elbetieha, A M; Obeidat, M A; Owais, W M

    1995-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was detected in various developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. The specific activity of the enzyme was 110, 35, 25 and 15 nmol/min/mg protein in crude extracts prepared from eggs, larvae, pupae and adult stages respectively. The enzymes from larval, pupal and adult stages were purified and compared. Incorporation of the widely used herbicide oxadiazolone at concentrations of 375 and 563 part/million into the culture media caused 4- and 2.5-fold increase in the enzyme activity in pupal and adult stages respectively.

  9. Data on the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK induced by chlorpyrifos in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.S. Batista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to organophosphate compounds, such as chlorpyrifos, has been linked to disturbances on cell signaling pathways. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK are a family of protein kinases involved in a range of cellular processes, including stress response, apoptosis and survival. Therefore, changes in the activation state of these kinases may characterize key mechanisms of toxicity elicited by xenobiotics. Here we report data on the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK, members of the MAPK family, in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to chlorpyrifos, as characterized by western blotting assays.

  10. The absence of crossovers on chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster: Imperfection or interesting exception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michaelyn A; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-10-02

    Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 4 is an anomaly because of its small size, chromatin structure, and most notably its lack of crossing over during meiosis. Earlier ideas about the absence of crossovers on 4 hypothesize that these unique characteristics function to prevent crossovers. Here, we explore hypotheses about the absence of crossovers on 4, how these have been addressed, and new insights into the mechanism behind this suppression. We review recently published results that indicate that global crossover patterning, in particular the centromere effect, make a major contribution to the prevention of crossovers on 4.

  11. The use of a mutationally unstable X-chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster for mutagenicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, B.; Svahlin, H.; Rasmuson, A.; Montell, I.; Olofsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Somatic eye-colour mutations in an unstable genetic system, caused by a transposable element in the white locus of the X-chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, is suggested as an assay system for mutagenicity testing. The system is evaluated by comparison with a corresponding system in a stable X-chromosome. Its sensitivity is confirmed with X-ray and EMS treatment, and it is found to be confined to the specific segment of the X-chromosome where the transposable element is localized. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  13. Naturally occurring genetic variation affecting the expression of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie-Ahlberg, C C; Bewley, G C

    1983-10-01

    Genetic variation among second and third chromosomes from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster affects the activity level of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8; GPDH) at both the larval and the adult stages. The genetic effects, represented by differences among chromosome substitution lines with coisogenic backgrounds, are very repeatable over time and are generally substantially larger than environmental and measurement error effects. Neither the GPDH allozyme, the geographic origin, nor the karyotype of the chromosome contributes significantly to GPDH activity variation. The strong relationship between GPDH activity level and GPDH-specific CRM level, as well as our failure to find any thermostability variation among the lines, indicates that most, if not all, of the activity variation is due to variation in the steady-state quantity of enzyme rather than in its catalytic properties. The lack of a strong relationship between adult and larval activity levels suggests the importance of stage- or isozyme-specific effects.

  14. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the extracts from Piper grande Vahl (Piperaceae) using the biological model Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados N, Hillmer; Saez V, Jairo; Robles, Carolina; Vasquez, Luis F; Moreno, Maria E; Acevedo, Jose M; Pelaez, Carlos A; Callejas, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    In this study, using the life cycle interruption test with the Drosophila melanogaster model, under (in-vitro conditions), the n-Hexane (roots and stems) and the EtOAc (roots and leaves) extracts were evaluated as insecticides and the results were promising. The larvae instars showed a significant activity reflected in the reduction of pupae population with respect to the control. The step from Pupae to adult did no show inhibition because in all cases the average of the relation pupae adult is found in values very near 1. The n-Hexane and the EtOAc extracts from roots were the most active with LC50 of 698.2 ppm and 1210.7 ppm. The n-Hexane (stems) and EtOAc (leaves) extracts showed a moderate activity with LC50 of 1654.1 ppm and 2376.0 ppm

  15. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Technical progress report, December 15, 1985-July 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This project compares the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation from tritium to that of x-ray. Mutants are described at the molecular level after having been characterized by classical genetic techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, therefore tying together the molecular studies with previous work in mutagenesis. The objectives of this project are to analyze x-ray and tritium induced mutants by ''walking down'' the chromosomes and studying the frequency of breaks that are not associated with the gene used in screening for the mutants, to study the molecular effect of these mutants in heterozygotes with the aim of developing methods of detecting mutants in heterozygotes that may be applicable to human populations, and to induce mutants from tritium beta radiation and analyze them at the molecular level. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Tests for the replication of an association between Egfr and natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster wing morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodgson James

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative differences between individuals stem from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with the heritable variation being shaped by evolutionary forces. Drosophila wing shape has emerged as an attractive system for genetic dissection of multi-dimensional traits. We utilize several experimental genetic methods to validation of the contribution of several polymorphisms in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr gene to wing shape and size, that were previously mapped in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from North Carolina (NC and California (CA. This re-evaluation utilized different genetic testcrosses to generate heterozygous individuals with a variety of genetic backgrounds as well as sampling of new alleles from Kenyan stocks. Results Only one variant, in the Egfr promoter, had replicable effects in all new experiments. However, expanded genotyping of the initial sample of inbred lines rendered the association non-significant in the CA population, while it persisted in the NC sample, suggesting population specific modification of the quantitative trait nucleotide QTN effect. Conclusion Dissection of quantitative trait variation to the nucleotide level can identify sites with replicable effects as small as one percent of the segregating genetic variation. However, the testcross approach to validate QTNs is both labor intensive and time-consuming, and is probably less useful than resampling of large independent sets of outbred individuals.

  17. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mika F. Asaba; Adrian A. Bates; Hoa M. Dao; Mika J. Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understand...

  18. A Nutritional Conditional Lethal Mutant Due to Pyridoxine 5′-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditio...

  19. Analysis of neurotransmitter tissue content of Drosophila melanogaster in different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-21

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development.

  20. The role of apoptotic cell death in Drosophila melanogaster radioinduced aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, A.A.; Zajnullin, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The attempt is made to estimate a role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in radioinduced life span alteration and aging. It was shown with the use of mutant Drosophila melanogaster laboratory strains that the dysfunction of a reaper-dependent apoptosis pathway together with the action of ionizing radiation and/or apoptosis inductor etoposide could to lead to change of life span and a pace of aging. In Drosophila strain with defect of proapoptosis gene reaper the increase of life span after irradiation and etoposide treatment was observed. At the same time the strain with overexpression of a protease dcp-1 gene and the strain with the defect of antiapoptosis diap-1/th gene decreased the life span after irradiation and etoposide treatment. The obtained facts are discussed from a position of participation of apoptosis deregulation in radioinduced and natural aging of whole organisms [ru

  1. Comparative Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Gut Microbiota with Respect to Host Strain, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gangsik; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Jeon, Che Ok; Hyun, Seogang

    2017-07-01

    Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D. melanogaster host. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of two D. melanogaster laboratory strains, w 1118 and Canton S, with respect to the sex and age of the host, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the widespread and abundant commensal bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, we identified Enterococcus and Leuconostoc as major host-strain-specific bacterial genera. The relative proportions of these bacterial genera, and those of the species within each, were found to differ markedly with respect to strain, sex, and age of the host, even though host individuals were reared under the same nutritional conditions. By using various bioinformatic tools, we uncovered several characteristic features of microbiota corresponding to specific categories of the flies: host-sex-bias association of specific bacteria, age-dependent alteration of microbiota across host species and sex, and uniqueness of the microbiota of female w 1118 flies. Our results, thus, help to further our understanding of host-microbe interactions in the D. melanogaster model.

  2. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  3. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. ► We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. ► Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10–20 μm long, 0.5–1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30–60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m 2 , these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  4. The generation of chromosomal deletions to provide extensive coverage and subdivision of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Christensen, Stacey J; Deal, Jennifer A; Coburn, Rachel A; Deal, Megan E; Gresens, Jill M; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions are used extensively in Drosophila melanogaster genetics research. Deletion mapping is the primary method used for fine-scale gene localization. Effective and efficient deletion mapping requires both extensive genomic coverage and a high density of molecularly defined breakpoints across the genome. A large-scale resource development project at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center has improved the choice of deletions beyond that provided by previous projects. FLP-mediated recombination between FRT-bearing transposon insertions was used to generate deletions, because it is efficient and provides single-nucleotide resolution in planning deletion screens. The 793 deletions generated pushed coverage of the euchromatic genome to 98.4%. Gaps in coverage contain haplolethal and haplosterile genes, but the sizes of these gaps were minimized by flanking these genes as closely as possible with deletions. In improving coverage, a complete inventory of haplolethal and haplosterile genes was generated and extensive information on other haploinsufficient genes was compiled. To aid mapping experiments, a subset of deletions was organized into a Deficiency Kit to provide maximal coverage efficiently. To improve the resolution of deletion mapping, screens were planned to distribute deletion breakpoints evenly across the genome. The median chromosomal interval between breakpoints now contains only nine genes and 377 intervals contain only single genes. Drosophila melanogaster now has the most extensive genomic deletion coverage and breakpoint subdivision as well as the most comprehensive inventory of haploinsufficient genes of any multicellular organism. The improved selection of chromosomal deletion strains will be useful to nearly all Drosophila researchers.

  5. Inbreeding effects on standard metabolic rate investigated at cold, benign and hot temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Palle; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Malte, Hans; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2014-03-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which is known to affect the mean and variance of fitness components such as growth, fecundity and mortality rate. Across inbred lines inbreeding depression is typically observed and the variance between lines is increased in inbred compared to outbred lines. It has been suggested that damage incurred from increased homozygosity entails energetic cost associated with cellular repair. However, little is known about the effects of inbreeding on standard metabolic rate. Using stop-flow respirometry we performed repeated measurements of metabolic rate in replicated lines of inbred and outbred Drosophila melanogaster at stressful low, benign and stressful high temperatures. The lowest measurements of metabolic rate in our study are always associated with the low activity period of the diurnal cycle and these measurements therefore serve as good estimates of standard metabolic rate. Due to the potentially added costs of genetic stress in inbred lines we hypothesized that inbred individuals have increased metabolic rate compared to outbred controls and that this is more pronounced at stressful temperatures due to synergistic inbreeding by environment interactions. Contrary to our hypothesis we found no significant difference in metabolic rate between inbred and outbred lines and no interaction between inbreeding and temperature. Inbreeding however effected the variance; the variance in metabolic rate was higher between the inbred lines compared to the outbred control lines with some inbred lines having very high or low standard metabolic rate. Thus genetic drift and not inbreeding per se seem to explain variation in metabolic rate in populations of different size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex-specific Trans-regulatory Variation on the Drosophila melanogaster X Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Michael; Dean, Rebecca; Rogell, Björn; Friberg, Urban

    2015-01-01

    The X chromosome constitutes a unique genomic environment because it is present in one copy in males, but two copies in females. This simple fact has motivated several theoretical predictions with respect to how standing genetic variation on the X chromosome should differ from the autosomes. Unmasked expression of deleterious mutations in males and a lower census size are expected to reduce variation, while allelic variants with sexually antagonistic effects, and potentially those with a sex-specific effect, could accumulate on the X chromosome and contribute to increased genetic variation. In addition, incomplete dosage compensation of the X chromosome could potentially dampen the male-specific effects of random mutations, and promote the accumulation of X-linked alleles with sexually dimorphic phenotypic effects. Here we test both the amount and the type of genetic variation on the X chromosome within a population of Drosophila melanogaster, by comparing the proportion of X linked and autosomal trans-regulatory SNPs with a sexually concordant and discordant effect on gene expression. We find that the X chromosome is depleted for SNPs with a sexually concordant effect, but hosts comparatively more SNPs with a sexually discordant effect. Interestingly, the contrasting results for SNPs with sexually concordant and discordant effects are driven by SNPs with a larger influence on expression in females than expression in males. Furthermore, the distribution of these SNPs is shifted towards regions where dosage compensation is predicted to be less complete. These results suggest that intrinsic properties of dosage compensation influence either the accumulation of different types of trans-factors and/or their propensity to accumulate mutations. Our findings document a potential mechanistic basis for sex-specific genetic variation, and identify the X as a reservoir for sexually dimorphic phenotypic variation. These results have general implications for X chromosome

  7. Chronic exposure to dim artificial light at night decreases fecundity and adult survival in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, L K; Green, M P; Jones, T M

    2017-07-01

    The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared three generations of flies under identical daytime light conditions (2600lx) and one of four ecologically relevant ALAN treatments (0, 1, 10 or 100lx), then explored variation in oviposition, number of eggs produced, juvenile growth and survival and adult survival. We found that, in the presence of light at night (1, 10 and 100lx treatments), the probability of a female commencing oviposition and the number of eggs laid was significantly reduced. This did not translate into differences at the juvenile phase: juvenile development times and the probability of eclosing as an adult were comparable across all treatments. However, we demonstrate for the first time a direct link between chronic exposure to light at night (greater than 1lx) and adult survival. Our data highlight that ALAN has the capacity to cause dramatic shifts in multiple life history traits at both the individual and population level. Such shifts are likely to be species-specific, however a more in depth understanding of the broad-scale impact of ALAN and the relevant mechanisms driving biological change is urgently required as we move into an increasing brightly lit future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  9. Proteomic characterization of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis J Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression is a widespread phenomenon of central importance to agriculture, medicine, conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Although the population genetic principles of inbreeding depression are well understood, we know little about its functional genomic causes. To provide insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity and lethality. We identified 48 differentially expressed proteins in a conditional lethal line as compared to two control lines. These proteins were enriched for proteins involved in hexose metabolism, in particular pyruvate metabolism, and many were found to be associated with lipid particles. These processes can be linked to known cold tolerance mechanisms, such as the production of cryoprotectants, membrane remodeling and the build-up of energy reserves. We checked mRNA-expression of seven genes with large differential protein expression. Although protein expression poorly correlated with gene expression, we found a single gene (CG18067 that, after cold shock, was upregulated in the conditional lethal line both at the mRNA and protein level. Expression of CG18067 also increased in control flies after cold shock, and has previously been linked to cold exposure and chill coma recovery time. Many differentially expressed proteins in our study appear to be involved in cold tolerance in non-inbred individuals. This suggest the conditional inbreeding effect to be caused by misregulation of physiological cold tolerance mechanisms.

  10. A Comprehensive Toolbox for Genome Editing in Cultured Drosophila melanogaster Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kunzelmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Custom genome editing has become an essential element of molecular biology. In particular, the generation of fusion constructs with epitope tags or fluorescent proteins at the genomic locus facilitates the analysis of protein expression, localization, and interaction partners at physiologic levels. Following up on our initial publication, we now describe a considerably simplified, more efficient, and readily scalable experimental workflow for PCR-based genome editing in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells. Our analysis at the act5C locus suggests that PCR-based homology arms of 60 bp are sufficient to reach targeting efficiencies of up to 80% after selection; extension to 80 bp (PCR or 500 bp (targeting vector did not further improve the yield. We have expanded our targeting system to N-terminal epitope tags; this also allows the generation of cell populations with heterologous expression control of the tagged locus via the copper-inducible mtnDE promoter. We present detailed, quantitative data on editing efficiencies for several genomic loci that may serve as positive controls or benchmarks in other laboratories. While our first PCR-based editing approach offered only blasticidin-resistance for selection, we now introduce puromycin-resistance as a second, independent selection marker; it is thus possible to edit two loci (e.g., for coimmunoprecipitation without marker removal. Finally, we describe a modified FLP recombinase expression plasmid that improves the efficiency of marker cassette FLP-out. In summary, our technique and reagents enable a flexible, robust, and cloning-free genome editing approach that can be parallelized for scale-up.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter

    Quantitative genetic models recognize the potential for genotype by environment interaction, whereby different genotypes have different plastic responses to changes in macro-environmental conditions. Recently, it has been recognized that micro-environmental plasticity (‘residual’ variance) may also...... be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0.......77), of the same order as the heritability at the level of the trait mean for startle response and even larger for chill coma recovery. Genome wide association analyses identified molecular variants (from 15 to 31 depending on the sex and the trait) associated with micro-environmental plasticity. These findings...

  12. Structure of the kinase domain of Gilgamesh from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ni; Chen, CuiCui; Shi, Zhubing; Cheng, Dianlin

    2014-04-01

    The CK1 family kinases regulate multiple cellular aspects and play important roles in Wnt/Wingless and Hedgehog signalling. The kinase domain of Drosophila Gilgamesh isoform I (Gilgamesh-I), a homologue of human CK1-γ, was purified and crystallized. Crystals of methylated Gilgamesh-I kinase domain with a D210A mutation diffracted to 2.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.025, c = 291.727 Å. The structure of Gilgamesh-I kinase domain, which was determined by molecular replacement, has conserved catalytic elements and an active conformation. Structural comparison indicates that an extended loop between the α1 helix and the β4 strand exists in the Gilgamesh-I kinase domain. This extended loop may regulate the activity and function of Gilgamesh-I.

  13. [The role of Gilgamesh protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerusheva, O O; Dorogova, N V; Gubanova, N V; Omel'ianchuk, L V

    2008-09-01

    The cellular function of the gilgamesh mutation (89B9-12) of casein kinase gene in Drosophila spermatogenesis was studied. It was demonstrated that the sterility resulting from this mutation is connected with the abnormalities in spermatid individualization. A phylogenetic study of the protein sequences of casein kinases 1 from various organisms was conducted. The Gilgamesh protein was shown to be phylogenetically closer to the cytoplasmic casein kinase family, represented by the YCK3, YCK2, and YCK1 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and animal gamma-casein kinases. It is known that these yeast casein kinases are involved in vesicular trafficking, which, in turn, is related in its genetic control to the cell membrane remodeling during spermatid individualization. Thus, the data of phylogenetic analysis fit well the results obtained by studying the mutation phenotype.

  14. X Chromosome and Autosome Dosage Responses in Drosophila melanogaster Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Xia; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    X chromosome dosage compensation is required for male viability in Drosophila. Dosage compensation relative to autosomes is two-fold, but this is likely to be due to a combination of homeostatic gene-by-gene regulation and chromosome-wide regulation. We have baseline values for gene-by-gene dosage compensation on autosomes, but not for the X chromosome. Given the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes, these baseline values could differ. We used a series of deficiencies on the X and autosomes, along with mutations in the sex-determination gene transformer-2, to carefully measure the sex-independent X-chromosome response to gene dosage in adult heads by RNA sequencing. We observed modest and indistinguishable dosage compensation for both X chromosome and autosome genes, suggesting that the X chromosome is neither inherently more robust nor sensitive to dosage change. PMID:25850426

  15. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein function in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Kretzschmar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid precursor protein (APP has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer’s disease due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called Amyloid Precursor Protein-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioural deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation.

  16. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  17. Analysis of Thioester-Containing Proteins during the Innate Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Aoun, Richard; Hetru, Charles; Troxler, Laurent; Doucet, Daniel; Ferrandon, Dominique; Matt, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins among insects that are thought to be involved in innate immunity. In Drosophila, the Tep family is composed of 6 genes named Tep1–Tep6. In this study, we investigated the phylogeny, expression pattern and roles of these genes in the host defense of Drosophila. Protostomian Tep genes are clustered in 3 distinct branches, 1 of which is specific to mosquitoes. Most D. melanogaster Tep genes are expressed in hemocytes, can be induced in the fat body, and are expressed in specific regions of the hypodermis. This expression pattern is consistent with a role in innate immunity. However, we find that TEP1, TEP2, and TEP4 are not strictly required in the body cavity to fight several bacterial and fungal infections. One possibility is that Drosophila TEPs act redundantly or that their absence can be compensated by other components of the immune response. TEPs may thus provide a subtle selective advantage during evolution. Alternatively, they may be required in host defense against specific as yet unidentified natural pathogens of Drosophila. PMID:21063077

  18. Drosophila melanogaster Models of Metal-Related Human Diseases and Metal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calap-Quintana, Pablo; González-Fernández, Javier; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; Llorens, José Vicente; Moltó, María Dolores

    2017-07-06

    Iron, copper and zinc are transition metals essential for life because they are required in a multitude of biological processes. Organisms have evolved to acquire metals from nutrition and to maintain adequate levels of each metal to avoid damaging effects associated with its deficiency, excess or misplacement. Interestingly, the main components of metal homeostatic pathways are conserved, with many orthologues of the human metal-related genes having been identified and characterized in Drosophila melanogaster . Drosophila has gained appreciation as a useful model for studying human diseases, including those caused by mutations in pathways controlling cellular metal homeostasis. Flies have many advantages in the laboratory, such as a short life cycle, easy handling and inexpensive maintenance. Furthermore, they can be raised in a large number. In addition, flies are greatly appreciated because they offer a considerable number of genetic tools to address some of the unresolved questions concerning disease pathology, which in turn could contribute to our understanding of the metal metabolism and homeostasis. This review recapitulates the metabolism of the principal transition metals, namely iron, zinc and copper, in Drosophila and the utility of this organism as an experimental model to explore the role of metal dyshomeostasis in different human diseases. Finally, a summary of the contribution of Drosophila as a model for testing metal toxicity is provided.

  19. How gut transcriptional function of Drosophila melanogaster varies with the presence and composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Alyssa; Franzenburg, Soeren; Adair, Karen L; Martinson, Vincent G; Loeb, Greg; Douglas, Angela E

    2017-11-07

    Despite evidence from laboratory experiments that perturbation of the gut microbiota affects many traits of the animal host, our understanding of the effect of variation in microbiota composition on animals in natural populations is very limited. The core purpose of this study on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was to identify the impact of natural variation in the taxonomic composition of gut bacterial communities on host traits, with the gut transcriptome as a molecular index of microbiota-responsive host traits. Use of the gut transcriptome was validated by demonstrating significant transcriptional differences between the guts of laboratory flies colonized with bacteria and maintained under axenic conditions. Wild Drosophila from six field collections made over two years had gut bacterial communities of diverse composition, dominated to varying extents by Acetobacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The gut transcriptomes also varied among collections and differed markedly from those of laboratory flies. However, no overall relationship between variation in the wild fly transcriptome and taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was evident at all taxonomic scales of bacteria tested for both individual fly genes and functional categories in Gene Ontology. We conclude that the interaction between microbiota composition and host functional traits may be confounded by uncontrolled variation in both ecological circumstance and host traits (e.g., genotype, age physiological condition) under natural conditions, and that microbiota effects on host traits identified in the laboratory should, therefore, be extrapolated to field population with great caution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Calmodulin affects sensitization of Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha eMukunda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flying insects have developed a remarkably sensitive olfactory system to detect faint and turbulent odor traces. This ability is linked to the olfactory receptors class of odorant receptors (ORs, occurring exclusively in winged insects. ORs form heteromeric complexes of an odorant specific receptor protein (OrX and a highly conserved co-receptor protein (Orco. The ORs form ligand gated ion channels that are tuned by intracellular signaling systems. Repetitive subthreshold odor stimulation of olfactory sensory neurons sensitizes insect ORs. This OR sensitization process requires Orco activity. In the present study we first asked whether OR sensitization can be monitored with heterologously expressed OR proteins. Using electrophysiological and calcium imaging methods we demonstrate that D. melanogaster OR proteins expressed in CHO cells show sensitization upon repeated weak stimulation. This was found for OR channels formed by Orco as well as by Or22a or Or56a and Orco. Moreover, we show that inhibition of calmodulin (CaM action on OR proteins, expressed in CHO cells, abolishes any sensitization. Finally, we investigated the sensitization phenomenon using an ex vivo preparation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs expressing Or22a inside the fly’s antenna. Using calcium imaging, we observed sensitization in the dendrites as well as in the soma. Inhibition of calmodulin with W7 disrupted the sensitization within the outer dendritic shaft, whereas the sensitization remained in the other OSN compartments. Taken together, our results suggest that CaM action is involved in sensitizing the OR complex and that this mechanisms accounts for the sensitization in the outer dendrites, whereas further mechanisms contribute to the sensitization observed in the other OSN compartments. The use of heterologously expressed OR proteins appears to be suitable for further investigations on the mechanistic basis of OR sensitization, while investigations on native

  1. Neuroligins Nlg2 and Nlg4 Affect Social Behavior inDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthals, Kristina; Heukamp, Alina Sophia; Kossen, Robert; Großhennig, Isabel; Hahn, Nina; Gras, Heribert; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Geurten, Bart R H

    2017-01-01

    The genome of Drosophila melanogaster includes homologs to approximately one-third of the currently known human disease genes. Flies and humans share many biological processes, including the principles of information processing by excitable neurons, synaptic transmission, and the chemical signals involved in intercellular communication. Studies on the molecular and behavioral impact of genetic risk factors of human neuro-developmental disorders [autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome] increasingly use the well-studied social behavior of D. melanogaster , an organism that is amenable to a large variety of genetic manipulations. Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of phylogenetically conserved postsynaptic adhesion molecules present (among others) in nematodes, insects, and mammals. Impaired function of Nlgs (particularly of Nlg 3 and 4) has been associated with ASDs in humans and impaired social and communication behavior in mice. Making use of a set of behavioral and social assays, we, here, analyzed the impact of two Drosophila Nlgs, Dnlg2 and Dnlg4, which are differentially expressed at excitatory and inhibitory central nervous synapses, respectively. Both Nlgs seem to be associated with diurnal activity and social behavior. Even though deficiencies in Dnlg2 and Dnlg4 appeared to have no effects on sensory or motor systems, they differentially impacted on social interactions, suggesting that social behavior is distinctly regulated by these Nlgs.

  2. Neuroligins Nlg2 and Nlg4 Affect Social Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Corthals

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Drosophila melanogaster includes homologs to approximately one-third of the currently known human disease genes. Flies and humans share many biological processes, including the principles of information processing by excitable neurons, synaptic transmission, and the chemical signals involved in intercellular communication. Studies on the molecular and behavioral impact of genetic risk factors of human neuro-developmental disorders [autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome] increasingly use the well-studied social behavior of D. melanogaster, an organism that is amenable to a large variety of genetic manipulations. Neuroligins (Nlgs are a family of phylogenetically conserved postsynaptic adhesion molecules present (among others in nematodes, insects, and mammals. Impaired function of Nlgs (particularly of Nlg 3 and 4 has been associated with ASDs in humans and impaired social and communication behavior in mice. Making use of a set of behavioral and social assays, we, here, analyzed the impact of two Drosophila Nlgs, Dnlg2 and Dnlg4, which are differentially expressed at excitatory and inhibitory central nervous synapses, respectively. Both Nlgs seem to be associated with diurnal activity and social behavior. Even though deficiencies in Dnlg2 and Dnlg4 appeared to have no effects on sensory or motor systems, they differentially impacted on social interactions, suggesting that social behavior is distinctly regulated by these Nlgs.

  3. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Shorter

    Full Text Available Royal Jelly (RJ is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan.

  4. Determination of methyl methanesulfonate pretreatment effect in Drosophila melanogaster larvaes upon repair mechanisms in somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Paz, M.

    1992-01-01

    To make evident the existence of SOS repair mecanism in somatic cells, larvaes of drosophila melanogaster with MWH markers for females and FLR markers for males were used. This larvaes received a pretreatment with MMS at concentrations of 0.0007% and 0.0014% during 24 hours and latter a treatment with gamma rays at different dosis. SMART program was used to make stastistical evaluations. Small spots were observed which can have two origins. First could be damage in the last part of third stage in which cells are in last divisions and second could be the damage to larvaes in early stages in shich pretreatment with MMS cause lesions which prevent the reproduction of the cells. Also big spots were observed which presence is due to recombination. It was detected than the bigger the concentration of MMS and radiation dose, the bigger the induced damage. In some groups such observation was impossible may be to technical problems as relative humidity, out of phase in the growth of larvaes giving place that treatment were given in three stages. For this reasons it was impossible to discriminate if drosophila melanogaster is wheter or not capable to induce a repair mechanism (Author)

  5. α-amanitin resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: A genome-wide association approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Mitchell

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanisms of mushroom toxin resistance in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP fly lines, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. While Drosophila melanogaster avoids mushrooms in nature, some lines are surprisingly resistant to α-amanitin-a toxin found solely in mushrooms. This resistance may represent a pre-adaptation, which might enable this species to invade the mushroom niche in the future. Although our previous microarray study had strongly suggested that pesticide-metabolizing detoxification genes confer α-amanitin resistance in a Taiwanese D. melanogaster line Ama-KTT, none of the traditional detoxification genes were among the top candidate genes resulting from the GWAS in the current study. Instead, we identified Megalin, Tequila, and widerborst as candidate genes underlying the α-amanitin resistance phenotype in the North American DGRP lines, all three of which are connected to the Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. Both widerborst and Tequila are upstream regulators of TOR, and TOR is a key regulator of autophagy and Megalin-mediated endocytosis. We suggest that endocytosis and autophagy of α-amanitin, followed by lysosomal degradation of the toxin, is one of the mechanisms that confer α-amanitin resistance in the DGRP lines.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster: purification, subunit structure, and partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernette, C.M.; Kaguni, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA polymerase has been purified to near-homogeneity from early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the highly purified enzyme reveals two polypeptides with molecular masses of 125,000 and 35,000 daltons, in a ratio of 1:1. The enzyme has a sedimentation coefficient of 7.6 S and a stokes radius of 51 A. Taken together, the data suggest that the D. melanogaster DNA polymerase γ is a heterodimer. DNA polymerase activity gel analysis has allowed the assignment of the DNA polymerization function to the large subunit. The DNA polymerase exhibits a remarkable ability to utilize efficiently a variety of template-primers including gapped DNA, poly(rA).oligo(dT) and singly primed phiX174 DNA. Both the crude and the highly purified enzymes are stimulated by KCl, and inhibited by dideoxythymidine triphosphate and by N-ethylmaleimide. Thus, the catalytic properties of the near-homogeneous Drosophila enzyme are consistent with those of DNA polymerase γ as partially purified from several vertebrates

  7. Recognition and Detoxification of the Insecticide DDT by Drosophila melanogaster Glutathione S-Transferase D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Wai Yee; Feil, Susanne C.; Ng, Hooi Ling; Gorman, Michael A.; Morton, Craig J.; Pyke, James; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bieri, Michael; Mok, Yee-Foong; Robin, Charles; Gooley, Paul R.; Parker, Michael W.; Batterham, Philip (SVIMR-A); (Melbourne)

    2010-06-14

    GSTD1 is one of several insect glutathione S-transferases capable of metabolizing the insecticide DDT. Here we use crystallography and NMR to elucidate the binding of DDT and glutathione to GSTD1. The crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster GSTD1 has been determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution, which reveals that the enzyme adopts the canonical GST fold but with a partially occluded active site caused by the packing of a C-terminal helix against one wall of the binding site for substrates. This helix would need to unwind or be displaced to enable catalysis. When the C-terminal helix is removed from the model of the crystal structure, DDT can be computationally docked into the active site in an orientation favoring catalysis. Two-dimensional {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence NMR experiments of GSTD1 indicate that conformational changes occur upon glutathione and DDT binding and the residues that broaden upon DDT binding support the predicted binding site. We also show that the ancestral GSTD1 is likely to have possessed DDT dehydrochlorinase activity because both GSTD1 from D. melanogaster and its sibling species, Drosophila simulans, have this activity.

  8. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TIME IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER IN RELATION TO THE EVOLUTION OF AGING - DIRECT AND CORRELATED RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RF

    A wild-type strain of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully selected for both fast and slow larval development. The realized heritabilities (h(2)) ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 for the fast lines and 0.35 to 0.60 for the slow lines. The selection applied is relevant in relation to the evolution of

  9. STARVATION RESISTANCE IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER IN RELATION TO THE POLYMORPHISMS AT THE ADH AND ALPHA-GPDH LOCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAN, L; VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A; BIJLSMA, R

    In view of the world-wide latitudinal cline of the Adh and alpha Gpdh allozyme frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster and the interactions between these loci, experiments were performed to study the phenotypic effects of these loci. Starvation resistance, oxygen consumption, body weight, protein

  10. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADH AND ALPHA-GPDH LOCI IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER - ADULT SURVIVAL AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAN, L; VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A; BIJLSMA, R

    The role of high temperature resistance in the world-wide cline of Adh and alpha-Gpdh allele frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Experimental strains were used with different combinations of Adh and alpha-Gpdh alleles but with similar genetic background. The survival time of

  11. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    in Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...

  12. Characterization of conditionally expressed mutants affecting age-specific Drosophila melanogaster : Lethal conditions and temperature-sensitive periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    The specific genetic basis of inbreeding depression is poorly understood. To address this question, two conditionally expressed lethal effects that were found to cause line-specific life span reductions in two separate inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. were characterized phenotypically and

  13. Rhizoxin analogs, orfamide A and chitinase production contribute to the toxicity of Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 is a soil bacterium that was first described for its activity in biological control of plant diseases and has since been shown to be lethal to certain insects. Among these is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a well-established model organism for studies evalu...

  14. Selective elimination/RNAi silencing of FMRF-related peptides and their receptors decreases the locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kiss, B.; Szlanka, T.; Zvara, Á.; Žurovec, Michal; Šerý, Michal; Kakaš, Štefan; Ramasz, B.; Hegedűs, Z.; Lukacsovich, T.; Puskás, L.; Fónagy, A.; Kiss, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 191, SEP 15 (2013), s. 137-145 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster * FMRF-related peptides * G protein-coupled receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016648013002621

  15. Nora Virus Transmission in "Drosophila Melanogaster": An Investigation to Teach Viral Infection and Prophylaxis to Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherred, Wayland; Carlson, Darby J.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Proper hand hygiene accompanied with environmental surface disinfection provides a comprehensive approach to control and prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in schools, hospitals, work environments, and the home. The persistent non-pathogenic Nora virus common in "Drosophila melanogaster" provides a horizontally transmitted…

  16. Genetic control of environmental variation of two quantitative traits of Drosophila melanogaster revealed by whole-genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; de los Campos, Gustavo; Morgante, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    and others more volatile performance. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for environmental variability not only informs medical questions but is relevant in evolution and in agricultural science. In this work fully sequenced inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed to study the nature...

  17. A Drosophila melanogaster hobo-white + vector mediates low frequency gene transfer in D. vlrllls with full Interspecific white + complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation of a Drosophila virilis white mutant host strain was attempted by using a hobo vector containing the D. melanogaster mini-white+ cassette (H[w+, hawN]) and an unmodified or heat shock regulated hobo transposase helper. Two transformant lines were recovered with the unmodified helper (...

  18. Mild heat treatments induce long-term changes in metabolites associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille; Petersen, Simon Metz Mariendal; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2016-01-01

    treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured. All treatment effects had disappeared...

  19. Viability, longevity, and egg production of Drosophila melanogaster are regulated by the miR-282 microDNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilmos, P.; Bujna, Á.; Szuperák, M.; Havelda, Z.; Várallyay, É.; Szabad, J.; Kučerová, Lucie; Somogyi, K.; Kristó, I.; Lukácsovich, T.; Jankovics, F.; Henn, L.; Erdélyi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 2 (2013), s. 469-480 ISSN 0016-6731 Grant - others:Hungarian National Science Foundation(HU) NK84121; Hungarian National Science Foundation(HU) K108538 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.389, year: 2012

  20. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, December 15, 1982-July 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The molecular changes in DNA of mutations induced at the well-defined locus alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in Drosophila melanogaster were compared between null mutants induced by x-rays, the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and decay of tritium incorporated into specific sites of DNA

  1. Negative regulation of P element excision by the somatic product and terminal sequences of P in drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A transient in vivo P element excision assay was used to test the regulatory properties of putative repressor-encoding plasmids in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The somatic expression of an unmodified transposase transcription unit under the control of a heat shock gene promoter (phsn) effectivel...

  2. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the resident microbiota on the nutritional phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Ridley

    Full Text Available Animals are chronically infected by benign and beneficial microorganisms that generally promote animal health through their effects on the nutrition, immune function and other physiological systems of the host. Insight into the host-microbial interactions can be obtained by comparing the traits of animals experimentally deprived of their microbiota and untreated animals. Drosophila melanogaster is an experimentally tractable system to study host-microbial interactions.The nutritional significance of the microbiota was investigated in D. melanogaster bearing unmanipulated microbiota, demonstrated by 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons to be dominated by the α-proteobacterium Acetobacter, and experimentally deprived of the microbiota by egg dechorionation (conventional and axenic flies, respectively. In axenic flies, larval development rate was depressed with no effect on adult size relative to conventional flies, indicating that the microbiota promotes larval growth rates. Female fecundity did not differ significantly between conventional and axenic flies, but axenic flies had significantly reduced metabolic rate and altered carbohydrate allocation, including elevated glucose levels.We have shown that elimination of the resident microbiota extends larval development and perturbs energy homeostasis and carbohydrate allocation patterns of of D. melanogaster. Our results indicate that the resident microbiota promotes host nutrition and interacts with the regulation of host metabolism.

  4. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system of aluminum toxicity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Ewelina; Rosato, Ezio; Knapczyk, Katarzyna; Pyza, Elżbieta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum (Al) on the model organism-Drosophila melanogaster. The study is especially concerned with the effects of aluminum on the fruit fly's development, life span, and circadian rhythm in rest and activity. Flies were exposed to aluminum in concentrations from 40 to 280 mg/kg in rearing media or the flies were raised on control medium. Moreover, the life span of insects exposed to aluminum containing 40, 120, or 240 mg/kg of Al in the medium, only during their larval development, during the whole life cycle and only in their adult life was tested. To check if aluminum and aging cause changes in D. melanogaster behavior, the locomotor activity of flies at different ages was recorded. Results showed that aluminum is toxic in concentrations above 160 mg/kg in the rearing medium. Depending on Al concentration and time of exposure, the life span of the flies was shortened. At intermediate concentrations (120 mg/kg), however, Al had a stimulating effect on males increasing their life span and level of locomotor activity. At higher concentration the aluminum exposure increased or decreased the level of locomotor activity of D. melanogaster depending on age of flies. In addition, in the oldest insects reared on aluminum supplemented media and in mid-aged flies reared on the highest concentration of Al the daily rhythm of activity was disrupted. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Morales, Génesis; Bayman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies. The most abundant microorganisms identified were the yeast Candida inconspicua and the bacterium Klebsiella sp. The yeast Issatchenkia hanoiensis was significantly more common internally than externally in flies. Species richness was higher in fungi than in bacteria, but diversity was lower in fungi than in bacteria. The microbial composition of flies was similar internally and externally. We identified a variety of opportunistic human and plant pathogens in flies such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium equiseti/oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Microbacterium oxydans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Despite its utility as a model system, D. melanogaster can be a vector of microorganisms that represent a potential risk to plant and public health. PMID:29234354

  6. Intercellular distribution of mutations induced in oopcytes of Drosophila melanogaster by chemical and physical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1979-01-01

    When females of Drosophila melanogaster are treated with chemical or physical mutagens, not only in one but also in both of the two homologous X chromosomes of a given oocyte, a recessive sex-linked lethal mutation may be induced. A method is described that discriminates between such single and double mutations. A theory is developed to show how a comparison betweeen the expected and the observer frequency of double mutations yields an indication of the intercellular distribution (random or nonrandom) of recessive lethal mutations induced by mutagenic agents in oocytes and, consequently, of the distribution (homogenous or nonhomogeneous) of those agents. Three agents were tested: FUdR (12.5, 50.0 and 81.0 μg/ml), mitomycin C (130.0 μg/ml) and x rays (2000 R, 150 kV). After FUdR feeding, no increase in the mutation frequency usually observed in D. melanogaster without mutagenic treatment was obtained (u = 0.13%, namely three single mutations among 2332 chromosomes tested). After mitomycin C feeding 104 single and three double mutations were obtained. All of the 50 mutations observed after x irradiation were single mutations. The results obtained in the mitomycin C and radiation experiments favor the assumption of a random intercellular distribution of recessive lethal mutations induced by these two agents in oocytes of D. melanogaster. Reasons are discussed why for other types of mutagenic agents nonrandom distributions may be observed with our technique

  7. Genome-Wide Estimates of Transposable Element Insertion and Deletion Rates in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Jeffrey R.; Song, Michael J.; Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knowing the rate at which transposable elements (TEs) insert and delete is critical for understanding their role in genome evolution. We estimated spontaneous rates of insertion and deletion for all known, active TE superfamilies present in a set of Drosophila melanogaster mutation-accumulation (MA) lines using whole genome sequence data. Our results demonstrate that TE insertions far outpace TE deletions in D. melanogaster. We found a significant effect of background genotype on TE activity, with higher rates of insertions in one MA line. We also found significant rate heterogeneity between the chromosomes, with both insertion and deletion rates elevated on the X relative to the autosomes. Further, we identified significant associations between TE activity and chromatin state, and tested for associations between TE activity and other features of the local genomic environment such as TE content, exon content, GC content, and recombination rate. Our results provide the most detailed assessment of TE mobility in any organism to date, and provide a useful benchmark for both addressing theoretical predictions of TE dynamics and for exploring large-scale patterns of TE movement in D. melanogaster and other species. PMID:28338986

  8. Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Ramírez-Camejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies. The most abundant microorganisms identified were the yeast Candida inconspicua and the bacterium Klebsiella sp. The yeast Issatchenkia hanoiensis was significantly more common internally than externally in flies. Species richness was higher in fungi than in bacteria, but diversity was lower in fungi than in bacteria. The microbial composition of flies was similar internally and externally. We identified a variety of opportunistic human and plant pathogens in flies such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium equiseti/oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Microbacterium oxydans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Despite its utility as a model system, D. melanogaster can be a vector of microorganisms that represent a potential risk to plant and public health.

  9. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F

    2007-06-10

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (SOG), depending on their segmental and sensory organ origin. We define two major and two smaller subregions in the SOG. One of the major areas is a target of pharyngeal sensilla, the other one receives inputs from both internal and external sensilla. In addition to such spatial organization of the taste center, circumstantial evidence suggests a subtle functional organization: aversive and attractive stimuli might be processed in the anterior and posterior part of the SOG, respectively. Our results also suggest less coexpression of gustatory receptors than proposed in prior studies. Finally, projections of putative second-order taste neurons seem to cover large areas of the SOG. These neurons may thus receive multiple gustatory inputs. This suggests broad sensitivity of secondary taste neurons, reminiscent of the situation in mammals.

  10. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  11. Influence of Quercetin in the Temporal Regulation of Redox Homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Perumal; Kaliyamoorthy, Kanimozhi; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Haji Hashim, Onn

    2017-01-01

    Numerous biological processes are governed by the biological clock. Studies using Drosophila melanogaster (L.) are valuable that could be of importance for their effective applications on rodent studies. In this study, the beneficial role of quercetin (a flavonoid) on H2O2 induced stress in D. melanogaster was investigated. D. melanogaster flies were divided into four groups (group I - control, group II - H2O2 (acute exposure), group III - quercetin, and group IV - quercetin + H2O2 treated). Negative geotaxis assay, oxidative stress indicators (protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS]), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione-S-transferase [GST], glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione [GSH]) were measured at 4 h intervals over 24 h and temporal expression of heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), Upd1 (homolog of IL-6 in Drosophila), and nitric oxide synthase (Nos) was analyzed by Western blotting. Groups II and IV showed altered biochemical rhythms (compared with controls). Decreased mesor values of negative geotaxis, SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH were noticed in H2O2, increased mesor of oxidative stress indicators (TBARS and protein carbonyl content) and a reversibility of the rhythmic characteristics were conspicuous after quercetin treatment. The expression levels of Hsp70, Upd1, and Nos were noticeably maximum at 04:00. Significant elevation of expression by H2O2 was nearly normalized by quercetin treatment. The possible mechanism by which quercetin modulates oxidant-antioxidant imbalance under oxidative stress could be ascribed to the modulation of the rhythmic properties. Our results will be helpful to understand the molecular interlink between circadian rhythm and oxidative stress mechanism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Arm-Gal4 inheritance influences development and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, F A; Staveley, B E

    2015-10-19

    The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism. By evaluation of the consequences of maternal and paternal inheritance of a Gal4 transgene under the transcriptional regulation of armadillo control elements (arm-Gal4), we demonstrated that Gal4 expression could be detrimental to development and longevity. Male progeny expressing arm-Gal4 in the presence of UAS-lacZ transgene had reduced numbers and size of ommatidia, compared to flies expressing UAS-lacZ transgene under the control of other Gal4 transgenes. Aged at 25°C, the median life span of male flies with maternally inherited elav-Gal4 was 70 days, without a responding transgene or with UAS-lacZ. The median life span of maternally inherited arm-Gal4 male flies without a responding transgene was 48 days, and 40 days with the UAS-lacZ transgene. A partial rescue of this phenotype was observed with the expression of UAS-lacZ under paternal arm-Gal4 control, having an average median lifespan of 60 days. This data suggests that arm-Gal4 has detrimental effects on Drosophila development and lifespan that are directly dependent upon parental inheritance, and that the benign responder and reporter gene UAS-lacZ may influence D. melanogaster development. These findings should be taken into consideration during the design and execution of UAS-Gal4 expression experiments.

  13. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E

    2015-12-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa-Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Effect of sterol metabolism in the yeast-Drosophila system on the frequency of radiation-induced aneuploidy in the Drosophila melanogaster oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, V.V.; Luchnikova, E.M.; Inge-Vechtomov, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sterol metabolism on induced mutagenesis of Drosophila melanogaster was studied in the ecogenetic system of yeast-Drosophila. Sterol deficiency was created in Drosophila by using the biomass of live cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 9-2-P712 till mutation in locus nys/sup r1/ blocking the synthesis of ergosterol as the food. It was found that rearing of Drosophila females on the mutant yeast increases the frequency of loss and nondisjunction of X chromosomes induced in mature oocytes by X rays (1000 R). Addition of 0.1% of cholesterol solution in 10% ethanol to the yeast biomass restores the resistance of oocyte to X irradiation to the control level. The possible hormonal effect on membrane leading to increased radiation-induced aneuploidy in Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in determining the resistance to various damaging factors are discussed

  15. Modafinil maintains waking in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joan C; Kirk, David; Panckeri, Karen; Miller, Matthew S; Pack, Allan I

    2003-03-15

    Fruit flies exhibit a sleep-like rest state that shares behavioral characteristics with mammalian sleep, including a homeostatic increase in rest after deprivation by mechanical methods. We tested the effect of modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent, to discover whether its effect is conserved. Flies fed various concentrations of modafinil were compared to groups of control flies fed diluent only. Flies were also tested for a homeostatic response to the modafinil-related rest deprivation by examining rest and activity during recovery after 48H modafinil administration, compared to rest deprivation alone and to both treatments combined. The duration and consolidation of rest, and the duration, intensity, and circadian rhythms of activity were measured. Modafinil significantly and dose-dependently decreased rest when fed at concentrations from 2.5 mg/ml to 0.3125 mg/ml. Activity intensity was not increased, and circadian timing was unchanged, although the 2.5 mg/ml dose blunted the amplitude of overt circadian locomotor rhythms. Compared to controls, the duration of rest bouts was decreased in flies fed 2.5 mg/ml, and waking was frequently interrupted by 5-min periods of immobility. A rest rebound (significant increase in rest) followed withdrawal of either 2.5mg/ml or 0.625mg/ml modafinil after 48H. When directly compared to 6H total rest deprivation, the increase after withdrawal was briefer, reminiscent of the attenuated rest rebound seen in mammals, including humans, after modafinil. However, modafinil withdrawal combined with 6H total rest deprivation significantly enhanced the rebound, suggesting that a rest debt is accumulating during modafinil. We conclude that modafinil affects states of arousal in Drosophila in the same direction as it does in mammals. This discovery provides a tool for searching for conserved molecular mechanisms by which modafinil regulates rest and waking.

  16. Ubiquitylation of the acetyltransferase MOF in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, Sarah; Villa, Raffaella; Flynn, Victoria; Heidelberger, Jan B; Classen, Anne-Kathrin; Beli, Petra; Becker, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear acetyltransferase MOF (KAT8 in mammals) is a subunit of at least two multi-component complexes involved in transcription regulation. In the context of complexes of the 'Non-Specific-Lethal' (NSL) type it controls transcription initiation of many nuclear housekeeping genes and of mitochondrial genes. While this function is conserved in metazoans, MOF has an additional, specific function in Drosophila in the context of dosage compensation. As a subunit of the male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex (MSL-DCC) it contributes to the doubling of transcription output from the single male X chromosome by acetylating histone H4. Proper dosage compensation requires finely tuned levels of MSL-DCC and an appropriate distribution of MOF between the regulatory complexes. The amounts of DCC formed depends directly on the levels of the male-specific MSL2, which orchestrates the assembly of the DCC, including MOF recruitment. We found earlier that MSL2 is an E3 ligase that ubiquitylates most MSL proteins, including MOF, suggesting that ubiquitylation may contribute to a quality control of MOF's overall levels and folding state as well as its partitioning between the complex entities. We now used mass spectrometry to map the lysines in MOF that are ubiquitylated by MSL2 in vitro and identified in vivo ubiquitylation sites of MOF in male and female cells. MSL2-specific ubiquitylation in vivo could not be traced due to the dominance of other, sex-independent ubiquitylation events and conceivably may be rare or transient. Expressing appropriately mutated MOF derivatives we assessed the importance of the ubiquitylated lysines for dosage compensation by monitoring DCC formation and X chromosome targeting in cultured cells, and by genetic complementation of the male-specific-lethal mof2 allele in flies. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of MOF ubiquitylation as a reference for future studies.

  17. Ubiquitylation of the acetyltransferase MOF in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schunter

    Full Text Available The nuclear acetyltransferase MOF (KAT8 in mammals is a subunit of at least two multi-component complexes involved in transcription regulation. In the context of complexes of the 'Non-Specific-Lethal' (NSL type it controls transcription initiation of many nuclear housekeeping genes and of mitochondrial genes. While this function is conserved in metazoans, MOF has an additional, specific function in Drosophila in the context of dosage compensation. As a subunit of the male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex (MSL-DCC it contributes to the doubling of transcription output from the single male X chromosome by acetylating histone H4. Proper dosage compensation requires finely tuned levels of MSL-DCC and an appropriate distribution of MOF between the regulatory complexes. The amounts of DCC formed depends directly on the levels of the male-specific MSL2, which orchestrates the assembly of the DCC, including MOF recruitment. We found earlier that MSL2 is an E3 ligase that ubiquitylates most MSL proteins, including MOF, suggesting that ubiquitylation may contribute to a quality control of MOF's overall levels and folding state as well as its partitioning between the complex entities. We now used mass spectrometry to map the lysines in MOF that are ubiquitylated by MSL2 in vitro and identified in vivo ubiquitylation sites of MOF in male and female cells. MSL2-specific ubiquitylation in vivo could not be traced due to the dominance of other, sex-independent ubiquitylation events and conceivably may be rare or transient. Expressing appropriately mutated MOF derivatives we assessed the importance of the ubiquitylated lysines for dosage compensation by monitoring DCC formation and X chromosome targeting in cultured cells, and by genetic complementation of the male-specific-lethal mof2 allele in flies. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of MOF ubiquitylation as a reference for future studies.

  18. Menin links the stress response to genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Maria Papaconstantinou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene in humans and mouse models. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutants of the menin gene (Mnn1 are hypersensitive to mutagens or gamma irradiation and have profound defects in the response to several stresses including heat shock, hypoxia, hyperosmolarity and oxidative stress. However, it is not known if the function of menin in the stress response contributes to genome stability. The objective of this study was to examine the role of menin in the control of the stress response and genome stability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a test of loss-of-heterozygosity, we show that Drosophila strains lacking a functional Mnn1 gene or expressing a Mnn1 dsRNA display increased genome instability in response to non-lethal heat shock or hypoxia treatments. This is also true for strains lacking all Hsp70 genes, implying that a precise control of the stress response is required for genome stability. While menin is required for Hsp70 expression, the results of epistatic studies indicate that the increase in genome instability observed in Mnn1 lack-of-function mutants cannot be accounted for by mis-expression of Hsp70. Therefore, menin may promote genome stability by controlling the expression of other stress-responsive genes. In agreement with this notion, gene profiling reveals that Mnn1 is required for sustained expression of all heat shock protein genes but is dispensable for early induction of the heat shock response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mutants of the Mnn1 gene are hypersensitive to several stresses and display increased genome instability when subjected to conditions, such as heat shock, generally regarded as non-genotoxic. In this report, we describe a role for menin as a global regulator of heat shock gene expression and critical factor in the maintenance of genome integrity. Therefore, menin links the stress response to the control of genome stability

  19. Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model for the study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mulcahy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3 demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo.

  20. Allelic asymmetry of the Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) gene expression in the hybrid between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans: confirmation by using genetic variations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirata, Mika; Araye, Quenta; Maehara, Kazunori; Enya, Sora; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sawamura, Kyoichi

    2014-02-01

    In the cross between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males, hybrid males die at the late larval stage, and the sibling females also die at later stages at high temperatures. Removing the D. simulans allele of the Lethal hybrid rescue gene (Lhr (sim) ) improves the hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. However, the loss-of-function mutation of Lhr (sim) (Lhr (sim0) ) does not rescue the hybrid males in crosses with several D. melanogaster strains. We first describe the genetic factor possessed by the D. melanogaster strains. It has been suggested that removing the D. melanogaster allele of Lhr (Lhr (mel) ), that is Lhr (mel0) , does not have the hybrid male rescue effect, contrasting to Lhr (sim0) . Because the expression level of the Lhr gene is known to be Lhr (sim) > Lhr (mel) in the hybrid, Lhr (mel0) may not lead to enough of a reduction in total Lhr expression. Then, there is a possibility that the D. melanogaster factor changes the expression level to Lhr (sim) Lhr (mel) in the hybrid irrespectively of the presence of the factor. At last, we showed that Lhr (mel0) slightly improves the viability of hybrid females, which was not realized previously. All of the present results are consistent with the allelic asymmetry model of the Lhr gene expression in the hybrid.

  1. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Rajeswari Koyyada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD.

  2. Beadex Function in the Motor Neurons Is Essential for Female Reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairamkonda, Subhash; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has served as an excellent model system for understanding the neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms regulating complex behaviors. The Drosophila female reproductive circuits, in particular, are well studied and can be used as a tool to understand the role of novel genes in neuronal function in general and female reproduction in particular. In the present study, the role of Beadex, a transcription co-activator, in Drosophila female reproduction was assessed by generation of mutant and knock down studies. Null allele of Beadex was generated by transposase induced excision of P-element present within an intron of Beadex gene. The mutant showed highly compromised reproductive abilities as evaluated by reduced fecundity and fertility, abnormal oviposition and more importantly, the failure of sperm release from storage organs. However, no defect was found in the overall ovariole development. Tissue specific, targeted knock down of Beadex indicated that its function in neurons is important for efficient female reproduction, since its neuronal knock down led to compromised female reproductive abilities, similar to Beadex null females. Further, different neuronal class specific knock down studies revealed that Beadex function is required in motor neurons for normal fecundity and fertility of females. Thus, the present study attributes a novel and essential role for Beadex in female reproduction through neurons. PMID:25396431

  3. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L.; Schulze, Karen L.; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

    2010-07-22

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using C31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  4. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind

    2012-10-01

    Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 μm long, 0.5-1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m2, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  5. [Acute isolation and identification of cerebral neurons from the late third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liao, Da-Qing; Luo, Nan-Fu; Zhang, Zhen-Xiong; Liu, Jin

    2006-11-01

    To develop a new method for acute isolation of the cerebral neurons from late third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. The dissociated cells were characterized by morphological observation and whole-cell voltage-clamp recording. The brains were dissected from late third instar larvae, torn into small fragments, and then were digested in the calcium-magnesium-free PBS solution endowed with collagenase for 45-60 minutes. Single cell was obtained by micro-shaking the digested fragments for 5 to 10 s until the clumps of the tissue were not invisible. Preparation of dispersed cells was incubated in the culture media of Drosophila for thirty minutes at room temperature (20 +/- 1) degrees C. All neurons studied were categorized into three types according to morphological observation: large (> 8 microm) round type I neuroblast-like cells (7%), small (2-5 microm) type II cells (77%). and intermediate-sized type II cells (16%). Neurogliocytes were not found. The electrophysiological properties of three types of neurons were investigated by whole-cell voltage-clamp recording technique. Five types of outward potassium currents were detected readily. Morphological and electrophysiological investigation showed that the method for acute isolation of Drosophila neurons is simple, available and stable.

  6. Modeling glial contributions to seizures and epileptogenesis: cation-chloride cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Zeid M Rusan

    Full Text Available Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl- cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24-48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl- cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed.

  7. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor; Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C.; Sohal, Rajindar S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. → Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. → Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H 2 O 2 generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  8. Cardiac optogenetic pacing in drosophila melanogaster using red-shifted opsins (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Electrical pacing is the current gold standard for investigation of mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, this method requires an invasive surgical procedure to implant the pacing electrodes. Recently, optogenetic pacing has been developed as an alternative, non-invasive method for heartbeat pacing in animals. It induces heartbeats by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins which in turn activate light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we expressed recently engineered red-shifted opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in the heart of a well-developed animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, for the first time. Optogenetic pacing was successfully conducted in both ReaChR and CsChrimson flies at their larval, pupal, and adult stages using 617 nm excitation light pulse, enabling a much deeper tissue penetration compared to blue stimulation light. A customized high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCM system was used to non-invasively monitor the heartbeat pacing in Drosophila. Compared to previous studies on optogenetic pacing of Drosophila, higher penetration depth of optogenetic excitation light was achieved in opaque late pupal flies. Lower stimulating power density is needed for excitation at each developmental stage of both groups, which improves the safety of this technique for heart rhythm studies.

  9. Relationship between organization and function of ribosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpen, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms, the genes that encode the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rDNA genes) are tandemly repeated, and are located in constitutive heterochromatin and/or centromeric or telomeric regions. P-element mediated transformation was used to investigate the relationship between rDNA organization and function in Drosophila melanogaster. Tritiated-uridine incorporation under heat shock conditions and in situ hybridization to rRNA were used to demonstrate that a single rDNA gene inserted into euchromatin can be transcribed at a high rate, in polytene nuclei. P-element-mediated transformation of a single Drosophila rDNA gene was also utilized to investigate the ability of ribosomal DNA to organize a nucleolus. Cytological approaches demonstrated that structures resembling the endogenous nucleoli were preferentially associated with four different sites of rDNA insertion, in polytene nuclei. These mini-nucleoli also contained components specific to the nucleolus, as shown by in situ hybridization to rRNA and indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody that binds to Drosophila nucleoli. The transformed genes were able to partially rescue mutant phenotypes due to a deficiency of rDNA, indicating that the mini-nucleoli were functional

  10. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Sohal, Rajindar S., E-mail: sohal@usc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  11. miR-11 regulates pupal size of Drosophila melanogaster via directly targeting Ras85D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play diverse roles in various physiological processes during Drosophila development. In the present study, we reported that miR-11 regulates pupal size during Drosophila metamorphosis via targeting Ras85D with the following evidences: pupal size was increased in the miR-11 deletion mutant; restoration of miR-11 in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant; ectopic expression of miR-11 in brain insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and whole body shows consistent alteration of pupal size; Dilps and Ras85D expressions were negatively regulated by miR-11 in vivo; miR-11 targets Ras85D through directly binding to Ras85D 3'-untranslated region in vitro; removal of one copy of Ras85D in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant. Thus, our current work provides a novel mechanism of pupal size determination by microRNAs during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Inhalation toxicity of indoor air pollutants in Drosophila melanogaster using integrated transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Liu, Yuedan; Kwak, Gyu-Suk; Heo, Muyoung; Song, Kyung Seuk; Chung, Yun Doo; Chon, Tae-Soo; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-06-01

    We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules. We conducted a toxicity test using mutants of the representative genes in these pathways to explore the toxicological consequences of alterations of these pathways. Furthermore, extensive computational behavior analysis showed that exposure to either toluene or formaldehyde reduced most of the behavioral parameters of both wild-type and mutants. Interestingly, behavioral alteration caused by toluene or formaldehyde exposure was most severe in the p38b mutant, suggesting that the defects in the p38 pathway underlie behavioral alteration. Overall, the results indicate that exposure to toluene and formaldehyde via inhalation causes severe toxicity in Drosophila, by inducing significant alterations in gene expression and behavior, suggesting that Drosophila can be used as a potential alternative model in inhalation toxicity screening.

  13. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L; Schulze, Karen L; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using ΦC31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  14. Homology directed repair is unaffected by the absence of siRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Ines; Böttcher, Romy; Mirkovic-Hösle, Milijana; Förstemann, Klaus

    2016-09-30

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) defend the organism against harmful transcripts from exogenous (e.g. viral) or endogenous (e.g. transposons) sources. Recent publications describe the production of siRNAs induced by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster and human cells, which suggests a conserved function. A current hypothesis is that break-induced small RNAs ensure efficient homologous recombination (HR). However, biogenesis of siRNAs is often intertwined with other small RNA species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), which complicates interpretation of experimental results. In Drosophila, siRNAs are produced by Dcr-2 while miRNAs are processed by Dcr-1. Thus, it is possible to probe siRNA function without miRNA deregulation. We therefore examined DNA double-strand break repair after perturbation of siRNA biogenesis in cultured Drosophila cells as well as mutant flies. Our assays comprised reporters for the single-strand annealing pathway, homologous recombination and sensitivity to the DSB-inducing drug camptothecin. We could not detect any repair defects caused by the lack of siRNAs derived from the broken DNA locus. Since production of these siRNAs depends on local transcription, they may thus participate in RNA metabolism-an established function of siRNAs-rather than DNA repair. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  16. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Results Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Conclusion Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we

  17. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Alejandro; Hödar, Christian; Hanna, Patricia; Ibáñez, Freddy; Moreno, Pablo; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Pastenes, Luis; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2009-09-22

    Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we recovered a substantial number of unknown genes encoding

  18. Slowed aging during reproductive dormancy is reflected in genome-wide transcriptome changes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučerová, Lucie; Kubrak, Olga I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Strnad, Hynek; Nylin, Sören; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2016-01-13

    In models extensively used in studies of aging and extended lifespan, such as C. elegans and Drosophila, adult senescence is regulated by gene networks that are likely to be similar to ones that underlie lifespan extension during dormancy. These include the evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF, TOR and germ line-signaling pathways. Dormancy, also known as dauer stage in the larval worm or adult diapause in the fly, is triggered by adverse environmental conditions, and results in drastically extended lifespan with negligible senescence. It is furthermore characterized by increased stress resistance and somatic maintenance, developmental arrest and reallocated energy resources. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster adult reproductive diapause is additionally manifested in arrested ovary development, improved immune defense and altered metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptive lifespan extension are not well understood. A genome wide analysis of transcript changes in diapausing D. melanogaster revealed a differential regulation of more than 4600 genes. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis reveal that many of these genes are part of signaling pathways that regulate metabolism, stress responses, detoxification, immunity, protein synthesis and processes during aging. More specifically, gene readouts and detailed mapping of the pathways indicate downregulation of insulin-IGF (IIS), target of rapamycin (TOR) and MAP kinase signaling, whereas Toll-dependent immune signaling, Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways are upregulated during diapause. Furthermore, we detected transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes specifically associated with aging and longevity. We find that many affected genes and signal pathways are shared between dormancy, aging and lifespan extension, including IIS, TOR, JAK/STAT and JNK. A substantial fraction of the genes affected by

  19. Thermal phenotypic plasticity of body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... 2006a), we analysed the phenotypic plasticity of a French population by considering three different samples, each of 10 isofemale lines collected in three different years. This paper was mostly dedicated to the analysis of the shapes of the reaction norms of two size traits, wing and thorax length, and of their ...

  20. The molecular genetics of clinal variation: a case study of ebony and thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonis-Scott, Marina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Sgrò, Carla M

    2011-05-01

    Widespread pigmentation diversity coupled with a well-defined genetic system of melanin synthesis and patterning in Drosophila provides an excellent opportunity to study phenotypes undergoing evolutionary change. Pigmentation variation is highly correlated with different ecological variables and is thought to reflect adaptations to different environments. Several studies have linked candidate genes from Drosophila melanogaster to intra-population variation and interspecific morphological divergence, but less clearly to variation among populations forming pigmentation clines. We characterized a new thoracic trident pigmentation cline in D. melanogaster populations from eastern Australia, and applied a candidate gene approach to explain the majority of the geographically structured phenotypic variation. More melanized populations from higher latitudes tended to express less ebony than their tropical counterparts, and an independent artificial selection experiment confirmed this association. By partitioning temperature dependent effects, we showed that the genetic differences underlying clinal patterns for trident variation at 25 °C do not explain the patterns observed at 16 °C. Changes in thoracic trident pigmentation could be a common evolutionary response to climatically mediated environmental pressures. On the Australian east coast most of the changes appear to be associated with regulatory divergence of the ebony gene but this depends on temperature. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A nutritional conditional lethal mutant due to pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-16

    The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll(95)) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll(95) flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Chi et al.

  2. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Organophosphate Pesticide Absorption and Toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor

    2016-10-15

    Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a

  4. Inbreeding effects on standard metabolic rate investigated at cold, benign and hot temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    in replicated lines of inbred and outbred Drosophila melanogaster at stressful low, benign and stressful high temperatures. The lowest measurements of metabolic rate in our study are always associated with the low activity period of the diurnal cycle and these measurements therefore serve as good estimates...... of standard metabolic rate. Due to the potentially added costs of genetic stress in inbred lines we hypothesized that inbred individuals have increased metabolic rate compared to outbred controls and that this is more pronounced at stressful temperatures due to synergistic inbreeding by environment...... interactions. Contrary to our hypothesis we found no significant difference in metabolic rate between inbred and outbred lines and no interaction between inbreeding and temperature. Inbreeding however effected the variance; the variance in metabolic rate was higher between the inbred lines compared...

  5. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, May 1974--May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 3 H incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster was studied in relation to age and radiation dose. The 3 H was incorporated into DNA in the germ line by feeding male larvae in late second instar a pulse of the radionuclide. Genetic stocks were used in a mating scheme to produce a cross that produces only male larvae for labeling with the radionuclide, and another cross was made that produces the parental females as virgins since no male progeny are produced. The F 1 generation was scored for losses of the X or Y chromosome because of dominant markers, Bar-Stone and yellow-plus, on the Y-chromosome. All the F 1 and F 2 males were sterile permitting out-crossing of females to nontreated stocks for sex-linked recessive lethal tests in the F 2 and F 3 . (U.S.)

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of two novel commensal bacteria involved with innate immune homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do; Chang, Ho-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Min-Soo; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Won-Jae; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2008-10-01

    During a previous study on the molecular interaction between commensal bacteria and host gut immunity, two novel bacterial strains, A911(T) and G707(T), were isolated from the gut of Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, these strains were characterized in a polyphasic taxonomic study using phenotypic, genetic, and chemotaxonomic analyses. We show that the strains represent novel species in the family Acetobacteraceae. Strain G707(T), a highly pathogenic organism, represents a new species in the genus Gluconobacter, "Gluconobacter morbifer" sp. nov. (type strain G707 = KCTC 22116(T) = JCM 15512(T)). Strain A911(T), dominantly present in the normal Drosphila gut community, represents a novel genus and species, designated "Commensalibacter intestini" gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain A911 = KCTC 22117(T) = JCM 15511(T)).

  7. Evolution of male sexual characters in the oriental Drosophila melanogaster species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Artyom; True, John R

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution is one of the greatest challenges in evolutionary biology. Sexually dimorphic traits, which often evolve at a high rate due to their involvement in mate choice and sexual selection, present unique opportunities for investigating changes in development over short evolutionary distances. Phylogenetic analysis is essential to provide a historical framework for comparative studies of development by establishing the order and polarity of morphological changes. In this report, we apply a new molecular phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of male sexual characters in a group of species closely related to the model species Drosophila melanogaster. These highly variable traits include wing melanin patterns, the sex comb, and the structure of external genitalia and analia. We show that sexually dimorphic characters can diverge very rapidly among closely related species. More surprisingly, we also find a pervasive pattern of independent origin and secondary loss of male sexual traits in different evolutionary lineages.

  8. In between: Gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster Reveals New Insights into Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Touret

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses are RNA viruses that are able to synthesize a DNA copy of their genome and insert it into a chromosome of the host cell. Sequencing of different eukaryote genomes has revealed the presence of many such endogenous retroviral sequences. The mechanisms by which these retroviral sequences have colonized the genome are still unknown, and the endogenous retrovirus gypsy of Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model for deciphering this process in vivo. Gypsy is expressed in a layer of somatic cells, and then transferred into the oocyte by an unknown mechanism. This critical step is the start of the endogenization process. Moreover gypsy has been shown to have infectious properties, probably due to its envelope gene acquired from a baculovirus. Recently we have also shown that gypsy maternal transmission is reduced in the presence of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. These studies demonstrate that gypsy is a unique and powerful model for understanding the endogenization of retroviruses.

  9. Comparative functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine P Schrimpf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model system in genetics, not least because a majority of human disease genes are conserved in C. elegans. To generate a comprehensive inventory of its expressed proteome, we performed extensive shotgun proteomics and identified more than half of all predicted C. elegans proteins. This allowed us to confirm and extend genome annotations, characterize the role of operons in C. elegans, and semiquantitatively infer abundance levels for thousands of proteins. Furthermore, for the first time to our knowledge, we were able to compare two animal proteomes (C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the abundances of orthologous proteins in metazoans correlate remarkably well, better than protein abundance versus transcript abundance within each organism or transcript abundances across organisms; this suggests that changes in transcript abundance may have been partially offset during evolution by opposing changes in protein abundance.

  10. Mutations of stonewall disrupt the maintenance of female germline stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takahiro

    2002-04-01

    Germline stem cells located at the anterior tip of the adult Drosophila melanogaster ovary are critical to the continuous production of mature eggs. Following germline stem cell division, one daughter cell remains a stem cell, while the other becomes a cystoblast committed to differentiation. In this study it was shown that mutations in the putative transcription factor stonewall (stwl) disrupted the maintenance of female germline stem cells. The stwl mutations resulted in a loss of germline stem cells, causing a rapid decrease in egg chamber production. The egg chambers developed only to a limited extent before degenerating. The four mitotic cystocyte divisions were frequently inhibited by stwl mutations. Furthermore, some stwl germaria from newly emerged females completely lacked both stem cells and developing cysts and had a strong reduction in size. The argument is presented here that stwl is involved in the continuation of cell division during female germline development.

  11. Investigation of titania nanoparticles on behaviour and mechanosensory organ of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Debabrat; Patnaik, Abhinandan; Ekka, Basanti; Dash, Priyabrat; Mishra, Monalisa

    2016-12-01

    Titania nanoparticles are used in food, cosmetic, medicine, paint and many more domestic items. Its extensive use has raised the threat to the physiological system and thus the functioning of the body. In the current study, the toxicity of TiO 2 is checked by adding it in food and using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Various concentrations of TiO 2 (50, 100, 200, 250mg·L -1 ) toxicity was assessed via oral route exposure. Survivability, life-cycle, mechanosensory behaviour and structure of various mechanosensory organs were monitored as a read out of nanoparticle toxicity. TiO 2 NPs generate reactive oxygen species which can modify multiple signalling pathways and thus can alter the development and behavioural pattern of the fly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and survival of Drosophila melanogaster fed a diet containing pyrimidine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y K; Clifford, A J

    1997-09-01

    A single generation of Drosophila melanogaster was raised on different media. One of the media was unsupplemented (the control) and the others were supplemented with pyrimidine analog at 10.3 mmol/kg culture medium. The relative numbers of larvae, pupae, and F1 adults reproduced from parent flies on each medium served as an indication of the relative toxicity of the supplements. The relative decreasing order of toxicity of the pyrimidines was as follows: 5-bromouracil < thymine < uracil = orotic acid = control = cytosine, control < UMP. The toxic effects of 5-bromouracil and thymine seem to be associated with the addition of a bromine or methyl group to carbon 5 of the pyrimidine ring. The UMP supplementation increased the number of adult F1 flies above the control group indicating that UMP was not only non toxic but also that it was beneficial.

  13. INFLUENCE OF AMYLOSE STARCH ON DEVELOPMENT AND LIFESPAN OF FRUIT FLY DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra Abrat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Last years, the concept of resistant starch (RS has evoked a new interest in researchers in the context of bioavailability of starch and its use as a source of dietary fiber. Based on clinical and animal research, RS has been proposed to be the most potentially beneficial starch fraction for human health. In this study, the effects of amylose starch as a fraction of RS on development and lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. In both Canton S and w1118 strains, the diet with 20% amylose RS delayed fly development, increased triacylglyceride level in the body of adult insects and reduced their lifespan compared to the diet with 4% amylose starch. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that amylose starch at high concentrations may negatively affect fruit fly.

  14. Somatic mutation and recombination induced with reactor thermal neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano A, F.; Guzman R, J.; Paredes G, L.; Delfin L, A.

    1997-01-01

    The SMART test of Drosophila melanogaster was used to quantify the effect over the somatic mutation and recombination induced by thermal and fast neutrons at the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the ININ at the power of 300 k W for times of 30, 60 and 120 minutes with total equivalent doses respectively of 20.8, 41.6 and 83.2 Sv. A linear relation between the radiation equivalent dose and the frequency of the genetic effects such as mutation and recombination was observed. The obtained results allow to conclude that SMART is a sensitive system to the induced damage by neutrons, so this can be used for studying its biological effects. (Author)

  15. Inconsistent effects of developmental temperatureacclimation on low-temperature performance andmetabolism in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Overgaard, Johannes; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2012-01-01

    Question: Does acclimation to developmental temperature consistently affect metabolismand low-temperature performance when measured in different laboratory and field assays? Hypothesis: Developmental acclimation reflecting naturally fluctuating thermal conditionsconsistently increases different...... components of performance at low temperatures and results ina clearly defined metabolic signature. Organism: The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster acclimated at different temperatures duringdevelopment under semi-field and laboratory conditionsField site: Mt. Rothwell (375322″S, 1442625″E) and laboratory...... regimes were characterizedbiochemically using NMR-based metabolomics. Conclusions: Flies reared at constant benign temperatures were more fecund at all acclimationtemperatures. In contrast, flies reared under fluctuating natural or laboratory conditions weremore successful in locating food under cool...

  16. Metabolic and functional phenotypic profiling of Drosophila melanogaster reveals reduced sex differentiation under stressful environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Malmendal, Anders; Muñoz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Strong sexual dimorphism is commonly observed across species and e.g. trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance are thought to explain this dimorphism. Here we test how the metabolic and functional phenotypic responses to varying types of environmental stress differ in male and female...... rearing regimes were investigated using NMR metabolomics and assessed for body mass and viability. Our results showed that environmental stress leads to reduced sexual dimorphism in both metabolic composition and body mass compared to the level of dimorphism observed at benign conditions. This reduced...... Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and how this impacts the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. Experimental stressors that we exposed flies to during development were heat stress, poor nutrition, high acidity, high levels of ammonia and ethanol. Emerged male and female flies from the different...

  17. Lapachol as an epithelial tumor inhibitor agent in Drosophila melanogaster heterozygote for tumor suppressor gene wts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, W F; Oliveira, A B; Nepomuceno, J C

    2011-12-22

    The search for new and effective antitumor agents with fewer cytotoxic side effects on normal tissue has increasingly become important. Lapachol, a natural organic compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellandedae), is chemically identified as belonging to the naphthoquinone group and is known for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibiotic properties, although there are questions about its effectiveness for treating neoplasic cells. We evaluated the antitumoral effects of lapachol by testing for clones of epithelial tumors in Drosophila melanogaster. Seventy-two-hour old larvae bred from wts/TM3, Sb(1) females and mwh/mwh males, were treated with different concentrations of lapachol (20, 40 and 60 μg/mL). Lapachol alone did not significantly increase the number of epithelial tumors. However, lapachol did significantly reduce the number of tumors provoked by doxorubicin.

  18. Functions and Mechanisms of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Arno J. Müller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. Several examples argue that FGF signalling is used in multi-step morphogenetic processes to achieve and maintain a transitional state of the cells required for the control of cell fate. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl and Breathless (Btl is particularly well studied. These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell–cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. Here, we will address the current knowledge of the biological functions of FGF signalling in the fly on the tissue, at a cellular and molecular level.

  19. A study on anti-stress property of Nardostachys jatamamsi on stress induced Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashree R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a feeling that’s created when we react to particular events. It s the body’s way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness. As a result of the stress immune system can be suppressed by chronic stress opening to increased infections and increasing the risk of autoimmune diseases. So one has to learn away to overcome stress. Here is an attempt made to overcome the stress induced in Drosophila melanogaster a model organism, in this study. Methotrexate is used to induce the stress at different concentration taking different group of flies and a Nardostachys jatamamsi plant extract having antistress property is used to relieve the stress induced. This stress relieve measured by the various stress related enzymes like catalase and Superoxide dismutase by this antistress property of the plant Nardostachys jatamamsi was shown.

  20. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. RGE of fission neutrons under the recessive mutation induction in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.D.; Aleksandrova, M.V.; Lapidus, I.L.; Korablinova, S.V.; )

    2001-01-01

    The RCR-analysis of 81 γ- and neutron-induced vg recessive mutations in ripe sperm of Drosophila melanogaster males of combined with complementation assay with the vg[nw83b27] deletion mutation is used to detect precisely the RGE values of neutrons (0.85 MeV) under the chromosome and point mutation induction. The results obtained show that all genetic end-points increase linearly with γ-ray and neutron dose. Thereby, the efficacy of neutrons is found to be twice (and more) as large as that of γ-rays under the all macro- and micro-aberration mutation induction. Unlike that, the RGE of neutrons are more than twice as low as that of γ-rays under the gene/point mutation induction [ru

  2. Fine-structural changes in the midgut of old Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, F.; Miquel, J.; Philpott, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Senescent fine-structural changes in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are investigated. A large number of midgut mitochondria in old flies exhibit nodular cristae and a tubular system located perpendicular to the normal cristae orientation. Anterior intestinal cells show a senescent accumulation of age pigment, either with a surrounding two-unit membrane or without any membrane. The predominant localization of enlarged mitochondria and pigment in the luminal gut region may be related to the polarized metabolism of the intestinal cells. Findings concur with previous observations of dense-body accumulations and support the theory that mitochondria are involved in the aging of fixed post-mitotic cells. Demonstrated by statistical analyses is that mitochondrial size increase is related to mitochondrial variation increase.

  3. Genetic Determinants of RNA Editing Levels of ADAR Targets in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Yerbol Z. Kurmangaliyev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing usually affects only a fraction of expressed transcripts and there is a vast amount of variation in editing levels of ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific targets. Here we explore natural genetic variation affecting editing levels of particular sites in 81 natural strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The analysis of associations between editing levels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms allows us to map putative cis-regulatory regions affecting editing of 16 A-to-I editing sites (cis-RNA editing quantitative trait loci or cis-edQTLs, P < 10−8. The observed changes in editing levels are validated by independent molecular technique. All identified regulatory variants are located in close proximity of modulated editing sites. Moreover, colocalized editing sites are often regulated by same loci. Similar to expression and splicing QTL studies, the characterization of edQTLs will greatly expand our understanding of cis-regulatory evolution of gene expression.

  4. Interaction between bisphenol A and dietary sugar affects global gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T. Branco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to environmental toxins is a public health issue. The microarray data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE55655 and GSE55670 show the isolated and combined effects of dietary sugar and two organic compounds present in a variety of plastics [bisphenol A (BPA and Bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP] on global gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. The study was carried out with samples collected from flies exposed to these compounds for a limited period of time (48 h in the adult stage, or throughout the entire development of the insect. The arrays were normalized using the limma/Bioconductor package. Differential expression was inferred using linear models in limma and BAGEL. The data show that each compound had its unique consequences to gene expression, and that the individual effect of each organic compound is maximized with the joint ingestion of dietary sugar.

  5. Clustering of Drosophila melanogaster immune genes in interplay with recombination rate.

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    K Mathias Wegner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene order in eukaryotic chromosomes is not random and has been linked to coordination of gene expression, chromatin structure and also recombination rate. The evolution of recombination rate is especially relevant for genes involved in immunity because host-parasite co-evolution could select for increased recombination rate (Red Queen hypothesis. To identify patterns left by the intimate interaction between hosts and parasites, I analysed the genomic parameters of the immune genes from 24 gene families/groups of Drosophila melanogaster. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immune genes that directly interact with the pathogen (i.e. recognition and effector genes clustered in regions of higher recombination rates. Out of these, clustered effector genes were transcribed fastest indicating that transcriptional control might be one major cause for cluster formation. The relative position of clusters to each other, on the other hand, cannot be explained by transcriptional control per se. Drosophila immune genes that show epistatic interactions can be found at an average distance of 15.44+/-2.98 cM, which is considerably closer than genes that do not interact (30.64+/-1.95 cM. CONCLUSIONS: Epistatically interacting genes rarely belong to the same cluster, which supports recent models of optimal recombination rates between interacting genes in antagonistic host-parasite co-evolution. These patterns suggest that formation of local clusters might be a result of transcriptional control, but that in the condensed genome of D. melanogaster relative position of these clusters may be a result of selection for optimal rather than maximal recombination rates between these clusters.

  6. Evolution of hydra, a recently evolved testis-expressed gene with nine alternative first exons in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Shou-Tao Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the Drosophila gene hydra that appears to have originated de novo in the melanogaster subgroup and subsequently evolved in both structure and expression level in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species. D. melanogaster hydra encodes a predicted protein of approximately 300 amino acids with no apparent similarity to any previously known proteins. The syntenic region flanking hydra on both sides is found in both D. ananassae and D. pseudoobscura, but hydra is found only in melanogaster subgroup species, suggesting that it originated less than approximately 13 million y ago. Exon 1 of hydra has undergone recurrent duplications, leading to the formation of nine tandem alternative exon 1s in D. melanogaster. Seven of these alternative exons are flanked on their 3' side by the transposon DINE-1 (Drosophila interspersed element-1. We demonstrate that at least four of the nine duplicated exon 1s can function as alternative transcription start sites. The entire hydra locus has also duplicated in D. simulans and D. sechellia. D. melanogaster hydra is expressed most intensely in the proximal testis, suggesting a role in late-stage spermatogenesis. The coding region of hydra has a relatively high Ka/Ks ratio between species, but the ratio is less than 1 in all comparisons, suggesting that hydra is subject to functional constraint. Analysis of sequence polymorphism and divergence of hydra shows that it has evolved under positive selection in the lineage leading to D. melanogaster. The dramatic structural changes surrounding the first exons do not affect the tissue specificity of gene expression: hydra is expressed predominantly in the testes in D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. yakuba. However, we have found that expression level changed dramatically (approximately >20-fold between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. While hydra initially evolved in the absence of nearby transposable element insertions, we suggest that the subsequent

  7. The Evaluation of Geroprotective Effects of Selected Flavonoids in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Ekaterina Lashmanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids is an intensively studied group of natural compounds with antioxidant, antineoplastic, antihyperglycemic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. The present study intends to investigate the geroprotective action of three selected flavonoids (naringin, luteolin, chrysin in two model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Luteolin and chrysin were shown to improve lifespan parameters when administered to both model organisms. The observed positive effects of these flavonoids in D. melanogaster were limited to females and were not associated with reduced fecundity or locomotor impairment. The life-extending effects of flavonoids were observed in N2 wild-type worms but absent in aak-2(gt33 mutants implying that these effects can be associated with AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Naringin improved lifespan parameters of C. elegans, but had no effect on D. melanogaster females; in some cases, naringin was found to decrease the lifespan of males. Compared to chrysin and luteolin, however, naringin more effectively activates Nrf2 target genes (particularly, GstD1 under oxidative stress. Then we compared molecular mechanisms of studied compounds and a well-known geroprotector rapamycin, using software tool GeroScope. There are no transcriptomic data on luteolin or chrysin provided by LINCS Project database. The bioinformatics comparison of transcriptomics data for A549 and MCF7 human cell lines treated with rapamycin or naringin revealed that these compounds share just a few common signaling pathways and quite distinct in their geroprotective action. Thus, based on C. elegans effects of naringin, luteolin, chrysin on lifespan we have revealed new potential geroprotectors.

  8. Ethanol preference in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by its caloric value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jascha B; Baldwin, Brett A; Dinh, Boingoc L; Rahman, Pinkey; Smerek, Dustin; Prado, Francisco J; Sherazee, Nyssa; Atkinson, Nigel S

    2012-11-01

    Perhaps the most difficult thing to ascertain concerning the behavior of another animal is its motivation. The motivation underlying the preference of Drosophila melanogaster for ethanol (EtOH)-rich food has long been ascribed to its value as a food. A recently introduced idea is that, as in humans, the pharmacological effects of EtOH also motivate the fly to choose EtOH-rich food over nonalcoholic food. Flies are given a choice between pipets that contain liquid food and liquid food supplemented with EtOH. In some experiments, carbohydrates are added to the non-EtOH-containing food to balance the calories for EtOH. We confirm that D. melanogaster indeed prefer food that is supplemented with EtOH. However, if the alternative food choice is isocaloric, D. melanogaster usually do not show any preference for a 10% EtOH solution. Even after EtOH preference has been established, it can be completely reversed if the alternative food is calorically supplemented. This occurs even when the carbohydrate solution used to balance calories is not gustatorily attractive. Furthermore, if the alternative food contains more calories than the EtOH food, the flies will prefer the non-EtOH food. We go on to show that during the preference assay that EtOH in the fly does not exceed 4 mM, which in mammals is a nonintoxicating dose. We conclude that preference for EtOH in this assay arises not from the pharmacological effects of EtOH but rather because of its nutritive value. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Age-related Decline of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Young Drosophila melanogaster Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David

    2016-12-01

    Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Nitrilase and Fhit homologs are encoded as fusion proteins in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Yuri; Campiglio, Manuela; Siprashvili, Zurab; Druck, Teresa; Sedkov, Yurii; Tillib, Sergei; Draganescu, Alexandra; Wermuth, Peter; Rothman, Joel H.; Huebner, Kay; Buchberg, Arthur M.; Mazo, Alexander; Brenner, Charles; Croce, Carlo M.

    1998-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene FHIT encompasses the common human chromosomal fragile site at 3p14.2 and numerous cancer cell biallelic deletions. To study Fhit function we cloned and characterized FHIT genes from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genes code for fusion proteins in which the Fhit domain is fused with a novel domain showing homology to bacterial and plant nitrilases; the D. melanogaster fusion protein exhibited diadenosine triphosphate (ApppA) hydrolase activity expected of an authentic Fhit homolog. In human and mouse, the nitrilase homologs and Fhit are encoded by two different genes: FHIT and NIT1, localized on chromosomes 3 and 1 in human, and 14 and 1 in mouse, respectively. We cloned and characterized human and murine NIT1 genes and determined their exon-intron structure, patterns of expression, and alternative processing of their mRNAs. The tissue specificity of expression of murine Fhit and Nit1 genes was nearly identical. Because fusion proteins with dual or triple enzymatic activities have been found to carry out specific steps in a given biochemical or biosynthetic pathway, we postulate that Fhit and Nit1 likewise collaborate in a biochemical or cellular pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:9671749

  12. Cerium caused life span shortening and oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Feng; Li, Zong-Yun; Wang, Xiu-Qin; Wang, Qiu-Xiang; Hu, Fang-Fang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the rare earth element cerium (Ce) on the life span and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Fruit flies were fed on media with different dose of ceric sulfate (1, 4, 16, 64, 256, 1024mg/L, corresponding to cerium concentrations of 0.45, 1.65, 6.91, 26.3, 104, and 429microg/g culture medium). Mean life span, maximum life span, and fertility were calculated. There was a significant decrease in mean life span and maximum life span with increasing doses of cerium. At some concentrations, there was a decrease in reproductive output, especially concentrations >6.91microg/g. We also measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and lipid peroxidation product levels (malondialdehyde (MDA) content). Cerium caused a significant increase in MDA content and decrease in SOD and CAT activities at concentrations >6.91microg/g. These results suggest that cerium may result in oxidative toxicity to D. melanogaster.

  13. Between-sex genetic covariance constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, F C; Innocenti, P; Rundle, H D; Morrow, E H

    2014-08-01

    Males and females share much of their genome, and as a result, intralocus sexual conflict is generated when selection on a shared trait differs between the sexes. This conflict can be partially or entirely resolved via the evolution of sex-specific genetic variation that allows each sex to approach, or possibly achieve, its optimum phenotype, thereby generating sexual dimorphism. However, shared genetic variation between the sexes can impose constraints on the independent expression of a shared trait in males and females, hindering the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Here, we examine genetic constraints on the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression. We use the extended G matrix, which includes the between-sex genetic covariances that constitute the B matrix, to compare genetic constraints on two sets of CHC traits that differ in the extent of their sexual dimorphism. We find significant genetic constraints on the evolution of further dimorphism in the least dimorphic traits, but no such constraints for the most dimorphic traits. We also show that the genetic constraints on the least dimorphic CHCs are asymmetrical between the sexes. Our results suggest that there is evidence both for resolved and ongoing sexual conflict in D. melanogaster CHC profiles. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  15. Timed Knickkopf function is essential for wing cuticle formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaixia; Zhang, Xubo; Zuo, Ying; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Jianzhen; Moussian, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    The insect cuticle is an extracellular matrix that consists of the polysaccharide chitin, proteins, lipids and organic molecules that are arranged in distinct horizontal layers. In Drosophila melanogaster, these layers are not formed sequentially, but, at least partially, at the same time. Timing of the underlying molecular mechanisms is conceivably crucial for cuticle formation. To study this issue, we determined the time period during which the function of Knickkopf (Knk), a key factor of chitin organization, is required for wing cuticle differentiation in D. melanogaster. Although knk is expressed throughout metamorphosis, we demonstrate that its expression 30 h prior and 48 h after pupariation is essential for correct wing cuticle formation. In other words, expression beyond this period is futile. Importantly, manipulation of Knk expression during this time causes wing bending suggesting an effect of Knk amounts on the physical properties of the wing cuticle. Manipulation of Knk expression also interferes with the structure and function of the cuticle surface. First, we show that the shape of surface nano-structures depends on the expression levels of knk. Second, we find that cuticle impermeability is compromised in wings with reduced knk expression. In summary, despite the extended supply of Knk during metamorphosis, controlled amounts of Knk are important for correct wing cuticle differentiation and function in a concise period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Essential loci in centromeric heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster. I: the right arm of chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Alistair B; Alm, Christina; Cealiac, Iulia; Sinclair, Don A; Honda, Barry M; Rossi, Fabrizio; Dimitri, Patrizio; Hilliker, Arthur J

    2010-06-01

    With the most recent releases of the Drosophila melanogaster genome sequences, much of the previously absent heterochromatic sequences have now been annotated. We undertook an extensive genetic analysis of existing lethal mutations, as well as molecular mapping and sequence analysis (using a candidate gene approach) to identify as many essential genes as possible in the centromeric heterochromatin on the right arm of the second chromosome (2Rh) of D. melanogaster. We also utilized available RNA interference lines to knock down the expression of genes in 2Rh as another approach to identifying essential genes. In total, we verified the existence of eight novel essential loci in 2Rh: CG17665, CG17683, CG17684, CG17883, CG40127, CG41265, CG42595, and Atf6. Two of these essential loci, CG41265 and CG42595, are synonymous with the previously characterized loci l(2)41Ab and unextended, respectively. The genetic and molecular analysis of the previously reported locus, l(2)41Ae, revealed that this is not a single locus, but rather it is a large region of 2Rh that extends from unextended (CG42595) to CG17665 and includes four of the novel loci uncovered here.

  17. Toxicity against Drosophila melanogaster and antiedematogenic and antimicrobial activities of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Pereira, Raimundo Luiz Silva; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Franco, Jeferson Luis; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Rocha, Maria Ivaneide; Dos Santos, Joycy Francely Sampaio

    2017-06-08

    Bioactive phytocompounds are studied by several bioactivities demonstrated, as their cytotoxic effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical profile, the toxic effect using the Drosophila melanogaster animal model and the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EEAB) ethanol extract. The phytochemical profile was performed using HPLC. The cytotoxic effect was evaluated in vivo using D. melanogaster. The anti-inflammatory effect was determined by neurogenic and antiedematogenic assays, and the antimicrobial activity was assayed using a microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the EEAB alone and in association with antibiotics. The main compound identified on the EEAB was luteolin (1.93%). Its cytotoxic effect was demonstrated after 24 h in the concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/mL. The extract demonstrated an antiedematogenic effect, with a reduction of the edema between 35.57 and 64.17%. The MIC of the extract was ≥1.024 μg/mL, thus being considered clinically irrelevant. However, when the EEAB was associated with gentamicin, a synergism against all bacterial strains assayed was observed: Staphylococcus aureus (SA10), Escherichia coli (EC06) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA24). Due to these results, the EEAB demonstrated a low toxicity in vivo and anti-inflammatory and synergistic activities. These are promising results, mainly against microbial pathogens, and the compounds identified can be a source of carbon backbones for the discovery and creation of new drugs.

  18. Identification of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) homologues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongton, Kittima; McCall, Kimberly; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2014-06-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been demonstrated to be involved in the immune response to bacterial challenge in various organisms. However, little is known about GILT function in innate immunity. Drosophila has been commonly used as a model for the study of the innate immune response of invertebrates. Here, we identify the CG9796, CG10157, and CG13822 genes of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as GILT homologues. All deduced Drosophila GILT coding sequences contained the major characteristic features of the GILT protein family: the GILT signature CQHGX2ECX2NX4C sequence and the active site CXXC or CXXS motif. The mRNA transcript levels of the Drosophila GILT genes were up-regulated after Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli DH5α infection. Moreover, a bacterial load assay showed that over-expression of Drosophila GILT in fat body or hemocytes led to a low bacterial colony number whereas knock-down of Drosophila GILT in fat body or hemocytes led to a high bacterial colony number when compared to a wild-type control. These results indicate that the Drosophila GILTs are very likely to play a role in the innate immune response upon bacterial challenge of Drosophila host defense. This study may provide the basis for further study on GILT function in innate immunity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Drosophila melanogaster As a Model Organism to Study RNA Toxicity of Repeat Expansion-Associated Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Alex C; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin

    2017-01-01

    For nearly a century, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , has proven to be a valuable tool in our understanding of fundamental biological processes, and has empowered our discoveries, particularly in the field of neuroscience. In recent years, Drosophila has emerged as a model organism for human neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. In this review, we highlight a number of recent studies that utilized the Drosophila model to study repeat-expansion associated diseases (READs), such as polyglutamine diseases, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), and C9ORF72-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (C9-ALS/FTD). Discoveries regarding the possible mechanisms of RNA toxicity will be focused here. These studies demonstrate Drosophila as an excellent in vivo model system that can reveal novel mechanistic insights into human disorders, providing the foundation for translational research and therapeutic development.

  20. Body-weight and chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, A. de; Belloni, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    Body-weight has been shown to influence the final expression of genetic damage by X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. If larvae of Drosophila were raised up to the third instar in media containing different amounts of the same nutrient and in different conditions of crowding a positive correlation was observed between body-weight and frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by a given dose of X-rays in the somatic cells of their nerve ganglia. This effect, present in both sexes, is most plausibly attributed to a different capacity of big and small larvae for repairing radiation damage. (orig.) [de