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Sample records for drop-size soda lakes

  1. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  2. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  3. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  4. Ecomorphological variability of Arthrospira fusiformis (Cyanoprokaryota) in African soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaggwa, Mary Nakabungo; Burian, Alfred; Oduor, Steve Omondi; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The filamentous spirally coiled cyanoprokaryote Arthrospira fusiformis is found in extremely high densities in tropical soda lakes acting as driving force of the food web. We studied pronounced temporal morphological changes of Arthrospira in Kenyan soda lakes, Nakuru and Bogoria, and identified underlying key factors. Cell (diameter and height) and filament (height of coil, coil diameter, and number) dimensions were measured from weekly samples collected over a period of 16 months. In both lakes, medium-sized cells and large, widely coiled filaments prevailed most. Percentage of large, widely coiled filaments was promoted by elevated levels of soluble reactive phosphorus, wind speed, temperature and conductivity and the opposite for small filaments. Large, narrow-coiled filaments were associated with an increase in mainly Arthrospira-grazing zooplankton and cyanophage infections. Widely coiled spirals were promoted by increased turbulences. Based on fluorescence measurements, we found widely coiled filaments representing high vitality. From this study we were able to demonstrate for the first time morphological patterns of Arthrospira in nature. Arthrospira morphotypes are suitable for indicating the biological status in soda lakes as they are subjective and therefore reflective of what is happening in its habitat. Additionally, this outcome might be also of interest for commercial 'Spirulina' farms in enhancing high-quality production.

  5. Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Kuenen, Johannes Gijs

    2005-09-01

    The existence of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) capable of growth in an extremely alkaline and saline environment has not been recognized until recently. Extensive studies of saline, alkaline (soda) lakes located in Central Asia, Africa and North America have now revealed the presence, at relatively high numbers, of a new branch of obligately autotrophic SOB in these doubly extreme environments. Overall more than 100 strains were isolated in pure culture. All of them have the potential to grow optimally at around pH 10 in media strongly buffered with sodium carbonate/bicarbonate and cannot grow at pHbacteria, dominating in hyposaline steppe soda lakes of Central Asia. The genus Thioalkalivibrio includes mostly slowly growing species better adapted to life in hypersaline conditions and with a more versatile metabolism. It includes denitrifying, thiocyanate-utilizing and facultatively alkaliphilic species.

  6. Microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Berben, Tom; Melton, Emily Denise; Overmars, Lex; Vavourakis, Charlotte D; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    Soda lakes contain high concentrations of sodium carbonates resulting in a stable elevated pH, which provide a unique habitat to a rich diversity of haloalkaliphilic bacteria and archaea. Both cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have aided the identification of key processes and genes in the microbially mediated carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur biogeochemical cycles in soda lakes. In order to survive in this extreme environment, haloalkaliphiles have developed various bioenergetic and structural adaptations to maintain pH homeostasis and intracellular osmotic pressure. The cultivation of a handful of strains has led to the isolation of a number of extremozymes, which allow the cell to perform enzymatic reactions at these extreme conditions. These enzymes potentially contribute to biotechnological applications. In addition, microbial species active in the sulfur cycle can be used for sulfur remediation purposes. Future research should combine both innovative culture methods and state-of-the-art 'meta-omic' techniques to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbes that flourish in these extreme environments and the processes they mediate. Coupling the biogeochemical C, N, and S cycles and identifying where each process takes place on a spatial and temporal scale could unravel the interspecies relationships and thereby reveal more about the ecosystem dynamics of these enigmatic extreme environments.

  7. Autotrophic microbial arsenotrophy in arsenic-rich soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Saltikov, Chad W.; Stolz, John F.; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2017-01-01

    A number of prokaryotes are capable of employing arsenic oxy-anions as either electron acceptors [arsenate; As(V)] or electron donors [arsenite; As(III)] to sustain arsenic-dependent growth (‘arsenotrophy’). A subset of these microorganisms function as either chemoautotrophs or photoautotrophs, whereby they gain sufficient energy from their redox metabolism of arsenic to completely satisfy their carbon needs for growth by autotrophy, that is the fixation of inorganic carbon (e.g. HCO3−) into their biomass. Here we review what has been learned of these processes by investigations we have undertaken in three soda lakes of the western USA and from the physiological characterizations of the relevant bacteria, which include the critical genes involved, such as respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and the discovery of its arsenite-oxidizing counterpart (arxA). When possible, we refer to instances of similar process occurring in other, less extreme ecosystems and by microbes other than haloalkaliphiles.

  8. [Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in soda lake stratified sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourova, T P; Grechnikova, M A; Kuznetsov, V V; Sorokin, D Yu

    2014-01-01

    Various previously developed techniques for DNA extraction from the samples with complex physicochemical structure (soils, silts, and sediments) and modifications of these techniques developed in the present work were tested. Their usability for DNA extraction from the sediments of the Kulunda Steppe hypersaline soda lakes was assessed, and the most efficient procedure for indirect (two-stage) DNA extraction was proposed. Almost complete separation of the cell fraction was shown, as well as the inefficiency of nested PCR for analysis of the clone libraries obtained from washed sediments by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Analysis of the clone library obtained from the cell fractions of stratified sediments (upper, medium, and lower layers) revealed that in the sediments of Lake Gorchina-3 most eubacterial phylotypes belonged to the class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes. They were probably specific for this habitatand formed a new, presently unknown high-rank taxon. The data obtained revealed no pronounced stratification of the spe- cies diversity of the eubacterial component of the microbial community inhabiting the sediments (0-20 cm) in the inshore zone of Lake Gorchina-3.

  9. Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, O.L.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Kolganova, T.V.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from six soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) and from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) were analyzed for the presence of cbb and aclB genes encoding key enzymes Ci assimilation (RuBisCO in Calvin-Benson and ATP citrate lyase in rTCA cycles, respectively). The

  10. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  11. Responses of phytoplankton to experimental fertilization with ammonium and phosphate in an African soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, John M; Kilham, Peter; Fisher, Thomas R

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance in tropical lakes is more often judged to be limited by nitrogen than phosphorus, but seldom does the evidence include controlled enrichments of natural populations. In January 1980 we performed the first experimental fertilization in an equatorial African soda lake, Lake Sonachi, a small, meromictic volcanic crater lake in Kenya. During our study the natural phytoplankton abundance was ca. 80 μg chl a/l, and the euphotic zone PO4 and NH4 concentrations were less than 0.5 μM. In the monimolimnion PO4 reached 180 μM and NH4 reached 4,600 μM. Replicate polyethylene cylinders (5 m long, 1.2 m(3)) were enriched to attain 10 μM PO4 and 100 μM NH4. Phytoplankton responses were measured as chlorophyll, cell counts and particulate N, P and C. After two days, the chlorophyll increase in the P treatment was significantly higher than the control (PLake Sonachi sample was 21 and in samples from Lakes Bogoria and Elmenteita, two shallow soda lakes in Kenya, the ratios were 12 and 70 respectively. We conclude that limitation of phytoplankton abundance by phosphorus can occur even in some tropical African soda lakes.

  12. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon

  13. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  14. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

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    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  15. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  16. On the Deepwater Horizon drop size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Brock, C. A.; McKeen, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations of the fate of gas and oil released following the Deepwater Horizon blowout in 2012 depend critically on the assumed drop size distributions. We use direct observations of surfacing time, surfacing location, and atmospheric chemical composition to infer an average drop size distribution for June 10, 2012, providing robust first-order constraints on parameterizations in models. We compare the inferred drop size distribution to published work on Deepwater Horizon and discuss the ability of this approach to determine the efficacy of subsurface dispersant injection.

  17. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  18. Lipase-producing microorganisms from a Kenyan alkaline soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Virginia A; Delgado, Osvaldo D; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Lipolytic enzyme production of 150 isolated strains from samples of Lake Bogoria (Kenya) was examined. Among these, fifteen isolates were selected on the basis of their lipolytic activities and subjected to morphological and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses for their identification. All the microorganisms have been selected under culture conditions with pH ranges between 7-10 and temperatures of 37-55 degrees C. Most of them showed optimal growth at 37 degrees C and tolerated salinity up to 10% (w/v). Ten of the isolates were Gram-negative, nine of which were closely related to the Pseudomonas cluster and one to the Halomonas cluster sharing high similarity profile with Halomonas desiderata. The remaining Gram-positive isolates were closely related to the Bacillus cluster, and were grouped with Bacillus halodurans, Bacillus alcalophilus and Bacillus licheniformis. Four members of the Bacillus cluster and the Halomonas sp. produced lipolytic activity under alkaline conditions, while others did so at neutral pH values.

  19. Starch hydrolysing Bacillus halodurans isolates from a Kenyan soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhaila O; Delgado, Osvaldo; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mulaa, Francis J; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-05-01

    Fourteen obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates, exhibiting extracellular amylase activity at 55 degrees C and pH 10, were isolated from hot springs around Lake Bogoria, Kenya. From 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nine isolates shared 100% identity with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497T, while the rest shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. PCR of the intergenic spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ISR-PCR) divided the isolates into two groups, while tDNA-PCR divided them into three groups. Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T had a different ISR pattern from the isolates, while it had a tDNA-PCR profile similar to the group that shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. All isolates hydrolysed soluble starch as well as amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. The amylase activity (1.2-1.8 U ml(-1)) in the culture broths had an optimum temperature of 55-65 degrees C, was stimulated by 1 mm Ca2+, and was either partially (16-30%) or completely inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. Activity staining of the cell-free culture supernatant from the isolates revealed five alkaline active amylase bands.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylophaga muralis Bur 1, a Haloalkaliphilic (Non-Methane-Utilizing) Methylotroph Isolated from a Soda Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Shmareva, Maria N.; Tarlachkov, Sergey V.; Mustakhimov, Ildar I.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Methylophaga muralis strain Bur 1 (VKM B-3046T), a non-methane-utilizing methylotroph isolated from a soda lake, is reported here. Strain Bur 1 possesses genes for methanol and methylamine (methylamine dehydrogenase and N-methylglutamate pathway) oxidation. Genes for the biosynthesis of ectoine were also found. PMID:27811106

  1. Scaling the drop size in coflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Hernandez, E; Gordillo, J M [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gundabala, V; Fernandez-Nieves, A [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)], E-mail: jgordill@us.es

    2009-07-15

    We perform extensive experiments with coflowing liquids in microfluidic devices and provide a closed expression for the drop size as a function of measurable parameters in the jetting regime that accounts for the experimental observations; this expression works irrespective of how the jets are produced, providing a powerful design tool for this type of experiments.

  2. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first “metagenomic snapshots” of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha-, and Gamma-proteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, and Rhodobaca) and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio) were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a “salt-in” strategy of

  3. Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sultanpuram Vishnuvardhan; Thirumala, Mothe; Farooq, Mohammed; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Ramana, Chintalapati Venkata

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming novel bacterial strain 25nlg(T) was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was identified as a member of Firmicutes, being most closely related to Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05(T) (96.6 %) and other members in the genus Bacillus (Bacillus. Strain 25nlg(T) represents a novel member of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25nlg(T) (=KCTC 33413(T) = LMG 27974(T) = CGMCC = 1.12817(T)).

  4. Anaerobic utilization of pectinous substrates at extremely haloalkaline conditions by Natranaerovirga pectinivora gen. nov., sp. nov., and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica sp. nov., isolated from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Panteleeva, A.N.; Kaparullina, E.N.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichments at pH 10, with pectin and polygalacturonates as substrates and inoculated with samples of sediments of hypersaline soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) demonstrated the potential for microbial pectin degradation up to soda-saturating conditions. The enrichments

  5. Three novel bacteriophages isolated from the East African Rift Valley soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Nemavhulani, Shonisani; Cass, James; Cowan, Donald Arthur; Trindade, Marla

    2016-12-03

    Soda lakes are unique environments in terms of their physical characteristics and the biology they harbour. Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. Bacteria were isolated from sediment samples of lakes Magadi and Shala. Three phages were isolated on two different Bacillus species and one Paracoccus species using agar overlays. The growth characteristics of each phage in its host was investigated and the genome sequences determined and analysed by comparison with known phages. Phage Shbh1 belongs to the family Myoviridae while Mgbh1 and Shpa belong to the Siphoviridae family. Tetranucleotide usage frequencies and G + C content suggests that Shbh1 and Mgbh1 do not regularly infect, and have therefore not evolved with, the hosts they were isolated on here. Shbh1 was shown capable of infecting two different Bacillus species from the two different lakes demonstrating its potential broad-host range. Comparative analysis of their genome sequence with known phages revealed that, although novel, Shbh1 does share substantial amino acid similarity with previously described Bacillus infecting phages (Grass, phiNIT1 and phiAGATE) and belongs to the Bastille group, while Mgbh1 and Shpa are highly novel. The addition of these phages to current databases should help with metagenome/metavirome annotation efforts. We describe a highly novel Paracoccus infecting virus (Shpa) which together with NgoΦ6 and vB_PmaS_IMEP1 is one of only three phages known to infect Paracoccus species but does not show similarity to these phages.

  6. Arsenite as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis: Description of three strains of Ectothiorhodospria from Mono Lake, California, and Big Soda Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Shelley; Boren, Alison; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jaime; Stoneburner, Brendon; Saltikov, Chad W; Stolz, John F.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2017-01-01

    Three novel strains of photosynthetic bacteria from the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae were isolated from soda lakes of the Great Basin Desert, USA by employing arsenite (As(III)) as the sole electron donor in the enrichment/isolation process. Strain PHS-1 was previously isolated from a hot spring in Mono Lake, while strain MLW-1 was obtained from Mono Lake sediment, and strain BSL-9 was isolated from Big Soda Lake. Strains PHS-1, MLW-1, and BSL-9 were all capable of As(III)-dependent growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis and contained homologs of arxA, but displayed different phenotypes. Comparisons were made with three related species: Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 2111, Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 243T, and Halorhodospira halophila DSM 244. All three type cultures oxidized arsenite to arsenate but did not grow with As(III) as the sole electron donor. DNA–DNA hybridization indicated that strain PHS-1 belongs to the same species as Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 2111 (81.1% sequence similarity), distinct from Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 243T (58.1% sequence similarity). These results suggest that the capacity for light-driven As(III) oxidation is a common phenomenon among purple photosynthetic bacteria in soda lakes. However, the use of As(III) as a sole electron donor to sustain growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis is confined to novel isolates that were screened for by this selective cultivation criterion.

  7. Sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation under extremely natron-alkaline conditions by syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin, D. Y.; Abbas, B; Tourova, T.P.; Bumazhkin, B. K.; Kolganova, T. V.; Muyzer, G

    2014-01-01

    So far, anaerobic sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at high pH has only been demonstrated for a low-salt-tolerant syntrophic association of a clostridium ‘Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum’ and its hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing partner Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Anaerobic enrichments at pH 10 inoculated with sediments from hypersaline soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) demonstrated the possibility of sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at much higher salt concentra...

  8. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  9. Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Virginia A; Delgado, Osvaldo D; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-03-01

    Strain LBB3(T) isolated from Bogoria soda lake in Kenya is an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, spore-forming bacterium. It was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The organism grows optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95 and 96 % sequence similarity with Bacillus pseudofirmus (DSM 8715(T)) and Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM 485(T)), respectively. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization against these two Bacillus species showed 39.0 and 55.5 % similarity, respectively. Based on our observations, strain LBB3(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. bogoriensis is LBB3(T) (=ATCC BAA-922(T)=LMG 22234(T)).

  10. Bogoriella caseilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic actinomycete from a soda lake in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, I; Schumann, P; Rajney, F A; Martin, K; Schuetze, B; Augsten, K

    1997-07-01

    A new gram-positive, alkaliphilic, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacterium is described. The organism was isolated from soda soil (Lake Bogoria, Kenya) and has the following characteristics. It is nonmotile, not acid fast, halotolerant, and microaerophilic, and optimal growth occurs at pH values between 9 and 10. The peptidoglycan type is of type A4 alpha, with lysine as the characteristic diamino acid and glutamic acid as a component of the interpeptide bridge. The major menaquinone is MK-8(H4). The polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and an unknown phospholipid. 12-Methyltetradecanoic acid is the predominant fatty acid. The G + C content of the DNA is 70 mol%. The results of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons revealed that strain HKI 0088T represents a new lineage in the order Actinomycetales. Therefore, we concluded that strain HKI 0088T should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which we propose the name Bogoriella caseilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain and only strain of this genus and species is HKI 0088 (= DSM 11294).

  11. Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpuram, Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Mothe, Thirumala; Mohammed, Farooq

    2015-02-01

    An alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain AC3(T), was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified that the strain belongs to the class Actinobacteria and was most closely related to Streptomyces sodiiphilus JCM 13581(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii DSM 42122(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces albus NRRL B-2365(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T) (96.0 %), Streptomyces fimbriatus NBRC 15411(T) (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Streptomyces (cream substrate and white aerial mycelia on most tested media. The optimum pH for growth was determined to be 9.5-10.0 with no growth at pH 7.0. The DNA G+C content of strain AC3(T) was determined to be 71.2 mol %. The results of the polyphasic analysis allowed a clear differentiation of strain AC3(T) from all other members of the genus Streptomyces. Strain AC3(T) is thus considered to represent a novel member of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AC3(T) (=KCTC 29497(T) = JCM 30167(T)).

  12. Seasonal changes in the chemistry and biology of a meromictic lake (Big Soda Lake, Nevada, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Cole, B.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Big Soda Lake is an alkaline, saline lake with a permanent chemocline at 34.5 m and a mixolimnion that undergoes seasonal changes in temperature structure. During the period of thermal stratification, from summer through fall, the epilimnion has low concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (N, Si) and CH4, and low biomass of phytoplankton (chlorophyll a ca. 1 mgm -3). Dissolved oxygen disappears near the compensation depth for algal photosynthesis (ca. 20 m). Surface water is transparent so that light is present in the anoxic hypolimnion, and a dense plate of purple sulfur photosynthetic bacteria (Ectothiorhodospira vacuolata) is present just below 20 m (Bchl a ca. 200 mgm-3). Concentrations of N H4+, Si, and CH4 are higher in the hypolimnion than in the epilimnion. As the mixolimnion becomes isothermal in winter, oxygen is mixed down to 28 m. Nutrients (NH4+, Si) and CH4 are released from the hypolimnion and mix to the surface, and a diatom bloom develops in the upper 20 m (chlorophyll a > 40 mgm-3). The deeper mixing of oxygen and enhanced light attenuation by phytoplankton uncouple the anoxic zone and photic zone, and the plate of photosynthetic bacteria disappears (Bchl a ca.10mgm-3). Hence, seasonal changes in temperature distribution and mixing create conditions such that the primary producer community is alternately dominated by phytoplankton and photosynthetic bacteria: the phytoplankton may be nutrient-limited during periods of stratification and the photosynthetic bacteria are light-limited during periods of mixing. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  13. The greatest soda-water lake in the world and how it is influenced by climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioǧlu, M.; Şen, Z.; Batur, E.

    1997-11-01

    Global warming resulting from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the local climate changes that follow affect local hydrospheric and biospheric environments. These include lakes that serve surrounding populations as a fresh water resource or provide regional navigation. Although there may well be steady water-quality alterations in the lakes with time, many of these are very much climate-change dependent. During cool and wet periods, there may be water-level rises that may cause economic losses to agriculture and human activities along the lake shores. Such rises become nuisances especially in the case of shoreline settlements and low-lying agricultural land. Lake Van, in eastern Turkey currently faces such problems due to water-level rises. The lake is unique for at least two reasons. First, it is a closed basin with no natural or artificial outlet and second, its waters contain high concentrations of soda which prevent the use of its water as a drinking or agricultural water source. Consequently, the water level fluctuations are entirely dependent on the natural variability of the hydrological cycle and any climatic change affects the drainage basin. In the past, the lake-level fluctuations appear to have been rather systematic and unrepresentable by mathematical equations. Herein, monthly polygonal climate diagrams are constructed to show the relation between lake level and some meteorological variables, as indications of significant and possible climatic changes. This procedure is applied to Lake Van, eastern Turkey, and relevant interpretations are presented.

  14. Thermal modeling of step-out targets at the Soda Lake geothermal field, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Ryan Kenneth

    Temperature data at the Soda Lake geothermal field in the southeastern Carson Sink, Nevada, highlight an intense thermal anomaly. The geothermal field produces roughly 11 MWe from two power producing facilities which are rated to 23 MWe. The low output is attributed to the inability to locate and produce sufficient volumes of fluid at adequate temperature. Additionally, the current producing area has experienced declining production temperatures over its 40 year history. Two step-out targets adjacent to the main field have been identified that have the potential to increase production and extend the life of the field. Though shallow temperatures in the two subsidiary areas are significantly less than those found within the main anomaly, measurements in deeper wells (>1,000 m) show that temperatures viable for utilization are present. High-pass filtering of the available complete Bouguer gravity data indicates that geothermal flow is present within the shallow sediments of the two subsidiary areas. Significant faulting is observed in the seismic data in both of the subsidiary areas. These structures are highlighted in the seismic similarity attribute calculated as part of this study. One possible conceptual model for the geothermal system(s) at the step-out targets indicated upflow along these faults from depth. In order to test this hypothesis, three-dimensional computer models were constructed in order to observe the temperatures that would result from geothermal flow along the observed fault planes. Results indicate that the observed faults are viable hosts for the geothermal system(s) in the step-out areas. Subsequently, these faults are proposed as targets for future exploration focus and step-out drilling.

  15. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Thiocyanate Oxidizing Thioalkalivibrio Species Isolated from Soda Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Tom; Overmars, Lex; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate is a C1 compound containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is a (by)product in a number of natural and industrial processes. Because thiocyanate is toxic to many organisms, including humans, its removal from industrial waste streams is an important problem. Although a number of bacteria can use thiocyanate as a nitrogen source, only a few can use it as an electron donor. There are two distinct pathways to use thiocyanate: (i) the “carbonyl sulfide pathway,” which has been extensively studied, and (ii) the “cyanate pathway,” whose key enzyme, thiocyanate dehydrogenase, was recently purified and studied. Three species of Thioalkalivibrio, a group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from soda lakes, have been described as thiocyanate oxidizers: (i) Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus (“cyanate pathway”), (ii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans (“cyanate pathway”) and (iii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans (“carbonyl sulfide pathway”). In this study we provide a comparative genome analysis of these described thiocyanate oxidizers, with genomes ranging in size from 2.5 to 3.8 million base pairs. While focusing on thiocyanate degradation, we also analyzed the differences in sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen metabolism. We found that the thiocyanate dehydrogenase gene is present in 10 different Thioalkalivibrio strains, in two distinct genomic contexts/genotypes. The first genotype is defined by having genes for flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase upstream from the thiocyanate dehydrogenase operon (present in two strains including the type strain of Tv. paradoxus), whereas in the second genotype these genes are located downstream, together with two additional genes of unknown function (present in eight strains, including the type strains of Tv. thiocyanoxidans). Additionally, we found differences in the presence/absence of genes for various sulfur oxidation pathways, such as sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, dissimilatory

  16. Data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from newly isolated alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundraj Govindrao Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline proteases are one of the industrially important enzymes and generally preferred from alkaliphilic sources. Here we have provided the data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from five newly isolated and identified alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India. The data provided for optimization of physicochemical parameters for maximum alkaline proteases production is based on OVAT (one variable at a time approach. Alkaline protease production (U/mL recorded by using different agro industrial residues is included in the given data. Further readers can find more information in our previously published research article where we have already described about the methods used and comparative analysis of the data recorded regarding optimized production, characterization and application of alkaline proteases isolated from Lonar soda lake isolates (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2016.06.002 [1]. The data provided here by us is useful to other researchers for setting up various suitable statistical models to perform optimization studies other than OVAT approach.

  17. Analysis of community composition of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline and soda lakes using soxB as a functional molecular marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourova, T.P.; Slobodova, N.V.; Bumazhkin, B.K.; Kolganova, T.V.; Muijzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of soxB gene encoding a key enzyme of the Sox pathway sulfate thiohydrolase has been investigated in pure cultures of various halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in salt and soda lakes in southwestern Siberia and Egypt. The gene was detected in the

  18. Molecular analyses of microbial diversity associated with the Lonar soda lake in India: an impact crater in a basalt area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Aijaz Ahmad; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Siddharth, Jay; Raghavan, Raamesh Gowri; Patole, Milind S; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2006-12-01

    The prokaryotic diversity associated with an Indian soda lake (Lonar Crater Lake) located in a basaltic soil area was investigated using a culture-independent approach. Community DNA was extracted directly from four sediment samples obtained by coring to depths of 10-20 cm. Small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified by PCR using primers specific to the domains Bacteria and Archaea. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. For the bacterial rDNA clone library, 500 clones were randomly selected for further analysis. After restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and subsequent sequencing, a total of 44 unique phylotypes were obtained. These phylotypes spanned a wide range within the domain Bacteria, occupying eight major lineages/phyla. 34% of the clones were classified as firmicutes. The other clones were grouped into proteobacteria (29.5%), actinobacteria (6.8%), deinococcus-thermus (4.5%), cytophages-flavobacterium-bacteroidetes (13.3%), planctomycetes (6.8%), cyanobacteria (4.5%) and spirochetes (2.27%). In the case of the archaeal 16S rDNA library, analysis of 250 randomly selected clones revealed the presence of 13 distinct phylotypes; 5 phylotypes were associated with Crenarchaeota and 8 with Euryarchaeota. Most of the euryarchaeota sequences were related to methanogens. Findings from this molecular study of a site investigated for the first time have revealed the presence of a highly diverse bacterial population and a comparatively less diverse archaeal population. The majority ( approximately 80%) of the cloned sequences show little affiliation with known taxa (<97% sequence similarity) and may represent novel taxa/sequences and organisms specifically adapted to this basaltic soda lake environment. Diversity analyses demonstrate greater diversity and evenness of bacterial species compared to a skewed representation of species for Archaea.

  19. Isolation and properties of obligately chemolithoautotrophic and extremely alkali-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from Mongolian soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D; Tourova, T; Schmid, M C; Wagner, M; Koops, H P; Kuenen, J G; Jetten, M

    2001-09-01

    Five mixed samples prepared from the surface sediments of 20 north-east Mongolian soda lakes with total salt contents from 5 to 360 g/l and pH values from 9.7 to 10.5 were used to enrich for alkaliphilic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Successful enrichments at pH 10 were achieved on carbonate mineral medium containing 0.6 M total Na(+) and < or =4 mM NH(4)Cl. Five isolates (ANs1-ANs5) of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria capable of growth at pH 10 were obtained from the colonies developed on bilayered gradient plates. The cells were motile and coccoid, with well-developed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICPM) and carboxysomes. At pH 10.0, ammonia was toxic for growth at concentrations higher than 5 mM NH(4)Cl. The bacteria were able to grow within the salinity range of 0.1-1.0 M of total Na+ (optimum 0.3 M). In media containing 0.3-0.6 M total Na(+), optimal growth in batch cultures occurred in the presence of a bicarbonate/carbonate buffer system within the pH range 8.5-9.5, with the highest pH limit at pH 10.5. At pH lower than 8.0, growth was slower, most probably due to decreasing free ammonia. The pH profile of the respiratory activity was broader, with limits at 6.5-7.0 and 11.0 and an optimum at 9.5-10.0. In pH-controlled, NH(3)-limited continuous culture, isolate ANs5 grew up to pH 11.3, which is the highest pH limit known for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria so far. This showed the existence of extremely alkali-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the soda lakes. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the five isolates demonstrated that they possess identical 16S rDNA genes and that they are closely related to Nitrosomonas halophila (sequence similarity 99.3%), a member of the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. This affiliation was confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of the amoA gene, encoding the active-site subunit of the ammonia-monoxygenase, of one of the isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization data further supported that the soda lake isolates are very similar to

  20. PERSAMAAN DROP SIZE DI DALAM KOLOM BERPENGADUK CAKRAM (RDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martunus Martunus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perpindahan massa dari satu fase cair ke fase cair lainnya di dalam kolom ekstraksi cair-cair ditentukan dengan luas perpindahan antara kedua fase. Luas perpindahan ini dapat dinyatakan dengan drop size yang merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam perancangan kolom ekstraksi cair-cair berpengaduk (Rotating Disc Contactor, RDC. Tiga model yang berhubungan dengan drop size dikembangkan untuk variabel operasi kolom yang didasarkan pada kecepatan putaran yaitu yaitu model untuk ekstraksi tanpa pengadukan atau pengadukan dengan putaran sangat rendah, model dengan kecepatan pengadukan medium, dan model pengadukan dengan putaran tinggi. Artikel ini berisi pembahasan persamaan drop size yang sudah dipublikasikan menyangkut ketiga kondisi operasi tersebut.

  1. Analysis of community composition of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline and soda lakes using soxB as a functional molecular marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourova, Tatjana P; Slobodova, Natalija V; Bumazhkin, Boris K; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Muyzer, Gerard; Sorokin, Dimitry Y

    2013-05-01

    The diversity of soxB gene encoding a key enzyme of the Sox pathway sulfate thiohydrolase has been investigated in pure cultures of various halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in salt and soda lakes in southwestern Siberia and Egypt. The gene was detected in the majority of strains belonging to eleven SOB genera excluding members of genera Thiohalospira and Thioalkalimicrobium. The uncultured diversity of soxB in salt and soda lakes was low with a majority of detected sequences belonging to autotrophic SOB from the Gammaproteobacteria. In addition, the soxB analysis allowed detection of putative heterotrophic Gamma- and Alphaproteobacterial SOB yet unknown in culture. All clone libraries obtained from soda lakes contained soxB belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio in agreement with the cultivation results. Besides, representatives of the genera Halothiobacillus, Marinobacter, and Halochromatium and of the family Rhodobacteraceae have been detected in both type of saline lakes. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhodobaca bogoriensis gen. nov. and sp. nov., an alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium from African Rift Valley soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, A D; Achenbach, L A; Jung, D O; Madigan, M T

    2000-01-01

    From enrichment cultures established for purple nonsulfur bacteria using water and sediment samples from Lake Bogoria and Crater Lake, two soda lakes in the African Rift Valley, three strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria were isolated; strain LBB1 was studied in detail. Cells of strain LBB1 were motile and spherical to rod-shaped, suggesting a relationship to Rhodobacter or Rhodovulum species, and the organism was capable of both phototrophic and chemotrophic growth on a wide variety of organic compounds. Phototrophically grown cultures were yellow to yellow-brown in color and grew optimally at pH 9 (pH range 7.5-10) and 1% NaCl (range 0-10%). In physiological studies of strain LBB1, neither photoautotrophy (H2- or sulfide-dependent) nor nitrogen fixation was observed. Absorption spectra revealed that all three strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene pathway and synthesized only a light-harvesting (LH) I-type photosynthetic antenna complex. Electron microscopy of cells of strain LBB1 revealed a vesicular intracytoplasmic membrane system, although only a few vesicles were observed per cell. The G+C content of strain LBB1 DNA was 59 mol%, significantly lower than that of known Rhodobacter and Rhodovulum species, and its phylogeny as determined by ribosomal RNA gene sequencing placed it within the Rhodobacter/Rhodovulum clade yet distinct from all described species of either of these genera. The unique assemblage of properties observed in strain LBB1 warrants its inclusion in a new genus of purple nonsulfur bacteria and the name Rhodobaca bogoriensis is proposed herein, the genus name reflecting morphological characteristics and the species epithet referring to the habitat.

  3. Production of extracellular alkaline protease by new halotolerant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 isolated from hyper saline soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnasser S.S. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: A new halotolerant alkaliphilic alkaline protease producing Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was isolated from soda lakes. Optimization of various fermentation parameters resulted in an increase of enzyme yield by 22.8 fold, indicating the significance of optimization of the fermentation parameters to obtain commercial yield of the enzyme. NPST-AK15 and its extracellular alkaline protease with salt tolerance signify their potential applicability in the laundry industry and other applications.

  4. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov.: A New Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate reducing bacterium strain MLF1(sup T) was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrion cells, motile by singular polar flagellum, with sizes 0.5 - 0.6x 1.2 - 2.0 micron occurred singly, in pairs or short spirilla. Growth was observed over the temperature range of +15 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range is greater than 1 - 7 %, wt/vol (optimum 3 %, wt/vol) and pH range 7.8 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.0 - 9.4). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high carbonate concentration in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase negative. As electron donors strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate, ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The sole end product of growth on formate was H2S. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Na2MoO4 inhibits growth of strain MLF1(sup T). The sum of G+C in DNA is 63.1 mol% (by HPLC method). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Desulfonatronum; and the name Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov., is proposed (type strain MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSMZ 14708(sup T).

  6. Screening and Evaluation of Some Green Algal Strains (Chlorophyceae Isolated from Freshwater and Soda Lakes for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramganesh Selvarajan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts and within short periods of time and these can be processed into both biofuels and other useful commercial products. Due to this reason microalgae are considered as a potential source of renewable energy; and one of the most important decisions in obtaining oil from microalgae is the choice of species. In this study, the potential of Chlorophyceae species isolated from freshwater and soda lakes in Hungary and Romania (Central Europe were characterized and evaluated by determining their biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, fatty acid profiles, and biodiesel properties besides protein and carbohydrate productivity. Out of nine strains tested, three accumulated more than 40% dry weight of protein, four accumulated more than 30% dry weight of carbohydrate and the strain Chlorella vulgaris LC8 accumulated high lipid content (42.1% ± 2.6% with a favorable C16-C18 fatty acid profile (77.4% as well as suitable biodiesel properties of high cetane number (57.3, low viscosity (4.7 mm2/s, lower iodine number (75.18 g I2/100 g, relative cloud point (8.8 °C and negative cold filter plugging point (−6.5 °C. Hence the new strain, Chlorella vulgaris LC8 has potential as a feedstock for the production of excellent quality biodiesel.

  7. Cyanobacterial diversity in the hot spring, pelagic and benthic habitats of a tropical soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadheech, Pawan K; Glöckner, Gernot; Casper, Peter; Kotut, Kiplagat; Mazzoni, Camila Junqueira; Mbedi, Susan; Krienitz, Lothar

    2013-08-01

    Hot springs and saline-alkaline lakes of East Africa are extreme habitats regarding temperature, or salinity and pH, respectively. This study examines whether divergent habitats of Lake Bogoria, Kenya, impacts cyanobacterial community structure. Samples from the hot springs, pelagic zone and sediment were analysed by light microscopy, multilocus 454-amplicons sequencing and metagenomics to compare the cyanobacterial diversity. Most of the phylogenetic lineages of Cyanobacteria occurred exclusively in the Bogoria hot springs suggesting a high degree of endemism. The prevalent phylotypes were mainly members of the Oscillatoriales (Leptolyngbya, Spirulina, Oscillatoria-like and Planktothricoides). The Chroococcales were represented by different clades of Synechococcus but not a single phylotype clustered with any of the lineages described earlier from different continents. In contrast, we found that the pelagic zone and the sediments were inhabited by only a few taxa, dominated by Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis. Arthrospira, the main food base of Lesser Flamingo, was detected in all three habitats by amplicons pyrosequencing, indicating its resilience and key role as a primary producer. Despite the close connection between the three habitats studied, the cyanobacterial communities in the hot springs and lake differed considerably, suggesting that they are unable to adapt to the extreme conditions of the neighbouring habitat.

  8. Thiorhodospira sibirica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium from a Siberian soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryantseva, I; Gorlenko, V M; Kompantseva, E I; Imhoff, J F; Süling, J; Mityushina, L

    1999-04-01

    A new purple sulfur bacterium was isolated from microbial films on decaying plant mass in the near-shore area of the soda lake Malyi Kasytui (pH 9.5, 0.2% salinity) located in the steppe of the Chita region of south-east Siberia. Single cells were vibrioid- or spiral-shaped (3-4 microns wide and 7-20 microns long) and motile by means of a polar tuft of flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes were of the lamellar type. Lamellae almost filled the whole cell, forming strands and coils. Photosynthetic pigments were bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin group. The new bacterium was strictly anaerobic. Under anoxic conditions, hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur were used as photosynthetic electron donors. During growth on sulfide, sulfur globules were formed as intermediate oxidation products. They were deposited outside the cytoplasm of the cells, in the peripheral periplasmic space and extracellularly. Thiosulfate was not used. Carbon dioxide, acetate, pyruvate, propionate, succinate, fumarate and malate were utilized as carbon sources. Optimum growth rates were obtained at pH 9.0 and optimum temperature was 30 degrees C. Good growth was observed in a mineral salts medium containing 5 g sodium bicarbonate l-1 without sodium chloride. The new bacterium tolerated up to 60 g sodium chloride l-1 and up to 80 g sodium carbonates l-1. Growth factors were not required. The DNA G + C composition was 56.0-57.4 mol%. Based on physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics, the newly isolated bacterium is recognized as a new species of a new genus with the proposed name Thiorhodospira sibirica.

  9. Bacillus daliensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lei; Liao, Tingting; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-positive, alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain DLS13T, was isolated from Dali Lake in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The isolate was able to grow at pH 7.5-11.0 (optimum at pH 9), in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 2 %, w/v) and at 10-45 °C (optimum at 30 °C). Cells of the isolate were facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming rods with peritrichous flagella. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 43.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DLS13T was a member of the genus Bacillus and most closely related to Bacillus saliphilus DSM 15402T (96.9 % similarity). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain DLS13T and B. saliphilus DSM 15402T was 38.7±1.9 %. Comparative analysis of genotypic and phenotypic features indicated that strain DLS13T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daliensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is DLS13T (=CGMCC 1.10369T=JCM 17097T=NBRC 107572T).

  10. A Maximum Entropy Modelling of the Rain Drop Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Tapiador

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a maximum entropy approach to Rain Drop Size Distribution (RDSD modelling. It is shown that this approach allows (1 to use a physically consistent rationale to select a particular probability density function (pdf (2 to provide an alternative method for parameter estimation based on expectations of the population instead of sample moments and (3 to develop a progressive method of modelling by updating the pdf as new empirical information becomes available. The method is illustrated with both synthetic and real RDSD data, the latest coming from a laser disdrometer network specifically designed to measure the spatial variability of the RDSD.

  11. Baking soda overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  12. Blood drop size in passive dripping from weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Morison, K; Stotesbury, T; Taylor, M C; Williams, E

    2013-05-10

    Passive dripping, the slow dripping of blood under gravity, is responsible for some bloodstains found at crime scenes, particularly drip trails left by a person moving through the scene. Previous work by other authors has established relationships, under ideal conditions, between the size of the stain, the number of spines and satellite stains, the roughness of the surface, the size of the blood droplet and the height from which it falls. To apply these relationships to infer the height of fall requires independent knowledge of the size of the droplet. This work aims to measure the size of droplets falling from objects representative of hand-held weapons. Pig blood was used, with density, surface tension and viscosity controlled to fall within the normal range for human blood. Distilled water was also tested as a reference. Drips were formed from stainless steel objects with different roughnesses including cylinders of diameter between 10 and 100 mm, and flat plates. Small radius objects including a knife and a wrench were also tested. High speed images of the falling drops were captured. The primary blood drop size ranged from 4.15±0.11 mm up to 6.15±0.15 mm (depending on the object), with the smaller values from sharper objects. The primary drop size correlated only weakly with surface roughness, over the roughness range studied. The number of accompanying droplets increased with the object size, but no significant correlation with surface texture was observed. Dripping of blood produced slightly smaller drops, with more accompanying droplets, than dripping water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sufur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. from South-Western Siberian soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Galinski, E.A.; Muntyan, M.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    A chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) strain ALCO 1 capable of growing at both near-neutral and extremely alkaline pH was isolated from hypersaline soda lakes in S-W Siberia (Altai, Russia). Strain ALCO 1 represents a novel separate branch within the halothiobacilli in the Gammapr

  14. Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sufur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. from South-Western Siberian soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Galinski, E.A.; Muntyan, M.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    A chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) strain ALCO 1 capable of growing at both near-neutral and extremely alkaline pH was isolated from hypersaline soda lakes in S-W Siberia (Altai, Russia). Strain ALCO 1 represents a novel separate branch within the halothiobacilli in the

  15. Bacterial tag encoded FLX titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP based assessment of prokaryotic diversity in metagenome of Lonar soda lake, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Dudhagara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity and archaeal diversity in metagenome of the Lonar soda lake sediment were assessed by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP. Metagenome comprised 5093 sequences with 2,531,282 bp and 53 ± 2% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. PRJNA218849. Metagenome sequence represented the presence of 83.1% bacterial and 10.5% archaeal origin. A total of 14 different bacteria demonstrating 57 species were recorded with dominating species like Coxiella burnetii (17%, Fibrobacter intestinalis (12% and Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans (11%. Occurrence of two archaeal phyla representing 24 species, among them Methanosaeta harundinacea (35%, Methanoculleus chikugoensis (12% and Methanolinea tarda (11% were dominating species. Significant presence of 11% sequences as an unclassified indicated the possibilities for unknown novel prokaryotes from the metagenome.

  16. The complete genome of a cyanobacterium from a soda lake reveals the presence of the components of CO2-concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Elena V; Cho, Sung Mi; Park, Youn-Il; Pronina, Natalia A; Los, Dmitry A

    2016-12-01

    At present geological epoch, the carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) of cyanobacteria represents the obligatory tool for adaptation to low content of CO2 in the atmosphere and for the maintenance of sufficient photosynthetic activity. Functional CCM was found in modern cyanobacteria from different ecological niches. However, the presence of such mechanism in species that inhabit soda lakes is not obvious due to high content of inorganic carbon (C i) in the environment. Here we analyze CCM components that have been identified by sequencing of the whole genome of the alkaliphilic cyanobacterium Microcoleus sp. IPPAS B-353. The composition of the CCM components of Microcoleus is similar to that of 'model' β-cyanobacteria, freshwater and marine Synechococcus or Synechocystis spp. However, CahB1 protein of Microcoleus, which is the homolog of CcaA, the carboxysomal β-type carbonic anhydrase (CA) of β-cyanobacteria, appeared to be the only active CA located in cell envelopes. The conservative regions of CcmM, CahG (a homolog of archeal γ-CAs, Cam/CamH), and ChpX of Microcoleus possess single amino acid substitutions that may cause a lack of CA activities. Unlike model cyanobacteria, Microcoleus induces only one BicA-type bicarbonate transporter in response to C i limitation. The differences in the appearance of CCM components and in their characteristics between alkaliphilic Microcoleus and freshwater or marine cyanobacteria are described. The possible reasons for the maintenance of CCM components in cyanobacteria, which permanently live at high concentrations of C i in soda lakes, are discussed.

  17. Drop Size Distribution - Based Separation of Stratiform and Convective Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    For applications in hydrology and meteorology, it is often desirable to separate regions of stratiform and convective rain from meteorological radar observations, both from ground-based polarimetric radars and from space-based dual frequency radars. In a previous study by Bringi et al. (2009), dual frequency profiler and dual polarization radar (C-POL) observations in Darwin, Australia, had shown that stratiform and convective rain could be separated in the log10(Nw) versus Do domain, where Do is the mean volume diameter and Nw is the scaling parameter which is proportional to the ratio of water content to the mass weighted mean diameter. Note, Nw and Do are two of the main drop size distribution (DSD) parameters. In a later study, Thurai et al (2010) confirmed that both the dual-frequency profiler based stratiform-convective rain separation and the C-POL radar based separation were consistent with each other. In this paper, we test this separation method using DSD measurements from a ground based 2D video disdrometer (2DVD), along with simultaneous observations from a collocated, vertically-pointing, X-band profiling radar (XPR). The measurements were made in Huntsville, Alabama. One-minute DSDs from 2DVD are used as input to an appropriate gamma fitting procedure to determine Nw and Do. The fitted parameters - after averaging over 3-minutes - are plotted against each other and compared with a predefined separation line. An index is used to determine how far the points lie from the separation line (as described in Thurai et al. 2010). Negative index values indicate stratiform rain and positive index indicate convective rain, and, moreover, points which lie somewhat close to the separation line are considered 'mixed' or 'transition' type precipitation. The XPR observations are used to evaluate/test the 2DVD data-based classification. A 'bright-band' detection algorithm was used to classify each vertical reflectivity profile as either stratiform or convective

  18. Some New Constraints On The Stratigraphic And Structural Setting Of The Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Churchill County, Nevada - McLACHLAN, Holly S. and FAULDS, James E., Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, H. S.

    2012-12-01

    Our research group is currently conducting a regional survey to identify favorable structural settings of producing and prospective geothermal fields in the Great Basin. The Soda Lake geothermal field - one of the oldest consistently producing fields in this study region - is located in west-central Nevada near the heart of the Carson Sink. Producing and prospective geothermal fields in the surrounding highlands are hosted in 1) fault termination zones (Desert Queen), 2) accommodation zones (Brady's Hot Springs) and 3) fault step-overs (Desert Peak). However, the structural setting is challenging to identify at the Soda Lake field, because it lies in the central part of a large basin with no nearby bedrock exposures. The well field at Soda Lake is centered ~3.5 km NNE of the Holocene Soda Lake maar, from which it takes its name. The geothermal field was identified serendipitously during the drilling of an irrigation survey well in the early 20th century. Modern exploratory drilling at the field began in the mid-1970s and has continued sporadically to the present. There are currently more than 28 500+ m wells at and near the production site. The exceptional drilling density at Soda Lake allows for comparatively reliable correlation of stratigraphy in the subsurface below the feature-poor Carson Sink. Stratigraphy in the Soda Lake geothermal area is relatively "layer cake" at the scale of the well field. Unconsolidated sediments extend more than 1000 m below surface. The upper few hundred meters are composed of fluvial and lacustrine sediments derived from Sierran batholith source rocks. The deeper basin fill derives from more proximal mafic to felsic Miocene volcanic rocks along the basin margins. At ~450-650 m depth, basin sediments are interrupted by a 5.11 Ma trachytic basalt of restricted lateral extent and variable thickness. Most wells intercept ~50-250 m of fine lacustrine sediments below this basalt body before intercepting the basin floor. Basin floor rocks

  19. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion.

  20. Tindallia Californiensis sp. nov.: A New Halo-Alkaliphilic Primary Anaerobe, Isolated from Meromictic soda Mono Lake in California and the Correction of Diagnosis for Genus Tindallia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Kevbrin, Vadim; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul; Cleland, Dave; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halo-alkaliphilic, bacterium strain APO (sup T) was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, soda Mono Lake in California. Gram positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.6-0.7x 2.5-4.0 micrometers which occur singly, in pairs or short curved chains. Cells, are motile by singular subcentral flagellum. Strain APO (sup T) is mesophilic: growth was observed over the temperature range of +10 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range 1-20 %, wt/vol (optimum 3-5%, wt/vol) and pH range 8.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly halo-alkaliphilic, requires sodium chloride in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. Strain APO (sup T) is organo-heterotroph with fermentative type of metabolism, and uses as substrates: peptone, badotryptone, casamino acids, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The main end products of growth on peptone medium were: lactate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol. Strain APO (sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The sum of G+C in DNA is 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). On the bait of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Tindallia; and the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., is proposed for new isolate (type strain APO (sup T) - ATCC BAA_393(sup T) = DSMZ 14871 (sup T)).

  1. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  2. Tindallia Californiensis sp. nov.: A New Halo-Alkaliphilic Primary Anaerobe, Isolated from Meromictic soda Mono Lake in California and the Correction of Diagnosis for Genus Tindallia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Kevbrin, Vadim; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul; Cleland, Dave; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halo-alkaliphilic, bacterium strain APO (sup T) was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, soda Mono Lake in California. Gram positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.6-0.7x 2.5-4.0 micrometers which occur singly, in pairs or short curved chains. Cells, are motile by singular subcentral flagellum. Strain APO (sup T) is mesophilic: growth was observed over the temperature range of +10 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range 1-20 %, wt/vol (optimum 3-5%, wt/vol) and pH range 8.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly halo-alkaliphilic, requires sodium chloride in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. Strain APO (sup T) is organo-heterotroph with fermentative type of metabolism, and uses as substrates: peptone, badotryptone, casamino acids, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The main end products of growth on peptone medium were: lactate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol. Strain APO (sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The sum of G+C in DNA is 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). On the bait of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Tindallia; and the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., is proposed for new isolate (type strain APO (sup T) - ATCC BAA_393(sup T) = DSMZ 14871 (sup T)).

  3. Methylophaga lonarensis sp. nov., a moderately haloalkaliphilic methylotroph isolated from the soda lake sediments of a meteorite impact crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Doronina, Nina V; Boden, Rich; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Murrell, J Colin

    2012-07-01

    A moderately haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium possessing the ribulose monophosphate pathway for carbon assimilation, designated MPL(T), was isolated from Lonar Lake sediment microcosms that were oxidizing methane for two weeks. The isolate utilized methanol and was an aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, motile, short rod that multiplied by binary fission. The isolate required NaHCO(3) or NaCl for growth and, although not auxotrophic for vitamin B(12), had enhanced growth with vitamin B(12). Optimal growth occurred with 0.5-2% (w/v) NaCl, at 28-30 °C and at pH 9.0-10.0. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted primarily of straight-chain saturated C(16:0) and unsaturated C(16:1)ω7c and C(18:1)ω7c. The major ubiquinone was Q-8. The dominant phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Cells accumulated ectoine as the main compatible solute. The DNA G+C content was 50.0 mol%. The isolate exhibited 94.0-95.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of methylotrophs belonging to the genus Methylophaga and 31% DNA-DNA relatedness with the reference strain, Methylophaga alcalica VKM B-2251(T). It is proposed that strain MPL(T) represents a novel species, Methylophaga lonarensis sp. nov. (type strain MPL(T)=VKM B-2684(T)=MCC 1002(T)).

  4. Some comments on the characterization of drop-size distribution in sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J. S.; Lefebvre, A. H.

    An attempt is made to explain and clarify some of the anomalies and misconceptions that are encountered in the literature on drop-size distributions in sprays. The key features and relative merits of the various parameters that have been put forward to describe drop-size distribution, such as the Rosin-Rammler equation, Droplet Uniformity Index, Relative Span Factor, Dispersion Index, and MMD/SMD ratio, are discussed. It is shown that although any suitable diameter may be used as the representative diameter in the Rosin-Rammler distribution function, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) provides the best indication of the atomization quality of a spray.

  5. A general approach to double-moment normalization of drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, G.W.; Zawadzki, I.; Szyrmer, W.; Sempere Torres, D.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2004-01-01

    Normalization of drop size distributions (DSDs) is reexamined here. First, an extension of the scaling normalization that uses one moment of the DSD as a scaling parameter to a more general scaling normalization that uses two moments as scaling parameters of the normalization is presented. In additi

  6. Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

    2014-02-25

    During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for

  7. Drop size distributions and related properties of fog for five locations measured from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, J. Allen

    1994-01-01

    Fog drop size distributions were collected from aircraft as part of the Synthetic Vision Technology Demonstration Program. Three west coast marine advection fogs, one frontal fog, and a radiation fog were sampled from the top of the cloud to the bottom as the aircraft descended on a 3-degree glideslope. Drop size versus altitude versus concentration are shown in three dimensional plots for each 10-meter altitude interval from 1-minute samples. Also shown are median volume radius and liquid water content. Advection fogs contained the largest drops with median volume radius of 5-8 micrometers, although the drop sizes in the radiation fog were also large just above the runway surface. Liquid water content increased with height, and the total number of drops generally increased with time. Multimodal variations in number density and particle size were noted in most samples where there was a peak concentration of small drops (2-5 micrometers) at low altitudes, midaltitude peak of drops 5-11 micrometers, and high-altitude peak of the larger drops (11-15 micrometers and above). These observations are compared with others and corroborate previous results in fog gross properties, although there is considerable variation with time and altitude even in the same type of fog.

  8. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  9. Contrasting tropical cyclone and non-tropical cyclone related rainfall drop size distribution at Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Anil; Walsh, Kevin J. E.

    2016-11-01

    In this study the rainfall drop size distribution (DSD) during the passage of seven tropical cyclones (TCs) over Darwin is compared and contrasted with that associated with non-tropical cyclone (non-TC) events, using the impact disdrometer data at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement (ARM) site. The disparity of the DSD with respect to rainfall types (between TC and non-TC conditions) and distance from TC centre is also examined. It is shown that TC DSDs are statistically different from the non-TC DSDs, the former encompassing a larger concentration of small to moderate drop sizes. The TC mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm) is lower than the non-TC values at all rain rates and also for the different precipitation types (convective, transition and stratiform). The TC DSD varies with distance from the TC centre, as rainfall near the TC centre (< 60 km) comprises of relatively smaller drops which are strongly evident at small to moderate rain rates (< 30 mm h- 1). Such variations in the DSD have implications for the parameters used in the algorithm that converts radar reflectivity to rainfall rate in TCs, as well as for the analytical expressions used in describing the observed DSD employed in cloud modelling parameterizations.

  10. Effect of drop size on the impact thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet in aircraft icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Supercooled large droplet (SLD), which can cause abnormal icing, is a well-known issue in aerospace engineering. Although efforts have been exerted to understand large droplet impact dynamics and the supercooled feature in the film/substrate interface, respectively, the thermodynamic effect during the SLD impact process has not received sufficient attention. This work conducts experimental studies to determine the effects of drop size on the thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet impingement. Through phenomenological reproduction, the rapid-freezing characteristics are observed in diameters of 400, 800, and 1300 μm. The experimental analysis provides information on the maximum spreading rate and the shrinkage rate of the drop, the supercooled diffusive rate, and the freezing time. A physical explanation of this unsteady heat transfer process is proposed theoretically, which indicates that the drop size is a critical factor influencing the supercooled heat exchange and effective heat transfer duration between the film/substrate interface. On the basis of the present experimental data and theoretical analysis, an impinging heating model is developed and applied to typical SLD cases. The model behaves as anticipated, which underlines the wide applicability to SLD icing problems in related fields.

  11. Drop size in a liquid pulsed sieve-plate extraction column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Usman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The (Benzoic acid + kerosene + water system was studied in a 5.0 cm diameter liquid pulsed liquid-liquid extraction column with a total number of 80 sieve plates. The effect of pulsation intensity, dispersed phase superficial velocity, and continuous phase superficial velocity on volume-surface mean diameter was studied. Generally, the mean drop diameter decreased more rapidly with the increase of pulsation intensities and superficial velocities at low pulsation intensities and superficial velocities. However, the effect was not found to be significant at higher pulsation intensities and higher superficial velocities. In the interpretation of the experimental results, the drop size was observed to be a function of the operating regimes (mixer-settler, dispersion, and emulsion of the pulsed sieve-plate extraction column. The experimental mean drop diameters were compared to the most acceptable analytical drop size correlation developed by Kumar and Hartland (1986. The correlation proved to be in good agreement for the column operating in the dispersion regime.

  12. 3D Drop Size Distribution Extrapolation Algorithm Using a Single Disdrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    Determining the Z-R relationship (where Z is the radar reflectivity factor and R is rainfall rate) from disdrometer data has been and is a common goal of cloud physicists and radar meteorology researchers. The usefulness of this quantity has traditionally been limited since radar represents a volume measurement, while a disdrometer corresponds to a point measurement. To solve that problem, a 3D-DSD (drop-size distribution) method of determining an equivalent 3D Z-R was developed at the University of Central Florida and tested at the Kennedy Space Center, FL. Unfortunately, that method required a minimum of three disdrometers clustered together within a microscale network (.1-km separation). Since most commercial disdrometers used by the radar meteorology/cloud physics community are high-cost instruments, three disdrometers located within a microscale area is generally not a practical strategy due to the limitations of these kinds of research budgets. A relatively simple modification to the 3D-DSD algorithm provides an estimate of the 3D-DSD and therefore, a 3D Z-R measurement using a single disdrometer. The basis of the horizontal extrapolation is mass conservation of a drop size increment, employing the mass conservation equation. For vertical extrapolation, convolution of a drop size increment using raindrop terminal velocity is used. Together, these two independent extrapolation techniques provide a complete 3DDSD estimate in a volume around and above a single disdrometer. The estimation error is lowest along a vertical plane intersecting the disdrometer position in the direction of wind advection. This work demonstrates that multiple sensors are not required for successful implementation of the 3D interpolation/extrapolation algorithm. This is a great benefit since it is seldom that multiple sensors in the required spatial arrangement are available for this type of analysis. The original software (developed at the University of Central Florida, 1998.- 2000) has

  13. A general approach to double-moment normalization of drop size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G. W.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Zawadzki, I.

    2003-04-01

    Normalization of drop size distributions (DSDs) is re-examined here. First, we present an extension of scaling normalization using one moment of the DSD as a parameter (as introduced by Sempere-Torres et al, 1994) to a scaling normalization using two moments as parameters of the normalization. It is shown that the normalization of Testud et al. (2001) is a particular case of the two-moment scaling normalization. Thus, a unified vision of the question of DSDs normalization and a good model representation of DSDs is given. Data analysis shows that from the point of view of moment estimation least square regression is slightly more effective than moment estimation from the normalized average DSD.

  14. Creating a Bimodal Drop-Size Distribution in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has demonstrated that they can create a drop-size distribution that matches the FAA Part 25 Appendix O FZDZ, MVD <40 microns normalized cumulative volume within 10%. This is done by simultaneously spraying the Standard and Mod1 nozzles at the same nozzle air pressure and different nozzle water pressures. It was also found through these tests that the distributions that are measured when the two nozzle sets are sprayed simultaneously closely matched what was found by combining the two individual distributions analytically. Additionally, distributions were compared between spraying all spraybars and also by spraying only every-other spraybar, and were found to match within 4%. The cloud liquid water content uniformity for this condition has been found to be excellent. It should be noted, however, that the liquid water content for this condition in the IRT is much higher than the requirement specified in Part 25 Appendix O.

  15. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda Step

  16. A study of the drop size distributions and hold-up in short Kühni columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic behaviour of a short Kühni column was investigated under no mass transfer conditions using the binary system water (continuous phase and Exxsol D-80 (dispersed phase. The counter-current flow pattern of the liquid phases was characterised regarding the Sauter mean drop diameter, drop size distribution and hold-up; a photographic method was used to assess drop sizes. The following operating variables were studied: rotor speed, flow rate of both liquid phases and column stage. The log-normal probability density function was found to be adequate to fit the experimental drop size distributions along the column. As expected, smaller drops and more uniform drop size distributions were obtained with the increase of rotor speed and column stage number, thus indicating the predominance of drop breakage phenomena in short columns. The total hold-up was influenced mainly by rotor speed and flow rate of the dispersed phase. Recommended correlations available in the literature were found to be inadequate for predicting experimental drop sizes and hold-up, so alternative expressions, valid only for short Kühni columns, were proposed.

  17. Variation of rain intensity and drop size distribution with General Weather Patterns (GWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghada, Wael; Buras, Allan; Lüpke, Marvin; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Short-duration rainfall extremes may cause flash floods in certain catchments (e.g. cities or fast responding watersheds) and pose a great risk to affected communities. In order to predict their occurrence under future climate change scenarios, their link to atmospheric circulation patterns needs to be well understood. We used a comprehensive data set of meteorological data (temperature, rain gauge precipitation) and precipitation spectra measured by a disdrometer (OTT PARSIVEL) between October 2008 and June 2010 at Freising, southern Germany. For the 21 months of the study period, we integrated the disdrometer spectra over intervals of 10 minutes to correspond to the temporal resolution of the weather station data and discarded measurements with air temperatures below 0°C. Daily General Weather Patterns ("Großwetterlagen", GWL) were downloaded from the website of the German Meteorological Service. Out of the 29 GWL, 14 were included in the analysis for which we had at least 12 rain events during our study period. For the definition of a rain event, we tested different lengths of minimum inter-event times and chose 30 min as a good compromise between number and length of resulting events; rain events started when more than 0.001 mm/h (sensitivity of the disdrometer) were recorded. The length of the rain events ranged between 10 min and 28 h (median 130 min) with the maximum rain intensity recorded being 134 mm/h on 24-07-2009. Seasonal differences were identified for rain event average intensities and maximum intensities per event. The influence of GWL on rain properties such as rain intensity and drop size distribution per time step and per event was investigated based on the above mentioned rain event definition. Pairwise Wilcoxon-tests revealed that higher rain intensity and larger drops were associated with the GWL "Low over the British Isles" (TB), whereas low rain intensities and less drops per interval were associated with the GWL "High over Central Europe

  18. How does the micro-splashing threshold change with drop size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Sam J.; Pepper, Rachel E.

    2016-11-01

    Micro-splashing is a newly discovered type of splashing that appears within microseconds of first contact between liquid drop and surface, producing tiny droplets with diameters of approximately 10-50 μm. The droplets are ejected outwards at speeds over ten times that of the parent drop. Previously discovered splashing phenomena, like prompt or corona splashing, happen much later in the drop impact and produce larger, slower droplets compared to micro-splashing. A greater understanding of micro-splashing may be important in industry and global health because micro-splashes may, for example, affect the quality of ink printing or contribute to atmospheric aerosolization of particles and toxins. An initial study discovered this new type of splashing, described the nature of the micro-splashes, and proposed a mechanism behind their generation. However, micro-splashing is yet to be fully understood. We use high-speed video to determine how drop size affects the threshold velocity for micro-splashing, as a step towards further understanding this phenomenon.

  19. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  20. Photo-Optical In-Situ Measurement of Drop Size Distributions: Applications in Research and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panckow Robert P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The exact knowledge of Drop Size Distributions (DSD plays a major role in various fields of applications to control and optimise processes as well as reduce waste. In the microbial production of advanced biofuels, oil droplets are produced under turbulent conditions in an aqueous medium containing many surface active components, which might hinder the recovery of the product. Knowledge of DSD is thus essential for process optimisation. This study demonstrates the capability of a photo-optical measurement method for DSD measurement in fermentation broth and in plate separators aimed at cost reduction in the microbial production of advanced biofuels. Measurements were made with model mixtures in a bioreactor, and at the inlet and outlet of a plate separator. In the bioreactor, the method was effective in detecting a broad range of droplet sizes and in differentiating other disperse components (e.g. microbial cells and gas bubbles. In the plate separator, the method was effective in determining the influence of the varied parameters on the separation efficiency.

  1. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2006-10-01

    SummaryDrop size distributions (DSDs) were continuously and simultaneously measured by laser raindrop-sizing instruments (LD gauges) in an open site and in three forest stands consisting of Japanese cypress (CY: Chamaecyparis obtusa), Japanese cedar (CD: Cryptomeria japonica), and sawtooth oak (SO: Quercus acutissima), during three rainfall events in Tokyo, Japan. Drop data during the whole observation period were used in an hourly based data set and divided into three meteorological condition groups: calm, heavy rain, and strong wind. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on the D50 and DSD difference revealed some throughfall DSD characteristics. First, throughfall had different DSDs among canopy species under conditions of little canopy vibration with low rainfall intensity and wind speed; D50 values were 2.00, 2.93, and 3.60 mm in CY, CD, and SO, respectively. Second, throughfall contained smaller drops under conditions of severe canopy vibration, with high rainfall intensity and/or high wind speed, than under calm meteorological conditions. Vibration of the canopy could reduce water coalescence and increase spattered rainwater from canopies. Third, the influence of meteorological factors was different between canopy species; SO was readily influenced but CY was not. Moreover, results from this study implied that throughfall consisted of three drop components - free throughfall, drips, and splash droplets - and suggested a process for generating throughfall DSD that could explain the variations in throughfall DSDs between canopy species and that influenced by meteorological factors.

  2. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  3. Spatial Correlation of Rain Drop Size Distribution from Polarimetric Radar and 2D-Video Disdrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, Viswanathan; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial correlations of two of the main rain drop-size distribution (DSD) parameters - namely the median-volume diameter (Do) and the normalized intercept parameter (Nw) - as well as rainfall rate (R) are determined from polarimetric radar measurements, with added information from 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) data. Two cases have been considered, (i) a widespread, long-duration rain event in Huntsville, Alabama, and (ii) an event with localized intense rain-cells within a convection line which occurred during the MC3E campaign. For the first case, data from a C-band polarimetric radar (ARMOR) were utilized, with two 2DVDs acting as ground-truth , both being located at the same site 15 km from the radar. The radar was operated in a special near-dwelling mode over the 2DVDs. In the second case, data from an S-band polarimetric radar (NPOL) data were utilized, with at least five 2DVDs located between 20 and 30 km from the radar. In both rain event cases, comparisons of Do, log10(Nw) and R were made between radar derived estimates and 2DVD-based measurements, and were found to be in good agreement, and in both cases, the radar data were subsequently used to determine the spatial correlations For the first case, the spatial decorrelation distance was found to be smallest for R (4.5 km), and largest fo Do (8.2 km). For log10(Nw) it was 7.2 km (Fig. 1). For the second case, the corresponding decorrelation distances were somewhat smaller but had a directional dependence. In Fig. 2, we show an example of Do comparisons between NPOL based estimates and 1-minute DSD based estimates from one of the five 2DVDs.

  4. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  5. Rain Rate-Radar Reflectivity Relationship for Drop Size Distribution and Rain Attenuation Calculation of Ku Band Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhani.Immadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increased demand for long distance Tele communication day by day, satellite communication system was developed. Satellite communications utilize L, C, Ku and Ka bands of frequency to fulfil all the requirements. Utilization of higher frequencies causes severe attenuation due to rain. Rain attenuation is noticeable for frequencies above 10ghz. Amount of attenuation depends on whether the operating wave length is comparable with rain drop diameter or not. In this paper the main focus is on drop size distribution using empirical methods, especially Marshall and Palmer distributions. Empirical methods deal with power law relation between the rain rate(mm/h and radar reflectivity(dBz. Finally it is discussed about the rain rate variation, radar reflectivity, drop size distribution, that is made for two rain events at K L University, Vijayawada on 4th September 2013 and on 18 th August 2013.

  6. Mechanisms of liquid sheet breakup and the resulting drop size distributions; Part 2: strand breakup and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielbauer, T.M.; Aidum, C.K. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that both a wave mechanism and a perforation mechanism have been proposed as the first step in the breakup of fluid sheets. For black liquor sprays, the dominant mechanism is the formation and growth of perforations according to either mechanism, cylindrical strands develop and subsequently break up to form drops. By combining the results of analyzing the breakup of both the sheet and strands, only a discrete number of drop sizes can be predicted from the wave mechanism.

  7. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  8. Study of the Variability in the Rain Drop Size Distribution Over a 2.3. km Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Lang, Roger; Meneghini, Robert; Bidwell, Steven; Tokay, Ali; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to study the drop size distribution (DSD) a state-of-the-art instrument arrangement was deployed on Wallops Island, VA. The instrumentation consisted of a 2.3-km multi-frequency microwave link, three impact disdrometers, and a network of optical and tipping bucket raingauges. A dual-frequency inversion technique was implemented with the fink measurements of attenuations at 25 GHz and 38 GHz to estimate the path-average DSD. Concurrently, an X-band, dual-polarization radar, located in the vicinity, collected polarization and reflectively measurements over the link path. The evaluation of the estimates and measurements generated some preliminary results.

  9. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  10. Effects of drop size and measuring condition on static contact angle measurement on a superhydrophobic surface with goniometric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kwangseok; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Do Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jeong Keun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It is not a simple task to measure a contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface with sessile drop method, because a roll-off angle is very low. Usually contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface is measured by fixing a drop with intentional defects on the surface or a needle. We examined the effects of drop size and measuring condition such as the use of a needle or defects on the static contact angle measurement on superhydrophobic surface. Results showed that the contact angles on a superhydrophobic surface remain almost constant within intrinsic measurement errors unless there is a wetting transition during the measurement. We expect that this study will provide a deeper understanding on the nature of the contact angle and convenient measurement of the contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface.

  11. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  12. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  13. Optical Characterization of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injector for Gas Turbine Combustors: Velocity and Fuel Drop Size Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a multipoint, lean direct injection (MP-LDI) strategy for low emission aero-propulsion systems has been tested in a Jet-A fueled, lean flame tube combustion rig. Operating conditions for the series of tests included inlet air temperatures between 672 and 828 K, pressures between 1034 and 1379 kPa and total equivalence ratios between 0.41 and 0.45, resulting in equilibrium flame temperatures approaching 1800 K. Ranges of operation were selected to represent the spectrum of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions projected for the next-generation of commercial aircraft. This document reports laser-based measurements of in situ fuel velocities and fuel drop sizes for the NASA 9-point LDI hardware arranged in a 3 3 square grid configuration. Data obtained represent a region of the flame tube combustor with optical access that extends 38.1-mm downstream of the fuel injection site. All data were obtained within reacting flows, without particle seeding. Two diagnostic methods were employed to evaluate the resulting flow path. Three-component velocity fields have been captured using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), and two-component velocity distributions using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data from these techniques have also offered insight into fuel drop size and distribution, fuel injector spray angle and pattern, turbulence intensity, degree of vaporization and extent of reaction. This research serves to characterize operation of the baseline NASA 9- point LDI strategy for potential use in future gas-turbine combustor applications. An additional motive is the compilation of a comprehensive database to facilitate understanding of combustor fuel injector aerodynamics and fuel vaporization processes, which in turn may be used to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC), among others.

  14. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  15. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  16. The History of Soda Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵余燕

    2007-01-01

    <正>The name soda water tells something of its origins in US.Naturally carbonated(含二氧化碳的)water flows out of the ground in mineral springs around the world.These mineral springs have attracted people in

  17. Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  18. First measurement of the small-scale spatial variability of the rain drop size distribution: Results from a crucial experiment and maximum entropy modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Checa-Garcia, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The main challenges of measuring precipitation are related to the spatio-temporal variability of the drop-size distribution, to the uncertainties that condition the modeling of that distribution, and to the instrumental errors present in the in situ estimations. This PhD dissertation proposes advances in all these questions. The relevance of the spatial variability of the drop-size distribution for remote sensing measurements and hydro-meteorology field studies is asserted by analyzing the measurement of a set of disdrometers deployed on a network of 5 squared kilometers. This study comprises the spatial variability of integral rainfall parameters, the ZR relationships, and the variations within the one moment scaling method. The modeling of the drop-size distribution is analyzed by applying the MaxEnt method and comparing it with the methods of moments and the maximum likelihood. The instrumental errors are analyzed with a compressive comparison of sampling and binning uncertainties that affect actual device...

  19. Experimental Measurements of Drop Size Distributions in 30 mm Diameter Annular Centrifugal Contactor with 30% TBP-Nitric Acid Biphasic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For design and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems, it is essential to have an accurate estimation of hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of the employed contactor. In the present study, experimental evaluations consisted primarily of determining the maximum solution throughput that could be processed without cross-phase contamination at a given rotor speed, O/A flow ratio, and organic-aqueous solution pair in a 30 mm bowl diameter centrifugal contactor. In addition, analysis included experimental drop size determinations as well as holdup determination. The experimental drop size distributions are expected to be helpful for modeling work.

  20. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  1. Hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators; experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, B.; Kraai, G.N.; Winkelman, J.G.N.; Heeres, H.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid hold-up, residence time distributions (RTD), drop size distributions and continuous/dispersed phase for a typical centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) of the type CINC V02 were determined experimentally for various L-L systems. The hold-up ratio of the different solvents was mainly a fun

  2. Hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators : Experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Kraai, Gerard N.; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid hold-up, residence time distributions (RTD), drop size distributions and continuous/dispersed phase for a typical centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) of the type CINC V02 were determined experimentally for various L-L systems. The hold-up ratio of the different solvents was mainly a fun

  3. Robust relations between CCN and the vertical evolution of cloud drop size distribution in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Costa, A. A.; Artaxo, P.

    2008-03-01

    In-situ measurements in convective clouds (up to the freezing level) over the Amazon basin show that smoke from deforestation fires prevents clouds from precipitating until they acquire a vertical development of at least 4 km, compared to only 1-2 km in clean clouds. The average cloud depth required for the onset of warm rain increased by ~350 m for each additional 100 cloud condensation nuclei per cm3 at a super-saturation of 0.5% (CCN0.5%). In polluted clouds, the diameter of modal liquid water content grows much slower with cloud depth (at least by a factor of ~2), due to the large number of droplets that compete for available water and to the suppressed coalescence processes. Contrary to what other studies have suggested, we did not observe this effect to reach saturation at 3000 or more accumulation mode particles per cm3. The CCN0.5% concentration was found to be a very good predictor for the cloud depth required for the onset of warm precipitation and other microphysical factors, leaving only a secondary role for the updraft velocities in determining the cloud drop size distributions. The effective radius of the cloud droplets (re) was found to be a quite robust parameter for a given environment and cloud depth, showing only a small effect of partial droplet evaporation from the cloud's mixing with its drier environment. This supports one of the basic assumptions of satellite analysis of cloud microphysical processes: the ability to look at different cloud top heights in the same region and regard their re as if they had been measured inside one well developed cloud. The dependence of re on the adiabatic fraction decreased higher in the clouds, especially for cleaner conditions, and disappeared at re≥~10 μm. We propose that droplet coalescence, which is at its peak when warm rain is formed in the cloud at re=~10 μm, continues to be significant during the cloud's mixing with the entrained air, cancelling out the decrease in re due to evaporation.

  4. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  5. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the prese

  6. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the

  7. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  8. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21....102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The liquid caustic soda may consist of either 50 percent or 73 percent by weight sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution. The amount of caustic soda used shall be such...

  9. Caustic Soda Will Be Oversupply in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liqin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid output increase There are more than 220 caustic soda producers in China today. At the end of 2006 the capacity of caustic soda in China was 17.61 million t/a. The output of caustic soda was 15.118 million tons in 2006, an increase of 19.0% over 2005 and 1.331 million tons were exported, an increase of 55.8%. Production increased fastest in Northwest China, with growth 51.9% faster than 2005. The output in East China grew 22.9% and 22.3% in Southwest China, both higher than the national average level.

  10. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity.

  11. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  12. Accurate Characterization of Rain Drop Size Distribution Using Meteorological Particle Spectrometer and 2D Video Disdrometer for Propagation and Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Patrick; Notaros, Branislav; Gatlin, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of rain drop size distributions (DSD), with particular emphasis on small and tiny drops, are presented. Measurements were conducted in two very different climate regions, namely Northern Colorado and Northern Alabama. Both datasets reveal a combination of (i) a drizzle mode for drop diameters less than 0.7 mm and (ii) a precipitation mode for larger diameters. Scattering calculations using the DSDs are performed at S and X bands and compared with radar observations for the first location. Our accurate DSDs will improve radar-based rain rate estimates as well as propagation predictions.

  13. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  14. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  15. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  16. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  17. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  18. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  19. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  20. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  1. An update on the dangers of soda pop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of soda pop in the United States continues to increase in alarming proportions with consequent drastic effects on the dentition of many people. Patients should be asked about how much soda pop they ingest. Parents should be counseled on the effects of soda pop demineralization and begin to limit the amounts given to children at home and in schools. The dental team has the expertise and training to intervene with diet counseling, home care instructions and professionally applied fluoride to decrease the potential ravages of soda pop.

  2. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  3. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996). As suggested by Eco (1999), I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific ...

  4. U.S. High School Kids Abandoning Sweetened Sodas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC team said. Despite declines in soda consumption, "intake of other sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy drinks and sports drinks, ... Dietary Guidelines for Americans currently recommends no-added-sugar beverages such ... decline in soda intake was seen across all subgroups -- boys and girls, ...

  5. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  6. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  7. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  9. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  10. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  11. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  12. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Derebail, Vimal K; Shoham, David A; Anderson, Cheryl A; Steffen, Lyn M; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

    2010-04-01

    The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and uric acid. After 3 and 9 years of follow-up, multivariate odds ratios from logistic regressions for binary outcome of hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) were evaluated. Compared to participants who drank less, consumption of over one soda per day was associated with increased odds of prevalent hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. The odds ratio for chronic kidney disease significantly increased to 2.59 among participants who drank more than one soda per day and had a serum uric acid level over 9.0 mg/dl. In longitudinal analyses, however, drinking more than one soda per day was not associated with hyperuricemia or chronic kidney disease. Neither preexistent hyperuricemia nor development of hyperuricemia modified the lack of association between soda drinking and incident chronic kidney disease. Thus our study shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with prevalent but not incident hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease.

  13. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  14. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  15. Damage Development in Confined Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    Elmira, NY). BF is a borosilicate glass manufactured by Schott Glass using a float process. SP float glass is a crystal clear, soda-lime glass . This...2005. 22 21. ASTM £494, "Technique for Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials", July 2001. 22. Schott Glass , Borofloat 33 Thermal Properties...21945 Damage Development in Conf"med Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses Kathryn A. Dannemann1, Charles E. Anderson. Jr. 1, Sidney Chocron1, James

  16. Vertical distribution of optical parameters of aerosol, evaluation of rain rate and rain drop size by using the pal system, at guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Baishya, R.; Takeuchi, N.

    The paper gives in brief, the features of a Portable Automated Lidar (PAL) set up, fabricated and operated at Guwahati (260N and 920 E) a subtropical station, for monitoring of aerosol, cloud and precipitation features and then describes the method adopted for profiling of aerosol and determination of rain rate as well as drop sizes with coupled observation from distrometer and radiosonde. The PAL generates 532 nm laser pulses of 10 ns duration of high repetition rate of 1-2 kHz. The backscattered signals from atmospheric constituents collected by a telescope of diameter 20 cm., and amplified with a Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT), are then processed in Lab View environment by a software for, extracting aerosol and cloud features. For checking and correcting the alignment affected by temperature, provisions are also introduced for easy adjustment of horizontal and vertical axes. In this approach we have evaluated system constant C, from the lidar backscattered signal itself, for an assumed lidar ratio as a first approach, and with extinction co-efficient determined experimentally. Here, the lidar is put for probing the atmosphere horizontally, when we may assume the atmosphere to be homogeneous along the FOV of the lidar. However, as horizontal in-homogeneity of the atmosphere cannot be ruled out, the paper illustrates the type of profiles adopted for such analysis and the lidar being situated in a semi rural area, a methodical screening approach adopted for selection of echograms free from shoot and fossil burning by product is described. Once the backscatter power with distance is known from the selected lidar outputs, σ is evaluated from the slope of the profile associating ``ratio of backscatter power to transmitter power'' with distance r. The methods taken up for realization of β value and then determination of C are elaborated in the paper. The lidar ratio S, is assumed from reported results as a first reference value. This parameter S is then checked for its

  17. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  18. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  19. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cone, Edward J

    2006-03-01

    The caffeine content of 10 energy drinks, 19 carbonated sodas, and 7 other beverages was determined. In addition, the variability of the caffeine content of Coca-Cola fountain soda was evaluated. Caffeine was isolated from the samples by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The caffeine concentration of the caffeinated energy drinks ranged from none detected to 141.1 mg/serving. The caffeine content of the carbonated sodas ranged from none detected to 48.2 mg/serving, and the content of the other beverages ranged from < 2.7 to 105.7 mg/serving. The intra-assay mean, standard deviation, and % coefficient of variation for the Coca-Cola fountain samples were 44.5, 2.95, and 6.64 mg/serving, respectively.

  20. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  1. The Beatability of Wheat Straw Soda and Monoethanolamine Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the beatability of soda and monoethanolamine pulps was compared. The refining of pulps was done in pilot scale Voith refiner Model LR 40. The results show that the maximum tensile and burst indices of monothanolamine pulp are reached with consumption of 70 kWh energy in pilot scale Voith refiner and the increasing of energy more than this level has the adverse effect on these indices. In the case of soda pulp increasing the energy up to 500 kWh has the linear relationship with tensile and burst indices. In comparison to monoethanolamine pulp, the refining of soda pulp is more difficult and needs more energy. Using monoethanolamine pulp resulted in saving of energy by 70-80 % to reach the optimum strength indices.

  2. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  3. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this scenario yet exist, it is only a

  4. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  5. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures.

  6. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  7. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  8. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  9. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  10. Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianren; SUN Yankun; LI Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Researches on models of remediation quickly in soda meadow alkaline soil, and dynamic variation of water-salt in saline soil of Zhaozhou County were studied systematically from 2001 to 2006. Realize the vegetation cover of those years through the artificial planting, mixed seeding lymc grass (Elymus dahuricus Turcz) and melilot in the mode of rotary tillage and deep loosening in lower and medium saline soils. The results showed that there was remarkable relationship between net evaporation (difference of precipitation and evaporation) and total salt content in the soil. The net evaporation could be used as a new method to forecast the dynamics variation of salt to ensure the pasture optimum sowing time. Realize the autumnal vegetation cover of those years through direct planting on the bourgeon layer of soda meadow alkaline soil, on the other hand, the covered pasture made the function of restraining salt and alkaline content to realize the biology reverse succession quickly. Forage seeds were seeded directly on the seeding bed of soda alkaline meadow at the end of July. In fall of the same year, a certain amount of biomass was obtained. The model, which has remarkable economical efficiency and use widely, represented the innovative model for the fast vegetation restoration on the soda alkaline meadow soil.

  11. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  12. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-11-05

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity.

  13. A Simple Ballistic Material Model for Soda-Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    for soda-lime glass devel- oped and parameterized in the previous sections is next imple- mented in a VUMAT Material User Subroutine of the commercial...each element. The essential features of the coupling between the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite-element solver and the VUMAT Material User Subroutine at...state as well as values of the material state variables at the end of the time increment are determined within the VUMAT and returned to the ABAQUS

  14. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    OpenAIRE

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  15. Commentary: Soda taxes, obesity, and the shifty behavior of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan D

    2011-06-01

    Rising obesity is a threat to public health, and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce consumption and thus caloric intake could be a viable policy response. But raising the price of SSB calories will raise the quantity demanded of relatively cheaper calories, and net effect on obesity is unclear. I review the evidence on shifting calorie demand and discuss the viability of soda taxes to achieve improvements in public health.

  16. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-06-01

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s-1. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  17. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  18. Metadata and Buckets in the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.; Robbins, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs), and discuss the role of metadata in SODA. The premise of the SODA model is to "push down" many of the functionalities generally associated with archives into the data objects themselves. Thus the data objects become "smarter", and the archives "dumber". In the SODA model, archives become primarily set managers, and the objects themselves negotiate and handle presentation, enforce terms and conditions, and perform data content management. Buckets are our implementation of smart objects, and da is our reference implementation for dumb archives. We also present our approach to metadata translation for buckets.

  19. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity. PMID:22583859

  20. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  1. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  2. Tratamiento de sodas gastadas sulfhídricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fierro Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Una solución práctica a un problema de contaminación, en el cual se cumplen más de los objetivos previstos ya que la "Joda gastada" se puede reutilizar en varias plantas. Para este fin se realizó una caracterización de las "sodas gastadas sulfhidricas" y tres tratamientos a nivel de laboratorio y planta piloto: neutralización, aireación catalizada y oxidación catalizada.

  3. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India); Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India)

    2012-06-05

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s{sup -1}. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  5. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  6. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  8. Exploration of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure of Lonar Lake: The Only Hypersaline Meteorite Crater Lake within Basalt Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kumbhare, Shreyas V; Mhatre, Snehit S; Chowdhury, Somak P; Shetty, Sudarshan A; Marathe, Nachiket P; Bhute, Shrikant; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2015-01-01

    Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world situated in basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, a comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure in Lonar Lake remains elusive. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet largely consistent communities. Proteobacteria (30%), Actinobacteria (24%), Firmicutes (11%), and Cyanobacteria (5%) predominated in the sequencing survey, whereas Bacteroidetes (1.12%), BD1-5 (0.5%), Nitrospirae (0.41%), and Verrucomicrobia (0.28%) were detected in relatively minor abundances in the Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within the Proteobacteria phylum, the Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundantly detected class (21-47%) within sediment samples, but only a minor population in the water samples. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found at significantly higher abundance (p ≥ 0.05) in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate division TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p ≥ 0.05) were significantly abundant in water samples. Compared to the microbial communities of other hypersaline soda lakes, those of Lonar Lake formed a distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. Here we report for the first time, the difference in composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. An improved census of microbial community structure in this Lake ecosystem provides a foundation for exploring microbial biogeochemical cycling and microbial function in hypersaline lake environments.

  9. Exploration of microbial diversity and community structure of Lonar Lake: the only hypersaline meteorite crater lake within basalt rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj ePaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world created in the basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, the comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure of Lonar Lake remain obscure. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition. The predominance of bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (30% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Firmicutes (11% and Cyanobacteria (5% was observed. Bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes (1.12%, BD1-5 (0.5%, Nitrospirae (0.41% and Verrucomicrobia (0.28% were detected as relatively minor populations in Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundant population (21-47% among all the sediments and as a minor population in water samples. Bacterial members Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were present significantly higher (p≥0.05 in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate_division_TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p≥0.05 were significantly abundant in water samples. It was noted that compared to other hypersaline soda lakes, Lonar Lake samples formed one distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. The present study reports for the first time the different composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. Having better insight of community structure of this Lake ecosystem could be useful in understanding the microbial role in the geochemical cycle for future functional exploration of the unique hypersaline Lonar Lake.

  10. What contributes to excessive diet soda intake in eating disorders: appetitive drive, weight concerns, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa.

  11. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  12. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  13. Recent Alkaline Lakes: Clues to Understanding the Evolution of Early Planetary Alkaline Oceans and Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kazmierczak, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract New models suggest that terrestrial weathering consumes 0.26GtC/a (72% silicate-, 28% carbonateweathering), equivalent to a loss of one atmospheric C content every 3700a. Rapid weathering leads in volcanic areas to alkaline conditions, illustrated by the crater lake of Niuafo`ou/Tonga and Lake Van/Turkey, the largest soda lake on Earth. Alkaline conditions cause high CaCO3 supersaturation, permineralization of algal mats and growth of stromatolites. Alkaline conditions can nearly depress free [Ca2+] to levels necessary for proteins to function. Therefore early oceans on Earth (and possibly on Mars) should have been alkaline (i.e. "Soda Oceans"). Recent findings of MgSO4 in top soils on Mars may be misleading about the early history of martian oceans.

  14. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  15. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed

  16. STRESS RELAXATION AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SODA-LIME GLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.W.Bao; Y.F.Han; F.T.Gong

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation of glass is a dualism effect, it often lead to strength degradation in strengthened glass, but on the other hand, it improves the reliability and stressuniformity of glasses. In this work, stress relaxation of soda-lime glass was investigated using three-point bending tests at 400-560℃ which is near the brittle to ductile transition temperature, for enhancing the safety of glass productions and exploring the most economic anneal process. The experimental results show that the speed of stress relaxation increases but the ultimate stress decreases with increasing temperature. The stress uniformity of the glass samples before and after anneal was examined using spherical indentation at arranged testing points. It indicates that the scatter of the local strength measured by the Hertzian indentation is smaller in the anneal glass than in initial specimen, so that the estimated Weibull modulus for the anneal specimen is higher. Furthermore, the strength evaluation by Hertzian indentation and statistical analysis was presented.

  17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A SODA LIME GLASS THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert FANTOZZI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively to the as received soda lime glass samples, the strength distribution after thermal shocks showed the appearance of a second branch in the Weibull curves. This branch is observed for temperature differences (ΔT equal or higher than the critical temperature difference (ΔTc for both water and motor oil cooling baths. The dispersion is more spread out in these two baths in comparison with the olive oil bath probably because of more pronounced slow crack growth effect. The Weibull modulus varies according to the used cooling bath and the considered temperature difference. In the case of thermal shock caused by air blast cooling at T = 20°C, a bimodal distribution is observed for only the critical state. The initial cracking time, obtained by acoustic emission, corresponds to the unstable propagation of the most critical defect. The number of cracks induced by thermal shock is proportional to the number of acoustic events.

  18. Soda Cans Metamaterial: A Subwavelength-Scaled Phononic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Lemoult

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic or phononic crystals and metamaterials, due to their very different typical spatial scales—wavelength and deep subwavelength—and underlying physical mechanisms—Bragg interferences or local resonances—, are often considered to be very different composite media. As such, while the former are commonly used to manipulate and control waves at the scale of the unit cell, i.e., wavelength, the latter are usually considered for their effective properties. Yet we have shown in the last few years that under some approximations, metamaterials can be used as photonic or phononic crystals, with the great advantage that they are much more compact. In this review, we will concentrate on metamaterials made out of soda cans, that is, Helmholtz resonators of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will first show that their properties can be understood, likewise phononic crystals, as resulting from interferences only, through multiple scattering effects and Fano interferences. Then, we will demonstrate that below the resonance frequency of its unit cell, a soda can metamaterial supports a band of subwavelength varying modes, which can be excited coherently using time reversal, in order to beat the diffraction limit from the far field. Above this frequency, the metamaterial supports a band gap, which we will use to demonstrate cavities and waveguides, very similar to those obtained in phononic crystals, albeit of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will finally show that multiple scattering can be taken advantage of in these metamaterials, by correctly structuring them. This allows to turn a metamaterial with a single negative effective property into a negative index metamaterial, which refracts waves negatively, hence acting as a superlens.

  19. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  20. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  1. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  2. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  3. The Cost Implications of Replacing Soda Lime with Amsorb Plus in Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Ahmed; Stephen Mannion

    2011-01-01

    Background and Goal of the Study. Desiccated soda lime is known to produce toxic compounds when interacting with volatile anesthetic agents. Amsorb Plus does not produce these but is more expensive per unit weight. Materials and Methods. In a prospective cross-over study, we evaluated the cost of using soda lime (Spherasorb, Intersurgical, UK) and Amsorb Plus. In four operating theatres over two 4-week periods, one for each product, we measured sevoflurane consumption, amount of absorbent use...

  4. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  5. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  6. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  7. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  8. Soda-lime glass behavior under laser shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, D.; Guin, J.-P.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nivard, M.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Seisson, G.; Hebert, D.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and modeling the behavior of glass is an issue for certain aeronautical, military and civil applications. For example, parts of satellites and shuttles are made of glasses. During their lifetime, they are subjected to potentially damaging high velocity impacts. To determine the behavior of these structures during and after impact we used instrumented laser driven shock loading performed on high power intensity laser facilities. Transverse shadowgraphs of the front wave propagating inside the transparent material are collected at different times. These shadowgraphs provide information regarding the shock wave velocity. PDV or VISAR measurements provide time-resolved free surface velocity to determine material velocity when the shock wave breakout occurs. For some laser shots, shock wave corresponds to elastic wave then Hugoniot elastic limit may be determined. Under high pressure conditions glass permanently densifies and traces of such a plastic deformation are looked for on the path of the shock wave. Those experimental data are necessary to characterize the material behavior under such conditions and to model the mechanical behavior of glass structures. In this presentation we will present experimental results obtained for soda-lime silica glass samples loaded by laser induced shock.

  9. THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF A SODA LIME GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. MALOU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal shock of a three millimeters thickness soda lime glass using the hot-cold thermal shock technique. The cooling was made by ambient air jet on previously warmed samples. The heat transfer coefficient was about 600 W/°C.m2 (Biot number β = 0.3. The thermal shock duration was fixed at 6 seconds. The hot temperature was taken between 100°C and 550°C while the cold temperature of the air flux was kept constant at 20°C. The acoustic emission technique was used for determining the failure time and the critical temperature difference (ΔTC. By referring to experimental results, thermal shock modelling computations are conducted. Our aim is especially focused on the fracture initiation moments during the cooling process and on the crack initiation sites. The used modeling is based on the local approach of the thermal shock during the experimental data treatment. For each test, the temperature profile and the transient stress state through the samples thickness are determined. By applying the linear superposition property of the stress intensity factors, evolution of the stress intensity factor KI in function of the pre-existing natural flaws in the glass surface is established. The size of the critical flaw is determined by the linear fracture mechanics laws. Computation results confirm the experimental values of the critical difference temperature obtained that is the source of the glass degradation.

  10. SODA-AQ PULPING OF PAULOWNIA WOOD AFTER HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N•m/g and viscosity (848 cm3/g, significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.

  11. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  13. Tracing the geochemical evolution of alkaline Lake Van, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Viehberg, Finn; Plessen, Birgit; Litt, Thomas; Tillman Meyer, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Terminal Lake Van, the world's largest soda basin, is characterised by Na-CO3-Cl water chemistry (Reimer et al., 2008), salinity of ~22 ‰ and high pH of ~9.7. The sedimentary record of the lake goes ca. 600 ka back and documents major climatic events over that period (Stockhecke et al., 2014). Alas, the longevity of the basin does not mean that it persisted unchanged over such a long time. Information collected within the ICDP PALEOVAN project clearly suggests that upon its birth the chemistry of early Lake Van was very different from its modern alkaline equivalent. Here we document, by means of proxy data, the changes in water chemistry in a transforming basin. Results of lithological (Stockhecke et al., 2014) and micropaleontological (ostracod, gastropod and diatom assemblages) analysis, combined with geochemical data (δ18O, δ13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) obtained from the biogenic and authigenic carbonate fraction imply, that early Lake Van was a relatively shallow, fresh-to-brackish and, most probably, open basin. Sedimentological information points to tectonic factors rather than climatic changes responsible for closing the lake ca. 430 ka ago. Reimer, A., Landmann, G., Kempe, S., 2008. Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Hydrochemistry and History. Aquat. Geochemistry 15, 195-222. Stockhecke, M., Sturm, M., Brunner, I., Schmincke, H.-U., Sumita, M., Kipfer, R., Cukur, D., Kwiecien, O., Anselmetti, F.S., 2014. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years. Sedimentology.

  14. Lithographic fabrication of soda-lime glass based microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, L.; Norarat, R.; Napari, M.; Kivistö, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Chienthavorn, O. [Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.whitlow@he-arc.ch [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Glass is an important material for chemical processing and analysis because of its relatively low cost, mechanical strength, chemical inertness, optical transparency, and electrical insulation and temperature resistance far beyond that of most polymeric materials. We have investigated techniques for direct writing with MeV ions on soda-lime glass as well as capping procedures to form closed buried channels suitable for high-pressure driven flow. Exposure and development of open-channel structures was studied using a combination of programmable proximity aperture lithography and different developers. Unlike our previous work on MeV ion beam lithography of natural silica where an 8% w/v HF in aqueous solution was used as a developer, it was found that 6% w/v HF + 0.5% w/v HCl was an effective developer. Addition of HCl to the developer was necessary, presumably to dissolve oxide residues that were insoluble in HF solution. Different capping and bonding procedures to create closed channels that are strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure have also been tested. It was found that capping to create a closed channel could be achieved after thorough cleaning. This was followed by activation in ∼32% w/v NH{sub 4}OH or ∼30% w/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution, drying on a hot plate and bonded under uniaxial pressure in a furnace ramped up and down at 1 °C/min to 575 °C. Activation in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to give better bonding. Other methods using HF lead to poor bonding due to oxide precipitation.

  15. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  16. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  17. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods : The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion : Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  18. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  19. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  20. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  1. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  2. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA). Version 2.0: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.; Zsoldos, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 2.0, is discussed. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system that consists of six program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation. In the current version, three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. Circular and rectangular, off nadir, fixed and scanning sensors are supported. One module produces an interactive three dimensional animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently, Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  3. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  4. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  5. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  7. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.

  8. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  9. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  10. Imploding Soda Cans: From Demonstration to Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Jack F.

    2009-01-01

    A guided-inquiry exercise conducted in both the lecture and laboratory components of a college introductory chemistry course for non-science majors is described. The exercise gave students the opportunity to independently determine the relationship between the temperature of water in an aluminum soda can and the intensity of implosion upon placing…

  11. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  12. First Report of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Leaf and Stem Blight of Tropical Soda Apple in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2006 progressive leaf necrosis was observed in tropical soda apple (SOLVI ) plants in Fort Pierce, FL. Leaves of the five month old plants presented progressive necrosis, then dried out and dropped. Necrosis progressed quickly from petioles through the stems and caused entire stems to di...

  13. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  14. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  15. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several transit

  16. Utilization of arylaliphatic nitriles by haloalkaliphilic Halomonas nitrilicus sp. nov. isolated from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmura, A.; Shapovalova, A.A.; Van Pelt, S.; Van Rantwijk, F.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    An enrichment culture from saline soda soils, using acetate as carbon and energy source and 2- phenylpropionitrile as nitrogen source (PPN) at pH 10, resulted in the isolation of strain ANL-αCH3. The strain was identified as a representative of the genus Halomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria. The

  17. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  18. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several

  19. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  20. Carbon monoxide production from degradation of desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane by soda lime and Baralyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Eger, E I; Laster, M J; Chortkoff, B S; Kandel, L; Ionescu, P

    1995-06-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that soda lime and Baralyme brand absorbent can degrade inhaled anesthetics to carbon monoxide (CO). We examined the factors that govern CO production and found that these include: 1) The anesthetic used: for a given minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)-multiple, the magnitude of CO production (greatest to least) is desflurane > or = enflurane > isoflurane > halothane = sevoflurane. 2) The absorbent dryness: completely dry soda lime produces much more CO than absorbent with just 1.4% water content, and soda lime containing 4.8% or more water (standard soda lime contains 15% water) generates no CO. In contrast, both completely dry Baralyme and Baralyme with 1.6% water produce high concentrations of CO, and Baralyme containing 4.7% water produces concentrations equaling those produced by soda lime containing 1.4% water. Baralyme containing 9.7% or more water and standard Baralyme (13% water) do not generate CO.3) The type of absorbent: at a given water content, Baralyme produces more CO than does soda lime. 4) The temperature: an increased temperature increases CO production. 5) The anesthetic concentration: more CO is produced from higher anesthetic concentrations. These results suggest that CO generation can be avoided for all anesthetics by using soda lime with 4.8% (or more) water or Baralyme with 9.7% (or more) water, and by using inflow rates of less than 2-3 L/min. Such inflow rates are low enough to ensure that the absorbent does not dry out.

  1. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  2. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  3. Cross-sectional association between soda consumption and body mass index in a community-based sample of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eney, Anna E; Tsang, Siny; Delaney, Joseph A; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2017-08-22

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda consumption and BMI for two reasons. First, findings have been based largely on observational and cross-sectional studies, with much less evidence from randomized controlled trials. Second, the reported relationships may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both soda consumption and BMI. In the present study, we used the twin design to better understand the relationship between soda consumption and BMI by accounting for measured and unmeasured confounds in non-experimental data. Associations from genetically informed tests in twins are considered "quasi-causal," suggesting that our confidence in the causal underpinning of the association between soda consumption and BMI has been strengthened. We hypothesized that the association between soda consumption and BMI would be significant both between and within twins. This was a cross sectional study of 5787 same sex adult twin pairs (18-97 years, 66% female) from the community based Washington State Twin Registry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate associations between soda consumption and BMI in the population (the phenotypic association between exposure and outcome among all twins treated as individuals) and within pairs of identical and fraternal twins (the quasi-causal association controlling for between pair genetic and environmental confounds). Among all twins, there was a significant phenotypic association between soda consumption and BMI that held when controlling for age, sex, race, annual household income, and education level (P consumption on BMI was greatly reduced and no longer significant, with a large genetic confound in both men and women (P consumption was associated

  4. 试述小苏打系统加液碱生产工艺%Discussion on Manufacturing Technique of Adding Liquid Caustic Soda in Baking Soda System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林戌梅

    2016-01-01

    将离子膜液碱加入小苏打生产系统进行探索试验,通过不断优化生产条件,对离子膜液碱加入小苏打系统技术进行研究,得出其生产工艺的可行性。%It has been experimented that adds ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in the production system of baking soda. With the increasing improvement of production conditions, the technique of adding ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in baking soda system has been researched. Finally, the feasibility of this technique can be obtained.

  5. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  6. Investigation of migratory bird mortality associated with exposure to Soda Ash Mine tailings water in southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soda ash is a pulverized mineral, commonly referred to as “trona”, and harvested from underground deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Four companies own 5 mining...

  7. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1...materials are spherical beads of didymium glass and soda- lime glass both ranging in particle size from 63 µm to 125 µm. Mixtures are generated by...plate: 0%/100%, 25%/75%, 50%/50%, 80%/20%, and 100%/0% didymium/soda- lime . Analysis methods are linear spectral unmixing (LSU), LSU applied to

  8. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  9. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  10. Laser Micro-Hole Drilling of Soda-Lime Glass with Femtosecond Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Ran; LI Yan; DOU Yan-Ping; FANG Ying; YANG Hong; GONG Qi-Huang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, we have drilled micro-holes from the front and rear surface of soda-lime glass in ambient air. The machined holes have small aspect ratio or irregular inner walls. When the drilling is conducted from the rear surface in contact with distilled water, a good quality micro-hole with a high aspect ratio can be obtained. The corresponding formation mechanisms are investigated.

  11. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-04-19

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  12. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  13. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

    2011-01-01

    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  14. Factors affecting production of compound A from the interaction of sevoflurane with Baralyme and soda lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Kandel, L; Laster, M J; Ionescu, P; Eger, E I

    1996-04-01

    Various alkali (e.g., soda lime) convert sevoflurane to CF2=C(CF3)OCH2F, a vinyl ether called "Compound A, " whose toxicity raises concerns regarding the safe administration of sevoflurane via rebreathing circuits. In the present investigation, we measured the sevoflurane degradation and output of Compound A caused by standard (13% water) Baralyme brand absorbent and standard (15% water) soda lime, and Baralyme and soda lime having various water contents (including no water). We used a flow-through system, applying a gas flow rate relative to absorbent volume that roughly equaled the rate/volume found in clinical practice. Both absorbents, at similar water contents, temperatures, and sevoflurane concentrations, produced roughly equal concentrations of Compound A. Dry and nearly dry absorbents produced less Compound A early in exposure to sevoflurane, and more later, than standard absorbents. Increases in temperature and sevoflurane concentration increased output of Compound A. Both absorbents, especially when dry, also destroyed Compound A, the concentration exiting from absorbent resulting from a complex sum of production and destruction. We conclude that the variability of concentrations of Compound A found in clinical practice may be largely explained by the inflow rate used (i.e., by rebreathing), sevoflurane concentration, and absorbent temperature and dryness. The effect of dryness is complex, with fresh dry absorbent destroying Compound A as it is made, and with dry absorbent that has been exposed to sevoflurane for a period of time providing a sometimes unusually high output of Compound A.

  15. Extraordinary focusing of sound above a soda can array without time reversal

    CERN Document Server

    Maznev, A A; Sun, Shu-yuan; Xu, Jun; Shen, Yong; Fang, Nicholas; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Lemoult et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 064301 (2011)] used time reversal to focus sound above an array of soda cans into a spot much smaller than the acoustic wavelength in air. In this study, we show that equally sharp focusing can be achieved without time reversal, by arranging transducers around a nearly circular array of soda cans. The size of the focal spot at the center of the array is made progressively smaller as the frequency approaches the Helmholtz resonance frequency of a can from below, and, near the resonance, becomes smaller than the size of a single can. We show that the locally resonant metamaterial formed by soda cans supports a guided wave at frequencies below the Helmholtz resonance frequency. The small focal spot results from a small wavelength of this guided wave near the resonance in combination with a near field effect making the acoustic field concentrate at the opening of a can. The focusing is achieved with propagating rather than evanescent waves. No sub-diffraction-limite...

  16. MODELING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA PULP FROM OIL-PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the variables soda (0.5-3.0%, hydrogen peroxide (1.0-6.0% and time (1-5 h in the bleaching of soda pulp of empty fruit bunches (EFB from oil-palm, on the properties of bleached pulps, was studied. Polynomial and neural fuzzy models reproduced the results of brightness, kappa number, and viscosity of the pulps with errors less than 10%. By the simulation of the bleaching of pulp, using the polynomial and neural fuzzy models, it was possible to find optimal values of operating variables, so that the properties of bleached pulps differed only slightly from their best values and yet it was possible to save chemical reagents, energy, and plant size, operating with lower values of operating variables. Thus, operating with 1.13% soda concentration and 2.25% hydrogen peroxide concentration for 3 hours, a pulp with a brightness of 75.1% (8.1% below the maximum and a viscosity of 740 mL/g (10.4% less than the maximum value, was obtained.

  17. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L., E-mail: lesteban@icmm.csic.es [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain); Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R. [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) (Brazil); Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system (<30 {mu}m) composed of a glassy matrix of soda-lime glass containing 20 wt% of silver nanoparticles, under a constant flow (0.21 l/day) of deionizated water at room temperature. The kinetic of silver, CaO and SiO{sub 2} lixiviation followed a Jander model ({alpha}{sup 2}/4 Almost-Equal-To Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 {mu}m with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  18. Wear Behaviour of Nanostructured Polymer-Based Safety Films on Soda-Lime Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Panagopoulos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the automotive and construction industry. One of their main failures is the degradation of their properties due to wear. In this work, the frictional behaviour of these coatings on glass were evaluated and compared to those of bare soda-lime glass. Correlations have been also made between the worn surfaces and weight loss in order to investigate the effect of wear conditions (speed, load on the wear behaviour of these tribosystems. In addition, during the dry wear of soda-lime glass sliding against stainless steel counterfaces, the dominant wear mechanisms were found to be localized adhesion and abrasion, whereas, in the case of the multilayered polymeric coatings localized adhesion, deformation and tearing were observed.

  19. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  20. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Smith, Trever C; Small, Christina M; Thomas, Derek P; Seshu, J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sodA

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  3. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  4. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. All-atom Molecular-level Computational Simulations of Planar Longitudinal Shockwave Interactions with Polyurea, Soda-lime Glass and Polyurea/Glass Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    All-atom molecular-level computational simulations of planar longitudinal shockwave interactions with polyurea, soda- lime glass and polyurea/glass...of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda- lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass...methods, the interaction of shockwaves with material boundaries. Keywords Polyurea, Material interface, Shockwaves, Soda- lime glass Paper type Research

  9. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  10. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping 2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

  11. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  12. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial populations in waters of the former Texcoco Lake, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-Roblero, Janet; Magos, Xochitl; Fernández, Luis; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Molecular techniques were used to compare the compositions of the bacterial communities of the 2 following lagoons from the former soda Texcoco Lake, Mexico: the restored Facultativa lagoon and the Nabor Carrillo lagoon. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed that bacterial communities of the 2 lagoons were different and presented a relatively low diversity. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA genes were constructed, and significant phylotypes were distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A representative clone from each phylotype was partially sequenced. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal sequences revealed that the Facultativa lagoon harbored mainly gamma- and beta-Proteobacteria, low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, and several members of the Halobacteriaceae family of archaea. The Nabor Carrillo lagoon mainly included typical halophilic and alkaliphilic low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria similar to those found in other soda lakes. Several probably noncultured new bacterial species were detected. Three strains were isolated from the Nabor Carrillo lagoon, their partial 16S rDNA sequences were obtained. On this basis, they were identified as Halomonas magadiensis (H1), Halomonas eurihalina (H2), and Staphylococcus sciuri (H3). This is the first study that uses molecular techniques to investigate potential genetic diversity in the Texcoco lakes. In this preliminary evaluation, we infer the presence of alkalophilic, halophilic, or haloalkaliphilic bacteria potentially useful for biotechnology.

  14. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  15. Effects of argon ion irradiation on nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gangopadhyay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores an experimental study for nucleation and non-equilibrium growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix. Ion-irradiation induced recoiling of silver atoms with argon ions (at energy 100 keV facilitates nucleation as well as growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix. Small growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been experimentally observed after the irradiation with higher fluences of the argon ions. Role of the argon ions for the evolution of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been elucidated in the present report. With increase of the argon-ion fluences, while slight athermal growth of the silver nanoparticles has been estimated, drastic increase in the optical responses and Rutherford backscattering (RBS yields of the silver nanoparticles have been observed in the sample with the maximum fluences. Possible correlations of increase of argon-ion fluences and the observed experimental results (optical and RBS, in particular have been explained in this article. Although it has been demonstrated using the silver metal film on a soda-glass substrate as a model example, the non-equilibrium approach of nucleation and ion-beam controlled growth of metal nanoparticles in a matrix should be applicable to other immiscible systems as well.

  16. Geohydrology, aqueous geochemistry, and thermal regime of the Soda Lakes and Upsal Hogback geothermal systems, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, F.H.; Welch, A.H.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    A flow-routing model of the upper Schoharie Creek basin, New York, was developed and used to simulate high flows at the inlet of the Blenheim-Gilboa Reservoir. The flows from Schoharie Creek at Prattsville, the primary source of flow data in the basin, and tributary flows from the six minor basins downstream, are combined and routed along the 9.7 mile reach of the Schoharie Creek between Prattsville and the reservoir inlet. Data from five historic floods were used for model calibration and four for verification. The accuracy of the model as measured by the difference between simulated and observed total flow volumes, is within 14 percent. Results indicate that inflows to the Blenheim-Gilboa Reservoir can be predicted approximately 2 hours in advance. One of the historical floods was chosen for additional model testing to assess a hypothetical real-time model application. Total flow-volume errors ranged from 30.2 percent to -9.2 percent. Alternative methods of obtaining hydrologic data for model input are presented for use in the event that standard forms of hydrologic data are unavailable. (USGS)

  17. Sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation under extremely natron-alkaline conditions by syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Abbas, B.; Tourova, T.P.; Bumazhkin, B.K.; Kolganova, T.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2014-01-01

    So far, anaerobic sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at high pH has only been demonstrated for a low-salt-tolerant syntrophic association of a clostridium ‘Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum’ and its hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing partner Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Anaerobic enrichments a

  18. USING Mg(OH2 IN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxide bleaching of high yield pulps from wood with Mg(OH2 has been developing recently in the pulp and paper industry. However, there is still a lack of data on the application of Mg(OH2 in peroxide bleaching of non-wood fibres. In this work, our purpose was to study the effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The results showed that Mg(OH2 significantly improved peroxide bleaching efficiency (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the H2O2 consumption and selectivity (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the viscosity losses of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The brightness, viscosity, and yield of bleached pulp can be significantly enhanced by increasing the replacement ratio of Mg(OH2. However, at 100% replacement of NaOH with Mg(OH2, the brightness of bleached pulp was much lower than that of the bleached pulp with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When 24 to 73% of the NaOH was replaced with Mg(OH2, the COD of the bleaching filtrate was 11 to 38% lower than that of the NaOH as the sole alkaline source. The lower solubility and alkalinity of Mg(OH2, as well as the reduction of Cu ion content in bleached pulp were proposed as accounting for the favorable effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp.

  19. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  20. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, I. V.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Saygin, M. Yu.; Abroskin, A. G.; Radchenko, I. V.; Straupe, S. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables writing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-sectional profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800-nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides is addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  1. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  2. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  3. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinkin, Alexander; Abroskin, Andrey; Radchenko, Igor; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam-shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables printing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-section profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800~nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides are addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  5. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  6. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar

    2016-01-01

    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  7. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants spontaneously colonizing the soda heap in Jaworzno (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gucwa-Przepióra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the mycorrhizal status of plant species spontaneously established on the soda heap located in Jaworzno (Upper Silesia, Poland are presented. Additionally, the species of arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota extracted from field-collected rhizosphere substrate samples of the heap are showed. Arbuscular mycorrhizae were described in 17 plant species. Five Glomus spp. were recognized in the spore populations of arbuscular fungi isolated. The investigation presented in this paper for the first time revealed Centaurea stoebe and Trifolium montanum to be hosts of arbuscular fungi.

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system positively regulates sodA in response to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Collao, B; Álvarez, R; Salinas, H; Morales, E H; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P; Gil, F

    2013-10-01

    In response to antibiotics, bacteria activate regulatory systems that control the expression of genes that participate in detoxifying these compounds, like multidrug efflux systems. We previously demonstrated that the BaeSR two-component system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) participates in the detection of ciprofloxacin, a bactericidal antibiotic, and in the positive regulation of mdtA, an efflux pump implicated in antibiotic resistance. In the present work, we provide further evidence for a role of the S. Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system in response to ciprofloxacin treatment and show that it regulates sodA expression. We demonstrate that, in the absence of BaeSR, the transcript levels of sodA and the activity of its gene product are lower. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusions, we demonstrate that BaeR regulates sodA by a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  10. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  11. Clay Mineralogy of Shallow Core Sediments of Lake Acigöl, Denizli, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Geredeli, Serpil; Unal, Hatice; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet

    2014-05-01

    Lake Acıgöl is a hypersaline and active industrial salt production lake located in Denizli, Turkey. Lake Acıgöl has been investigated to elucidate the distribution clay minerals under the saline conditions of the lake and carbonate and ophiolitic rocks controlled lake basin. The lake is very shallow and generally characterized by an un-stratified and whole oxygenated water table. Determination clay minerals in the bulk samples via XRD method was not possible due to the their small amount. Therefore, the sequential clay enrichment procedure applied to the bulk samples such as sample dispersion, removal of soluble salts and ions, and particle-size fractionation. The XRD analyses of normal, glycolated and heat-treated shallow core samples show that the dominant clay minerals in the samples to be illite, including the swelling montmorillonite and kaolinite minerals are encountered less frequently. Glauberite, Blodite, Dansite and Nickelblodite have been also identified as soda minerals by XRD studies.

  12. Solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalezov, B. D.; Krasheninin, A. G.; Vatolin, N. A.; Ovchinnikova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that, in the course of developing the technology of pure vanadium pentoxide preparation from manganic vanadium-containing metallurgical slags, their oxidative roasting and cinder formation without alkaline additives are accompanied by the decomposition of spinelides with the formation of manganese meta- and pyrovanadates. Concentrated aqueous solutions of soda ash with an Na2CO3 concentration of 120-150 g/dm3 are accepted as a selective leaching reagent for vanadium from a cinder. Manganese metaand pyrovanadates are synthesized, and the procedure of their preparation is presented. The solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash at C_{Na_2 CO_3 } = 150 g/dm^3 is studied at 20-95°C for pyrovanadate and at 85-95°C for metavanadate. It is shown that vanadium should be leached from converter manganic slags roasted without alkaline metal additives at a leaching solution temperature higher than 95°C. There is a possibility to increase the vanadium content in a leaching solution to 60-80 g/dm3. The results obtained are used in the development of the technology of vanadium leaching.

  13. ER3+-DOPED SODA-LIME SILICATE GLASS: ARTIFICIAL PINK GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeranut Kaewwiset

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Er3+-doped soda-lime silicate glasses of the composition (in mol% (65-xSiO2:25Na2O:10CaO:xEr2O3 (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fabricated by conventional melt quenching technique. The physical and optical properties were measured and investigated. The erbium oxide enters the glass network as a modifier by occupying the interstitial space in the network and generating the NBOs to the structure. The molar volume increases with an increase in Er2O3 content, which is attributed to the increase in the number of Non-Bridging Oxygen (NBOs. The increase of NBOs in the structure generally leads to an increase in average atomic separation. The density, molar volume and refractive index of glasses increased linearly with increasing Er2O3 concentration. The color of glasses was changed from light pink to intense pink as the Er2O3 concentration was increased from 1 to 5 mol%. The Vickers hardness of Er3+-doped glasses was found to be in the range of 450-500 HV. In this study, it can be concluded that the soda-lime silicate glasses doped with high Er2O3 concentration has intense pink color and high value of hardness which is suitable to be cut as gems.

  14. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient pretreatment of Vietnamese rice straw by soda and sulfate cooking methods for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Le Quang; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Hoa, Doan Thai; Hoang, Phan Huy

    2015-02-01

    This manuscript presents a study on alkaline pretreatment of Vietnamese rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw that grows in Northern Vietnam for enzymatic saccharification. The NaOH pretreatment (soda cooking) and NaOH/Na2S pretreatment (sulfate cooking) were applied for rice straw pretreatment, which have relatively similar condition with industrial pulping processes but at lower temperature. Pretreated biomass solid was then enzymatic hydrolyzed by commercial enzyme Cellic®CTec2 (Novozymes) with enzyme dosage of 35 FPU/g to achieve reducing sugars. The suitable condition for pretreatment was found at temperature of about 100 °C, pretreatment time of 2 h, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:10 with active alkali dosage of 20 % of dry rice straw. Under this pretreatment condition, sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis up to 45.33 and 48.92 % over dry rice straw could be obtained after soda cooking and sulfate cooking pretreatment, respectively. Moreover, the changes of components of rice straw after pretreatment were also studied. The crystallinity of cellulose in pretreated biomass solid was calculated from XRD pattern. And the fibril morphology after treatment was revealed by the microscopic observations performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  16. Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatka Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site. This paper provides an analysis of the areal variability of the thickness and selected physical and chemical properties of the mineral cover formed in the process of settling ponds reclamation at the former Krakow Soda Plant “Solvay”. The topsoil is intended to provide a substrate for plants, therefore, its quality is the main determinant of the development for herbaceous and woody vegetation. Areal variability of the topsoil parameters was determined by kriging. In the context of the envisaged direction of management of the settling ponds, the analysis showed that electrical conductivity, thickness of the soil cover and the sand fraction content have potentially the highest impact on the diversification of vegetation. Understanding the spatial variability of the soil cover parameters, that are essential for vegetation, may contribute to increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation and also to cost reduction. Precise selection of the areas unsuitable for plant growth makes it possible to improve soil parameters on limited areas similarly as in the precision agriculture.

  17. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Felföldi, Tamás; Szabó, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemysław; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth of 2 m (both having pH ~11 and ECe up to 423 dS m(-1)) were investigated using culture-based (culturing on alkaline medium) and culture-independent microbiological approaches (microscopic analyses and pyrosequencing). A surprisingly diverse bacterial community was discovered in this highly saline, alkaline and nutrient-poor environment, with the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (representing 52.8% of the total bacterial community) and Firmicutes (16.6%) showing dominance. Compared to the surface layer, higher bacterial abundance and diversity values were detected in the deep zone, where more stable environmental conditions may occur. The surface layer was dominated by members of the genera Phenylobacterium, Chelativorans and Skermanella, while in the interior layer the genus Fictibacillus was dominant. The culturable aerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains isolated in this study belonged mostly to the genus Bacillus and were closely related to the species Bacillus pseudofirmus, B. cereus, B. plakortidis, B. thuringensis and B. pumilus.

  18. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Mikhailova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical and chemical properties. To obtain a product of prescribed quality the process of calcium carbonate deposition was performed of still waste liquid, that is the waste of calcium carbonate production and contain significant amount of calcium ions, and excessive production of the purified stock solution of sodium bicarbonate, which is composed of carbonate and hydrocarbonate ions. Results: The dependence of bulk density and specific surface area of calcium carbonate sediments and degree of deposition from such technological parameters are established: method of mixing the stock solutions, the concentration and molar ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time. Conclusions: The optimal mode of deposition process is determined and the concept of production of calcium carbonate is developed. The quality of calcium carbonate meets the modern requirements of high dispersion, low bulk density and evolved specific surface of the product.

  19. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  20. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  1. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces.

  2. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  3. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krival, Kate; Bates, Crystal

    2012-06-01

    Oral chemesthesis is the detection of chemicals that activate temperature and pain receptors in the oral mucosa. Presentation of orally chemesthetic input has been theorized to stimulate a faster, stronger swallow. We measured differences in peak linguapalatal swallowing pressures, pressure durations, and pressure adjustments in response to two volumes of water and carbonation (in Schweppes® Club Soda) and carbonation + gingerol (in Reed's Extra Ginger Brew) in 20 young adult women. There was a main effect of stimulus on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, F(6,74) = 6.247, p = 0.000, hp(2) = 0.536 (Reed's Extra Ginger Brew > Schweppes Club Soda > water). Rising and releasing linguapalatal pressure durations were greater for carbonation + gingerol and carbonation than for water. Our results add to the evidence that orally chemesthetic beverages influence greater neuromotor activity compared to water during the oral stage of swallowing. Our findings also suggest that there may be some benefit to the cumulative addition of chemosensory agents in a beverage. Clinically, this provides a theoretical basis for considering the use of these or chemically similar beverages as facilitating stimuli in patients who aspirate thin liquids.

  4. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  5. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  6. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  7. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  8. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  9. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  10. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl.

  11. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  12. The Effect of High-pressure Densification on Ballistic-penetration Resistance of a Soda-lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    resistance of a soda-lime glass 301 Proc. IMechE Vol. 225 Part L: J. Materials: Design and Applications angle changes caused by the surrounding atoms and...penetration of the plate by the FSP. The FSP is assumed to be made of AISI /SAE 4340 steel and this material is modelled using a linear EOS, the Johnson–Cook

  13. 降低纯碱铁分的实践方法%Practice Method of Reducing Soda Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁江

    2012-01-01

    传统降低纯碱铁分的方法是通过添加硫化钠和氯化镁,但此方法对纯碱生产会造成以下的负面影响:堵塞炉气系统、出现灰碱、影响重灰生产。根据生产实践,提出降低纯碱铁分新的方法:使用非金属及耐腐蚀金属材料、提高中和水浓度、合理的清洗制碱周期和稳定生产工况,通过减少硫化钠用量,达到延长煅烧炉运行周期,降低生产成本的目的。%The traditional method for reducing soda iron isto add sodium sulfate and magnesium chloride, but this method of soda ash production would cause the following negative effects : blocked furnace gas system, soda ash, effects of heavy ash production. According to the production practice, this paper put forward the new method to reduce soda iron:using non metal and corrosion resistance of metal materials, improving the neutralization of water concentration, reasonable cleaning alkali manufacturing cycle and stablizing production conditions. By reducing the sodium sulfide dosage, prolonging the operation cycle of calcining furnace, the cost of production is reduced.

  14. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  15. A RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF TEA, SMOKING AND SODA ON WEIGHT HEIGHT AND BONE MINARAL DENSITY (BMD OF ATHLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bayram TEMUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate whether incomes of the family, tea, smoke and soda have effect on the weight, height and bone mineral density of athletes. 80 athletes whose average age was 16.62- 0.92 were included. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4 of the subjects was measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA (g/cm. Values of the family income and the daily consumption of tea, smoke and soda in the families of the athletes were researched. Values of weight and height of the athletes were also determined. In the analyses of the data obtained in the study, SPSS 15.0 package program was used. The results of this study demonstrated that there is no relation between the values of smoke, tea and soda with the values of weight, height and BMD. However, despite the lack of a relationship between the BMD values and the family income level, significant correlation was obtained between the BMD values with the height values (p≤0.01 and the weight values (p≤0.05. Consequently it was determined that tea, smoke and soda do not have effects on weight, height and BMD. Hence, it is thought that the lack of effect of smoking on weight, height and BMD could be due to the less daily smoking (1.67-0.79 and less smoking average in the subjects (26.3%.

  16. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  17. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  18. Kinetics of reaction of roasting of soda ash and ilmenite ore concentrate for formation of sodium titanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeaa I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline metals and hydrogen titanates are of great interest for possible applications. The soda ash and Rosetta ilmenite ore concentrate briquette were investigated. The kinetic of formation of sodium titanate was studied in the temperature range 700°C to 900°C.

  19. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  20. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  1. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  3. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  4. The superoxide dismutase SodA is targeted to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent manner by a novel mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Edwards, Anne; Downie, J Allan

    2011-10-01

    The manganese/iron-type superoxide dismutase (SodA) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 is exported to the periplasm of R. l. bv. viciae and Escherichia coli. However, it does not possess a hydrophobic cleaved N-terminal signal peptide typically present in soluble proteins exported by the Sec-dependent (Sec) pathway or the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway. A tatC mutant of R. l. bv. viciae exported SodA to the periplasm, ruling out export of SodA as a complex with a TAT substrate as a chaperone. The export of SodA was unaffected in a secB mutant of E. coli, but its export from R. l. bv. viciae was inhibited by azide, an inhibitor of SecA ATPase activity. A temperature-sensitive secA mutant of E. coli was strongly reduced for SodA export. The 10 N-terminal amino acid residues of SodA were sufficient to target the reporter protein alkaline phosphatase to the periplasm. Our results demonstrate the export of a protein lacking a classical signal peptide to the periplasm by a SecA-dependent, but SecB-independent targeting mechanism. Export of the R. l. bv. viciae SodA to the periplasm was not limited to the genus Rhizobium, but was also observed in other proteobacteria.

  5. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  6. CHLORINE DIOXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE JUTE PULP TO A VERY HIGH BRIGHTNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarwar Jahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2 was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use of Mg(OH2 in the D1 and D2 stages improved the final brightness due to the formation of less chlorate and chlorite during the Mg(OH2- based ClO2 brightening stages. The strength properties of pulp bleached by peroxide in the final stage was slightly better than that from ClO2 as the final ClO2 bleaching stage.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity.

  8. Study of the counting rate capability of MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, R.; Margoto Rodríguez, O.; Park, W.; Rodríguez Rodríguez, A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of three MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass and tested in the T10 beam line at CERN. The detectors consist of a stack of 280 μm thick glass sheets with 6 gaps of 220 μm . We built two identical MRPCs, except one had the edges of glass treated with resistive paint. A third detector was built with one HV electrode painted as strips. The detectors' efficiency and time resolution were studied at different particle flux in a pulsed beam environment. The results do not show any improvement with the painted edge technique at higher particle flux. We heated the MRPCs up to 40 °C to evaluate the influence of temperature in the rate capability. Results from this warming has indicated an improvement on the rate capability. The dark count rates show a significant dependence with the temperature.

  9. Infrared absorption spectra of transition metals-doped soda lime silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, E. M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Hamdy, Y. M.; Zidan, H. M.; Aziz, M. S.; Abdelghany, A. M.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of some prepared undoped and transition metals-doped soda-lime-silicate glasses have been studied in the region of 400-4000 cm -1. IR spectra were analyzed to determine and differentiate the various vibrational modes by applying a deconvolution method to the IR spectra. Although the first sight reveals close similarity between the different transition metal- (TM) doped samples; careful inspection indicates some minor differences depending on the type of TM ions. These observed data are correlated with similar energy of the 3d orbitals of TM atoms in the neutral state and when the atoms are ionized, the 3d orbitals becomes more stable than the 4 s orbitals.

  10. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, padvertising and overweight/obesity. PMID:23305548

  11. Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaobin; XU Weihai; WANG Xinting; HUANG Xinping; DENG Liping; KANG Xinglun; JIANG Zhigang; MA Xuli

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes "white mud" were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R.philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg,and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment.Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

  12. Soft sensor for ratio of soda to aluminate based on PCA-RBF multiple network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Wei-hua; LI Yong-gang; WANG Ya-lin

    2005-01-01

    Based on principal component analysis, a multiple neural network was proposed. The principal component analysis was firstly used to reorganize the input variables and eliminate the correlativity. Then the reorganized variables were divided into 2 groups according to the original information and 2 corresponding neural networks were established. A radial basis function network was used to depict the relationship between the output variables and the first group input variables which contain main original information. An other single-layer neural network model was used to compensate the error between the output of radial basis function network and the actual output variables. At last, The multiple network was used as soft sensor for the ratio of soda to aluminate in the process of high-pressure digestion of alumina. Simulation of industry application data shows that the prediction error of the model is less than 3%, and the model has good generalization ability.

  13. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  14. Purification of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf soda lignin with acidified water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin

    2014-09-01

    In this current study, the soda lignins from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core were recovered by two step precipitation method. The objective of this research is to study the purity of lignin by washing the lignins with acidified water. The purified lignins were undergone characterization by FT-IR, Uv-Vis and XRD. The FT-IR analysis shows that kenaf core has Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit meanwhile EFB has Hydroxyphenyl(H), Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit of lignin. As for XRD analysis, the non-purified shows that the existence of impurities which is salt (NaCl). The UV analysis shows the higher absorbance which lead to the purity of lignin.

  15. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A ShazlyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors.Keywords: pediatric trauma, endophthalmitis, firecracker

  16. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  17. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  18. Tracing potential soil contamination in the historical Solvay soda ash plant area, Jaworzno, Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowska, Katarzyna; Teper, Leslaw; Stania, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study of soil conditions was carried out on 30 meadow soil (podzol) samples from the vicinity of the soda ash heap in Jaworzno, supplemented by analyses of 18 samples of waste deposited on the heap. In all samples, the total content of macroelements (Ca and Na) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as pH were analysed. The element concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The materials examined were neutral to ultra-alkaline. Total accumulations (mg kg(-1)) of chemical elements in the soil vary from 130.24 to 14076.67 for Ca, 41.40-926.23 for Na, 0.03-3.34 for Cd, 0.94-103.62 for Cr, 0.94-35.89 for Ni, 3.51-76.47 for Pb and 12.05-279.13 for Zn, whereas quantities of the same elements in the waste samples vary from 171705.13 to 360487.94 for Ca, 517.64-3152.82 for Na, 0.2-9.89 for Cd, 1.16-20.40 for Cr, 1.08-9.79 for Ni, 0.1-146.05 for Pb and 10.26-552.35 for Zn. The vertical distribution of the metals was determined in each soil profile. Despite enrichment of heavy metals in the uppermost horizon on the top of the heap, the results lead to the conclusion that the relation of historical production of soda ash in Jaworzno to current contamination of the local soil environment is insignificant.

  19. A model for the formation of layered soda-straw stalactites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Paul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate records based upon instrumental data such as rainfall measurements are usually only available for approximately the last 150 years at most. To fully investigate decadal-scale climate variation, however, these records must be extended by the use of climate proxies. Soda-straw stalactites (straws are a previously under-utilised potential source of such data. In this contribution we investigate the structure and formation of straws and look at some issues that may affect the reliability of straw-based palaeoclimate records. We use laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS trace element analysis to document surface contamination features that have the potential to obscure annual trace element variations, and develop a method to reveal the underlying layering. We also use LA- ICP-MS to map the two-dimensional trace element distribution in straws. These maps reveal straw-layer geometry, in which layers are widest at the outside edge of the straw, narrowing and becoming almost parallel on the interior of the straw.Based upon these observations, we present a model for the formation of straws of this type, where rapid degassing of CO2 from the drip extending below the straw forms the wider outer layers. Summers are defined by increased layer widths and higher trace element contents relative to winter layers. In palaeoclimate studies, where such annual variations can be used to construct time-lines, we suggest that, ideally, the outside surface of the straw be analysed where the trace element content difference is greatest and layering is widest.The terminal phase of one straw (FC-02 shows decreasing layer widths and increased trace element contents. These features may also be representative of soda-straw responses to drought-induced decreases in percolation water.

  20. Possible involvement of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (SodA) as a radical scavenger in poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Carina; Arenskötter, Matthias; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Arenskötter, Quyen; Priefert, Horst; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Gordonia westfalica Kb1 and Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 induce the formation of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) during poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) degradation. To investigate the function of this enzyme in G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, the sodA gene was disrupted. The mutants exhibited reduced growth in liquid mineral salt media containing poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) as the sole carbon and energy source, and no SOD activity was detectable in the supernatants of the cultures. Growth experiments revealed that SodA activity is required for optimal growth on poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), whereas this enzyme has no effect on aerobic growth in the presence of water-soluble substrates like succinate, acetate, and propionate. This was detected by activity staining, and proof of expression was by antibody detection of SOD. When SodA from G. westfalica Kb1 was heterologously expressed in the sodA sodB double mutant Escherichia coli QC779, the recombinant mutant exhibited increased resistance to paraquat, thereby indicating the functionality of the G. westfalica Kb1 SodA and indirectly protection of G. westfalica cells by SodA from oxidative damage. Both sodA from G. polyisoprenivorans VH2 and sodA from G. westfalica Kb1 coded for polypeptides comprising 209 amino acids and having approximately 90% and 70% identical amino acids, respectively, to the SodA from Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC(2) 155 and Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665. As revealed by activity staining experiments with the wild type and the disruption mutant of G. polyisoprenivorans, this bacterium harbors only one active SOD belonging to the manganese family. The N-terminal sequences of the extracellular SodA proteins of both Gordonia species showed no evidence of leader peptides for the mature proteins, like the intracellular SodA protein of G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, which was purified under native conditions from the cells. In G. westfalica Kb1 and G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, SodA probably provides protection

  1. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  2. A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Szobot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD. Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo or group B (reverse order. The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100% and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%. Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001. MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.

  3. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Renee Vuillaume; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  4. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  5. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  6. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, M; Nakamura, K; Miura, K; Takamura, T; Yoshita, K; Nagasawa, S Y; Morikawa, Y; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Naruse, Y; Suwazono, Y; Sasaki, S; Nakagawa, H

    2014-02-01

    This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors. During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

  8. Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Matte, Thomas D; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.1 for or =600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.6-3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1-1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

  9. Formation, structural and optical characterization of neodymium doped-zinc soda lime silica based glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamratul, M. I. M.; Zaidan, A. W.; Khamirul, A. M.; Nurzilla, M.; Halim, S. A.

    New glass system of neodymium - doped zinc soda lime silica glass has been synthesized for the first time by melt-quenching of glass waste soda lime silica (SLS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) as precursor glass and Nd2O3 as dopant. In order to examine the effect of Nd3+ on the structural and optical properties, the prepared sample of structure [(ZnO)0.5(SLS)0.5](Nd2O3)x (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and the photoluminescence (PL). XRD pattern justifies the amorphous nature of synthesized glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural evolution of ZnO4 and SiO4 groups. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra reveals seven peaks centered at excitation of electron from ground state 4I9/2 to 4D3/2 + 4D5/2 (∼360 nm), 2G9/2 + 2D3/2 + 2P3/2(∼470 nm), 2K13/2 + 4G7/2 + 4G9/2 (∼523 nm), 4G5/2 + 2G7/2 (∼583 nm), 4F9/2 (∼678 nm), 4S3/2 + 4F7/2 (∼748 nm) and 4F5/2 + 2H9/2 (∼801 nm). PL spectra under the excitation of 800 nm display four emission bands centered at 531 nm, 598 nm, 637 nm and 671 nm corresponding to 4G7/2 → 4I9/2, (4G7/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2 → 4I9/2), (4G5/2 → 4I11/2) and (4G7/2 → 4I13/2, 4G5/2 → 4I11/2) respectively.

  10. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  11. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  12. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  13. Boat Dwellers of Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    IN the south of Shandong Province, Weishan Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China. Under the bright blue sky, it gleams like a large mirror. "As the sun is about to set, Weishan Lake is quiet…" Humming

  14. SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF FOR LINERBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare soda- anthraquinone pulp from kenaf whole stem and to compare the resultant core and bast pulps for linerboard production. Pulping was done under mild cooking conditions (active alkali 12-15% with a cooking time of 30-90 min and a temperature of 160ºC. During the pulping process, kappa numbers ranged from 56.0 to 20.6, while total yields varied from 58.4 to 54.2% with a rejection rate of 2.3 to 0.1%. Based on the quality of pulp produced, kappa numbers 49.4 and 25.4 was selected as symbolic of high and low pulps respectively. The results of the study revealed significant difference between the properties of core, whole stem (KHK and KLK, and bast pulps. Core pulps with low freeness and high drainage time the study found produced sheets with greater density, tensile index, burst index and RCT, with lower light scattering coefficient and tear index than bast pulp. Whole stem pulps showed properties between those of core and bast pulps. Moreover, KLK with high drainage time produced papers with significantly higher strength properties than KHK.

  15. Condensation of Si-rich region inside soda-lime glass by parallel femtosecond laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Kouhei; Kurita, Torataro; Shimizu, Masahiro; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Naoaki; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2014-06-30

    Local melting and modulation of elemental distributions can be induced inside a glass by focusing femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at high repetition rate (>100 kHz). Using only a single beam of fs laser pulses, the shape of the molten region is ellipsoidal, so the induced elemental distributions are often circular and elongate in the laser propagation direction. In this study, we show that the elongation of the fs laser-induced elemental distributions inside a soda-lime glass could be suppressed by parallel fsing of 250 kHz and 1 kHz fs laser pulses. The thickness of a Si-rich region became about twice thinner than that of a single 250 kHz laser irradiation. Interestingly, the position of the Si-rich region depended on the relative positions between 1 kHz and 250 kHz photoexcited regions. The observation of glass melt during laser exposure showed that the vortex flow of glass melt occurred and it induced the formation of a Si-rich region. Based on the simulation of the transient temperature and viscosity distributions during laser exposure, we temporally interpreted the origin of the vortex flow of glass melt and the mechanism of the formation of the Si-rich region.

  16. Fabrication of microlens arrays on soda-lima glasses with a Nd:YVO4laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa; O'Connor, Gerard M.; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We present a laser direct-write technique that is capable of providing microlens arrays on soda-lime glass substrate from one step ablation process, permitting one to shorten the typical times of microlens fabrication with other direct-writing techniques. The technique is based on the combination of a Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser and a galvanometer system for addressing the output beam laser. The geometrical and optical parameters of the microlenses have been measured to characterize the microlens arrays produced on an area of 2 mm×2 mm. Focal length values around 118 μm have been obtained by measuring the sag and the diameter of the microlens with a confocal microscope (nondirect method) or directly, using a microscope objective with a CCD camera. The practicality of both methods is shown in the good agreement between the obtained results for the focal length of microlenses. By using a noncontact profilometer, the surface roughness of the microlens has been measured and compared with that of a glass substrate.

  17. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  18. Bleaching of soda pulp of fibres of Musa textilis nee (abaca) with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; De la Torre, M J; Pérez, I; Ferrer, J L

    2008-03-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of operational variables in the bleaching of soda pulp of Musa textilis nee (abaca) [viz. temperature (55-85 degrees C), bleaching time (30-150 min) and peracetic acid concentration oven dry pulp (0.5-4.5%)] on the kappa number and viscosity of the bleached pulp, as well as on the breaking length, burst index and brightness of paper sheets made from it. For this purpose, we used a central composite factorial design in order to identify the optimum operating conditions. In this way equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the bleaching process were derived. These equations reproduce the dependent variables with errors less than 12% for all, except the viscosity which was predicted with errors less than 18%. Obtaining bleached pulp with the highest possible viscosity (1519 ml/g), and paper sheets with the maximum possible breaking length (6547 m) and burst index (5.00 kN/g), entails using a temperature of 55 degrees C, a peracetic acid concentration of 4.5% and a bleaching time of 150 min. This provides a brightness of 79.90%, which is only 6.53% lower than the maximum possible value (85.48%).

  19. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesser Lenard I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, p Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity.

  20. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  1. Gold nanoparticles on the surface of soda-lime glass: morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, E C; Vitoreti, Douglas; Gouvêa, Paula M P; Caldas, P G; Prioli, R; Paciornik, S; Fokine, Michael; Braga, Arthur M B; Gomes, Anderson S L; Carvalho, Isabel C S

    2012-02-27

    Materials presenting high optical nonlinearity, such as materials containing metal nanoparticles (NPs), can be used in various applications in photonics. This motivated the research presented in this paper, where morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of gold NPs on the surface of bulk soda-lime glass substrates were investigated as a function of nanoparticle height. The NPs were obtained by annealing gold (Au) thin films previously deposited on the substrates. Pixel intensity histogram fitting on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images was performed to obtain the thickness of the deposited film. Image analysis was employed to obtain the statistical distribution of the average height of the NPs. In addition, absorbance spectra of the samples before and after annealing were measured. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the nonlinear absorption index (α2) at 800 nm were obtained before and after annealing by using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan (TM-EZ) technique with a Ti:Sapphire laser (150 fs pulses). Results show that both n2 and α2 at this wavelength change signs after the annealing and that the samples presented a high nonlinear refractive index.

  2. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-Exchange Strengthening of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Karlsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent cations enable efficient ion-exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical, or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda-lime-silicates (SLS such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+, and Cs+ by drawing relations to physicochemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion-exchange rate.

  3. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Wondraczek, Lothar; Ali, Sharafat; Jonson, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  4. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  5. Iron oxide coating films in soda-lime glass by triboadhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J. O.; Arjona, M. J. [Boulevard Bahia s/n esq. Ignacio Comonfort, Chetumal (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, J. M. [Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    In the triboadhesion process the coating material is passed through a rotating cotton mop and the substrate to be coated. The cotton mop rotates at high velocity and exerts pressure on the surface of the substrate. The combined effect of pressure and velocity of the coating mop on the substrate increases its temperature close to the melting point, allowing deposition and diffusion of the coating material within the substrate. After it is deposited, its particles are embedded within the base material forming a thin film composite. The amount of the coating material deposited on the substrate has its maximum at the surface and then decreases as a function of the local temperature within the base material. Bearing this in mind, in the present work, triboadhesion is employed to deposit iron oxide in a substrate of soda-lime glass, with the purpose of determining the feasibility of using this technique for solar control coatings. It was found, through electronic scan microscopy, that a composite material film is formed following the coating direction. Reflectance and transmittance tests were carried out on the glass samples. A 20% difference was found in the visible spectral region (VIS), and a reduction between 10 and 20% in the Near Infrared Region (NIR). These results showed that the triboadhesion is a promising technique for the application of thin films for solar control or solar cells

  6. An Introduction to Symbolic data Analysis and its Application to the Sodas Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Diday

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las descripciones de los datos de las unidades se llaman "simbólicas" cuando son más complejas que las estándar debido al hecho que contienen variación interna y están estructuradas. Los datos simbólicos aparecen a través de diversas fuentes, por ejemplo para resummir grandes Bases de Datos Relacionales por sus conceptos fundamentales."Extracción del conocimiento" significa la obtención de resultados explicativos, por lo que se introducen los "objetos simbólicos" y se estudian en este artículo. Ellos modelan conceptos y constituyen una salida explicativa para el análisis de datos. Es más, pueden ser usados para definir consultas a una Base de Datos Relacional y propagar conceptos entre Bases de Datos. Definimos el "Análisis de Datos Simbólico" (SDA como una extensión del Análisis de Datos estándar a tablas de datos simbólicos como entrada, con el fin de encontrar objetos simbólicos como salida. En este artículo damos un panorama de desarrollos recientes en SDA. Presentamos herramientas y métodos de SDA, e introducimos el prototipo de software SODAS (resultado del trabajo conjunto de 17 equipos de nueve países que participan en un proyecto europeo de EUROSTAT.

  7. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed Spacer and 18S rRNA gene sequences from Lonar lake sediment, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhagara, Pravin; Ghelani, Anjana; Bhavsar, Sunil; Bhatt, Shreyas

    2015-09-01

    The data in this article contains the sequences of fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene from a metagenome of Lonar soda lake, India. Sequences were amplified using fungal specific primers, which amplified the amplicon lined between the 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Data were obtained using Fungal tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) technique and used to analyze fungal profile by the culture-independent method. Primary analysis using PlutoF 454 pipeline suggests the Lonar lake mycobiome contained the 29 different fungal species. The raw sequencing data used to perform this analysis along with FASTQ file are located in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under accession No. SRX889598 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/SRX889598).

  8. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  9. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  10. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  11. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  12. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  13. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  14. Tunable surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoclusters in ion exchanged soda lime glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Ag-glass nanocomposites were synthesized by silver ion exchange and annealing. • SPR of Ag-glass nanocomposites was tuned from 420 to 596 nm by annealing in air. • Subsequent annealing of nanocomposites in Ar + H{sub 2} reversed back SPR to 398 nm. • Formation/dissolution of Ag{sub 2}O nanoshells around Ag nanoclusters lead to tunable SPR. - Abstract: Silver (Ag) nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glass were synthesized by Ag ion exchange followed by thermal annealing. The effects of annealing temperature, time and atmosphere on the plasmonic response, structural and optical properties of silver-glass nanocomposites have been investigated using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As exchanged sample exhibits surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band around 420 nm which showed regular red shift with increase in annealing temperature. A significant red shift of 176 nm (from 420 to 596 nm) and broadening of the SPR peak was observed for annealing in air at 450 °C. XPS studies on air annealed samples confirmed the presence of Ag{sub 2}O in addition to Ag. Subsequent annealing at 250 °C in reducing atmosphere resulted in increase in intensity, narrowing and blue shift of the SPR peak to 398 nm. Our observations suggest that SPR tunability is mainly due to the formation and dissolution of Ag{sub 2}O nanoshells around Ag nanoclusters in the near-surface region of glass during annealing in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, respectively.

  15. Penetration experiments in aluminum 1100 targets using soda-lime glass projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William E.; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    The cratering and penetration behavior of annealed aluminum 1100 targets, with thickness varied from several centimeters to ultra-thin foils less than 1 micrometer thick, were experimentally investigated using 3.2 mm diameter spherical soda-lime glass projectiles at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s. The objective was to establish quantitative, dimensional relationships between initial impact conditions (impact velocity, projectile diameter, and target thickness) and the diameter of the resulting crater or penetration hole. Such dimensional relationships and calibration experiments are needed to extract the diameters and fluxes of hypervelocity particles from space-exposed surfaces and to predict the performance of certain collisional shields. The cratering behavior of aluminum 1100 is fairly well predicted. However, crater depth is modestly deeper for our silicate impactors than the canonical value based on aluminum projectiles and aluminum 6061-T6 targets. The ballistic-limit thickness was also different. These differences attest to the great sensitivity of detailed crater geometry and penetration behavior on the physical properties of both the target and impactor. Each penetration experiment was equipped with a witness plate to monitor the nature of the debris plume emanating from the rear of the target. This plume consists of both projectile fragments and target debris. Both penetration hole and witness-plate spray patterns systematically evolve in response to projectile diameter/target thickness. The relative dimensions of the projectile and target totally dominate the experimental products documented in this report; impact velocity is an important contributor as well to the evolution of penetration holes, but is of subordinate significance for the witness-plate spray patterns.

  16. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  18. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  19. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  20. PROPOSAL OF BROWNFIELD LAND DEVELOPMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LANDFILLS OF FORMER KRAKOW SODA WORKS „SOLVAY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gliniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.

  1. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  2. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  3. 离子膜法烧碱工艺改进%Process improvement of exchange membrane caustic soda production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琼武

    2012-01-01

    Through addition of titanium heat exchanger, the steam condensed water recovery and utilization, vacuum dechlorination pipe renovation measures,the ionic membrane caustic soda device stable operation. Reduces energy consumption, improves the economic benefit.%通过新增钛换热器、蒸汽冷凝水回收利用、真空脱氯氯水管改造等措施,保证了离子膜烧碱生产装置的平稳运行,降低了能耗,提高了经济效益。

  4. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  5. Production process for 200kt/a heavy soda with low-salt%200kt/a低盐重质纯碱生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清菊; 李振宁

    2001-01-01

    介绍了200kt/a“固体进料离心分离一水碱法”低盐重质纯碱的生产工艺及其特点,并对该装置主要设备与控制要点进行了分析。原料一水碱水分含量要求为18%~22%,成品盐份控制在0.3%以下。%The production process and characteristics of 200kt/a heavy soda with low-salt by solid feeding and centrifuge separation of monhydrate soda were introduced, and the main equipment and controlling main point of the installation were analysed. Water content of material monohydrate soda was 18%~19%,and salt content of product was controlled to lower than 0.3%.

  6. Self-reported use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits to purchase soda in a public health center population: Los Angeles County, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel; Gase, Lauren; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Lisa; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To better inform local program planning for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used self-reported data from a public health center population to examine the prevalence of benefits used to purchase soda. We performed statistical analyses, including multivariable regression modeling, using data from a local health and nutrition examination survey. The survey response rate was 69% (n=1,503). More than one-third of survey participants reported receiving, or living in a household where someone receives, nutrition assistance benefits. When asked, 33% (n=170) reported using these benefits to purchase soda "sometimes" and 18% (n=91) reported "often" or "always," suggesting that the use of program benefits to purchase soda was not uncommon in this subpopulation. These findings have meaningful policy and planning implications, as they contribute to ongoing dialogue about strategies for optimizing nutrition among SNAP recipients.

  7. Characterization of waste of soda-lime glass generated from lapping process to reuse as filler in composite materials as thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. P. Galvão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe beneficiation plate process by soda-lime glass lapping in the glass industry generates, an untapped residue (waste. The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing impact on the environment. This work aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of soda-lime glass (GP lapping. After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and further characterized by the chemical/mineralogical analysis (XRF, EDS and XRD, SEM morphology, particle size by laser diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA and DSC and thermophysical analyses. It was observed that the GP particles are irregular and micrometric with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca elements characteristic of amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical/mineralogical, morphological, thermophysical and thermal gravimetric characteristics of GP suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulation.

  8. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  9. World largest KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler, generating high pressure and high temperature steam. For the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co. Ltd.; Sekai saidaikyu no koatsu koon soda kaishu boiler. Nippon seishi (kabu) Iwakuni kojo dono muke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirokawa, M.; Matsuda, T.; Masuda, T.; Suemitsu, N.; Makito, Y.; Tanihara, T.; Asada, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-15

    This paper presents the important notices in design and issues on the large KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler under construction for the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. This soda recovery boiler is the largest one in volume in Japan, and the highest one in pressure and temperature in the world. Since saturation temperature rises with steam pressure, corrosion resistance of the water cooling wall of a combustion chamber should be considered enough. This boiler thus adopts the double contact tube with an outer tube of SUS310 most superior in corrosion resistance. Alkaline molten salt corrosion of a superheater is one of the most severe problems on steam temperature rise. This boiler thus adopts SUS309J2TB superior in alkaline molten salt corrosion resistance for the highest-temperature portion of a superheater and the lower U bent subjected to radiant heat from a combustion chamber. Flow in a furnace and stress of a superheater were analyzed using computer for scale-up of boiler and preliminary verification. 1 ref., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  11. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  12. Lake Transect : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Lists of the plant species found at...

  13. Lake Transect : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. Lists of the plant species found at...

  14. Lake Transect : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. Lists of the plant species found...

  15. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  16. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  17. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  18. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  19. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  20. WHISKER LAKE WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.

  1. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Cottingham

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  2. Integrated removal of inorganic contaminants from acid mine drainage using BOF slag, lime, soda ash and reverse osmosis (RO): Implication for the production of drinking water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available , Finland IMWA 2017Mine Water and Circular Economy Wolkersdorfer C, Sartz L, Sillanpää M, Häkkinen A (Editors) Integrated removal of inorganic contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage using BOF Slag, Lime, Soda ash and Reverse Osmosis (RO): Implication... was reduced from 18000 to 4000 mg/L hence requiring another purification technology. Hardness was reduced using lime and soda ash. Reverse Osmosis (RO) was used to further clean the water to drinking standard. A single pass two element RO system...

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  4. Beyond baking soda: Demonstrating the link between volcanic eruptions and viscosity to all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Walters, R. L.; Harpp, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Public interest in volcanic eruptions and societal relevance of volcanic hazards provide an excellent basis for successful earth science outreach. During a museum-based earth science outreach event free and open to the public, we used two new interactive experiments to illustrate the relationship between gas content, magma viscosity, and eruption style. Learning objectives for visitors are to understand: how gas drives volcanic eruptions, the differences between effusive and explosive eruption styles, viscosity's control on gas pressure within a magma reservoir, and the role of gas pressure on eruption style. Visitors apply the scientific method by asking research questions and testing hypotheses by conducting the experiments. The demonstrations are framed with real life examples of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980), providing context for the scientific concepts. The first activity demonstrates the concept of fluid viscosity and how gas interacts with fluids of different viscosities. Visitors blow bubbles into water and corn syrup. The corn syrup is so viscous that bubbles are trapped, showing how a more viscous material builds up higher gas pressure. Visitors are asked which kind of magma (high or low viscosity) will produce an explosive eruption. To demonstrate an explosive eruption, visitors add an Alka-Seltzer tablet to water in a snap-top film canister. The reaction rapidly produces carbon dioxide gas, increasing pressure in the canister until the lid pops off and the canister launches a few meters into the air (tinyurl.com/nzsgfoe). Increasing gas pressure in the canister is analogous to gas pressure building within a magma reservoir beneath a volcano. The lid represents high-viscosity magma that prevents degassing, causing gas pressure to reach explosive levels. This interactive activity is combined with a display of an effusive eruption: add vinegar to baking soda in a model volcano to produce a quick-flowing eruption. These

  5. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carpenter, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brandon, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zavala, Bernie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  6. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  7. Tewaukon – Clouds LakeLake Elsie – Storm Lake and Wild Rice Refuges Narrative Reports : 1939-1956 : From Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These narrative reports summarize refuge activities from 1939 to 1956 for Lake Tewaukon Refuge, Clouds Lake Refuge, Lake Elsie Refuge, Storm Lake Refuge, Wild Rice...

  8. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF WOODY VEGETATION ON SODA WASTE DUMPS IN RELATION TO SPATIAL VARIATION IN SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE MINERAL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Zając

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of woody plants in the course of succession on reclaimed soda waste dumps by use of mineral cover was analyzed. The spatial variation in the thickness and granulometric composition of the mineral cover was analysed by the Kriging method. The statistical measurements and geostatistical analysis were used to create maps showing areal variability for the parameters analysed. Analysis of the development of woody vegetation was based on field work and raster layers created on the basis of aerial photographs. No link was found between the parameters of the mineral cover and the distribution and development of spontaneous woody vegetation. The species composition in the study area is limited, and dominated by pioneer species, mainly the expansive black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia. Given that the soda waste disposal site is to be used as urban green spaces, the target ecosystem structure must be considered and a suitable course of action selected: further reclamation procedures improving substrate quality and enrichment of the species composition of the tree stand, or management involving sustaining the current state while controlling the course of natural succession of vegetation.

  10. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  11. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  13. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. SATELLITE LAKES OF LAKE VICTORIA BASIN (TANZANIAN SIDE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake ... species of blue green algae such as Spirulina spp. are sources of ... scientific and conservation interests. This study ...

  18. High levels of interspecific gene flow in an endemic cichlid fish adaptive radiation from an extreme lake environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Antonia G P; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Rüber, Lukas; Gharbi, Karim; Cezard, Timothee; Day, Julia J

    2015-07-01

    Studying recent adaptive radiations in isolated insular systems avoids complicating causal events and thus may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we investigate evolutionary relationships and genomic differentiation within the recent radiation of Alcolapia cichlid fish that exhibit extensive phenotypic diversification, and which are confined to the extreme soda lakes Magadi and Natron in East Africa. We generated an extensive RAD data set of 96 individuals from multiple sampling sites and found evidence for genetic admixture between species within Lake Natron, with the highest levels of admixture between sympatric populations of the most recently diverged species. Despite considerable environmental separation, populations within Lake Natron do not exhibit isolation by distance, indicating panmixia within the lake, although individuals within lineages clustered by population in phylogenomic analysis. Our results indicate exceptionally low genetic differentiation across the radiation despite considerable phenotypic trophic variation, supporting previous findings from smaller data sets; however, with the increased power of densely sampled SNPs, we identify genomic peaks of differentiation (FST outliers) between Alcolapia species. While evidence of ongoing gene flow and interspecies hybridization in certain populations suggests that Alcolapia species are incompletely reproductively isolated, the identification of outlier SNPs under diversifying selection indicates the radiation is undergoing adaptive divergence.

  19. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  20. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  1. Lake Erie Fish Community Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  2. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  3. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  5. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  6. Effects of light intensity on Tropical Soda Apple and the consequences for performance of its biological control agent, Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current research was directed at determining the impact of light intensity on the architecture, amino acid content and trichome density and characteristics of Tropical Soda Apple (TSA), Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). TSA plants were grown in a greenhouse either covered with a shade cloth (75% bloc...

  7. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  8. Evaluation of mortality factors using life table analysis of Gratiana boliviana, a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), has invaded many pastures and natural areas in Florida. The biological control agent Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is providing adequate control of TSA stands in South and Central Florida. However, poor or no es...

  9. Influence of sun and shade conditions on Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance and feeding activity on tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...

  10. Preparation of soda-lime glass using rock wool waste; Preparacao de vidros sodo-calcicos utilizando residuo de la de rocha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, F.C.; Della, V.P. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ballmann, T.J.S.; Folgueras, M.V. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Junkes, J.A., E-mail: janajunkes@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Tiradentes, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Discarded by the mining industry during the maintenance stoppages of pelletizing furnaces, rock wool has in its composition SiO{sub 2} (56%), Na{sub 2} O (12%) and CaO (7%) propitious for obtaining soda-lime glasses. Under this focus, this work developed soda-lime glasses formulations, using as main raw-material rock wool waste in proportions from 50 to 100% by adjusting the chemical composition of the formulations with sand, sodium and calcium carbonates, as silica, soda and lime sources, respectively. In some formulations the sodium carbonate was replaced by sodium sulfate, which acts as a refining agent, improving homogenization and reducing the bubble formation during the melting. Initially, the raw-materials were evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The tests showed that the rock wool waste has potential to be used in soda-lime glasses production, however, the chemical composition must be corrected. After knowing the waste potential, seven mixtures were prepared and molten at 1550 °C for 1 to 2 h. It has been found that the maximum rock wool waste percentage that can be used is between 60 and 80%, and that the 2 h melting time resulted in more homogeneous glasses and fewer bubbles according to the addition of sodium sulfate which is efficient for bubbles removal. (author)

  11. Rectifying systems of ionic membrane caustic soda synchronized debugging%离子膜烧碱整流系统同步调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琦; 孔强; 王小红

    2011-01-01

    论述了离子膜烧碱整流系统同步调试的原理、步骤和注意事项。%Discusses of rectifying systems for ionic membrane caustic soda synchronized debugging principles, steps and considerations.

  12. 一种低盐重质纯碱生产的新工艺%A New Technology of Manufacturing Heavy Soda with Low Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莉; 殷俊

    2016-01-01

    This paper, combining the merits of ammonia-soda process, combined-soda process, caustic-soda carbonization method and trona monohydrate process in the process of making sodium carbonate, presents a method of production which combines the constitutional features of Honghua products to manufacture heavy soda with low salt. It is hoped that it can satisfy the requirements of sodium carbonate products in Honghua from the perspectives of structural adjustment of raw material, economizing expenditure, enhancing the quality of production and environmental friendly.%文章结合氨碱法、联碱法、烧碱碳化法、天然碱一水碱法生产纯碱各自的优点提出一种结合鸿化产品构成特点的低盐重质纯碱的生产方法,以希望从原料结构调整、节约投资、提高产品质量和环保的角度来满足鸿化对纯碱产品的要求。

  13. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  14. [New Strains of an Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Porphyrobacter donghaensis Isolated from a Siberian Thermal Spring and a Low-Mineralization Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyanzina-Boldareva, E N; Akimova, V N; Takaiche, S; Gorlenko, V M

    2016-01-01

    A strain of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) isolated from the surface of a cyano- bacterial mat of an Eastern Siberian thermal spring (40 C) and designated Se 4 was identified as Porphyro- bacter donghaensis according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. A DNA-DNA hybridization level of 95% was determined between strain Se-4 and the type strain of this species; SW-132@T. The isolate was an obligate aerobe,. forming orange round colonies on solid media, which turn red in the course of growth. The cells were motile rods capable of branching. The cells divided by uniform fission by constriction. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.5 and NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1 g/L. The pigments present were carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Another Porphyrobacter donghaensis strain, Noj- 1, isolated from a purple mat developing on the surface of a coastal set-up in a steppe low-mineralization (1.5 g/L) soda lake Nozhii (Eastern Siberia) possessed similar characteristics. Thus, the AAPB species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was shown to-occur, apart from its known habitat, marine environments, in low-mineralization soda lakes and freshwater thermal springs. Description of the species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was amended.

  15. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  16. Study on Processing Technology of Moringa oleiferaSoda Cracker%辣木苏打饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡钰; 史文斌; 苏琳琳; 李守岭; 林兴文

    2016-01-01

    [目的]确定辣木苏打饼干最佳工艺配方。[方法]以辣木粉为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验研究辣木粉、酵母、食用油、NaH-CO34种物质添加量对辣木苏打饼干品质的影响。[结果]各因素对辣木苏打饼干品质影响大小依次为辣木粉添加量、食用油添加量、NaHCO3添加量、酵母添加量,得出辣木苏打饼干最佳配方为辣木粉添加量350 g/kg,酵母添加量18 g/kg,食用油添加量170 g/kg,NaH-CO3添加量6 g/kg,制作出的辣木苏打饼干口感酥脆,具有辣木的特征香味。[结论]该试验所得工艺配方可为辣木苏打饼干的工业化生产提供理论指导。%Objective] The optimal preparation technique for Moringa oleifera soda biscuit was determined.[Method] With Moringa oleifera powder as main material,based on the single-factor and orthogonal test,effects of the amount of Moringa oleifera powder,yeast,edible oil,NaHCO3 on soda biscuit taste were studied.[Result] The order of factors influencing sensory evaluation was Moringa oleifera powder,edible oil,NaHCO3 , yeast.The optimum conditions were as follows:the amount of Moringa oleifera powder 350 g/kg,yeast 18 g/kg,edible oil 170 g/kg and NaHCO3 6 g/kg.Under the above conditions,the crackers were obtained with crisp taste and unique flavor.[Conclusion] The study can provide theoretical guidance for the industrial processing of Moringa oleifera soda biscuit.

  17. Interesting Ziandao Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    LOCATED in Chun’an County, Zhejiang Province, Qiandao Lake (Lake of a Thousand Isles) is a state-level scenic spot and a bright pearl of the golden tourism line between Hangzhou’s West Lake and Anhui’s Huangshan Mountain. Last autumn, we went to Chun’an. It took only three to four hours by coach to travel from Hangzhou to Chun’an. Flanked by mountains on the west, the small county faces water on the east. A street goes across the county; it takes less than half an hour to walk from one end to the other. Small restaurants and shops line the western side of the road,

  18. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  19. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  20. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  1. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method; Preparazione intestinale per clisma del colon mediante fosfo-soda fleet: studio comparativo con il sistema tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P. [Rome Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-05-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters. [Italian] Lo studio si propone di valutare la possibilita' di ottimizzare una tecnica di preparazione intestinale estremamente tollerabile e versatile che permetta di ottenere l'adeguata liberazione del lume del contenuto con conseguente miglioramento del risultato diagnostico e riduzione del rischio del prolungamento della durata dell'ospedalizzazione dei pazienti non idoneamente preparati. Sono stati valuati 40 pazienti, 20 maschi e 20 femmine, afferenti alla struttura dell'Istituto di radiologia dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Unita' apparato gastrointestinale, per essere sottoposti a clisma del colon con doppio mdc. Tutti i dati sono stati valutati statisticamente mediante test di Wilcoxon. La preparazione intestinale effettuata somministrando fosfo-soda fleet si e' dimostrata superiore rispetto a quella tradizionale per la variabile tollerabilita', fornendo contemporaneamente dati sovrapponibili a quelli del sistema tradizionale, soddisfacenti in assoluto, riguardo agli altri parametri esaminati.

  2. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  3. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  4. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  5. Distribution study of U, V, Mo, and Zr in different sites of Lakes Van and hazar, river and seawater samples by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Erel, Ensar; Cengiz, Emine; Bal, Tulin; Er, Cigdem [Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Ince, Muharrem [Education Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Mus Alparslan University, Mus (Turkey); Kilicel, Fevzi [Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Karaman University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of U, Th, V, Mo, and Zr in natural waters taken from Turkey. Among these water species, Lake Van is the largest soda lake and the fourth largest closed basin on Earth. The water samples were collected from 51 locations between 2008 and 2009. The inductively coupled plasma-MS was used for determinations. The obtained U and Zr concentrations are in the range of 37-110 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 17-78 {mu}g L{sup -1} in Lake Van and 0.53-0.81 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.15-0.19 {mu}g L{sup -1} in Lake Hazar, respectively. The concentration of uranium in other studied waters varies from the lowest 0.09 {mu}g L{sup -1} in Tigris (Dicle) river to the highest 4.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} in Mediterranean Sea water. Mean Mo and V concentrations in the studied water samples were found to be in ranges of 0.1-17 and 2.7-113 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The obtained highest U concentration in Lake Van correlates with the highest Mo and Zr levels compared to the Lake Hazar and river waters. These results imply that there is a young occurrence of uranium minerals around Lake Van. It is concluded that there is about 50.000 ton of uranium in Lake Van water. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Soda-lime glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser: Comparison between a nanosecond and a femtosecond IR pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Tamara; Nieto, Daniel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    We present the manufacturing of microlens arrays on soda-lime glass substrates by using two different IR pulsed lasers: a nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser (1064 nm) and a femtosecond laser based on Ytterbium crystal technology (1030 nm). In both cases, the fabrication technique consists of the combination of a direct-write laser process, followed by a post-thermal treatment assisted by a CO2 laser. Through the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the generated microlenses, the different physical mechanisms involved in the glass ablation process with a nanosecond and a femtosecond laser are studied. In addition, by analyzing the optical features of the microlenses, a better result in terms of the homogeneity and quality of the spot focuses are observed for those microlenses fabricated with the Nd:YVO4 nanosecond laser. Microlens arrays with a diameter of 80 and 90 μm were fabricated.

  7. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  8. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNIN REACTIONS IN SODA COOKING OF WHEAT STRAW——PART 1 REACTION OF UNCONDENSED LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaminZhai; YuanzongLai

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of uncondensed lignin reactions in soda cooking of wheat straw were studied. Mild and intense cooking conditions were used to get the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved physically and the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved chemically respectively. The pulp samples were analyzed by phenolic group determination, alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation method. The results indicated that around 90% of lignin in wheat straw is alkali-soluble at the mild conditions, is basically dissolved physically without chemical change. The phenolic group content was not changed greatly, the nitrobenzene oxidation yield only changed slightly during the mild cooking. The phenolic group content was increased obviously and uncondensed lignin content was decreased very much when the intense cooking conditions were applied and the delignification was over 90%. The lignin structure was changed greatly during this period.

  10. Radio-frequency-magnetron-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, M.; Fischer, A.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Bykov, E.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Bohn, R.G.; Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We report the fabrication of an 11.6{percent} efficient, polycrystalline thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell in which both semiconductor layers were deposited by planar-magnetron-radio-frequency sputtering at 380{degree}C on commercially available soda-lime float-glass substrates coated with SnO{sub 2}:F. We show that the magnetron magnetic field is critical to obtaining high cell efficiency. Much stronger photoluminescence and higher electrical conductivity are found in films and cells grown with unbalanced-field magnetrons. The magnetic field dependence is interpreted as arising from the enhanced electron and ion bombardment of the film growth interface when unbalanced magnetrons are used. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Effect of ZnO on the physical properties and optical band gap of soda lime silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  12. Hot Water Extraction of Corn Stover: Hemicellulose Fractionation and its Effect on Subsequent Soda-AQ Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass is an important process in producing biofuels. In this study, hot water extraction of corn stover hemicellulose was carried out at 150, 160, and 170 °C. Variations of sugar content in the hydrolysate under different holding time were detected. The contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde generated during the extraction were also determined. Results showed that the main composition of the hydrolysate was xylo-oligosaccharide; the yield of oligosaccharides first increased as holding time was prolonged. After extraction at 160 °C for 210 min, 70.2% of the total xylan was dissolved, with the generation of furfural (0.90 g/L and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (0.10 g/L. The effects of extraction on alkali pulping and bleaching were also investigated. Results indicated that soda-AQ pulp obtained from the extracted material had poorer tensile and burst strengths but better tear strength.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  14. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  15. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  16. in lake chamo, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    zooplankton until they move to the littoral regions and start feeding .... Fish collected during the spawning season (i.e.,. March-June .... females, but sampling in the estuary downstream ... same size could be first-time spawners in Lake. Chamo ...

  17. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  18. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  19. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  20. Determination of radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Van by mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Namik Cagatay, M.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world, located on the east Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. Its varved sediments provide an excellent archive of high-resolution paleoclimate record for the Near East. Varve counting and radiocarbon methods are therefore important dating techniques for investigating the Lake Van sedimentary paleoclimate record. In here we present detailed magnetic and geochemical record of Lake Van. We have studied 4.56 m (core VP0801) and 4.70 m (core VP0807) long cores recovered from 80 m and 65 m water depths located in SE and SW of Lake Van, respectively. Here, we have benefited from magnetic properties with associated remanent magnetization of the sediments from Lake Van to correlate the cores which contain of tephra layers. The cores cover the last 8.4 ka and lithologically include three laminated sedimentary units. From top to the bottom, the units were dated 4.2 ka BP-present, 5.4-4.2 ka BP and older than 5.4 ka BP. We identified tephra layers previously dated by varve counting, and used the varve ages to obtain age models for the cores. We also obtained a total of eight Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from total organic carbon (TOC) in the two cores, close to the tephra layers. Comparison of the varve ages of the AMS 14C dated samples with their corresponding AMS 14C dates indicates large differences, suggesting significant reservoir ages that range from 2.8 to 2.5 ka for 3.0-2.4 varve ka BP and from 2.8 to 3.3 ka for 8.0-5.9 varve ka BP. The results suggest that the reservoir age of the organic matter increases with the varve age of the sediments. This increase is mainly related to the rate of supply of "dead" carbon from the old carbonate rocks in the watershed of Lake Van, which was relatively higher during 8.4-5.9 ka than during 3.0-2.4 ka BP because of the higher atmospheric precipitation and higher rate of biochemical weathering during the former period.

  1. Radiochronology of lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erten, H.N. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Zurich, Constance, from the Sea of Marmara and from southern Turkey, northern Cyprus and eastern Spain were dated using natural {sup 210}Pb, fallout {sup 137}Cs and cosmic-ray produced {sup 7}Be radionuclides. Constant activity regions in the uppermost sections of sediments from Lake Zurich and the Sea of Marmara were attributed to post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb in the former case and to bioturbation in the latter. A serious discrepancy exists between the {sup 210}Pb dating of Sea of Marmara sediments and those obtained by organic carbon based methods. The elements Zn, Cu, P and Pb were enriched in the upper sections of the sediment cores corresponding to the last 200 years. The increased metallurgical activities as a result of reforms in the Ottoman Army during the 18th century could be the most likely cause. (Author).

  2. Active methylotrophs in the sediments of Lonar Lake, a saline and alkaline ecosystem formed by meteor impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Ferrando, Lucia; Boden, Rich; Moussard, Hélène; Scavino, Ana Fernández; Shouche, Yogesh S; Murrell, J Colin

    2010-11-01

    Lonar Lake is a unique saline and alkaline ecosystem formed by meteor impact in the Deccan basalts in India around 52,000 years ago. To investigate the role of methylotrophy in the cycling of carbon in this unusual environment, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was carried out using the one-carbon compounds methane, methanol and methylamine. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting analyses performed with heavy (13)C-labelled DNA retrieved from sediment microcosms confirmed the enrichment and labelling of active methylotrophic communities. Clone libraries were constructed using PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA genes and functional genes. Methylomicrobium, Methylophaga and Bacillus spp. were identified as the predominant active methylotrophs in methane, methanol and methylamine SIP microcosms, respectively. Absence of mauA gene amplification in the methylamine SIP heavy fraction also indicated that methylamine metabolism in Lonar Lake sediments may not be mediated by the methylamine dehydrogenase enzyme pathway. Many gene sequences retrieved in this study were not affiliated with extant methanotrophs or methylotrophs. These sequences may represent hitherto uncharacterized novel methylotrophs or heterotrophic organisms that may have been cross-feeding on methylotrophic metabolites or biomass. This study represents an essential first step towards understanding the relevance of methylotrophy in the soda lake sediments of an unusual impact crater structure.

  3. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  4. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  5. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  6. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  7. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  8. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  9. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  10. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  11. Limited Regulation of Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Ontario,, Cedar Point in Ohio, Presque Isle in Pennsylvania and Hamlin in New York. Recreational boating is a significant activity on Lake Erie . Along...RD-Al47 936 LIMITED REGULATION OF LAKE ERIE (U) INTERNATIONAL LAKE i/i ERIE REGULATION STUDY BOARD NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/2 N lhhhhh..hEmhhI...o lake Erie ’Governmen of 4,- % * L CTE " 84100400 .- Canad Unite Stte INTRNAIONL OIN COMISIO 4WD’ This document hais been ow for public rleoe and so

  12. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs.

  13. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Milovan; Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstru...

  14. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs).

  15. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  16. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  17. REPLACING SODA ASH (NaOH WITH KALIUM HYDROXYDE (KOH IN DESTILATION OF BINARY ETHANOL-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ulfa Istiqomah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soda ash (NaOH has been used in bioethanol production in the second step destillation to increase the purity up to 90%. The destillation process will produce waste water with a high sodium content. The soda ash itself serve as an electrolyte to modify the colligative properties of the water-ethanol mixture allowing the disappearance of azeotropic point. This research aims to study the replacement of NaOH with KOH, in which the kalium is a nutrient to maintain soil fertility. This research study the thermodynamics properties, vapor-liquid equilibrium, colligative properties and also its azeotropic point in the destillation of water-ethanol mixture when KOH and NaOH were used as the additive. A model of water-ethanol mixture at a various composition of 0-100 weight % of ethanol was used. The electrolyte addition was 0.1 mol electrolyte/total weight of ethanol-water. The result shows that the addition of electrolyte into ethanol-water mixture eliminate the azeotropic point and allows the ethanol molecules to separate from water. The enthalpy of mixing between water-ethanol is 239.601 kJ/mol. It becomes 259.796 kJ/mol and 264.793 kJ/mol after the addition of NaOH and KOH, respectively. It confirming the endothermic mixing process due to different polarity between water and ethanol. The presence of electrolyte even reduce more their molecular interaction. However, the change to irregularity result a high positive entropy values that result the negative Gibbs free energy. It confirms the spontaneity of mixing. The vaporization enthalpy, Hvap, of water-ethanol mixture is 76.229 kJ/mol and it becomes 235.366 kJ/mol and 126.189 kJ/mol after the addition of NaOH and KOH. It indicates that the presence of electrolyte inhibites vaporization of water as the major component and allowing ethanol molecules to vapor producing more high purity ethanol.

  18. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  19. Influence of Soda Pulping Variables on Properties of Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr. Leaf Pulp and Paper Studied by Face-Centered Composite Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantharat Wutisatwongkul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Face-centered composite design (FCC was used to study the effect of pulping variables: soda concentration (4-5 wt%, temperature (90–130°C, and pulping time (20–60 min on the properties of pineapple leaf pulp and paper employing soda pulping. Studied pulp responses were screened yield and lignin content (kappa number. Paper properties, which include tensile index, burst index, and tear index, were also investigated. Effects of the pulping variables on the properties were statistically analyzed using Minitab 16. The optimum conditions to obtain the maximum tensile index were soda concentration of 4 wt%, pulping temperature of 105°C, and pulping time of 20 min. The predicted optimum conditions provided tensile index, burst index, tear index, screened yield, and kappa number of 44.13 kN·m/kg, 1.76 kPa·m2, 1.68 N·m2/kg, 21.29 wt%, and 28.12, respectively, and were experimentally confirmed.

  20. Kawasaki KJ type high pressure and high temperature soda recovery boiler; Kawasaki KJ gata koatsu koon soda kaishu boiler ni tsuite (kihon concept to Nihon seishi Iwakuni kojo eno nonyurei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, T.; Masuda, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This paper summarizes one of the world`s largest soda recovery boilers installed at a paper mill. The following attention has been paid in designing the boiler: a new four-stage air charging method was adopted referring to the result of thermal fluidity analysis; fixed type distance pieces were adopted for arranging the overheater pipes upon having performed stress analysis to verify its safety; low-pressure four-face spray of black liquor is a feature of this boiler, whereas reduced carryover in the combustion chamber was verified as a result of adopting this feature; the overheater is characterized by employment of slanted roof, provision of measures against dust troubles, and installation of three reduced temperature water injectors and a slag screen; prevention of dust blocking in the boiler body groups and reduction of draft loss in the fuel economizer are also considered; the combustion chamber and the overheater are improved of durability because of using adequate materials; and attention paid on the system includes installation of a circulation line for the black liquor system, a sludgeless agitator for the green liquor system, VVVF control of the air system, and an electric dust collector for the exhaust gas system. The operation result was found good in all respect. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  2. LAKE AFDERA: A THREATENED SALINE LAKE IN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lake's geological history of having marine inputs from the Red Sea (Gionfiantini et al., 1973). Unlike the other ... area) at the shore where one of the hot springs joins the lake. It is not known ... that goes to the Red Sea port of Assab. One of the ...

  3. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  4. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  5. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  6. Variation of soda content in fine alumina trihydrate by seeded precipitation%种分制备超细氢氧化铝中碱含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 王鹏; 齐天贵; 李小斌; 田侣; 周秋生; 彭志宏

    2014-01-01

    High soda content in fine alumina trihydrate(ATH) limits its application and increases the soda consumption. The variation of soda content in the fine ATH by seeded precipitation was determined by detection of electric conductivity of solution, soda content in ATH, measurement of particle size distribution and microscopic analysis. The results show that high concentration of sodium aluminate solution, ground circulative seed, low temperature or fast initial precipitation rate increases the soda content in ATH. Soda mainly exists in lattice soda and less soda in desilication product (DSP) exists in the fine ATH precipitated from sodium aluminate solution with concentration of Al2O3 (ρAl2O3) more than 160 g/L and mass ratio of alumina to silica (µSiO2) of 400, and lattice soda decreases with increasing initial precipitation temperature, aging seed, and low precipitation rate and precipitation time. Results also imply that -+ 4)Na Al(OH ion-pair influences lattice soda content in ATH on the basis of electric conductivity variation.%种分氢氧化铝中碱含量变化规律关系到氢氧化铝的质量和碱耗,通过测定溶液浓度和电导率、氢氧化铝中碱含量和粒度分布以及分析粒子形貌,研究种分氢氧化铝中碱含量的变化规律。结果表明,溶液组分浓度高、球磨晶种循环、种分温度低、初始分解速率快或产品比表面积大都会导致氢氧化铝中碱含量升高;在低硅铝酸钠溶液种分过程中,粒子的附聚得到抑制,超细氢氧化铝中碱主要以晶格碱形式存在,以钠硅渣形式存在的碱含量极低;同时,升高初始分解温度,晶种老化,降低分解速率,延长种分时间,都有利于产品中碱含量的降低。结果还表明:种分过程中,-+4)Na Al(OH 离子可能对产品中碱含量有很大的影响。

  7. Identification of staphylococcal species based on variations in protein sequences (mass spectrometry) and DNA sequence (sodA microarray).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Jennifer; Fox, Karen; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim; Wunschel, David; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martínez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-01

    This report is among the first using sequence variation in newly discovered protein markers for staphylococcal (or indeed any other bacterial) speciation. Variation, at the DNA sequence level, in the sodA gene (commonly used for staphylococcal speciation) provided excellent correlation. Relatedness among strains was also assessed using protein profiling using microcapillary electrophoresis and pulsed field electrophoresis. A total of 64 strains were analyzed including reference strains representing the 11 staphylococcal species most commonly isolated from man (Staphylococcus aureus and 10 coagulase negative species [CoNS]). Matrix assisted time of flight ionization/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS) were used for peptide analysis of proteins isolated from gel bands. Comparison of experimental spectra of unknowns versus spectra of peptides derived from reference strains allowed bacterial identification after MALDI TOF MS analysis. After LC-MS/MS analysis of gel bands bacterial speciation was performed by comparing experimental spectra versus virtual spectra using the software X!Tandem. Finally LC-MS/MS was performed on whole proteomes and data analysis also employing X!tandem. Aconitate hydratase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase served as marker proteins on focused analysis after gel separation. Alternatively on full proteomics analysis elongation factor Tu generally provided the highest confidence in staphylococcal speciation.

  8. Optical nonlinearity and-ultrafast dynamics of ion exchanged silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime silicate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiuChun; LI ZhiHui; LI WeiJie; XU JingXian; DONG ZhiWei; QIAN ShiXiong

    2008-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime silicate glass were fabricated by ion-exchange and subsequently annealing method. Z-scan technique, femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique and femtosecond pump-probe experiment were used to investigate the effects of laser wavelength and laser pulse duration as well as annealing temperature on the third-order optical nonlinearity and ultrafast dynamics of the composites. It was found that the third-order susceptibility of Ag nanoparticles composite glass measured by 400 nm pulse source is larger than that measured by 800 nm pulse source due to an enhancement effect of local field near surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in silicate glass. The third-order optical nonlinearity measured by ns laser source is about two orders of magnitude larger than that measured from fs pulse. The annealing temperature has an important effect on the third-order optical nonlinearity and ultrafast dynamics of the composites. Third-order nonlinear susceptibility upto 10-10 esu and fast relaxation process up to 0.2 ps have been obtained in Ag nanoparticles doped glass,

  9. Effects of soda-lime-silica waste glass on mullite formation kinetics and micro-structures development in vitreous ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, Nicoletta; D'Alessio, Daniela; Diella, Valeria; Pavese, Alessandro; Francescon, Ferdinando

    2013-07-30

    The effects of soda-lime waste glass, from the recovery of bottle glass cullet, in partial replacement of Na-feldspar for sanitary-ware ceramic production are discussed. Attention is paid to the mullite growth kinetics and to the macroscopic properties of the final output, the latter ones depending on the developed micro-structures and vitrification grade. Measurements have been performed by in situ high temperature X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal dilatometry, water absorption and mechanical testing. Glass substituting feldspar from 30 to 50 wt% allows one (i) to accelerate the mullite growth reaction kinetics, and (ii) to achieve macroscopic features of the ceramic output that comply with the latest technical requirements. The introduction of waste glass leads to (i) a general saving of fuel and reduction of the CO2-emissions during the firing stage, (ii) a preservation of mineral resources in terms of feldspars, and (iii) an efficient management of the bottle glass refuse by readdressing a part of it in the sanitary-ware manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conclusion: Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Degermendzhi, Andrei G.

    2017-01-01

    The term meromixis was introduced more than 80 years ago to denote lakes that do not annually mix completely. Since then our understanding of meromictic lakes has considerably advanced. Physical processes support the difference in water density between deep (monimolimnion ) and surface (mixolimnion

  11. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kirillin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion and bottom sediment transport and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche characteristics in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, a large intermountain lake known to have high seiche amplitudes. To examine spatial characteristics of different seiche modes we used the original procedure of determining the seiche frequencies from the primitive equation model output with subsequent derivation of the spatial seiche structure at fixed frequencies akin the tidal harmonic analysis. The proposed procedure revealed specific seiche oscillation features in Flathead Lake including maximum surface level amplitudes of the first fundamental mode in straights around the largest island; several higher modes appearing locally in the vicinity of the river inflow; the "Helmholtz" open harbor mode, with the period approximately twice that of the longest seiche mode, generated by a large shallow bay connected to the main lake basin; and several rotating seiche modes potentially affecting the lake-wide circulation. We discuss the lake management problems related to of the spatial seiche distribution, such as shoreline erosion, floods and transport of sediments and invasive species in Flathead Lake.

  12. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  13. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. Lake-floor sediment texture and composition of a hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake, Lake Rotomahana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittari, A.; Muir, S. L.; Hendy, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Young volcanic lakes undergo a transition from rapid, post-eruptive accumulation of volcaniclastic sediment to slower pelagic settling under stable lake conditions, and may also be influenced by sublacustrine hydrothermal systems. Lake Rotomahana is a young (129 year-old), hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake formed after the 1886 Tarawera eruption, and provides a unique insight into the early evolution of volcanic lake systems. Lake-bottom sediment cores, 20-46 cm in length, were taken along a transect across the lake and characterised with respect to stratigraphy, facies characteristics (i.e., grain size, componentry) and pore water silica concentrations. The sediments generally comprise two widespread facies: (i) a lower facies of light grey to grey, very fine lacustrine silt derived from the unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits that mantled the catchment area immediately after the eruption, which were rapidly reworked and redeposited into the lake basin; and (ii) an upper facies of dark, fine-sandy diatomaceous silt, that settled from the pelagic zone of the physically stable lake. Adjacent to sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, the upper dark facies is absent, and the upper part of the light grey to grey silt is replaced by a third localised facies comprised of hydrothermally altered pale yellow to yellowish brown, laminated silt with surface iron-rich encrustations. Microspheres, which are thought to be composed of amorphous silica, although some may be halloysite, have precipitated from pore water onto sediment grains, and are associated with a decrease in pore water silicon concentration. Lake Rotomahana is an example of a recently-stabilised volcanic lake, with respect to sedimentation, that shows signs of early sediment silicification in the presence of hydrothermal activity.

  16. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  17. Phosphorous Loading in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H.; Halliday, B.; Lane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphate movement from different sources into Lake Champlain is a problem. Excess phosphate generates algae growth causing eutrophication. This excessive growth known as algae blooms leads to poor water quality (State of Lake Report, 2015). Phosphate moves primarily by attachment to soil particles (Busman, Lamb, 09). Historically its movement has been limited to spring, summer and fall. Spring runoff is thought to contribute the most phosphate to Lake Champlain (Jensen, Tiessen, 11). With changes in global and local temperatures effecting weather patterns and the winter season, does phosphate continue to move into Lake Champlain during the winter months? Water samples from two tributaries to Lake Champlain were collected biweekly year around for the past three years. These samples were then tested for total suspended solids and phosphate levels. The results indicate that phosphate loading occurs throughout the year even during the winter months.

  18. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  19. Drop size effect on contact angle explained by nonextensive thermodynamics. Young's equation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Pierre; Mayaffre, Alain; Turmine, Mireille

    2007-10-15

    We applied the concepts of nonextensive thermodynamics [Turmine et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 18980], to describe the equilibrium of a liquid drop placed on a solid substrate. This approach provides a consistent formal framework for analyzing the contact angle according to the nature and structure of the substrate, and also the size of the drops. The introduction, for the solid/liquid interface, of the concept of "fuzzy interface" characterized by a thermodynamic dimension, different from 2/3 (surface) allowed description of the case of substrates with ill-defined geometry (such as porous, structured systems, fractal structure systems, etc.) and straightforward explanation of the phenomenon of super hydrophobicity without using a layer of trapped air in possible anfractuosities. The application of the nonextensive thermodynamics relationships, allowed explanation of all the usual behaviors described in the literature (Young, modified Young, Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter) including the case of the composite interfaces made of materials with different natures and spatial structures (smooth, rough, homogeneous and heterogeneous surfaces). We show that the contact angle can vary with the drop volume according to a power law, and this was validated against values published in the literature. This study also has consequences for the relations between "thermodynamic dimension" and "fractal dimension."

  20. 78 FR 53675 - Safety Zone; Lake Erie Heritage Foundation, Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... vicinity of Put-In-Bay, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment near Put-In-Bay. This temporary safety zone is necessary...

  1. 14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and... Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall conform to the flow...

  2. Less Mixing Can Affect Lake s Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Sohn

    2005-01-01

    Lakescanbelikebowlsofsoupinthemicrowave:Theyneedalittlestirringeverynowandthen.Otherwise,alltheheatendsupontop.That’sexactlywhat’shappenedinrecentyearstoAfrica'sLakeTanganyika,scientistsarereporting.Risingwatertemperatureshaveinterferedwiththelake’snormal

  3. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  4. 皇竹草KP-AQ与Soda-AQ法蒸煮性能比较%A comparison between Soda-AQ and KP-AQ cooking characteristics of hybrid giant napier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 蔡兆斌

    2006-01-01

    研究并比较了皇竹草Soda-AQ与KP-AQ法蒸煮制浆综合性能,得出了两种蒸煮方法主要蒸煮工艺参数用碱量A、最高温度C、保温时间T、硫化度S与浆料得率Y和卡伯价K间的回归方程.较佳蒸煮条件和结果分别为A17%、C158℃、T20min、Y49.96%、K15.2和A18%、C160℃、T30min、S15%、Y51.54%、K13.9;两种浆CEpH法均能漂至白度>82%ISO;蒸煮、漂白浆料纤维长度分布小于等于100目的>80%~85%;打浆度43、42°SR时,撕裂指数7.5、7.2mN·m2/g,耐破指数3.28、3.10kPa·m2/g,裂断长5.22、5.17km;两种蒸煮方法均较好地适用于皇竹草,但综合前者更优.

  5. Analysis of Drought in Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The drought situation and causes in Poyang Lake were analyzed.[Method] In response to the drought in Poyang Lake in ten years ago and in recent 10 years,the causes of drought in Poyang Lake were discussed.[Result] Drought occurred frequently in Poyang Lake and the consecutive serious drought occurred now and then.The water level in Poyang Lake since 21st century was lower.The drought in Poyang Lake was due to reduction of precipitation,low water level in Yangtze River and "five lakes",hydraulic ...

  6. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  8. Possible temperate lakes on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; MacKenzie, Shannon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We analyze southern mid-latitude albedo-dark features on Titan observed by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). In exploring the nature of these features we consider their morphology, albedo, and specular reflectivity. We suggest that they represent candidates for potential temperate lakes. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes would indicate that surface liquid can accumulate and remain stable away from Titan's poles. Candidate lakes were identified by looking for possible shorelines with lacustrine morphology. Then, we applied an atmospheric correction that empirically solved for their surface albedo. Finally, we looked for a specular reflection of the sky in the identified candidates. Using this prescription, we find two candidates that remain as potential temperature lakes. If candidate features do represent temperate lakes on Titan, they have implications for formation mechanisms such as clouds and rainfall or, in low elevation areas, percolation and subsurface flow. Clouds were observed near candidate lake locations on the T66 flyby and this latitude band showed many clouds during southern summer. Our techniques can be applied to areas of Titan that lack RADAR coverage to search for mid- and low-latitude lakes in the future.

  9. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  10. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  11. Advance and application of lake optics research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The mainstreams of lake optics research in recent decades include optical properties of lakewater,observation, transmission and calculation of underwater radiation, determination of absorption coefficient S of yellow substance, influence of UV-B radiation of lake primary productivity by bio-optical model. Major lake optics applications, such as calculation of lake primary productivity and chl-a, analysis of factors restricting eutrophication, and protection against lake eutrophication are summarized.

  12. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  13. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  14. Bathymetric maps of Lake Becharof and the Ugashik Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to understand the production of smolts in a sockeye salmon nursery lake, it is mandatory to produce a bathymetric map. This must be detailed enough so that...

  15. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  16. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The...

  17. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The...

  18. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  19. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  20. Persistent impacts of trace metals from mining on floodplain grass communities along Soda Butte Creek, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoughton, J.A.; Marcus, W.A.

    2000-03-01

    In Yellowstone National Park, tailings and associated trace metals from past mining have been deposited along 28 km of Soda Butte Creek by large flood events. This study documents grass species diversity, density, and biomass; trace metal concentrations in soils; and soil pH, salinity, and clay content in four selected floodplain meadows contaminated by these tailings. Trace metal levels frequently exceed acceptable concentrations for agricultural soils at sampling points within the meadows. pH levels within flood-deposited tailings are strongly to moderately acid, while pH levels outside of tailings deposits are neutral. The data analysis: (1) shows that metals and acidity associated with tailings affect plant biomass, density, and diversity; (2) documents that the vegetation/metal and vegetation/pH associations are more of a threshold than a linear relationship; and (3) suggests that other factors may be involved in structuring the community. Vegetation diversity, density, and biomass decrease at threshold levels of trace metal concentrations and soil pH in all four meadows. CuSum plots of diversity in relation to trace metal levels show a decrease in mean diversity at 315 ppm copper, 22 ppm arsenic, 4.2% iron, 65 ppm lead, and 170 ppm zinc. Densities of Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis were significantly lower (P {le} 0.001) on plots with more than 250 ppm copper. Above-ground biomass of Phleum pratense was also significantly lower on plots with copper levels above 250 ppm. Decreased mean grass density was found on plots with pH < 6.4, but the only statistically significant difference was for Juncus balticus, which had increased density on plots with pH < 6.4. In contrast to the clear impacts of trace metals and pH on vegetation, other site characteristics did not alter measured vegetation characteristics.