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Sample records for drop dosimetry results

  1. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  2. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  3. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings

  4. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  5. Czech results at criticality dosimetry intercomparison 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantisek, Spurný; Jaroslav, Trousil

    2004-01-01

    Two criticality dosimetry systems were tested by Czech participants during the intercomparison held in Valduc, France, June 2002. The first consisted of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) (Al-P glasses) and Si-diodes as passive neutron dosemeters. Second, it was studied to what extent the individual dosemeters used in the Czech routine personal dosimetry service can give a reliable estimation of criticality accident exposure. It was found that the first system furnishes quite reliable estimation of accidental doses. For routine individual dosimetry system, no important problems were encountered in the case of photon dosemeters (TLDs, film badge). For etched track detectors in contact with the 232Th or 235U-Al alloy, the track density saturation for the spark counting method limits the upper dose at approximately 1 Gy for neutrons with the energy >1 MeV.

  6. Drop Test Results of CRDM under Seismic Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kim, Gyeong-Ho; Sun, Jong-Oh; Huh, Hyung

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performance of CRDM under seismic loads. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the drop performance under seismic loads such as operating basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). Especially, the CAR drop times are important data for the safety analysis. confirm the drop performance under seismic loads. The delay of drop time at Rig no. 2 due to seismic loads is greater than that at Rig no. 3. The total pure drop times under seismic loads are estimated as 1.169 and 1.855, respectively

  7. Drop Test Results of CRDM under Seismic Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kim, Gyeong-Ho; Sun, Jong-Oh; Huh, Hyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performance of CRDM under seismic loads. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the drop performance under seismic loads such as operating basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). Especially, the CAR drop times are important data for the safety analysis. confirm the drop performance under seismic loads. The delay of drop time at Rig no. 2 due to seismic loads is greater than that at Rig no. 3. The total pure drop times under seismic loads are estimated as 1.169 and 1.855, respectively.

  8. Working conditions analysis according T.L. personal dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for personal dosimetry in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Belgrade, used TLD more than twenty years. Before that, film dosimetry was main method in external monitoring. T.L. dosimetry was started with Reader Toledo 654 and crystals Mg B 4 O 7 . Finally, from 1992 laboratory has Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600. Dosimeters are crystals LiF type 100, card packed, worn in standard filtrated holders. Personal dosimetry data are keeping 30 years for each worker according to regulations. The data from 1990 are in electronic form. Long experience enables conclusion that new technique means more advantages in practice. Recommendation from this laboratory practice refers to TLD read-out cycle. The longest period should be one month. LiF is recommended crystal. Glow curve deconvolution gives information about chronological irradiation. It is very important to conclude was dosimetry irradiated by 'one-shot' or continuously. Preparing calibration for determination the time since accident laboratory has to define adequate dose calibration methodology including low temperature peaks. Possibility to follow working conditions analyzing TLD glow curve is much more important than low decrease of dose severity. Time depend analyze is not possible if TLD would be read-out more than (approximately) six weeks after irradiation. If ionizing sources produce such low dose and has negligible probability of accidental exposure (according nowadays regulation read-out frequency could be once in three month), the recommendation is not to use external personal monitoring. Reading personal dosimeters once in three months deemed not useful. Complete and successful personal dosimetry dictates using system that enables glow curve shape representation to be sure that signal is ionizing irradiation result or not. Time depend analyze imparts information about protection permanence. In special circumstance, it is possible to estimate the time of exposure. This is extremely

  9. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  10. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  11. A European neutron dosimetry intercomparison project (ENDIP). Results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Burger, G.; Coppola, M.

    1978-01-01

    A total of twenty groups from nine countries participated in sessions of the European Neutron Dosimetry Intercomparison Project (ENDIP) which were held during 1975 at GSF, Munich-Neuherberg and TNO, Rijswijk. The data of all participants are collected, the analysis and evaluation of the results are given in the present report. Specific chapters deal with the experimental arrangements and monitoring results at GSF and TNO, characteristics of the dosimetry systems employed by the paticipating groups and the basic physical data and correction factors employed for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. In general, the participants in ENDIP quote systematic uncertainties of 7 to 8% in the neutron and total kerma or absorbed dose, which are mainly attributed to inadequate knowledge of basic constants. The variations in the results obtained by different participants seem to be in accordance with the relative large systematic uncertainties quoted. In order to determine the influence of the use of different values for the physical parameters, the relative responses of the participants' dosimeters have also been compared. The variances of quoted kerma and dose values are of the same order of magnitude as those of instrument responses. This result indicates inconsistencies in experimental techniques employed by the participants for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. A separate nonparametric analysis of the ENDIP results confirmed that there are considerable systematic differences. Recommendations for future studies on neutron dosimetry for biological and medical applications are given at the end of the report

  12. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  13. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  14. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  15. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the open-quotes sourcesclose quotes and open-quotes targetsclose quotes requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources

  16. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  17. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  18. International nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison: results of Czech participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    An international intercomparison scheme for criticality accident dosimetry systems took place at the SILENE reactor, Valduc, France in June 1993. The dosemeters were exposed both on phantoms and in free air to radiation from the reactor, both shielded by lead and bare. The results obtained during this event by Czech participants are presented and compared with the average values obtained by the complete group of participants and with the reference values. The systems used consisted mostly of Si-diodes and thermoluminescent detectors, some supporting measurements were performed with solid state nuclear track detectors and using the albedo principle. The agreement between the data sets is very good. 7 tabs., 13 refs

  19. Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo thermoluminescent dosimetry for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another

  20. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  1. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  2. Ionizing radiations dosimetry: new results in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial irradiation for food preservation, medical sterilization and plastic processing is in great expansion and an accurate dosimetry in the megagray range is required. It is also required for safety purposes around nuclear reactors or waste storage sites. The study of photon-matter interaction leads us to consider high-dose dosimeters among the solids in which radiolysis occurs. Organic conductors are indeed good candidates for high-dose dosimetry. These materials show original properties due to the great anisotropy of their electronic system. Radiation effects, especially on the resistivity and on the (E.S.R.) Electron Spin Resonance linewidth, are very important. We show that a simple resistance measurement allows an accurate monitoring of the absorbed dose, in the range 0.01 - 50 MGy, for X-rays, gamma-rays and electron irradiations. The E.S.R. linewidth measurements permits the use of small dosimeters between 1 and 100 MGy. Finally, some organic conductors are proposed as high-temperature dosimeters for irradiation performed up to 120 0 C. The irradiated pure silica contains a large variety of defects. Only the E' center seems helpful for dosimetry purposes, and its electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) signal is simply related to the absorbed dose in the range 0.1 - 3 MGy or even, 0.5 kGy - 5 MGy [fr

  3. Assessment of national dosimetry quality audits results for teletherapy machines from 1989 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Mahmood, Khalid; Matiullah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ensure accuracy in radiation dose delivery, external dosimetry quality audit has an equal importance with routine dosimetry performed at clinics. To do so, dosimetry quality audit was organized by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) at the national level to investigate and minimize uncertainties involved in the measurement of absorbed dose, and to improve the accuracy of dose measurement at different radiotherapy hospitals. A total of 181 dosimetry quality audits (i.e., 102 of Co-60 and 79 of linear accelerators) for teletherapy units installed at 22 different sites were performed from 1989 to 2015. The percent deviation between users’ calculated/stated dose and evaluated dose (in the result of on-site dosimetry visits) were calculated and the results were analyzed with respect to the limits of ± 2.5% (ICRU "optimal model") ± 3.0% (IAEA on-site dosimetry visits limit) and ± 5.0% (ICRU minimal or "lowest acceptable" model). The results showed that out of 181 total on-site dosimetry visits, 20.44%, 16.02%, and 4.42% were out of acceptable limits of ± 2.5% ± 3.0%, and ± 5.0%, respectively. The importance of a proper ongoing quality assurance program, recommendations of the followed protocols, and properly calibrated thermometers, pressure gauges, and humidity meters at radiotherapy hospitals are essential in maintaining consistency and uniformity of absorbed dose measurements for precision in dose delivery.

  4. Results of the argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry 2014. Measurement of thyroid burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the capability to perform direct measurements of “1”3”1I thyroid burden and the expertise in the interpretation of these data for dose assessment. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. The exercise counted with the participation of six internal dosimetry services: nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE), CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE), Roffo Institute (UBA – CNEA) and ARN. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  5. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  6. Acute unilateral foot drop as a result of direct blunt trauma to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an acute unilateral foot drop which occurred during a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) contest, specifically as a result of direct blunt trauma to the left peroneal nerve, without an accompanying fracture of the fibula. Keywords: foot extensor weakness, gait abnormality, contact sports, mixed martial ...

  7. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L.; Gonzaga, Natalia B.; Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  8. Reference dosimetry and small-field dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy: Results from a Danish intercomparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Sibolt, Patrik

    methods was performed by DTU Nutech at six Danish clinics. The first part of the intercompa-rison regarded the consistency of reference dosimetry. Absorbed dose to water under reference conditions was measured using a Farmer ionization chamber, and was found to agree within 1 % with the daily dose checks......-specific correction factors for non-reference fields....

  9. Standard practice for analysis and interpretation of physics dosimetry results for test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice describes the methodology summarized in Annex Al to be used in the analysis and interpretation of physics-dosimetry results from test reactors. This practice relies on, and ties together, the application of several supporting ASTM standard practices, guides, and methods that are in various stages of completion (see Fig. 1). Support subject areas that are discussed include reactor physics calculations, dosimeter selection and analysis, exposure units, and neutron spectrum adjustment methods. This practice is directed towards the development and application of physics-dosimetrymetallurgical data obtained from test reactor irradiation experiments that are performed in support of the operation, licensing, and regulation of LWR nuclear power plants. It specifically addresses the physics-dosimetry aspects of the problem. Procedures related to the analysis, interpretation, and application of both test and power reactor physics-dosimetry-metallurgy results are addressed in Practice E 853, Practice E 560, Matrix E 706(IE), Practice E 185, Matrix E 706(IG), Guide E 900, and Method E 646

  10. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  11. Activities of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry on radiation overexposure analysis - results from 1994 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco C.A. da; Ramalho, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry has operated a service carried out by a multi-disciplinary Group called Radiation Overexposure analysis Group - GADE. It is composed of specialists in radiation protection and dosimetry and has the main objective of taking coordinated actions on radiation overexposure cases. This paper shows mainly the results got from 1984 to 1997 with the methodology used. It was observed that the cases are falling down due to radiation protection activities in the installation. (author)

  12. Results of first RER/8010 comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To be entitled to organize proficiency testing (PT) or interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) the organizer must demonstrate implementation of quality system according to at least one of the standards: (1) ISO/IEC 9001; (2) ISO/IEC 17025; (3) ISO/IEC Guide 43-1; (4) ISO/Guide 34. Taking it into account Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses operated in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was chosen by the IAEA as organizer of the first comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry. Lecture presents details and some results of the ILC

  13. Using leg muscles as shock absorbers: theoretical predictions and experimental results of drop landing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, A E; Ardigò, L P; Susta, D; Cotelli, F

    1998-12-01

    The use of muscles as power dissipators is investigated in this study, both from the modellistic and the experimental points of view. Theoretical predictions of the drop landing manoeuvre for a range of initial conditions have been obtained by accounting for the mechanical characteristics of knee extensor muscles, the limb geometry and assuming maximum neural activation. Resulting dynamics have been represented in the phase plane (vertical displacement versus speed) to better classify the damping performance. Predictions of safe landing in sedentary subjects were associated to dropping from a maximum (feet) height of 1.6-2.0 m (about 11 m on the moon). Athletes can extend up to 2.6-3.0 m, while for obese males (m = 100 kg, standard stature) the limit should reduce to 0.9-1.3 m. These results have been calculated by including in the model the estimated stiffness of the 'global elastic elements' acting below the squat position. Experimental landings from a height of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 m (sedentary males (SM) and male (AM) and female (AF) athletes from the alpine ski national team) showed dynamics similar to the model predictions. While the peak power (for a drop height of about 0.7 m) was similar in SM and AF (AM shows a +40% increase, about 33 W/kg), AF stopped the downward movement after a time interval (0.219 +/- 0.030 s) from touch-down 20% significantly shorter than SM. Landing strategy and the effect of anatomical constraints are discussed in the paper.

  14. Some recent multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance results on systems relevant for dosimetry and dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, F; Vanhaelewyn, G; Matthys, P

    2002-04-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) applications like e.g. EPR dosimetry and dating, are usually performed at X-band frequencies because of practical reasons (cost, sample size, etc.). However, it is increasingly recognized that the radiation-induced EPR signals are strongly composite, what might affect dose/age estimates. A few recent examples from both the dosimetry and dating field, illustrating the problems, will be presented. The involved spectra are mainly due to carbonate-derived radicals (CO2-, CO3(3-), etc.). Measurements at higher microwave frequencies are often recommended to improve the insight into the spectra and/or the practical signal quantification. Recent results at Q- and W-band frequencies will show that a multi-frequency approach indeed opens many interesting perspectives in this field but also that each frequency may have specific (dis)advantages depending on the EPR probe and application involved. The discussion will concern carbonate-containing apatite single crystals, shells, modern and fossil tooth enamel.

  15. The New Zealand audit of radiotherapy dosimetry: Practical considerations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.G.; Laban, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The New Zealand Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 state that the dose delivered to a radiotherapy patient must be within ±5% of the prescribed dose. Following the overdose of 153 patients because of an error in dosimetry at Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, UK, in 1988 it was decided to audit compliance with this routinely. Since 1991 every high-energy beam in NZ used for teletherapy has been independently measured every two years by staff from NRL. Since 1997 all kV x-ray beams have been measured as well. The measurements follow the dosimetry protocol TRS-277. A Sr-90 check is taken at each site to verify stability of the measurement system. Agreement within 0.5% is accepted. The SSD on a linear accelerator is set using the optical distance indicator after checking it against a mechanical front pointer. Recombination corrections are measured on each linear accelerator beam and polarity corrections as well in the case of electron beams. The results for high-energy beams have been reassuring both to the regulators and to the physicists who appreciate the independent check. The only disagreements significantly greater than 2% have caused by the use of a cylindrical chamber on a 4MV electron beam by a hospital, and confusion between SSD and isocentric set-up. When we repeated the measurement using the same set-up as the hospital the difference was resolved

  16. The result of Alanine/ESR dosimetry at Wolsung unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young Khi

    2008-01-01

    It needs accurate estimation of radiation level for verifying machinery and cable in Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore, in this study, we used ESR(Electron Spin Resonance) system for estimate dose of Alanine dosimeter. Alanine/ESR dosimetry, already known as a dosimetric method in medical and industrial field, was applied to estimate dose quantity at cable locations within a nuclear power plant as a part of equipment qualification program. Alanine/ESR dosimetry of absorbed dose range is 1 - 100 KGy. The alanine dosimeter is not significantly affected by temperature and fading is limited to 1% per year. The alanine dosimeters were fixed on the targeted cable or nearest position to measure dose quantity to get accurate value. Alanine dosimeters were scanned by commercially used two different ESR systems, e-scan and EMX series for alanine dosimeters. To estimate more accurate dose, two environmental correction factors, irradiation temperature and dosimeter weight, were used in calculation of absorbed dose quantity. In this study, dose values which are alinine dosimeter from Wolsong unit 1 are measured by two ESR systems. And then the results was compared each other

  17. The international dosimetry exchange for BNCT. A basis for pooling and collectively analyzing clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III; Seppaelae, T.; Savolainen, S.; Moss, R.; Marek, M.; Rezaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    An international collaboration was organized by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to undertake a dosimetry exchange for the eventual purpose of combining results from various clinical centers that employ different methods for measuring and prescribing absorbed dose in the mixed radiation fields used for neutron capture therapy. Treatment plans calculated at NCT centers in the Czech Republic, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden were normalized to corresponding measurements performed by the MIT dosimetry group in each beam. More than half of the normalizations for individual absorbed dose components (photon, fast neutron, thermal neutron and boron) determined by comparing MIT measurements to the dose specified in treatment plans from the different centers were statistically significant and ranged from 8 to 400%. Each facility had at least one dose component that would require normalization for the specified doses to be accurately compared. These normalizations establish a technical basis to begin collectively analyzing treatment plans between the European and US centers. Simple but pertinent treatment parameters such as the maximum dose to brain can now be properly compared, once the clinical data is available. This could held to more precisely and quickly determine various dose-response relationships as for example those related to adverse events. Future efforts to determine dose normalization at other centers performing human studies as well as more sophisticated analyses using combined data from several centers should be guided by clearly defined clinical objectives with active participation from clinical BNCT experts. (author)

  18. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  19. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five‐year results and technique comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warry, Alison J.; Eaton, David J.; Collis, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT‐based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT‐planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT‐planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.N‐ PMID:25207423

  20. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.; Stein, E.; Kohn, M.; Kellner, M.; Schweighofer, K.; Cartagena, G.; Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.; Wall, B.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis shows that radiographic techniques differed widely. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques which are poorly suited for paediatric radiology. A significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology

  1. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  2. SPND detectors response at the control rod drop in WWER-1000. Measurement and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.; Milto, N.; Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.; Kuzmichev, M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes and discusses possibility of neutron flux inspection in the WWER core during fast dynamic processes applying existing in-core monitoring system. The structure and functions of the system, basic principal of detector functioning and its temporal parameters are described briefly. To assess the ability of such dynamic monitoring the event with control rod drop happened during operation of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 is observed - at the level of power close to nominal one of the rod from control group shifted to the lowest position at-2 seconds. In-core detectors readings at the process were registered and processed with mathematical methods that allow to single out only the prompt part of the signal. Results of the processing are presented. Furthermore, the process observing have been modeled with 3D dynamic code NOSTRA. Results of modeling are presenting in a paper, and comparing with experimental ones. A good agreement achieved. The analysis of measurements and its imitation give a hope that with an aggregate signal of detectors the measurement of control rod worth could be provided, and it allows to avoid of influence of spatial effects that are significant at standard technique with ex-core ion chambers (Authors)

  3. Investigation of Energy Absorption in Aluminum Foam Sandwich Panels By Drop Hammer Test: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich panel structures with aluminum foam core and metal surfaces have light weight with high performance in dispersing energy. This has led to their widespread use in the absorption of energy. The cell structure of foam core is subjected to plastic deformation in the constant tension level that absorbs a lot of kinetic energy before destruction of the structure. In this research, by making samples of aluminum foam core sandwich panels with aluminum surfaces, experimental tests of low velocity impact by a drop machine are performed for different velocities and weights of projectile on samples of sandwich panels with aluminum foam core with relative density of 18%, 23%, and 27%. The output of device is acceleration‐time diagram which is shown by an accelerometer located on the projectile. From the experimental tests, the effect of weight, velocity and energy of the projectile and density of the foam on the global deformation, and energy decrease rate of projectile have been studied. The results of the experimental testes show that by increasing the density of aluminum foam, the overall impression is reduced and the slop of energy loss of projectile increases. Also by increasing the velocity of the projectile, the energy loss increases.

  4. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/μm. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used

  5. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa. We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop. The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  6. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  7. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using OSL of electronic components: Results of an inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Woda, C.; Bortolin, E.; Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Quattrini, M.C.; Bulanek, B.; Ekendahl, D.; Burbidge, C.I.; Cauwels, V.; Kouroukla, E.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Sholom, S.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Smith, R.W.; Veronese, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MULTIBIODOSE project, two protocols using OSL of resistors removed from the circuit board of mobile phones were developed with the aim to use the resistors as fortuitous dosimeters in the event of a large scale radiological accident. This paper presents the results of an inter-laboratory comparison carried out under the umbrella of EURADOS. The two aims of this exercise were the validation of the MULTIBIODOSE protocols by a large number of laboratories and the dissemination of the method with the objective of preparing the basis for a network that could increase Europe's response capacity in the case of a mass casualty radiological emergency. Twelve institutes from eleven European countries and one institute from the USA, with various degrees of expertise in OSL dosimetry, took part in the OSL inter-laboratory comparison. Generally, a good agreement within uncertainties was observed between estimated and nominal doses. - Highlights: • Resistors in mobile phones could function as reliable fortuitous dosimeters in case of a large scale radiological accident. • Two OSL protocols were validated by an inter-laboratory comparison. • It is feasible to set up a network of laboratories so as to increase the measurement capacity

  8. Report of the results of the second phase of Research Coordinated Program of IAEA ''Regional Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimetry''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Diaz, E.; Hernandez, E.; Capote, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the results of an intercomparison program within a research coordinated program are presented. This is a second phase of the study that consisted in to evaluate the implementation of the new ICRU quantities for individual monitoring by the dosimetry laboratories. In this report the organization aspects, quality control of the irradiations performed by the reference laboratory (SSDL of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las radiaciones) as well the results of the participant laboratories are included

  9. Dosimetry system 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    In May 1983, the authors proposed a dosimetry system for use by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) that would incorporate the new findings and calculations of the joint United States - Japan working groups on the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system evolved from extensive discussions with RERF personnel, numerous meetings of the scientists from Japan and the United States involved in the dosimetry reassessment research, and requirements expressed by epidemiologists and radiobiologists on the various review panels. The dosimetry system proposed was based on considerations of the dosimetry requirements for the normal work of RERF and for future research in radiobiology, the computerized input data on A-bomb survivors available in the RERF data base, the level of detail, precision, and accuracy of various components of the dosimetric estimates, and the computer resources available at RERF in Hiroshima. These discussions and our own experience indicated that, in light of the expansion of computer and radiation technologies and the desire for more detail in the dosimetry, an entirely new approach to the dosimetry system was appropriate. This resulted in a complete replacement of the T65D system as distinguished from a simpler approach involving a renormalization of T65D parameters to reflect the new dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system for RERF and the plan for implementation was accepted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on A-bomb Dosimetry chaired by Dr. R.F. Christy. The dosimetry system plan was also presented to the binational A-bomb dosimetry review groups for critical comment and was discussed at joint US-Japan workshop. A prototype dosimetry system incorporating preliminary dosimetry estimates and applicable to only a limited set of A-bomb survivors was installed on the RERF computer system in the fall of 1984. This system was successfully operated at RERF and provided an initial look at the impact of

  10. Results on the separation of micro-drops after the extraction process in reprocessing plants for nuclear power plant fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelein, F.; Blass, E.

    1987-01-01

    This research process aims at the separation of micro-drops from liquid process-flows. In order to characterize the liquid-liquid dispersions a measuring technique for the drop size was adapted and batch settling experiments were performed. In continuous steady state experiments the separation of dispersions with the aid of fibre beds was examined. These experiments provided batch settling times and the separation performance as a function of drop size, volumetric throughput, kind and thickness of fibre, bed depth and hold-up for fibre bed settlers. A progression project will examine an electrostatic settler for comparison. There are application possibilities for the achieved results in all separation processes in the range of nuclear power techniques, of the chemical industry and of waste-water technology. (orig.) With 18 refs., 3 tabs., 33 figs [de

  11. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results; Acreditacion ISO/IEC 17025 en dosimetria: Experiencia y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  12. Uncertainty Analysis of the Results of Potential Cask Drops in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEW, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    If a cask and Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) were to be dropped, the analysis established possible initial volumetric flow rates. The results of the uncertainty analysis demonstrated that even if a cask and MCO were to be dropped the possible initial volumetric flow rate through the opened floor/wall joint would be small. There is a 95% confidence (probability of 0.95) that the initial volumetric flow rate would be smaller than 411 gpm and a 99% confidence (probability of 0.99) that it would be smaller than 916 gpm

  13. Multi-wall cask advantages with quarter-scale model drop test results for the NAC-STC Storable Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danner, T.A.; Thompson, T.C.; Yaksh, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Physical drop test results for a quarter-scale model multi-wall cask are presented for the 9 meter end, side and oblique drops with impact limiters, and for the 1 meter side and closure lid pin puncture drops. Lessons learned and final cask test qualification are presented. (J.P.N.)

  14. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  15. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, I.K.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Golub, E.V.; Nugis, V. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation. (authors)

  16. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  17. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponi, Matteo, E-mail: mtamponi@aslsassari.it; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio [Medical Physics Unit, ASL Sassari, Via Enrico de Nicola, Sassari 07100 (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  18. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponi, Matteo; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  19. The value of radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities: experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paelinck, L; Reynaert, N; Thierens, H; Wagter, C de; Neve, W de

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigate radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities with particular focus on the perturbation of the dose distribution by the film when the film is parallel to the beam axis. We considered a layered polystyrene phantom containing an air cavity as a model for the air-soft tissue geometry that may occur after surgical resection of a paranasal sinus tumour. A radiochromic film type MD-55 was positioned within the phantom so that it intersected the cavity. Two phantom set-ups were examined. In the first case, the air cavity is at the centre of the phantom, thus the film is lying along the central beam axis. In the second case, the cavity and film are located 2 cm offset from the phantom centre and the central beam axis. In order to examine the influence of the film on the dose distribution and to interpret the film-measured results, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The film was modelled rigorously to incorporate the composition and structure of the film. Two field configurations, a 1 x 10 cm 2 field and a 10 x 10 cm 2 field, were examined. The dose behind the air cavity is reduced by 6 to 7% for both field configurations when a film that intersects the cavity contains the central beam axis. This is due to the attenuation exerted by the film when photons cross the cavity. Offsetting the beam to the cavity and the film by 2 cm removes the dose reduction behind the air cavity completely. Another result was that the rebuild-up behind the cavity for the 10 x 10 cm 2 field, albeit less significant than for the 1 x 10 cm 2 field, could only be measured by the film that was placed offset with respect to the central beam axis. Although radiochromic film is approximately soft-tissue equivalent and energy independent as compared to radiographic films, care should be taken in the case of inhomogeneous phantoms when the film intersects air cavities and contains the beam central axis. Errors in dose measurement can be expected distal to the air cavity

  20. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  1. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  2. Statistical results 1991-1993 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Wittmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 140000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  3. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  5. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author)

  6. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community

  7. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  8. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  9. Analysis of results of testing of the prototype sample TUK-84 for drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselkov, I.L.; Samarin, Yu.A.; Tverdokhlebov, P.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations of the stress-strained state of the TUK-84 shipping casks (SC) and its throw rest results are analyzed. The calculational and experimental data agree well. The conclusion is made on conservation of the SC strength and serviceability after mechanical load action under conditions of emergency situations. Test results permitted to develop a calculational model for analysis of the stress-strained state of the structures of TUK-84 SC different modifications, fabricated from rolls [ru

  10. Implementation of the International Code of Practice on Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology (TRS 457): Review of Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the IAEA published Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 457). This publication recommends procedures for calibration and dosimetric measurement for the attainment of standardized dosimetry. It also addresses requirements both in standards dosimetry laboratories, especially Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), and in clinical centres for radiology, as found in most hospitals. The implementation of TRS No. 457 decreases the uncertainty in the dosimetry of diagnostic radiology beams and provides Member States with a unified and consistent framework for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, which previously did not exist. A coordinated research project (CRP E2.10.06) was established in order to provide practical guidance to professionals at SSDLs and to clinical medical physicists on the implementation of TRS No. 457. This includes the calibration of radiological dosimetry instrumentation, the dissemination of calibration coefficients to clinical centres and the establishment of dosimetric measurement processes in clinical settings. The main goals of the CRP were to: Test the procedures recommended in TRS No. 457 for calibration of radiation detectors in different types of diagnostic beams and measuring instruments for varying diagnostic X ray modalities; Test the clinical dosimetry procedures, including the use of phantoms and patient dose surveys; Report on the practical implementation of TRS No. 457 at both SSDLs and hospital sites. Testing of TRS No. 457 was performed by a group of medical physicists from hospitals and SSDLs from various institutions worldwide

  11. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  12. Results of the Argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2014. Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of four internal dosimetry services from the nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE) and the CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE). This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  13. Report of results of the tests of evaluation of the operation of service of personal dosimetry of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2005-11-01

    The ININ realized the evaluation of the service of personal dosimetry in the CNLV, in the categories: IV.- (Photons of high energy of 137 Cs) and the VA.- (Particles beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y); in the category IV the test was satisfactory, however in the chart 1 has an underestimation a the American Standard HP over the value true conventional of a 9%; for this irregularity it is recommended to revise the procedures of evaluation of the process and the determination of the chart 1 of the HP. In the category VA, the test is also satisfactory, however the results contrasted with the chart 2 and the HP, the values were overestimated in 29% of the true conventional value, and for that problem is recommended to revise the evaluation procedures in contrast with the values determined by the standard HP. (Author)

  14. French experience in the field of internal dosimetry assessment at a nuclear workplace. Methods and results on industrial uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rannou, A.; Pihet, P.; Dewez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of the new ICRP recommendations and the diversity of industrial exposure materials make it necessary to modify our approach of assessing internal dosimetry. This paper describes a methodology developed to asses different parameters such as activity concentration and particle size distribution at the workplace; physico-chemical characteristics of industrial dust handled; and in vitro and in vivo solubility in order to determine the absorption rate blood. The determination of such specific parameters will lead to dose calculation in terms of committed effective Dose Per Unit of Intake (DPUI). Results obtained for an industrial uranium dioxide, UO 2 , at a French nuclear facility are presented. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. TU-D-201-03: Results of a Survey On the Implementation of the TG-51 Protocol and Associated Addendum On Reference Dosimetry of External Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Muir, B [National Research Council, Ottawa, AB (Canada); Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, S [McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Huang, Y [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States); Lee, S [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Columbia, MD (United States); Lowenstein, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Science Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tolani, N [Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Sugarland (United States); Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The working group on the review and extension of the TG-51 protocol (WGTG51) collected data from American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members with respect to their current TG-51 and associated addendum usage in the interest of considering future protocol addenda and guidance on reference dosimetry best practices. This study reports an overview of this survey on dosimetry of external beams. Methods: Fourteen survey questions were developed by WGTG51 and released in November 2015. The questions collected information on reference dosimetry, beam quality specification, and ancillary calibration equipment. Results: Of the 190 submissions completed worldwide (U.S. 70%), 83% were AAPM members. Of the respondents, 33.5% implemented the TG-51 addendum, with the maximum calibration difference for any photon beam, with respect to the original TG-51 protocol, being <1% for 97.4% of responses. One major finding is that 81.8% of respondents used the same cylindrical ionization chamber for photon and electron dosimetry, implying that many clinics are foregoing the use of parallel-plate chambers. Other evidence suggests equivalent dosimetric results can be obtained with both cylindrical and parallel-plate chambers in electron beams. This, combined with users comfort with cylindrical chambers for electrons will likely impact recommendations put forward in an upcoming electron beam addendum to the TG-51 protocol. Data collected on ancillary equipment showed 58.2% (45.0%) of the thermometers (barometers) in use for beam calibration had NIST traceable calibration certificates, but 48.4% (42.7%) were never recalibrated. Conclusion: This survey provides a snapshot of TG-51 external beam reference dosimetry practice in radiotherapy centers. Findings demonstrate the rapid take-up of the TG-51 photon beam addendum and raise issues for the WGTG51 to focus on going forward, including guidelines on ancillary equipment and the choice of chamber for electron beam

  16. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  17. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Clinical results of entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for high energy photons in external beam radiotherapy using MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. P.; Bhat, M.; Williams, T.; Kovendy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Thomson and Nielsen T N -502 R D MOSFETs were used for entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for 6 and 10 MV photons. A total of 24 patients were tested, 10 breast. 8 prostate, 5 lung and 1 head and neck. For prostates three fields were checked. For all other plans all fields were checked. An action threshold of 8% was set for any one field and 5% for all fields combined. The total number of fields tested was 56, with a mean discrepancy of 1.4% and S.D. of 2.6%. Breasts had a mean discrepancy of 1.8% and S.D. of 2.8%. Prostates had a mean discrepancy of 1.3% and S.D. of 2.9%. For 3 fields combined, prostates had a mean of 1.3% and S.D. of 1.8%. These results are similar to results obtained with diodes and TLDs for the same techniques.

  20. JENDL Dosimetry File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Iwasaki, Shin; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Tsuneo.

    1992-03-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d, n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form. (author) 76 refs

  1. JENDL Dosimetry File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujior; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1992-03-15

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form.

  2. Space dosimetry measurement results using the Pille instrument during the EUROMIR/NASAMIR space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejja, I.; Apathy, J.; Deme, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Pille dosimeter developed in Hungary for space applications is described briefly, and its two versions are presented for the two space flights. The results of the EUROMIR mission in 1995-1996 are discussed for positional dosimetric applications. The characteristic dose rates at various space stations in the Salyut range are displayed. The NASAMIR4 mission between January 1997 and September 1998 are also discussed from the dosimetric point of view. The results of the measurements are presented and a preliminary analysis is reported. (R.P.)

  3. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  4. Results of an innovative methodology to the dosimetry in mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feital, J.C.S.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G.P.; Lopes, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Female breast is a radiosensitive organ and the main procedure to assess the carcinogenic risk associated the mammographic practices has been indicated by the mean glandular dose (MGD) measurements. However, this dosimetric quantity may not provide the accuracy required for such measurements due to the heterogeneity of glandular tissue. So twenty-one exposures happened in a phantom mammographic using a CR equipment. Results were compared with data from the literature and was found an accuracy rate 15% lower than the recommended level. Experimental values reached below the IAEA's acceptable levels for 3.0 to 6.0 cm thickness of the compressed breast. (author)

  5. Results of a dummy run of postimplant dosimetry between multi-institutional centers in prostate brachytherapy with 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Manabu; Yorozu, Atsunori; Dokiya, Takushi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and precision of postimplant dosimetry following 125 I prostate brachytherapy (PB) and to evaluate the effects of learning and experience in CT-based postimplant dosimetry. One-month postimplant CT data from two patients who underwent PB alone or combined therapy (PB+external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)) were sent to 28 institutions for postimplant dosimetry and analyzed in 2006 (study 1). Similarly, 1-month postimplant CT data from two other patients were also analyzed in 2008 (study 2; 23 institutions). For both modalities in studies 1 and 2, the variance of the difference between CT-based D90 at each institution and CT/MRI fusion-based D90 was estimated. In monotherapy, F test and Mann-Whitney U test revealed no significant difference in the variance in studies 1 and 2 (P=0.72, 0.46). In combined therapy, the variance significantly converged in study 2 compared with study 1 (P<0.05). Even in the two studies, however, the difference between the median CT-based D90 and fusion-based D90 was at least 20-30 Gy. Marked interobserver variability was seen in the prostate volume and D90 with CT alone. The precision of postimplant dosimetry based on CT alone was revealed to be limited. (author)

  6. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  7. Investigation of personnel beta and gamma dosimetry results at Amok Ltd, Cluff Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utting, R.E.; Brown, L.D.; Bradley, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Apparent skin doses significantly higher than expected have been indicated by some thermoluminescent dosimeters worn by employees at Amok Ltd., Cluff Lake. Calculations have indicated that skin doses as a result of exposure to uranium ore are likely to be no more than twice the whole body doses. Experiments were conducted to expose TL dosimeters to a variety of radioactive materials commonly found in the mill environment under different conditions. The results of these experiments togethr with a re-examination of the original dosimeters leads to the conclusion that contamination either on or inside the dosimeter badge was the cause of the abnormal apparent skin doses. It is therefore recommended that for individuals with apparent skin doses in excess of twice the body dose, the actual skin dose should be considered to be equal to twice the body dose for purposes of determining compliance with the AEC Regulations. It is further recommended that the National Dose Registry records of anomalous skin doses to Amok employees be amended to reflect this. (author)

  8. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  9. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  10. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results;Caracterizacao de dosimetros termoluminescentes para dosimetria de pacientes em radiodiagnostico - resultados iniciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L. [Faculdade Novo Rumo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gonzaga, Natalia B. [Universidade Unincor, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  11. Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

  12. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia

    2013-01-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements

  13. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results; Dosimetria in vivo mediante detectores de TLD en implantes de prostata con semillas de I-125: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  14. Drop Tests Results Of Revised Closure Bolt Configuration Of The Standard Waste Box, Standard Large Box 2, And Ten Drum Overpack Packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  15. Clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1973-01-01

    The main point of this paper on clinical dosimetry which is to be understood here as application of physical dosimetry on accelerators in medical practice, is based on dosimetric methodics. Following an explanation of the dose parameters and description of the dose distribution important for clinical practice as well as geometric irradiation parameters, the significance of a series of physical parameters such as accelerator energy, surface energy of average stopping power etc. is dealt with in detail. Following a section on field homogenization with bremsstrahlung and electron radiation, details on dosimetry in clinical practice are given. Finally, a few problems of dosemeter or monitor calibration on accelerators are described. The explanations are supplemented by a series of diagrams and tables. (ORU/LH) [de

  16. Drop trampoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelot, Pierre; Coux, Martin; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic substrates inspired from the lotus leaf have the ability to reflect impacting water drops. They do so very efficiently and contact lasts typically 10 ms for millimetric droplets. Yet unlike a lotus leaf most synthetic substrates are rigid. Focusing on the interplay between substrate flexibility and liquid repellency might allow us to understand the dynamic properties of natural surfaces. We perform liquid marbles impacts at velocity V onto thin ( 0.01 mm) stretched circular PDMS membranes. We obtain contact time reductions of up to 70%. The bouncing mechanism is drastically modified compared to that on a rigid substrate: the marble leaves the substrate while it is still spread in a disk shape as it is kicked upwards by the membrane. We show that the bouncing is controlled by an interplay between the dynamics of the drop and the membrane.

  17. ACL Injury Prevention Training Results in Modification of Hip and Knee Mechanics During a Drop-Landing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christine D; Sigward, Susan M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Injury prevention training has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, the underlying reason for the success of these training programs is unclear. To investigate whether an ACL injury prevention program that has been shown to reduce the incidence of ACL injury alters sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics during a drop-landing task. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty female club soccer players (age range, 11-17 years) with no history of knee injury participated in this study. Kinematics and ground-reaction forces were collected while each participant performed a drop-landing task prior to and immediately after participation in a 12-week ACL injury prevention training program. After ACL injury prevention training, participants demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments ( P = .03), increased energy absorption at the hip ( P = .04), decreased knee-to-hip extensor moment ratios ( P = .05), and decreased knee-to-hip energy absorption ratios ( P = .03). Participation in an ACL injury prevention training program decreased reliance on the knee extensor muscles and improved use of the hip extensor muscles, which may explain the protective effect of this type of training program on ACL injury. Based on these findings, clinicians can better understand how ACL injury prevention training, such as the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance (PEP) Program, may change movement behavior at both the hip and knee. Furthermore, the study findings may support the implementation of the PEP Program, or a similar program, for clinicians aiming to improve use of the hip in an effort to reduce knee loading and consequent injuries.

  18. Statistical results 1988-1990 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service and data compilation 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Scheibe, D.; Schraube, H.

    1994-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and since 1989, Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 100000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  19. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  20. Dropped Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  1. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kopeć, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Paweł

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 μGy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 μSv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ∼ 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors.

  2. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  3. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  4. Hematological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluery-Herard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues [fr

  5. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  6. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  7. Results of the regional intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2013: Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, the 1. Regional Intercomparison Exercise was organized in 2005 in the frame of the RLA 9/049. The results of this exercise led to the 2. Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organized in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and Tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of 19 centres from 13 countries. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this 2nd. exercise, useful to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in applying the IDEAS guidelines. It is important to highlight the improvement in the general performance of the participants. (authors) [es

  8. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011; Resultados del noveno ejercicio de intercomparacion de servicios de dosimetria personal realizado en la Republica Argentina en el ano 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O., E-mail: gferrufino@am.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aies (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  9. Results of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry for population living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ivannikov, A. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Apsalikov, K. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zharlyganova, D. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Berekenova, G. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics Faculty of Science Okayama University of Science, 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S.; Tanaka, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Miyazawa, C. [School of Dentistry, Ohu University, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima Pref. 963-8611 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry was used on human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan. Measured teeth were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 105 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, including eight tooth samples from control settlement Kokpekty, which is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS and was not subjected to any radioactive contamination. It was found that the excess doses obtained after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation ranged up to about 440 mGy for residents of Dolon, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 100 mGy for younger residents. For residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy for all ages except in one resident, for whom an extremely high dose of 1250 mGy was registered. For Bodene settlement, excess doses higher than 100 mGy were obtained for two samples from the residents having enamel formed before 1949. An extremely high dose (2800{+-}400 mGy) was obtained for one resident of Semipalatinsk City. The average excess dose for Semipalatinsk samples with enamel formation before 1949 was determined close to the average excess dose for tooth enamel samples from Dolon village.

  10. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  11. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  12. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  13. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  14. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  15. Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Visomitin Eye Drops in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.

  16. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. E-mail: esposito@frascati.enea.it; Bertalot, L.; Maruccia, G.; Petrizzi, L.; Bignan, G.; Blandin, C.; Chauffriat, S.; Lebrun, A.; Recroix, H.; Trapp, J.P.; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-11-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties. The analysis has been carried out using the LSL-M2 code, which optimizes the neutron spectrum by means of a least-squares technique taking into account the variance and covariance files. In the second part of the activity, the possibility of extending to IFMIF the use of existing on-line in-core neutron/gamma monitors (to be located at several positions inside the IFMIF test cell for beam control, safety and diagnostic purposes) has been studied. A feasibility analysis of the modifications required to adapt sub-miniature fission chambers (recently developed by CEA-Cadarache) to the high flux test module of the test cell has been carried out. The verification of this application pertinence and a gross definition of the in-core detector characteristics are described. The option of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) is also discussed.

  17. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Di Giorgio, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Sapienza, C.E.; Deminge, M.M.; Fernandez Rearte, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Cortina Ramirez, G.E.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. (authors)

  18. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  20. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  1. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  2. First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

  3. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  4. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  5. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  6. Mixed field dosimetry with paired ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.; Porro, F.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of neutron and gamma mixed-field dosimetry obtained by the Ispra Group in the framework of the European Neutron Dosimetry intercomparison Project (ENDIP). The experimental method and the formulation employed for the derivation of Kerma results are also present

  7. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  8. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  9. Dosimetry in life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-06-15

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  10. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee

  11. Development and implementation of own software for dosimetry multichannel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Carrasco Herrera, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop its own software for multichannel film dosimetry Radiochromic EBT2. Compare the results obtained with its use in multichannel and single-channel dosimetry. Check that the multi-channel dosimetry eliminates much of the artifacts caused by dirt, fingerprints, scratches, etc. Radiochromic in film and scanner devices. (Author)

  12. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  13. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  15. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  17. Efeitos da ibopamina 2% tópica nos resultados da campimetria visual computadorizada Effects of 2% ibopamine eye drops on computerized visual field results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Agi Pigini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do uso do colírio de ibopamina a 2% nos resultados da campimetria visual computadorizada em indivíduos normais. MÉTODOS: Voluntários oriundos do CEROF-UFG, sem alterações ao exame oftalmológico que pudessem afetar o campo visual foram selecionados. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame de perimetria computadorizada SITA-standard 24-2 antes e após dilatação com o colírio de ibopamina a 2% ou ciclopentolato, com intervalo mínimo de 3 dias entre si e em ordem aleatória. Índices globais e número de pontos alterados foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 30 olhos de 30 indivíduos normais. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o "mean deviation" (MD nos pacientes não dilatados e nos mesmos após a instilação da ibopamina (MD: -1,05 ± 0,26 dB vs. -1,47 ± 0,20 dB, P=0,08, o que ocorreu após cicloplegia (MD: -3,19 ± 0,29 dB, PPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of 2% ibopamine eye drops on the results of computerized visual field exams. METHODS: Normal volunteers from CEROF-UFG were selected, with no variance in the ophthalmologic examination that could affect the visual field test. The volunteers underwent computerized visual field test before and after dilation with 2% ibopamine eye drop or cyclopentolate, with a minimum interval of three days between them and in a random order. Global indices and number of altered points were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Thirty eyes of 30 normal individuals were selected. There was no statistically significant difference on Mean Deviation (MD before and after dilation with ibopamine (MD: -1.05 ± 0.26 dB vs. -1.47 ± 0.20 dB, P=0.08. However, after cycloplegia (MD: -3.19 ± 0.29 dB, there was a significant difference on MD (P<0.001 for both ibopamine and pre-dilation. No significant difference was detected in the Pattern Standard Deviation when comparing ibopamine with pre-dilation and cycloplegia values, but it

  18. Personality predicts drop-out from therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders. Results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Högdahl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT seems a promising way of delivering eating disorder treatment. However, treatment drop-out is a common problem and little is known about the correlates, especially in clinical settings. The study aimed to explore prediction of drop-out in the context of a randomized controlled trial within specialized eating disorder care in terms of eating disorder symptomatology, personality traits, comorbidity, and demographic characteristics. 109 outpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or similar eating disorder were randomized to two types of ICBT. Participants were assessed with several clinical- and self-ratings. The average drop-out rate was 36%. Drop-out was predicted by lower scores in the personality traits Dutifulness and Assertiveness as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory Revised, and by higher scores in Self-affirm as measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour. Drop-out was also predicted by therapist factors: one therapist had significantly more drop-outs (82% than the other three (M = 30%. Theoretical and clinical implications of the impact of the predictors are discussed.

  19. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  20. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  1. Beta dosimetry using partial body dosimeters II. Results of intercomparison measurements of 1998/1999 - PTB report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Helmstaedter, K.

    2000-12-01

    In 1998 the PTB organised a second series of intercomparison measurements for selected beta dosimeters worn on the extremities. In April 1999 these intercomparison measurements and the results obtained were discussed in a one day meeting. The contributions given and the results obtained and the conclusions drawn after extensive discussions are presented in this PTB report. (orig.) [de

  2. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  3. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  4. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.; Markovic, V.; Draganic, I.

    1961-01-01

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter [sr

  5. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.

    2008-01-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  6. In vivo EPR dosimetry of accidental exposures to radiation: experimental results indicating the feasibility of practical use in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Minoru; Liu, K.J.; Walczak, T.M.; Swartz, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Low frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provides the potential advantage of making accurate and sensitive measurements of absorbed radiation dose in teeth in situ, i.e. without removing the teeth from the potential victim. The potential limiting factors for making such measurements are: (1) whether low frequency EPR is sufficiently sensitive to detect radiation-induced signal in human teeth; (2) whether sufficient sensitivity can be maintained under in vivo conditions. In this manuscript, we summarize results indicating that this approach is feasible. Using 1.2 GHz EPR spectroscopy, we found that the lower limit for these measurements in isolated human teeth is 0.2 Gy or lower. Measurements of radiation-induced EPR signals in the teeth of living rats were achieved with sufficient sensitivity to indicate that, when taking into consideration the larger mass of human teeth, similar measurements in human teeth in situ would provide sensitivity in the dose range for potential accidental exposures. We estimate that the current lower limit for detecting radiation doses in human teeth in situ (in vivo) is 0.5-1.0 Gy; this would be sufficient for determining if a person has been exposed to potentially life threatening doses of ionizing radiation. The limiting factor for sensitivity appears to be background signals rather than signal/noise, and there are feasible means to overcome this problem and further increase sensitivity. The additional instrumental developments required to make an effective in vivo EPR dosimetric spectrometer for the measurements in teeth in human subjects in situ, seem quite achievable

  7. Dynamics of deforming drops

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwhuis, W.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops play a dominant role in numerous industrial applications, such as spray coating, spray painting, inkjet printing, lithography processes, and spraying/sprinkling in agriculture or gardening. In all of these examples, the generation, flight, impact, and spreading of drops are separate stages of the corresponding industrial processes, which are all thoroughly studied for many years. This thesis focuses on drop dynamics, impact phenomena, Leidenfrost drops, and pouring flows. Based o...

  8. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs

  9. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  10. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, Hanno; Rozendaal, Roel; Camargo, Priscilla; Mans, Anton; Wendling, Markus; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the

  11. The Bad Berka dose protocol: comparative results of dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using (177)Lu-DOTATATE, (177)Lu-DOTANOC, and (177)Lu-DOTATOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Christiane; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Prasad, Vikas; Zachert, Carolin; Müller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the in vivo behavior of the (177)Lu-labeled peptides DOTATATE, DOTANOC, and DOTATOC used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT) of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), by measuring organ and tumor kinetics and by performing dosimetric calculations. Two hundred fifty-three patients (group 1) with metastasized NET who underwent PRRNT were examined. Out of these, 185 patients received (177)Lu-DOTATATE, 9 were treated with (177)Lu-DOTANOC, and 59 with (177)Lu-DOTATOC. Additionally, 25 patients receiving, in consecutive PRRNT cycles, DOTATATE followed by DOTATOC (group 2) and 3 patients receiving DOTATATE and DOTANOC (group 3) were analyzed. Dosimetric calculations (according to MIRD scheme) were performed using OLINDA software. In group 1, DOTATOC exhibited the lowest and DOTANOC the highest uptake and therefore mean absorbed dose in normal organs (whole body, kidney, and spleen). In group 2, there was a significant difference between DOTATATE and DOTATOC concerning kinetics and normal organ doses. (177)Lu-DOTATOC had the lowest uptake/dose delivered to normal organs and highest tumor-to-kidney ratio. There were no significant differences between the three peptides concerning tumor kinetics and mean absorbed tumor dose. The study demonstrates a correlation between high affinity of DOTANOC in vitro and high uptake in normal organs/whole body in vivo, resulting in a higher whole-body dose. DOTATOC exhibited the lowest uptake and dose delivered to normal tissues and the best tumor-to-kidney ratio. Due to large interpatient variability, individual dosimetry should be performed for each therapy cycle.

  12. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  13. The work programme of EURADOS on internal and external dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Gilvin, P; Harrison, R; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Tanner, R; Vargas, A; Woda, C

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been maintaining a network of institutions interested in the dosimetry of ionising radiation. As of 2017, this network includes more than 70 institutions (research centres, dosimetry services, university institutes, etc.), and the EURADOS database lists more than 500 scientists who contribute to the EURADOS mission, which is to promote research and technical development in dosimetry and its implementation into practice, and to contribute to harmonisation of dosimetry in Europe and its conformance with international practices. The EURADOS working programme is organised into eight working groups dealing with environmental, computational, internal, and retrospective dosimetry; dosimetry in medical imaging; dosimetry in radiotherapy; dosimetry in high-energy radiation fields; and harmonisation of individual monitoring. Results are published as freely available EURADOS reports and in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Moreover, EURADOS organises winter schools and training courses on various aspects relevant for radiation dosimetry, and formulates the strategic research needs in dosimetry important for Europe. This paper gives an overview on the most important EURADOS activities. More details can be found at www.eurados.org .

  14. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  15. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.

    1986-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm 2 /mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 90 0 . This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Dosimetry results of COSMOS 1887

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Beaujean, R.; Enge, W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to measure the radiation environment inside and outside of the biosatellite COSMOS 1887. For this purpose, detector packages were built up consisting of plastic detectors and nuclear emulsions having different linear energy transfer (LET) thresholds in particle registration, and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Particle fluence rates, LET-spectra and absorbed dose are presented. Absorbed dose is measured as a function of shielding depth. The data are compared with those of other missions. (author)

  17. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011; Resultados del servicio de dosimetria externa del CPHR durante el bienio 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia, E-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa (LDE), Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements.

  18. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  19. Clinical dosimetry using mosfets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Ramaseshan; Russell, Stephen; O'Brien, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The use of metal oxide-silicon field effect transistors (MOSFETs) as clinical dosimeters is demonstrated for a number of patients with targets at different clinical sites. Methods and Materials: Commercially available MOSFETs were characterized for energy response, angular dependency of response, and effect of accumulated dose on sensitivity and some inherent properties of MOSFETs. The doses determined both by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and MOSFETs in clinical situation were evaluated and compared to expected doses determined by calculation. Results: It was observed that a standard calibration of 0.01 Gy/mV gave MOSFET determined doses which agreed with expected doses to within 5% at the 95% confidence limit for photon beams from 6 to 25 MV and electron beams from 5 to 14 MeV. An energy-dependent variation in response of up to 28% was observed between two orientations of a MOSFET. The MOSFET doses compared very well with the doses estimated by TLDs, and the patients tolerated MOSFETs very well. A standard deviation of 3.9% between expected dose and MOSFET determined dose was observed, while for TLDs the standard deviation was 5.1%. The advantages and disadvantages of using MOSFETs for clinical dosimetry are discussed in detail. Conclusion: It was concluded that MOSFETs can be used as clinical dosimeters and can be a good alternative to TLDs. However, they have limitations under certain clinical situations

  20. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  1. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  2. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  3. Type tests performed on a personnel dosimetry system according to IEC 61066

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Romel; Huamanlazo, Paula; Rojas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the verification of the Harshaw 6600 Plus TLD personal dosimetry system was made using the method of the IEC-61066 type tests and the recommendations of the ISO 4037 standards. For this purpose, five dosimeters were irradiated over a water phantom using an irradiator with a 137 Cs source; five dosimeters as control were also used. The evaluated parameters were homogeneity, detection limit, residual reading, linearity, reproducibility, droppings and temperature and humidity variations. The obtained results show that the Harshaw 6600 TLD dosimetric system fulfills the IEC 61066 criteria. (author)

  4. Electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop with inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganguia, H; Young, Y-N; Layton, A T; Lai, M-C; Hu, W-F

    2016-05-01

    Most of the existing numerical and theoretical investigations on the electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop have focused on the creeping Stokes flow regime, where nonlinear inertia effects are neglected. In this work we study the inertia effects on the electrodeformation of a viscous drop under a DC electric field using a novel second-order immersed interface method. The inertia effects are quantified by the Ohnesorge number Oh, and the electric field is characterized by an electric capillary number Ca_{E}. Below the critical Ca_{E}, small to moderate electric field strength gives rise to steady equilibrium drop shapes. We found that, at a fixed Ca_{E}, inertia effects induce larger deformation for an oblate drop than a prolate drop, consistent with previous results in the literature. Moreover, our simulations results indicate that inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation are dictated by the direction of normal electric stress on the drop interface: Larger drop deformation is found when the normal electric stress points outward, and smaller drop deformation is found otherwise. To our knowledge, such inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation has not been reported in the literature. Above the critical Ca_{E}, no steady equilibrium drop deformation can be found, and often the drop breaks up into a number of daughter droplets. In particular, our Navier-Stokes simulations show that, for the parameters we use, (1) daughter droplets are larger in the presence of inertia, (2) the drop deformation evolves more rapidly compared to creeping flow, and (3) complex distribution of electric stresses for drops with inertia effects. Our results suggest that normal electric pressure may be a useful tool in predicting drop pinch-off in oblate deformations.

  5. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  6. Field arrangement and dosimetry verification for concave target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Huankun; Li Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a method of radiotherapy field arrangement for concave paraspinal target. Methods: Plan was designed for concave target in wax phantom and the selected patients by the guidance of beam eye view (BEV) provided by a 3D treatment planning system (CREAT EXPERT). In BEV, the inner border of all tangential fields was 2 mm out of the organ at risk (OAR) and the outer border was 5 mm beyond the target. Dosimetry films and ion chamber were used to verify the dose distribution and point dose in the wax phantom. Results: Dose distribution in phantom and patient was homogeneous. The mean dose of OAR in phantom did not exceed 16% of the prescribed dose. Isodose curves dropped more than 8% per mm between the target and OAR in the phantom. Film dosimetry coincided well with the calculated results. Position error in high dose region was with- in 4 mm and absolute dose errors were no more than 5%. Conclusion: Tangential field arrangement is valuable and practical in radiotherapy for concave paraspinal targets. (authors)

  7. Monte Carlo evaluation of the neutron detection efficiency of a superheated drop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualdrini, G F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` Ezio Clementel` , Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; D` Errico, F; Noccioni, P [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari

    1997-03-01

    Neuron dosimetry has recently gained renewed attention, following concerns on the exposure of crew members on board aircraft, and of workers around the increasing number of high energy accelerators for medical and research purpose. At the same time the new operational qualities for radiation dosimetry introduced by ICRU and the ICRP, aiming at a unified metrological system applicable to all types of radiation exposure, involved the need to update current devices in order to meet new requirements. Superheated Drop (Bubble) Detectors (SDD) offer an alternative approach to neutron radiation protection dosimetry. The SDDs are currently studied within a large collaborative effort involving Yale University. New Haven CT, Pisa (IT) University, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig D, and ENEA (Italian National Agency for new Technologies Energy and the Environment) Centre of Bologna. The detectors were characterised through calibrations with monoenergetic neutron beams and where experimental investigations were inadequate or impossible, such as in the intermediate energy range , parametric Monte Carlo calculations of the response were carried out. This report describes the general characteristic of the SDDs along with the Monte Carlo computations of the energy response and a comparison with the experimental results.

  8. Dropping out of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teneva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern technological society needs educated people who, through their high professionalism, are called upon to create its progress. In this aspect, a serious problem stands out – the dropout from school of a large number of children, adolescents and young people. The object of the research is the premature interruption of training for a large number of Bulgarian students. The subject of the study is the causes that provoke the students’ dropping out of school. The aim is to differentiate the negative factors leading to dropping out of school, and to identify the motivating factors that encourage the individual to return to the educational environment. In order to realize the so set target, a specially designed test-questionnaire has been used. The survey was conducted among students attending evening courses who have left their education for various reasons and are currently back to the school institution. The contingent of the study includes 120 students from the evening schools. The results indicate that the reasons which prompted the students to leave school early differentiate into four groups: family, social, economic, educational, personal. The motivation to return to school has been dictated in the highest degree by the need for realization of the person on the labor market, followed by the possibility for full social functioning.

  9. Dosimetry optimization at COGEMA-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    2000-01-01

    radiation protection trainings. The following article aims at describing the implemented radiation protection principles, the techniques used as well as the dosimetry results gained. For 1998, the monitoring of COGEMA and external companies workers shows a mean integrated dose for exposed workers of 0.8 mSv, whereas the maximum recorded value is 5.7 mSv. (author)

  10. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  11. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  12. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  13. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  14. Shortening of culture time in conventional cytogenetic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamadrid, Ana I.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Romero, Ivonne; Garcia, Omar; Roy, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cytogenetic dosimetry based on chromosome aberration in metaphases is a 'gold standard' of bio-dosimetry techniques for radiation dose assessment. This method is laborious and time consuming, the culturing process requires about 48 hours to obtain a satisfactory number of lymphocytes in mitosis. The current approach to reduce the dose estimation time by cytogenetic dosimetry is the preliminary estimation of dose counting only 50 metaphases. Another possibility is to reduce the culture time. The possibility of reduce the culture time under 48 hours adding Calyculin A has been suggested recently. In the present study we tested shorter times using Calyculin A and considering the G2/M-PCC index as culture quality indicator. Peripheral blood from healthy individuals was irradiated and then maintained at 37 C degrees for 2 hours allowing to act the cellular reparation mechanisms, lymphocytes were culture in RPMI 1640 supplemented with foetal calf serum and phytohemagglutinin. Colcemid was added 24 hours after cultures started and Calyculin A was added for the last hour. The cells were collected by centrifugation between 30 to 48 hours. The cells were treated with a hypotonic solution and the fixed cells dropped onto slides. The slides were stained with Giemsa. The incidence of metaphases with chromosomes well defined was scored. Two operators participated to the scoring according the same criteria. The results were analyzed to comparing the G2/M-PCC index relatives to achieve the shortest culture duration. The culture time reduction to 40 hours gives enough G2/M-PCC cells for dose estimation analysis. Lower culture times produced very low G2/M-PCC index. (author)

  15. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  16. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  17. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  18. An IAEA Survey of Dosimetry Audit Networks for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A Survey: In 2010, the IAEA undertook a task to investigate and review the coverage and operations of national and international dosimetry audit programmes for radiotherapy. The aim was to organize the global database describing the activities of dosimetry audit networks in radiotherapy. A dosimetry audit questionnaire has been designed at an IAEA consultants' meeting held in 2010 for organizations conducting various levels of dosimetry audits for radiotherapy. Using this questionnaire, a survey was conducted for the first time in 2010 and repeated in 2011. Request for information on different aspects of the dosimetry audit was included, such as the audit framework and resources, its coverage and scope, the dosimetry system used and the modes of audit operation, i.e. remotely and through on-site visits. The IAEA questionnaire was sent to over 80 organizations, members of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and other organizations known for having operated dosimetry audits for radiotherapy in their countries or internationally. Survey results and discussion: In response to the IAEA survey, 53 organizations in 45 countries confirmed that they operate dosimetry audit services for radiotherapy. Mostly, audits are conducted nationally, however there are five organizations offering audits abroad, with two of them operating in various parts of the world and three of them at the regional level, auditing radiotherapy centres in neighbouring countries. The distribution of dosimetry audit services in the world is given. (author)

  19. Radioiodotherapy: dosimetry planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apyan, A.; Mileshin, O.; Klyopov, A.; Shishkanov, N.; Matusevich, E.; Roziev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatment of 142 case histories of 125 patients who had been treated with radioactive iodine at the Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medicine Sciences from 1983 to 1999 are given in the presentation. Among the patients, 35 cases of diffuse toxic goiter with signs of thyrotoxicosis of a mild degree, 25 cases of Diffuse toxic goiter with severe thyrotoxicosis, 6 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck, 30 cases of thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck and lung and 1 case of thyroid cancer with metastases to bones were diagnosed. This paper gives recommendations for individual dosimetry planning for radioiodine-therapy. (authors)

  20. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  1. Thermocapillary reorientation of Janus drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rodolfo; Saenz, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    Janus drops, named after the Ancient Roman two-faced god, are liquid drops formed from two immiscible fluids. Experimental observations indicate that a Janus drop may re-orientate in response to an applied external thermal gradient due to the Marangoni effect. Depending on the angle between the interior interface and the direction of the temperature gradient, disparities in the physical properties of the constituent liquids may lead to asymmetries in the thermocapillary flow. As a result, the drop will move along a curved path until a torque-free configuration is achieved, point after which it will continue on a straight trajectory. Here, we present the results of a theoretical investigation of this realignment phenomenon in the Stokes regime and in the limit of non-deformable interfaces. A 3D semi-analytical method in terms of polar spherical harmonics is developed to characterize and rationalize the hydrodynamic response (forces and torques), flow (velocity and temperature distribution) and trajectory of a Janus drop moving during the temperature-driven reorientation process. Furthermore, we discuss how this phenomenon may be exploited to develop dynamically reconfigurable micro-lenses. This work was partially supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants DMS-1614043 and DMS-1719637.

  2. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  3. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study

  4. Drop Tower Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  5. Dynamics of deforming drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops play a dominant role in numerous industrial applications, such as spray coating, spray painting, inkjet printing, lithography processes, and spraying/sprinkling in agriculture or gardening. In all of these examples, the generation, flight, impact, and spreading of drops are separate

  6. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  7. Status of neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, M.F.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The status of current international efforts to develop standardized sets of evaluated energy-dependent (differential) neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry is reviewed. The status and availability of differential data are considered, some recent results of the data testing of the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file using 252 Cf and 235 U benchmark reference neutron fields are presented, and a brief review is given of the current efforts to characterize and identify dosimetry benchmark radiation fields

  8. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-03-15

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States.

  9. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  10. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  11. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  12. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  13. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  14. Neutron personal dosimetry: state-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurný, František

    2005-03-01

    State-of-art of the personal neutron dosimetry is presented, analysed and discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the problems of this type of the dosimetry of external exposure for radiation fields at nuclear power plants. A review of general problems of neutron dosimetry is given and the active individual dosimetry methods available and/or in the stage of development are briefly reviewed. Main attention is devoted to the analysis of the methods available for passive individual neutron dosimetry. The characteristics of these dosemeters were studied and are compared: their energy response functions, detection thresholds and the highest detection limits, the linearity of response, the influence of environmental factors, etc. Particular attention is devoted to their behavior in reactor neutron fields. It is concluded that the choice of the neutron personal dosemeter depends largely on the conditions in which the instrument should be used (neutron spectrum, the level of exposure and the exposure rate, etc.). The results obtained with some of these dosemeters during international intercomparisons are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the personal neutron dosimeter developed and routinely used by National Personal Dosimetry Service Ltd. in the Czech Republic. (author)

  15. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  16. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T.; Hernandez O, J. O.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  18. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  19. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  20. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Sepsis from dropped clips at laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Sarwat

    2001-01-01

    We report seven patients in whom five dropped surgical clips and two gallstones were visualized in the peritoneal cavity, on radiological studies. In two, subphrenic abscesses and empyemas developed as a result of dropped clips into the peritoneal cavity during or following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In one of these two, a clip was removed surgically from the site of an abscess. In two other patients dropped gallstones, and in three, dropped clips led to no complications. These were seen incidentally on studies done for other indications. Abdominal abscess secondary to dropped gallstones is a well-recognized complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We conclude that even though dropped surgical clips usually do not cause problems, they should be considered as a risk additional to other well-known causes of post-LC abdominal sepsis

  2. Nonlinear oscillations of inviscid free drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, T. W.; Benner, R. E., Jr.; Basaran, O. A.; Scriven, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    The present analysis of free liquid drops' inviscid oscillations proceeds through solution of Bernoulli's equation to obtain the free surface shape and of Laplace's equation for the velocity potential field. Results thus obtained encompass drop-shape sequences, pressure distributions, particle paths, and the temporal evolution of kinetic and surface energies; accuracy is verified by the near-constant drop volume and total energy, as well as the diminutiveness of mass and momentum fluxes across drop surfaces. Further insight into the nature of oscillations is provided by Fourier power spectrum analyses of mode interactions and frequency shifts.

  3. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  4. Individual monitoring dosimetry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the various types of individual monitoring systems presently in use within the European community and neutron dosimetry research being coordinated by the EURADOS working group. Research is currently being conducted on nuclear track dosimeters, primarily with CR-39 (TM), and TLD-albedo dosimeters. Studies are being conducted on the energy and angular response of each type of dosimeter. Because the response of dosimeters depends on the energy of the neutrons, it is necessary to have spectral information to accurately assess the dose. Neutron energy spectrum measurements are being performed in typical work place environments. Work is also progressing on development of calibration sources which will be representative of the neutron energy spectrum found in typical neutron exposure situations. This work utilizes 14 MeV neutrons incident on a uranium block with various other filters. Research is also continuing on neutron dosimetry using tissue equivalent proportional counters and microdosimetric techniques. The results of intercomparisons between several different instruments are discussed. In addition to personnel dosimetry, these systems are being used to record the dose to passengers and flight crews aboard commercial aircraft

  5. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe 2+ ions are converted to Fe 3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements or optical techniques. Due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations (and references therein), alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested. In polymer gels, monomers such as acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide are usually dispersed in a gelatin or agarose matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a 3D polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties and results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. As well as MRI, other quantitative techniques for measuring dose distributions include X-ray computer tomography, vibrational spectroscopy and ultrasound. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been reported in the literature. For further information of gel dosimetry and specifically clinical applications the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry and references therein should be consulted

  6. Cellular dosimetry in nuclear medicine imaging: training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.; Faraggi, M.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Bok, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides used in nuclear medicine imaging emit not only diagnostically useful photons, but also energy electron emissions, responsible for dose heterogeneity at the cellular level. The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99m Tc, 123 I, 111 In, 67 Ga, and 201 Tl, has been calculated, for the cell nucleus, a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distribution of radioactivity. This model takes into account both the self-dose which results from the radionuclide located in the target cell, and the cross-dose, which comes from the surrounding cells. The results obtained by cellular dosimetry (D cel ) have been compared with those obtained with conventional dosimetry (D conv ), by assuming the same amount of radioactivity per cell. Cellular dosimetry shows, for a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, that the main contribution to the dose to the cell nucleus, comes from the surrounding cells. On the other hand, for a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity, the self-dose is not negligible and may be the main contribution. The comparison between cellular and conventional dosimetry shows that D cel /D conv ratio ranges from 0.61 and O.89, in case of a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, depending on the radionuclide and cell dimensions. Thus, conventional dosimetry slightly overestimates the mean dose to the cell nucleus. On the other hand, D cel /D conv ranges from 1.1 to 75, in case of a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity. Conventional dosimetry may strongly underestimates the absorbed dose to the nucleus, when radioactivity is located in the nucleus. The study indicates that in nuclear medicine imaging, cellular dosimetry may lead to a better understanding of biological effects of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  7. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. WE-A-17A-09: Exploiting Electromagnetic Technologies for Real-Time Seed Drop Position Validation in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, E [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Hautvast, G [Biomedical Systems, Philips Group Innovation, Eindhoven, North Brabant (Netherlands); Binnekamp, D [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Best, DA (Netherlands); Beaulieu, L [Centre Hospitalier University de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To report on preliminary results validating the performance of a specially designed LDR brachytherapy needle prototype possessing both electromagnetic (EM) tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: An EM hollow needle prototype has been designed and constructed in collaboration with research partner Philips Healthcare. The needle possesses conventional 3D tracking capabilities, along with a novel seed drop detection mechanism exploiting local changes of electromagnetic properties generated by the passage of seeds in the needle's embedded sensor coils. These two capabilities are exploited by proprietary engineering and signal processing techniques to generate seed drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. The electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) used for the experiment is the NDI Aurora Planar Field Generator. The experiment consisted of dropping a total of 35 seeds in a prismatic agarose phantom, and comparing the 3D seed drop positions of the EMTS to those obtained by an image analysis of subsequent micro-CT scans. Drop position error computations and statistical analysis were performed after a 3D registration of the two seed distributions. Results: Of the 35 seeds dropped in the phantom, 32 were properly detected by the needle prototype. Absolute drop position errors among the detected seeds ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mm with mean and standard deviation values of 1.6 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Error measurements also include undesirable and uncontrollable effects such as seed motion upon deposition. The true accuracy performance of the needle prototype is therefore underestimated. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the potential benefits of EM technologies in detecting the passage of seeds in a hollow needle as a means of generating drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. Such tools could therefore represent a potentially interesting addition to existing brachytherapy protocols for rapid dosimetry

  9. WE-A-17A-09: Exploiting Electromagnetic Technologies for Real-Time Seed Drop Position Validation in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, E; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Beaulieu, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report on preliminary results validating the performance of a specially designed LDR brachytherapy needle prototype possessing both electromagnetic (EM) tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: An EM hollow needle prototype has been designed and constructed in collaboration with research partner Philips Healthcare. The needle possesses conventional 3D tracking capabilities, along with a novel seed drop detection mechanism exploiting local changes of electromagnetic properties generated by the passage of seeds in the needle's embedded sensor coils. These two capabilities are exploited by proprietary engineering and signal processing techniques to generate seed drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. The electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) used for the experiment is the NDI Aurora Planar Field Generator. The experiment consisted of dropping a total of 35 seeds in a prismatic agarose phantom, and comparing the 3D seed drop positions of the EMTS to those obtained by an image analysis of subsequent micro-CT scans. Drop position error computations and statistical analysis were performed after a 3D registration of the two seed distributions. Results: Of the 35 seeds dropped in the phantom, 32 were properly detected by the needle prototype. Absolute drop position errors among the detected seeds ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mm with mean and standard deviation values of 1.6 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Error measurements also include undesirable and uncontrollable effects such as seed motion upon deposition. The true accuracy performance of the needle prototype is therefore underestimated. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the potential benefits of EM technologies in detecting the passage of seeds in a hollow needle as a means of generating drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. Such tools could therefore represent a potentially interesting addition to existing brachytherapy protocols for rapid dosimetry

  10. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  11. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R.; Agis E, K. A.

    2012-10-01

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  12. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  14. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  15. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  16. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  17. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  18. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  19. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1988--1990 the magnetic resonance dosimetry project was completed, as were the 250 MeV proton shielding measurements. The first cellular experiment using human cells in vitro at the 1 GeV electron storage ring was also accomplished. More detail may be found in DOE Report number-sign DOE/EV/60417-002 and the open literature cited in the individual progress subsections. We report Kinetic Energy Released in Matter (KERMA), factor measurements in several elements of critical importance to neutron radiation therapy and radiation protection for space habitation and exploration for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The results of this effort provide the only direct measurements of the oxygen and magnesium kerma factors above 20 MeV neutron energy, and the only measurements of the iron kerma factor above 15 MeV. They provide data of immediate relevance to neutron radiotherapy and impose strict criteria for normalizing and testing nuclear models used to calculate kerma factors at higher neutron energies

  20. CPAS Preflight Drop Test Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Megan E.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Romero, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) drop test program, the CPAS Analysis Team has developed a simulation and analysis process to support drop test planning and execution. This process includes multiple phases focused on developing test simulations and communicating results to all groups involved in the drop test. CPAS Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series drop test planning begins with the development of a basic operational concept for each test. Trajectory simulation tools include the Flight Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) for single bodies, and the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulation for the mated vehicle. Results are communicated to the team at the Test Configuration Review (TCR) and Test Readiness Review (TRR), as well as at Analysis Integrated Product Team (IPT) meetings in earlier and intermediate phases of the pre-test planning. The ability to plan and communicate efficiently with rapidly changing objectives and tight schedule constraints is a necessity for safe and successful drop tests.

  1. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  2. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  4. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  5. Two secondary drops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure shows formation of two secondary drops of unequal size and their merger. The process is same as the earlier process until t= 0.039 Tc with necking occurring at two places, one at the bottom of the column and the other at the middle. The necking at the middle of the liquid column is due to Raleigh instability.

  6. Lambda-dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    1997-01-01

    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... the parameters that any of their callees might possibly need. Both lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping thus require one to compute a transitive closure over the call graph:• for lambda-lifting: to establish the Def/Use path of each free variable (these free variables are then added as parameters to each...... of the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then free...

  7. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  8. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a 124I/131I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter; Armor, Tom; Joyal, John; Stubbs, James B.; Hadaschik, Boris; Kopka, Klaus; Debus, Juergen; Babich, John W.; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[ 124 I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of 131 I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of 131 I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of 124 I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of 131 I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or moderate reduction in pain

  9. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Tom; Joyal, John [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, James B. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems RDS, Inc., Apharetta, GA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [Division Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John W. [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmacy, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[{sup 124}I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of {sup 124}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or

  10. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  11. Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry of 99m Tc labelled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3 in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E.; Morales, Alejo; Ramos, Mayra; Perez, Niuvis; Torres, Leonel A.; Alavarez, Ivette; Rodriguez, Nelson; Fraxedas, Roberto; Rodriguez, Oscar; Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry to normal organs and total body of 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r 3 was investigated following intravenous injection in 5 patients. Following administration, blood and urine samples were collected from 4 patients up to 24 hr after injection Pharmacokinetics obtained from whole blood radioactivity showed blood disappearance described most properly by a biexponential model with a mean distribution half-life value of 0.14±0.02 hr and elimination half-life value of 31.0±13.6 hr. Whole body anterior and posterior scans were obtained at 10 min, 1,3,5 and 24 hr after injection. ROIs were drawn over the heart, liver spleen and bladder to measure the activity in the source organs. Time-activity curves for each source organ were fitted to mono- or biexponential functions by non-linear least squares regression using the flexible polyhedral method and integrated to determine organ residence times. The mean absorbed dose to the whole body and various normal organs were then estimated from residence times and from blood and urine samples using the MIRD method. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to normal organs in rads/mCi administered (mean ± SD, n=4) were: whole body, 0.0185± 0.0023, gallbladder wall, 0.0755± 0.00761, spleen, 0.0637± 0.0167 and liver, 0.276± 0.029. The effective dose equivalent and effective dose estimates for adults were 0.039± 0.008 and 0.028± 0.004 rem/m Ci administered. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc labelled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3 in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E.; Morales, Alejo; Ramos, Mayra; Perez, Niuvis [Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM), Havana (Cuba); Torres, Leonel A.; Alavarez, Ivette [Center of Clinical Researches (CIC), Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez, Nelson [Center of Medical-Surgical Researches (CIMEQ), Havana (Cuba); Fraxedas, Roberto [Institute of Nephrology (INEF), Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez, Oscar [Orthopedic Hospital Frank Pais, Havana (Cuba); Stabin, Michael G. [Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry to normal organs and total body of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r{sup 3} was investigated following intravenous injection in 5 patients. Following administration, blood and urine samples were collected from 4 patients up to 24 hr after injection Pharmacokinetics obtained from whole blood radioactivity showed blood disappearance described most properly by a biexponential model with a mean distribution half-life value of 0.14{+-}0.02 hr and elimination half-life value of 31.0{+-}13.6 hr. Whole body anterior and posterior scans were obtained at 10 min, 1,3,5 and 24 hr after injection. ROIs were drawn over the heart, liver spleen and bladder to measure the activity in the source organs. Time-activity curves for each source organ were fitted to mono- or biexponential functions by non-linear least squares regression using the flexible polyhedral method and integrated to determine organ residence times. The mean absorbed dose to the whole body and various normal organs were then estimated from residence times and from blood and urine samples using the MIRD method. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to normal organs in rads/mCi administered (mean {+-} SD, n=4) were: whole body, 0.0185{+-} 0.0023, gallbladder wall, 0.0755{+-} 0.00761, spleen, 0.0637{+-} 0.0167 and liver, 0.276{+-} 0.029. The effective dose equivalent and effective dose estimates for adults were 0.039{+-} 0.008 and 0.028{+-} 0.004 rem/m Ci administered. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Phase I/II 90Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) radioimmunotherapy dosimetry results in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, G.A.; Dunn, W.L.; White, C.A.; Berlfein, J.R.; Ding, E.; Grillo-Lopez, A.J.; Stabin, M.; Erwin, W.; Spies, S.; Dahlbom, M.; Silverman, D.H.S.; Raubitschek, A.; Karvelis, K.; Schultheiss, T.; Witzig, T.E.; Belanger, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry studies in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were performed to estimate the radiation absorbed dose to normal organs and bone marrow from 90 Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) treatment in this phase I/II, multicenter trial. The trial was designed to determine the dose of Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20, Rituxan, IDEC-C2B8, MabThera), the unlabeled antibody given prior to the radioconjugate to clear peripheral blood B cells and optimize distribution, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of 90 Y-Zevalin [7.4, 11, or 15 MBq/kg (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mCi/kg)]. Patients received 111 In-Zevalin (indium-111 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-In2B8) on day 0 followed by a therapeutic dose of 90 Y-Zevalin on day 7. Both doses were preceded by an infusion of the chimeric, unlabeled antibody Rituximab. Following administration of 111 In-Zevalin, serial anterior/posterior whole-body scans were acquired. Major-organ radioactivity versus time estimates were calculated using regions of interest. Residence times were computed and entered into the MIRDOSE3 computer software program to calculate estimated radiation absorbed dose to each organ. Initial analyses of estimated radiation absorbed dose were completed at the clinical site. An additional, centralized dosimetry analysis was performed subsequently to provide a consistent analysis of data collected from the seven clinical sites. In all patients with dosimetry data (n=56), normal organ and red marrow radiation absorbed doses were estimated to be well under the protocol-defined upper limit of 20 Gy and 3 Gy, respectively. Median estimated radiation absorbed dose was 3.4 Gy to liver (range 1.2-7.8 Gy), 2.6 Gy to lungs (range 0.72-4.4 Gy), and 0.38 Gy to kidneys (range 0.07-0.61 Gy). Median estimated tumor radiation absorbed dose was 17 Gy (range 5.8-67 Gy). No correlation was noted between hematologic toxicity and the following variables: red marrow radiation absorbed dose, blood T 1/2 , blood AUC

  14. Radiation dosimetry of the α4β2 nicotinic receptor ligand (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing preclinical PET/MRI and PET/CT to first-in-human PET/CT results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+-[18F]flubatine compared to (−-[18F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+-[18F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (−-[18F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. To support the clinical translation, we investigated a fully image-based internal dosimetry approach for (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing mouse data collected on a preclinical PET/MRI system to piglet and first-in-human data acquired on a clinical PET/CT system. Time-activity curves (TACs were obtained from the three species, the animal data extrapolated to human scale, exponentially fitted and the organ doses (OD, and effective dose (ED calculated with OLINDA. Results The excreting organs (urinary bladder, kidneys, and liver receive the highest organ doses in all species. Hence, a renal/hepatobiliary excretion pathway can be assumed. In addition, the ED conversion factors of 12.1 μSv/MBq (mice, 14.3 μSv/MBq (piglets, and 23.0 μSv/MBq (humans were calculated which are well within the order of magnitude as known from other 18F-labeled radiotracers. Conclusions Although both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine exhibit different binding kinetics in the brain due to the respective affinities, the effective dose revealed no enantiomer-specific differences among the investigated species. The preclinical dosimetry and biodistribution of (+-[18F]flubatine was shown and the feasibility of a dose assessment based on image data acquired on a small animal PET/MR and a clinical PET/CT was demonstrated. Additionally, the first-in-human study confirmed the tolerability

  15. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  16. Report of results of the tests of evaluation of the operation of service of personal dosimetry of the CNLV; Informe de resultados de las pruebas de evaluacion del funcionamiento de servicio de dosimetria personal de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    The ININ realized the evaluation of the service of personal dosimetry in the CNLV, in the categories: IV.- (Photons of high energy of {sup 137}Cs) and the VA.- (Particles beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); in the category IV the test was satisfactory, however in the chart 1 has an underestimation a the American Standard HP over the value true conventional of a 9%; for this irregularity it is recommended to revise the procedures of evaluation of the process and the determination of the chart 1 of the HP. In the category VA, the test is also satisfactory, however the results contrasted with the chart 2 and the HP, the values were overestimated in 29% of the true conventional value, and for that problem is recommended to revise the evaluation procedures in contrast with the values determined by the standard HP. (Author)

  17. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Robert D., E-mail: robert_adams@med.unc.edu

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  18. Recent research into thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1979-04-01

    The trend of basic research in thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), the results, and developing fields in which it can be applied are reported. This trend is outlined from the viewpoint fields of application, a new trend in TLD readers, the conditions of development of new photogenic substances, and research in the radiation characteristics of photogenic substances (radiosensitivity to particle rays and ultraviolet rays, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence at irradiation, and ..gamma.. ray energy dependence). Utilization of TLD in the medical field for measurement of environmental radiation and as a monitor for workers exposed to radiation is discussed. An international comparison of dose was necessary in order to prove its universal validity.

  19. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  20. Organisation of a laboratory of photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, Georges

    1961-01-01

    After a recall of the main properties of photographic dosimetry, the author describes the principle of this method, and comments the issue of chromatic sensitivity of photographic emulsions. He discusses the calibration process for gamma radiation, X rays, and thermal neutrons. He describes how fast neutron dosimetry is performed. In the next part, he describes the organisation of the photometry laboratory which has to prepare and distribute dosimeters, to collect and exploit them, and to prepare a publication of results. These different missions and tasks are described

  1. An experimental system for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.G.; George, E.

    1965-08-01

    A thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) reader has been developed for experimental investigations on the use of lithium fluoride for 'finger tip' dosimetry. The design of the reader is based on the maximum use of standard electronic units in the A.E.R.E. Type 2000 series but some new unit development has been necessary. The reader gives improved experimental facilities over present commercially-available designs. The technique for 'finger-tip' dosimetry is described and the initial experimental results are given. (author)

  2. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez V, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm 2 with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  3. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  4. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  5. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  6. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  7. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  8. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  9. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  10. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  11. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, N.A.; Kinneman, J.D.; Costello, F.M.; White, J.R.; Nimitz, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  12. Device for making liquid drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masao; Fukuda, Fumito; Nishikawa, Masana; Ishii, Takeshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a device for producing liquid drops in the form of liquefied gases indispensable to make deuterium and tritium ice pellets used as a fusion fuel in a tokamak type fusion reactor. Structure: First, pressure P 1 at the upper surface of liquefied gas in a container and outlet pressure P 2 of a nozzle disposed at the lower part of the container are adjusted into the state of P 1 >= P 2 , and it is preset so that even under such conditions, the liquefied gas from the nozzle is not naturally flown out. Next, a vibration plate disposed within the container is rapidly downwardly advanced toward the nozzle through a predetermined distance. As a result, pressure of the liquefied gas within a depression under the vibration plate rises instantaneously or in a pulse fashion to dissatisfy the aforesaid set condition whereby the liquefied gas may be flown out from the nozzle in the form of liquid drops. In accordance with the present device, it is possible to produce a suitable number of drops at a suitable point. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  14. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: X-ray examinations remain an essential and widely used diagnostic tool in medicine and hence the most significant source of exposure to man-made radiation for populations. Patterns of practice in diagnostic radiology continue to evolve, with overall growth in the numbers of procedures worldwide and, particularly in developed countries, increasing importance for complex procedures such as computed tomography (CT) and interventional techniques. In order to maximise the benefits from x-rays relative to the associated radiation risks, there is a need to ensure the prior justification of all examinations and the optimisation of patient protection such that doses are as low as reasonably practicable to meet specific clinical requirements. Accordingly, patient dosimetry is a fundamental requirement in diagnostic radiology. Detailed measurements for the assessment of risks or comparison of different types of procedure require the estimation of organ and effective doses. Such comprehensive dosimetry necessarily involves the simulation of clinical practice using anthropomorphic phantoms, with either measurements in a physical phantom or calculations utilising a mathematical phantom. Simpler measurements for the routine monitoring of dose in x-ray departments can be based on practical quantities such as entrance surface dose, dose-area product and, for CT, weighted CT dose index and dose-length product. Widescale surveys reveal significant variations between departments in the typical doses for a given type of procedure and potential scope for dose reductions. In order to promote improvements in practice, the results of periodic dose surveys in departments should be compared with appropriate standards, such as diagnostic reference levels for adult and paediatric patients, that are set nationally or locally for the purposes of promoting critical review of the equipment and techniques in use. Patient dosimetry should form an essential element of routine quality

  15. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  17. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  18. Drop size measurements in Venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Alonso, D.; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2001-07-01

    Venturi scrubbers are high efficiency gas cleaners in which suspended particles are removed from gas streams by drops formed by liquid atomisation, usually in the Venturi throat. The size of the drops formed are of fundamental importance to the performance of the equipment, both in terms of pressure drop and dust removal efficiency. In this study, drop sizes in a cylindrical laboratory-scale Venturi scrubber were measured using a laser diffraction technique. Gas velocity and liquid to gas ratios varied from 50 to 90 m/s and 0.5 to 2.0 1/m{sup 3}, respectively. Water was injected using two different arrangements: either as jets in the throat or as a film just upstream of the convergence. Drop size measurements were performed at three positions in the case of jet injection: two located along the throat, and the last one at the end of the diffuser. The present data shows that the Sauter mean diameter of the spray can be well correlated by the equation of Boll et al. (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24 (1974) 932). Drop size distributions are satisfactorily represented by a Rosin-Rammler function. This paper also provides a simple method for calculating the parameters of the Rosin-Rammler function. As a result of this work, drop sizes in Venturi scrubbers can be estimated with much higher accuracy. (Author)

  19. Micro-splashing by drop impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, Kohsei; Etoh, Takeharugoji

    2012-01-01

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Micro-splashing by drop impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2012-07-18

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  2. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project

  4. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  5. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  6. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  7. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  8. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  9. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  10. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  11. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  12. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  13. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  14. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  15. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden; In vivo-dosimetri inom straalbehandling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael (Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  16. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis

  17. Natural dose level determination at Johor State with thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Yusof Jasman

    1995-01-01

    This paperwork presented the results of using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method in measuring background dose level, which is done at State of Johor, South Malaysia. The problems faced also discussed

  18. Drop Performance Test of CRDMs for JRTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Chung, Jong-Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun [POSCO Plandtec Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Hee [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The drop test results of CRDMs with AC-type electromagnet show that the initial delay times are not satisfied with the requirement, 0.15 seconds. After the replacement of the electromagnet from AC-type to DCtype, the drop times of CARs and accelerations due to the impact of moving parts are satisfied with all requirements. As a result, it is found that four CRDMs to be installed at site have a good drop performance, and meet all performance requirements. A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is a device to control the position of a control absorber rod (CAR) in the core by using a stepping motor which is commanded by the reactor regulating system (RRS) to control the reactivity during the normal operation of the reactor. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the performances such as the stepping, drop, endurance, vibration, seismic and structural integrity for active components. Especially, the CAR drop curves are important data for the safety analysis. This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performances of a prototype and 4 CRDMs to be installed at site. The tests are carried out at a test rig simulating the actual reactor's conditions.

  19. Results of studying of turbulent heat transfer deterioration and their application for development of engineering methods of calculation of heat transfer and pressure drop in supercritical-pressure coolant flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir A Kurganov; Yuri A Zeigarnik

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Using of the supercritical-pressure (SCP) water as a working medium is an apparent way to increase specific capacity and economic efficiency of nuclear power installations. Nevertheless, to provide safe operation of SCP nuclear power units, it is necessary to considerably improve reliability and accuracy of calculations of pressure drop and heat transfer in the SCP working media and coolants flows and the methods of forecasting such a dangerous phenomenon as deterioration of the turbulent heat transfer at a certain level of heat flux density. A value of the latter changes within a very large range depending on the specific conditions of the process under consideration. In the paper, the main results of the experimental study of heat transfer, pressure drop, and velocity and temperature fields in both upward and downward flows of the SCP CO 2 in tubes are considered. This study was conducted at OIVT RAN under conditions of heat input and embraced the regimes of normal and deteriorated heat transfer as well. On the basis of this data, the concept regarding to physical mechanism of incipience of the regimes of deteriorated heat transfer was developed. Classification of different modes of heat transfer deterioration in vertical channels is proposed. A degree of a danger of certain regimes is assessed. It is shown that the above phenomenon is caused by transformation of the structure of nonisothermal flow of SCP fluid due to changes in proportions between the forces acting upon a flow, specifically, because of an increase in the inertia forces due to thermal acceleration of a flow and/or in Archimedes' (buoyancy) forces up to the level comparable or higher than that of friction forces. The efficiency of the most thorough correlations for calculating normal and deteriorated heat transfer in flows of SCP water and CO 2 is analyzed. Reliability of existed recommendations to determine boundaries of normal heat transfer regimes is considered

  20. Dosimetry in Interventional Radiology - Effective Dose Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jarvinen, H.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures can lead to significant radiation doses to patients and to staff members. In order to evaluate the personal doses with respect to the regulatory dose limits, doses measured by dosimeters have to be converted to effective doses (E). Measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using a single unshielded dosimeter above the lead apron can lead to significant overestimation of the effective dose, while the measurement with dosimeter under the apron can lead to underestimation. To improve the accuracy, measurements with two dosimeters, one above and the other under the apron have been suggested ( d ouble dosimetry ) . The ICRP has recommended that interventional radiology departments develop a policy that staff should wear two dosimeters. The aim of this study was to review the double dosimetry algorithms for the calculation of effective dose in high dose interventional radiology procedures. The results will be used to develop general guidelines for personal dosimetry in interventional radiology procedures. This work has been carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its 6th Framework Program.(author)

  1. The United Kingdom's radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.; Powley, S.K.; Nisbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The first comprehensive national dosimetry intercomparison in the United Kingdom involving all UK radiotherapy centres was carried out in the late 1980s. Out of this a regular radiotherapy dosimetry audit network evolved in the early 1990s. The network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and comprises eight co-operative regional groups. Audits are based on site visits using ionization chambers and epoxy resin water substitute phantoms. The basic audit methodology and phantom design follows that of the original national intercomparison exercise. However, most of the groups have evolved more complex methods, to extend the audit scope to include other parameters, other parts of the radiotherapy process and other treatment modalities. A number of the groups have developed phantoms to simulate various clinical treatment situations, enabling the sharing of phantoms and expertise between groups, but retaining a common base. Besides megavoltage external beam photon dosimetry, a number of the groups have also included the audit of kilovoltage X ray beams, electron beams and brachytherapy dosimetry. The National Physical Laboratory is involved in the network and carries out basic beam calibration audits to link the groups. The network is described and the methods and results are illustrated using the Scottish+ group as an example. (author)

  2. Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    In the literature, athletes preparing for explosive activities are recommended to include drop jumping in their training programs. For the execution of drop jumps, different techniques and different dropping heights can be used. This study was designed to investigate for the performance of bounce

  3. A new method for dosimetry with films radiochromic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Carot, I.

    2013-01-01

    in this paper a new method is presented and the results of the comparison between the calibration is summarized based on a planning reference and calibration obtained from the irradiated fragments measure different dose levels multichannel compare dosimetry based on the weighted average dosimetry described by Micke et al.(present in the FilmQAPro software) and, finally, show different results obtained with the method proposed in several applications clinics. (Author)

  4. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  5. Advances in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry, the accurate determination of the absorbed dose within an irradiated body or a piece of material, is a prerequisite for all applications of ionizing radiation. This has been known since the very first radiation applications in medicine and biology, and increasing efforts are being made by radiation researchers to develop more reliable, effective and safe instruments, and to further improve dosimetric accuracy for all types of radiation used. Development of new techniques and instrumentation was particularly fast in the field of both medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Thus, in Paris in October the IAEA held the latest symposium in its continuing series on dosimetry in medicine and biology. The last one was held in Vienna in 1975. High-quality dosimetry is obviously of great importance for human health, whether the objectives lie in the prevention and control of risks associated with the nuclear industry, in medical uses of radioactive substances or X-ray beams for diagnostic purposes, or in the application of photon, electron or neutron beams in radiotherapy. The symposium dealt with the following subjects: General aspects of dosimetry; Special physical and biomedical aspects; Determination of absorbed dose; Standardization and calibration of dosimetric systems; and Development of dosimetric systems. The forty or so papers presented and the discussions that followed them brought out a certain number of dominant themes, among which three deserve particular mention. - The recent generalization of the International System of Units having prompted a fundamental reassessment of the dosimetric quantities to be considered in calibrating measuring instruments, various proposals were advanced by the representatives of national metrology laboratories to replace the quantity 'exposure' (SI unit = coulomb/kg) by 'Kerma' or 'absorbed dose' (unit joule/kg, the special name of which is 'gray'), this latter being closer to the practical

  6. Free drop impact analysis of shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The WHAMS-2D and WHAMS-3D codes were used to analyze the dynamic response of the RAS/TREAT shielded shipping cask subjected to transient leadings for the purpose of assessing potential damage to the various components that comprise the the cask. The paper describes how these codes can be used to provide and intermediate level of detail between full three-dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations which are cost effective for design purposes. Three free drops were adressed: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end; (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the cask corner; and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the lifting trunnion and the bottom end. Results are presented for two models of the side and oblique angle drops; one model includes only the mass of the lapped sleeves of depleted uranium (DU) while the other includes the mass and stiffness of the DU. The results of the end drop analyses are given for models with and without imperfections in the cask. Comparison of the analysis to hand calculations and simplified analyses are given. (orig.)

  7. Dental tissue as a thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, F.; Zahmatkesh, M.H.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of the dosimetry procedures used widely as routine and personal dosimeters. In order to extend this kind of dosimeters, dental tissue has been examined and was found promising as a Thermoluminescence Dosimetry dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, 70 health teeth were collected. The only criterion, wich was considered for selection of the teeth, was the healthiness of them regardless of age and gender of the donors. All collected samples were washed and cleaned and milled uniformly. The final powder had a uniform grain size between 100-300 micrometer. The sample was divided into four groups. Group A and B were used for measurement of density and investigation of variation of thermoluminescent characteristics with temperature respectively. Groups C and D were used for investigation of variation of thermoluminescent intensity with dose and fading of this intensity with time. In all cases the results obtained with dental tissue were compared to a standard LiF, thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter. Results: It was found that, average density of the dental tissue was 1.570 g/cm 3 , which is comparable to density of LiF, which is 1.612g/cm 3 . It was also concluded that the range of 0-300 d ig C , dental tissue has a simple curve with two specific peaks at 140 and 25 d ig C respectively. The experiment also showed that, the variation of relative intensity versus dose is linear in the range of 0.04-0.1 Gy. The fading rate of dental tissue is higher than LiF but still in the acceptable range (14% per month in compare to 5.2% per month). Conclusion: Dental tissue as a natural dosimeter is comparable with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry and can be used in accidental events with a good approximation

  8. The IAEA/WHO thermoluminescent dosimetry intercomparison used for the improvement of clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.

    1981-01-01

    Results of thermoluminescent dosimetry collected over 5 years in the Eastern Mediterranean region of WHO were analyzed in an attempt to improve clinical dosimetry. Data for 16 radiotherapy departments showed considerable inconsistencies. It was found that the clinical dosemeters used by 3 of the departments were not working properly. The remainder of the departments had one or more dosemeters in perfect working order but the procedure for measuring machine output was inadequate or the correction factors (pressure, temperature) were wrongly applied due to lack of reliable instruments for such measurements. Problems encountered in the sending and returning of TLD dosemeters for assessment are discussed

  9. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent 103 Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm 3 , respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm 3 obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry or

  10. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon dosimetry intercomparisons at Tygerberg and Groote Schuur hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.; Symons, J.E.; Schreuder, A.N.; Van der Merwe, E.J.; Rossouw, A.; Hough, J.K.; Lazarus, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    A national photon dosimetry intercomparison was undertaken at 8 hospitals at the beginning of 1989 prior to the commencement of randomised clinical trials involving neutron therapy at the National Accelerator Centre. The results obtained were in agreement at all but two hospitals. Following these studies it was agreed that a uniform photon dosimetry protocol, the AAPM TG2 protocol, be adopted countrywide. The clinical program at the National Accelerator Centre is now far advanced and it was deemed appropriate to undertake a new photon dosimetry intercomparison at two local hospitals, through which all patients are referred. The procedure involved was to compare the doses measured at each hospital under specified conditions by National Accelerator staff with the doses measured by the hospital physicists using their own equipment and protocols. The results obtained were in good agreement, confirming the validity of the dosimetry techniques used. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Special workshop on lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Special Workshop on Lung Dosimetry was convened in Salt Lake City, Utah, on April 21-22, 1982, to stimulate the use of improved radiation dosimetry and to formulate a stronger basis for dose-response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. The two-day workshop was held in conjunction with the 30th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society. Publication is planned

  13. Argentine intercomparison programme for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.N.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Cruzate, J.; Kunst, J.J.; Saravi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In 1997 began in Argentine, sponsored by Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) the intercomparison program for personal dosimetry laboratories, on a voluntary basis. Up to know 6 exercises have been done. The program began with a workshop to present the quantities, personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and extremities dose equivalent, Hs(d). The first aim of this program was to know the true sate of personal dosimetry laboratories in the country, and then introduce the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) into the dose measurements. The Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CCR), belonging to CNEA and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of ARN performed the irradiation. Those were done air free and on ICRU phantom, using x-ray, quality ISO: W60, W110 and W200; and 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma rays. The irradiation was made following ISO 4037 (2) recommendations. There are studied the dose, energy and angular response of the different measuring system. The range of the dose analyzed was from 0.2 mSv up to 80 mSv. The beam incidence was normal and also 20 o and 60 o . The dosimeters irradiation's were performed kerma in free in air and in phantom in order to study the availability of the service to evaluate the behavior as a function of kerma free in air or Hp(10). At the same time several items have been asked to each participant referring to the action range, the detectors characteristics, the laboratory procedures, the existence of an algorithm and its use for the dosimeter evaluation and the wish to participate in a quality assurance program. The program worked in writing a standard of personal dosimetry laboratories, that was published in 2001. In this work the results of each laboratory and its performance based on the ICRP-60 and ICRP-35 acceptance criteria are shown. Also the laboratory evolution and inquiry analyses have been included. (author)

  14. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  15. Determining the lower limit of detection for personnel dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Carlson, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method for determining the lower limit of detection (LLD) for personnel dosimetry systems is described. The method relies on the definition of a critical level and a detection level. The critical level is the signal level above which a result has a small probability of being due to a fluctuation of the background. All results below the critical level should not be reported as an indication of a positive result. The detection level is the net signal level (i.e., dose received) above which there is a high confidence that a true reading will be detected and reported as a qualitatively positive result. The detection level may be identified as the LLD. A simple formula is derived to allow the calculation of the LLD under various conditions. This type of formula is being used by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry. Participants in either the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for personnel dosimetry or DOELAP can use performance test results along with a measurement of background levels to estimate the LLDs for their dosimetry system. As long as they maintain their dosimetry system such that the LLDs are less than half the lower limit of the NVLAP or DOELAP test exposure ranges, dosimetry laboratories can avoid testing failures due to poor performance at very low exposures

  16. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  17. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  18. Aqueous chemical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous chemical dosimetry based on ceric and ferrous sulfate solutions and on a number of fluorescence-induced systems is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the factors affecting the response of these dosimeters to radiation and the corrections necessary for more accurate dosimetry under various irradiation conditions. The effect of cerous and ceric ion, oxygen, and sulfuric acid concentration on the ceric dosimeter is discussed together with the effects of temperature, energy of radiation, degraded energy spectra, and peroxysulfuric acids. Practical aspects of ceric/cerous dosimetry are given. Although ferrous sulfate solution is the most important and widely studied reference dosimeter, general agreement has not been reached on the ''best'' value for the molar extinction coefficient of ferric ions nor on the correction necessary to the G(Fe 3 - ) value for irradiations at temperatures significantly different from 25 0 C. New data are presented which indicate that the larger temperature coefficients given in the literature are more accurate. The ferrous sulfate system has been of great importance in establishing the primary radiolytic yields for 0.4 M sulfuric acid solution; it is shown how the failure to take into account the effect of oxygen and ferrous sulfate concentrations has led to erroneously high estimates of the zero solute concentration values in acid solutions. Some of the methods for extending the dose ranges measurable with ferrous sulfate-based solutions are reviewed. Substances which on irradiation give highly fluorescent products are among the most sensitive aqueous chemical dosimeters. These include benzoate and terephthalate solutions and the more recent coumarin and trimesate solutions. Advantages and disadvantages system are discussed. (author)

  19. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  20. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  1. NRPB patient dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.; Hillier, M.; Bungay, D.; Wall, B.

    1994-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been used by NRPB to investigate the doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with x-rays, and these measurements have formed the basis for national recommendations on patient protection. Monitoring typical levels of patient dose should represent an essential element of routine quality assurance in x-ray departments. In order to promote more widespread measurements in hospitals, NRPB has drawn on a wealth of experience to establish a high-quality service providing TLDs for medical dosimetry by post. (author)

  2. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  4. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period

  5. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  6. Code for Internal Dosimetry (CINDY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The CINDY (Code for Internal Dosimetry) Software Package has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 30. The code assist in the interpretation of bioassay data, evaluates committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, provides output consistent with revised DOE orders, is easy to use, and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. CINDY is an interactive program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. Four types of analyses may be specified. 92 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Is intraoperative real-time dosimetry in prostate seed brachytherapy predictive of biochemical outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Taussky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze intraoperative (IO dosimetry using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, performed before and after prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT, and compare it to dosimetry performed 30 days following the LDR-BT implant (Day 30. Material and methods : A total of 236 patients underwent prostate LDR-BT using 125 I that was performed with a three-dimensional TRUS-guided interactive inverse preplanning system (preimplant dosimetry. After the implant procedure, the TRUS was repeated in the operating room, and the dosimetry was recalculated (postimplant dosimetry and compared to dosimetry on Day 30 computed tomography (CT scans. Area under curve (AUC statistics was used for models predictive of dosimetric parameters at Day 30. Results : The median follow-up for patients without BF was 96 months, the 5-year and 8-year biochemical recurrence (BR-free rate was 96% and 90%, respectively. The postimplant median D 90 was 3.8 Gy lower (interquartile range [IQR], 12.4-0.9, and the V 100 only 1% less (IQR, 2.9-0.2% than the preimplant dosimetry. When comparing the postimplant and the Day 30 dosimetries, the postimplant median D 90 was 9.6 Gy higher (IQR [–] 9.5-30.3 Gy, and the V 100 was 3.2% greater (0.2-8.9% than Day 30 postimplant dosimetry. The variables that best predicted the D 90 of Day 30 was the postimplant D 90 (AUC = 0.62, p = 0.038. None of the analyzed values for IO or Day 30 dosimetry showed any predictive value for BR. Conclusions : Although improving the IO preimplant and postimplant dosimetry improved dosimetry on Day 30, the BR-free rate was not dependent on any dosimetric parameter. Unpredictable factors such as intraprostatic seed migration and IO factors, prevented the accurate prediction of Day 30 dosimetry.

  8. Using track detectors in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usage of track detectors of charged particles provides a new possibility of neutron dosimetry. Presented is a comparison of the main dosimetric characteristics of three various types of track detectots of fast neutrons, i.e. glass in the contact with 232 Th; KODAK LR115 cellulose nitrate; MAKROFOL E polycarbonate. Results of studing energy dependences of detectors are presented. Results obtained using phantoms under radiation fields of various sources of complex gamma-neutron radiation are discussed [ru

  9. Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    -water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions (e.g., drop structures, hydraulic jumps). In this study, experimental work was carried out to analyze the influence of characteristics of drops on reaeration. Physical models were built, mimicking typical...... sewer drop structures and allowing different types of drops, drop heights, tailwater depths and flow rates. In total, 125 tests were performed. Based on their results, empirical expressions translating the relationship between the mass transfer of oxygen and physical parameters of drop structures were...... established. Then, by applying the two-film theory with two-reference substances, the relation to hydrogen sulfide release was defined. The experiments confirmed that the choice of the type of drop structure is critical to determine the uptake/emission rates. By quantifying the air-water mass transfer rates...

  10. Calculation of drop course of control rod assembly in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojia; Mao Fei; Min Peng; Lin Shaoxuan

    2013-01-01

    The validation of control rod drop performance is an important part of safety analysis of nuclear power plant. Development of computer code for calculating control rod drop course will be useful for validating and improving the design of control rod drive line. Based on structural features of the drive line, the driving force on moving assembly was analyzed and decomposed, the transient value of each component of the driving force was calculated by choosing either theoretical method or numerical method, and the simulation code for calculating rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) drop course by time step increase was achieved. The analysis results of control rod assembly drop course calculated by theoretical model and numerical method were validated by comparing with RCCA drop test data of Qinshan Phase Ⅱ 600 MW PWR. It is shown that the developed RCCA drop course calculation code is suitable for RCCA in PWR and can correctly simulate the drop course and the stress of RCCA. (authors)

  11. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  12. Internal Dosimetry. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindorf, C. [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    The Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) is a committee within the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The MIRD Committee was formed in 1965 with the mission to standardize internal dosimetry calculations, improve the published emission data for radionuclides and enhance the data on pharmacokinetics for radiopharmaceuticals [18.1]. A unified approach to internal dosimetry was published by the MIRD Committee in 1968, MIRD Pamphlet No. 1 [18.2], which was updated several times thereafter. Currently, the most well known version is the MIRD Primer from 1991 [18.3]. The latest publication on the formalism was published in 2009 in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4], which provides a notation meant to bridge the differences in the formalism used by the MIRD Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [18.5]. The formalism presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4] will be used here, although some references to the quantities and parameters used in the MIRD primer [18.3] will be made. All symbols, quantities and units are presented.

  13. Dosimetry of industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of 137 Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  14. Protocol for X-ray dosimetry and exposure arrangements employed in studies of late somatic effects in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Broerse, J.J.; Scarpa, G.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of European laboratories studying the late effects of ionizing radiation in animals have established an effective cooperation within the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) since 1970. To facilitate the exchange of biological results several techniques, including quality control of the experimental animals, pathology and dosimetry, have to be standardized. The most important aspects of the procedures for X-irradiation and dosimetry of small animals are summarized. These include recommendations on irradiation conditions, dosimetry methods, characteristics of phantoms and factors affecting X-ray dosimetry. X-irradiation procedures employed by the participating institutes are described and the results of five X-ray dosimetry intercomparisons are reported. The introduction of a common dosimetry protocol has resulted in improvements in exposure arrangements and absolute dosimetry. (author)

  15. Evaluation of instrumental parameters for obtaining acceptable analytical results of the Dosimetry Laboratory of Chemistry of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences, CNEN-NE, Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Cunha, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental parameters need to be evaluated for obtaining acceptable analytical results for a specific instrument. The performance of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be verified for wavelengths and absorbances with appropriate materials (solutions of different concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 , for example). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the results of the procedures to control the quality of the measurements carried out in the laboratory in the last four years. The samples were analyzed in the spectrophotometer and control graphics were obtained for K 2 CrO 4 and Fe 3+ absorbance values. The variation in the results obtained for the stability of the spectrophotometer and for the control of its calibration did not exceed 2%. (author)

  16. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iunes, P.J.

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of 238 U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Analysis of DCI cask drop test onto reinforced concrete pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, C.; Kato, Y.; Hattori, S.; Shirai, K.; Misumi, M.; Ozaki, S.

    1993-01-01

    In a cask-storage facility, a cask may be subjected to an impact load as a result of a free drop onto the floor because of cask mishandling. We performed drop tests of casks onto a reinforced concrete (RC) slab representing the floor of a facility as well as simulation analysis [Kato et al]. This paper describes the details of the FEM analysis and calculated results and compares them with the drop test results. (J.P.N.)

  18. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  20. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  1. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-01-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to α and 7 Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by 10 B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient's dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here

  2. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  3. Film dosimetry for IMRT: sensitivity corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowerska, N.; Hoban, P.; Davison, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The trend towards conformal, dynamic and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments has furthered the need for true integrating dosimetry. In traditional radiotherapy, film dosimetry is commonly used. The accuracy and reproducibility of film optical density as an indicator of dose, has been associated with several variables. These include the effects of film specific sensitivity, direction of exposure, chemical processing and film scanner sensitivity. In this study, a procedure is developed to account for these variables, with a particular view to film being used as a dosimeter for conformal treatments. An effective sensitometric curve was established by exposing part of a single sheet of film to known doses. All films were processed together and scanned using a DuoscanT1200 transmission scanner, resulting in 12 bit image files. The images were analysed using Osiris software and the results fitted to the modified Williamson equation: P P s (l - 10 αD ) This yields values of α [film sensitivity], and P s [saturation pixel value], allowing individual dosimetry films to be normalised to this sensitometric calibration curve. For validation, a piece of Kodak X Omat-V film was sealed in a head phantom and exposed to a total of 51 IMRT fields, delivered from 6 gantry angles. The rest of the sheet of film was resealed and exposed to four known doses, providing sensitometric data, specific to this exposure. All films were then processed, scanned and analysed as described above. Observed variations in serial films exposed to 50cGy is in the order of 9% [mean 25.0,standard deviation = 3.2]. The automatic gain of the scanner system typically contributed 4% variation and needs to be carefully monitored. Results indicate that by using the sensitometric data from each exposure, the collective errors can be minimised. The IMRT exposure results confirm that the above process is viable for use in dosimetry for conformal radiation therapy. Copyright (2000) Australasian

  4. Background dose subtraction in personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picazo, T.; Llorca, N.; Alabau, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)

  5. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  6. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivannikov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Tieliewuhan, Eldana

    2006-01-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for tooth enamel is applied to individual radiation dose determination to residents of two villages (Dolon and Mostik) in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949. It is found that excess doses obtained by subtraction of natural background dose from dose absorbed in enamel range up to 440 mGy to residents of Dolon, whose enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 120 mGy to younger residents. To residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy regardless of age except for one resident with an extremely high dose of 1.25 Gy. These results are in agreement with the pattern of radioactive contamination of the territory after the nuclear test of 1949 except one case of extremely high dose, which should be additionally investigated. (author)

  7. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues 60 years after intake: results of TL measurements and applications for Techa River dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Verdi, E. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Veronese, I. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); El-Faramawy, N.A. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Ain Shams University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Goeksu, H.Y. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Adiyaman University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    This article focuses on the study of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues of Techa riverside residents 60 years after intake. The Techa River was contaminated by radioactive wastes in the 1950s. Contamination of the river system, including water, bottom sediment, floodplain soil, and grass, depended on the distance from the source of releases. Therefore, the average {sup 90}Sr intake was different in different settlements located downstream the river. An additional factor influencing {sup 90}Sr accumulation in the teeth is the rate of tissue mineralization at the time of intake which depended on the donor's age at the time of releases. Measurements of {sup 90}Sr concentration in various dental tissues (enamel, crown, and root dentin) of 166 teeth were performed about 60 years after the main intake using the method of thermoluminescence passive beta detection. The paper presents the current levels of tooth tissue contamination, and the tooth-to-tooth variability of {sup 90}Sr concentration in tooth tissues was assessed for the tissues which were matured at the time of massive liquid radioactive waste releases into the Techa River. A model describing the expected levels of {sup 90}Sr in matured dental tissues depending on age and intake has been elaborated for the population under study. The results obtained will be used for calculation of internal dose in enamel and for interpretation of tooth doses measured by means of the electron paramagnetic resonance method, among the population of the Techa River region. (orig.)

  8. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces

  9. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  10. Cavity optomechanics in a levitated helium drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L.; Schmidt, M. P.; Kashkanova, A. D.; Brown, C. D.; Harris, G. I.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, F.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a proposal for a type of optomechanical system based on a drop of liquid helium that is magnetically levitated in vacuum. In the proposed device, the drop would serve three roles: its optical whispering-gallery modes would provide the optical cavity, its surface vibrations would constitute the mechanical element, and evaporation of He atoms from its surface would provide continuous refrigeration. We analyze the feasibility of such a system in light of previous experimental demonstrations of its essential components: magnetic levitation of mm-scale and cm-scale drops of liquid He , evaporative cooling of He droplets in vacuum, and coupling to high-quality optical whispering-gallery modes in a wide range of liquids. We find that the combination of these features could result in a device that approaches the single-photon strong-coupling regime, due to the high optical quality factors attainable at low temperatures. Moreover, the system offers a unique opportunity to use optical techniques to study the motion of a superfluid that is freely levitating in vacuum (in the case of 4He). Alternatively, for a normal fluid drop of 3He, we propose to exploit the coupling between the drop's rotations and vibrations to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of angular momentum.

  11. Phantom positioning variation in the Gamma Knife® Perfexion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saraiva, Crystian [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of small volume ionization chamber has become required for the dosimetry of equipment that use small radiation fields. A pinpoint ionization chamber is ideal for the dosimetry of a Gamma Knife® Perfexion (GKP) unit. In this work, this chamber was inserted into the phantom, and measurements were performed with the phantom in different positions, in order to verify if the change in the phantom positioning affects the dosimetry of the GKP. Three different phantom positions were performed. The variation in the result is within the range allowed for the dosimetry of a GKP equipment. (author)

  12. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  13. Mathematical operations in cytogenetic dosimetry: Dosgen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia L, O.; Zequera J, T.

    1996-01-01

    Handling of formulas and mathematical procedures for fitting and using of dose-response relationships in cytogenetic dosimetry is often difficulted by the absence of collaborators specialized in mathematics and computation. DOSGEN program contains the main mathematical operations which are used in cytogenetic dosimetry. It is able to run in IBM compatible Pc's by non-specialized personnel.The program possibilities are: Poisson distribution fitting test for the number of aberration per cell, dose assessment for whole body irradiation, dose assessment for partial irradiation and determination of irradiated fraction. The program allows on screen visualization and printing of results. DOSGEN has been developed in turbo pascal and is 33Kb of size. (authors). 4 refs

  14. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Fattibene, P; Onori, S; Pantaloni, M

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled critcality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30%in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses.

  15. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  16. Alanine dosimetry for clinical applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Therapy level alanine dosimetry at the UK Nationational Physical Laboratory, alanine as a precision validation tool for reference dosimetry, composition of alanine pellet dosimeters, the angular dependence of the alanine ESR spectrum, the CIAE alanine dosimeter for radiotherapy level, a correction for temporal evolution effects in alanine dosimetry, next-generation services foe e-traceability to ionization radiation national standards, establishing e-traceability to HIST high-dose measurement standards, alanine dosimetry of dose delivery from clinical accelerators, the e-scan alanine dosimeter reader, alanine dosimetry at ISS, verification of the integral delivered dose for IMRT treatment in the head and neck region with ESR/alanine dosimetry, alanine dosimetry in helical tomotherapy beams, ESR dosimetry research and development at the University of Palermo, lithium formate as a low-dose EPR radiation dosimeter, sensitivity enhancement of alanine/EPR dosimetry. (HSI)

  17. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  18. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  19. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  20. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  1. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Dosimetry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahr, R.

    1975-03-01

    Following an explanation of the physical fundamentals of neutron dosimetry, the special needs in medicine and biology are gone into. It is shown that the dose equivalent used in radiation protection simplifies in an undue manner the complicated dependence of the biological effects. The reason for this is the fact that the RBE for heavy recoil nuclei, amongst others, depends on the energy and sort of particle, whereas it is approximately equal to one for electrons independent of the energy. It is thus necessary in the fields of biology and medicine to have additional information on energy spectra of the neutrons as well as of all charged secondary particles as a function of the position in the phantom. These are obtained partly by calculation and partly by special dosemeters. The accuracy achieved so far is 5%. (ORU/LH) [de

  3. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  4. Advances in electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.

    1980-04-01

    Starting from the two most important interactions of electrons with matter, energy loss and scattering, a review is given of a number of effects which are important in electron dosimetry. For determining the absorbed dose in a phantom by means of ionization chambers, imformation is required on the electron spectrum at the location of the measurement, on the stopping powers of different materials and on disturbances such as the displacement of the effective point of measurements from the centre of the chamber. By means of figures and photographs of electron traces in bubble chambers, the origin of the formation of the absorbed dose maximum in a phantom is explained. It is shown, how by multiple scattering, the similarity of dose distributions in different media can be explained and how by Monte-Carlo calculations absorbed dose distributions in the surroundings of inhomogeneities (e.g. cavities) in a phantom can be determined. (orig.) [de

  5. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  6. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  7. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  8. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  9. Coalescence collision of liquid drops I: Off-center collisions of equal-size drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH is used here to model off-center collisions of equal-size liquid drops in a three-dimensional space. In this study the Weber number is calculated for several conditions of the droplets dynamics and the velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown. For the permanent coalescence the evolution of the kinetic and internal energy is shown and also the approaching to equilibrium of the resulting drop. Depending of the Weber number three possible outcomes for the collision of droplets is obtained: permanent coalescence, flocculation and fragmentation. The fragmentation phenomena are modeled and the formation of small satellite drops can be seen. The ligament that is formed follows the “end pinching” mechanism and it is transformed into a flat structure.

  10. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  11. Internal dosimetry, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the progress in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides (internal dosimetry) since World War II. Previous to that, only naturally occurring radionuclides were available and only a limited number of studies of biokinetics and dosimetry were done. The main radionuclides studied were 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 224 Ra but natural uranium was also studied mainly because of its toxic effect as a heavy metal, and not because it was radioactive. The effects of 226 Ra in bone, mainly from the radium dial painters, also formed the only bases for the radiotoxicity of radionuclides in bone for many years, and it is still, along with 224 Ra, the main source of information on the effects of alpha emitters in bone. The publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that have an impact on internal dosimetry are used as mileposts for this review. These series of publications, more than any other, represent a broad consensus of opinion within the radiation protection community at the time of their publication, and have formed the bases for radiation protection practice throughout the world. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; it is meant to be a personnel view of the evolution of internal dosimetry, and to present the author's opinion of what the future directions in internal dosimetry will be. 39 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Drop Impact on Textile Material: Effect of Fabric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romdhani Zouhaier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of impact of water drop on a surface in a spreading regime with no splashing. Three surfaces were studied: virgin glass, coating film and woven cotton fabric at different construction parameters. All experiments were carried out using water drop with the same free fall high. Digidrop with high-resolution camera is used to measure the different parameters characterising this phenomenon. Results show an important effect of the height of the free fall on the drop profile and the spreading behaviour. An important drop deformation at the surface impact was observed. Then, fabric construction as the weft count deeply affects the drop impact. For plain weave, an increase of weft count causes a decrease in penetration and increase in the spreading rate. The same result was obtained for coated fabric. Therefore, the impact energy was modified and the drop shape was affected, which directly influenced the spreading rate.

  13. Marangoni Flow Induced Evaporation Enhancement on Binary Sessile Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin; Harmand, Souad; Ouenzerfi, Safouene; Schiffler, Jesse

    2017-06-15

    The evaporation processes of pure water, pure 1-butanol, and 5% 1-butanol aqueous solution drops on heated hydrophobic substrates are investigated to determine the effect of temperature on the drop evaporation behavior. The evolution of the parameters (contact angle, diameter, and volume) during evaporation measured using a drop shape analyzer and the infrared thermal mapping of the drop surface recorded by an infrared camera were used in investigating the evaporation process. The pure 1-butanol drop does not show any thermal instability at different substrate temperatures, while the convection cells created by the thermal Marangoni effect appear on the surface of the pure water drop from 50 °C. Because 1-butanol and water have different surface tensions, the infrared video of the 5% 1-butanol aqueous solution drop shows that the convection cells are generated by the solutal Marangoni effect at any substrate temperature. Furthermore, when the substrate temperature exceeds 50 °C, coexistence of the thermal and solutal Marangoni flows is observed. By analyzing the relation between the ratio of the evaporation rate of pure water and 1-butanol aqueous solution drops and the Marangoni number, a series of empirical equations for predicting the evaporation rates of pure water and 1-butanol aqueous solution drops at the initial time as well as the equations for the evaporation rate of 1-butanol aqueous solution drop before the depletion of alcohol are derived. The results of these equations correspond fairly well to the experimental data.

  14. 11. International conference on solid radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems discussed during the international conference on solid radiation dosimetry which took place in June 1995 in Budapest are briefly considered. These are the basic physical processes, materials applied for dosimetry, special techniques, personnel monitoring, monitoring of environmental effects, large-dose dosimetry, clinic dosimetry, track detector used for dosimetry, dosimetry in archaeology and geology, equipment and technique for dosimetric measurements. The special attention was paid to superlinearity in the TLD-100 (LiF, Mg, Ti) response function when determining doses of gamma radiation, heavy charged particles, low-energy particle fluxes in particular. New theoretical models were considered

  15. MOSFET dosimetry: temperature effects in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.K.N.; Cheung, T.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg C up to 40 deg C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in-vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependant on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry the detector should be placed for approximately 60 seconds on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 seconds after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  16. Clinical dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Diagnostic and interventional procedures involving x-rays are the most significant contributor to total population dose form man made sources of ionizing radiation. Purpose and aim: X-ray imaging generally covers a diverse range of examination types, many of which are increasing in frequency and technical complexity. Materials and methods: The European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 EURATOM stress the importance of accurate dosimetry and require calibration of all measuring equipment related to application of ionizing radiation in medicine. Results: The paper gives and overview of current system of dosimetry of ionizing radiations that is relevant for metrology and clinical applications. It also reflects recently achieved international harmonization in the field promoted by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Discussion: Objectives of clinical dose measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology are multiple, as assessment of equipment performance, or assessment of risk emerging from use of ionizing radiation Conclusion: Therefore, from the clinical point of view, the requirements for dosimeters and procedures to assess dose to standard dosimetry phantoms and patients in clinical diverse modalities, as computed tomography are presented

  17. Quality assurance in radiotherapy dosimetry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaibao; Luo Suming; Cheng Jinsheng; He Zhijian; An Jinggang; Hu Yimin; Feng Ningyuan

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the SSDL in the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene cooperated with Beijing Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical science joined the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (NO.8769/RO). According to the requirements of the project, an External Audit Group (EAG) in China was established in 1996 with the responsibilities of operating TLD-based quality audit for radiotherapy dosimetry. Since then. The national TLD dose quality audit services have been carried out in 7 provinces in China. Besides this, the national programmes for brachytherapy and stereostatic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment dosimetry were initiated in 2001. The activity measurement intercomparison between the SSDL and some hospitals for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources has been performed using a HDR well-type ionization chamber (Model HDR 1000 plus) and CDX-2000A Charge Digitizer, which were calibrated in Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, USA. The preliminary results indicated that the agreement between SSDL measured activity and hospital stated activity was within ±5% for more than 80% of total participants

  18. Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Yuan, Y.; Zielen, A.J.

    1979-05-01

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) Code provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility. The UDAD Code incorporates the radiation dose from the airborne release of radioactive materials, and includes dosimetry of inhalation, ingestion, and external exposures. The removal of raioactive particles from a contaminated area by wind action is estimated, atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity from specific sources are calculated, and source depletion as a result of deposition, fallout, and ingrowth of radon daughters are included in a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model. The average air concentration at any given receptor location is assumed to be constant during each annual release period, but to increase from year to year because of resuspension. Surface contamination and deposition velocity are estimated. Calculation of the inhalation dose and dose rate to an individual is based on the ICRP Task Group Lung Model. Estimates of the dose to the bronchial epithelium of the lung from inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters are calculated based on a dose conversion factor from the BEIR report. External radiation exposure includes radiation from airborne radionuclides and exposure to radiation from contaminated ground. Terrestrial food pathways include vegetation, meat, milk, poultry, and eggs. Internal dosimetry is based on ICRP recommendations. In addition, individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. This code also may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant

  19. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program

  20. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  1. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  2. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  3. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-01-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg. C up to 40 deg. C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. (note)

  4. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  5. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  6. Predicting students drop out : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, G.W.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Vleeshouwers, J.M.; Barnes, T.; Desmarais, M.; Romero, C.; Ventura, S.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their

  7. 45-FOOT HIGH DROP TOWER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Drop Tower is used to simulate and measure the impact shocks that are exerted on parachute loads when they hit the ground. It is also used for HSL static lift to...

  8. Experimental Setup For Study of Drop Deformation In Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study for study of deformation of drops in air flow is considered. Experimental setup includes a module for obtaining the drops, an air flow system and measuring system. Module for formation of drops is in the form of vertically arranged dropper with capillary with the possibility of formation of fixed drops. Air flow supply system comprises an air pump coupled conduit through a regulating valve with a cylindrical pipe, installed coaxially with dropper. The measuring system includes the video camera located with possibility of visualization of drop and the Pitot gage for measurement of flow rate of air located in the output section of branch pipe. This experimental setup allows to provide reliable and informative results of the investigation of deformation of drops in the air flow.

  9. Development and implementation of own software for dosimetry multichannel film; Desarrollo e implementacion de un software propio para la dosimetria multicanal con pelicula radiocromica EBT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Carrasco Herrera, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop its own software for multichannel film dosimetry Radiochromic EBT2. Compare the results obtained with its use in multichannel and single-channel dosimetry. Check that the multi-channel dosimetry eliminates much of the artifacts caused by dirt, fingerprints, scratches, etc. Radiochromic in film and scanner devices. (Author)

  10. Studying the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschat, C.; Riedel, J.

    2017-10-01

    Coulomb fission of charged droplets (The terms drop and droplet are often used synonymous. Throughout this manuscript, to avoid confusion, the terms drop and droplet will be used for liquid spheres with radii in the millimeter range and the micrometer range, respectively. In our experiments, the first correspond to the parent drop while the latter describes the ejected progeny droplets.) is a well-studied natural phenomenon. Controlled droplet fission is already successfully employed in several technological applications. Still, since the occurring surface rupture relies on the exact understanding and description of the liquid gas boundary, some details are still under debate. Most empirical systematic studies observe falling micrometer droplets passing through the electric field inside a plate capacitor. This approach, although easily applicable and reliable, limits the experimental degrees of freedom regarding the observable time and the maximum size of the drops and can only be performed in consecutive individual observations of different subsequent drops. Here we present a novel setup to study the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops. The design does not bear any restrictions towards the temporal window of observation, and allows handling of drops of a tunable radius ranging from 10 μm to several millimeters and a real-time monitoring of one single drop. Our comprehensive study includes a time resolved visual inspection, laser shadowgraphy, laser induced fluorescence imaging, and ambient mass spectrometric interrogation of the nascent Taylor cone. The results shown for a millimeter sized drop, previously inaccessible for Coulomb fission experiments, are mostly comparable with previous results for smaller drops. The major difference is the time scale and the threshold potential of the drop rupture. Both values, however, resemble theoretically extrapolations to the larger radius. The technique allows for a systematic study of breakup behavior of

  11. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  12. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  13. SU-F-J-100: Standardized Biodistribution Template for Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry Collection and Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, A [University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Poli, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Beykan, S; Lassman, M [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzberg, Wuerzberg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As the field of Nuclear Medicine moves forward with efforts to integrate radiation dosimetry into clinical practice we can identify the challenge posed by the lack of standardized dose calculation methods and protocols. All personalized internal dosimetry is derived by projecting biodistribution measurements into dosimetry calculations. In an effort to standardize organization of data and its reporting, we have developed, as a sequel to the EANM recommendation of “Good Dosimetry Reporting”, a freely available biodistribution template, which can be used to create a common point of reference for dosimetry data. It can be disseminated, interpreted, and used for method development widely across the field. Methods: A generalized biodistribution template was built in a comma delineated format (.csv) to be completed by users performing biodistribution measurements. The template is available for free download. The download site includes instructions and other usage details on the template. Results: This is a new resource developed for the community. It is our hope that users will consider integrating it into their dosimetry operations. Having biodistribution data available and easily accessible for all patients processed is a strategy for organizing large amounts of information. It may enable users to create their own databases that can be analyzed for multiple aspects of dosimetry operations. Furthermore, it enables population data to easily be reprocessed using different dosimetry methodologies. With respect to dosimetry-related research and publications, the biodistribution template can be included as supplementary material, and will allow others in the community to better compare calculations and results achieved. Conclusion: As dosimetry in nuclear medicine become more routinely applied in clinical applications, we, as a field, need to develop the infrastructure for handling large amounts of data. Our organ level biodistribution template can be used as a

  14. Verification of Ca F2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1995-01-01

    Verification results of CaF2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes are presented in this paper. Tree types of irradiations are proceeded due to verification of relevant features of TLD. It is concluded that mentioned type of dosemeter can be used for purpose of personal dosimetry. (author)

  15. Model for determining vapor equilibrium rates in the hanging drop method for protein crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James K.; Frieden, Richard W.; Meehan, E. J., Jr.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Howard, Sandra B.; Fowlis, William A.

    1987-01-01

    An engineering analysis of the rate of evaporation of solvent in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth is presented. Results are applied to 18 drop and well arrangements commonly encountered in the laboratory. The chemical nature of the salt, drop size and shape, drop concentration, well size, well concentration, and temperature are taken into account. The rate of evaporation increases with temperature, drop size, and the salt concentration difference between the drop and the well. The evaporation in this model possesses no unique half-life. Once the salt in the drop achieves 80 percent of its final concentration, further evaporation suffers from the law of diminishing returns.

  16. Neutron dosimetry using electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.J.; Stillwagon, G.B.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1977-01-01

    Registration of α-tracks and fast-neutron-induced recoils tracks by the electrochemical etching technique as applied to sensitive polymer foils (e.g., polycarbonate) provides a simple, sensitive and inexpensive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry as well as a valuable research tool for microdosimetry. When tracks were amplified by our electrochemical technique and the etching results compared with conventional etching technique a striking difference was noted. The electrochemically etched tracks were of much larger diameter (approx. 100 μm) and gave superior contrast. Two optical devices--the transparency projector and microfiche reader--were adapted to facilitate counting of the tracks appearing on our polycarbonate foils. The projector produced a magnification of 14X for a screen to projector distance of 5.0 meter and read's magnification was 50X. A Poisson distribution was determined for the number of tracks located in a particular area of the foil and experimentally verified by random counting of quarter sections of the microfiche reader screen. Finally, in an effort to determine dose equivalent (rem), a conversion factor is being determined by finding the sensitivity response (tracks/neutron) of recoil particle induced tracks as a function of monoenergetic fast neutrons and comparing results with those obtained by others

  17. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time.

  18. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastra B, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  19. Dosimetry in radioisotope placentography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, K.G.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Nagaratnam, A.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide investigation of the placenta is being widely used in recent years for the diagnosis and management of vaginal bleeding in the third trimester of pregnancy. One is, therefore, concerned about the radiation exposure to the foetus during such procedures. In the present communication a precise method of estimation of radiation doses is presented. A concept termed 'effective absorbed dose constant' is utilized to enable the absorbed fractions and equilibrium absorbed dose constants to be more easily employed in radiation dose estimations. Tables of the effective absorbed dose constants for radionuclides like 131 I, 123 I, sup(113m)Tc, sup(99m)Tc, 67 Ga, and 51 Cr, are given for different masses and shapes. Masses of different organs of both mother and foetus at different periods of pregnancy and the biological turnover data for different radiopharmaceuticals are reviewed and typical values are presented. Radiation doses to different organs of both mother and foetus at the 30th week of pregnancy are finally estimated for 131 I-HSA, 123 I-SHA, sup(99m)Tc-HSA and sup(113m)In-chloride. The advantage of the effective absorbed dose constants in radiation dosimetry in general is discussed. The relative merits of different radiopharmaceuticals for placental investigations are brought out in comparison with antenatal pelvimetric and abdominal X-ray investigations, from the point of view of radiation doses. (author)

  20. Revue of some dosimetry and dose assessment European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission several project dealing with dosimetry and dose assessment for internal and external exposure have been supported. A revue of the results of some of them is presented in this paper. The EURADOS network which involved 50 dosimetry institutes in EUROPE has coordinated the project DOSIMETRY NETWORK: the main results achieved within this action are the following: - The release on the World Wide Web of the EURADOS Database of Dosimetry Research Facilities; - The realisation of the report 'Harmonization of Individual Monitoring (IM) in Europe'; - The continuation of the intercomparisons programme of environmental radiation monitoring systems; - The realisation of the report Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The EVIDOS project aimed at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry with complex mixed neutron-photon radiation fields. This paper summarises the main findings from a practical point of view. Conclusions and recommendations will be given concerning characterisation of radiation fields, methods to derive radiation protection quantities and dosimeters results. The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in-vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. The primary goal was to categorize those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. The costs of monitoring for internal exposures in the workplace are usually significantly greater than the equivalent costs for external exposures. There is therefore a need to ensure that resources are employed with maximum effectiveness. The EC-funded OMINEX (Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposure) project has developed methods for optimising the design and implementation of

  1. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Seini

    1998-01-01

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  2. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  3. Dosimetry of beams for negative pi-meson radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Several new facilities have been built in the last few years which can produce high intensity beams of pions. As a result, a significant amount of new data related to pion dosimetry is available. Results of beam composition, beam shaping, and collimation are given along with depth dose curves and isodose contours. Experimental data which describe the radiation quality of pion beams and the change in radiation quality with position are presented. Experimental data determining the fraction of the dose resulting from neutrons are discussed. The present techniques used in pion dosimetry are summarized, and those areas of pion dosimetry which require additional effort in order to achieve routine treatment planning for patients are reviewed

  4. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäck, A

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS ® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS ® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta 4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDose TM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry Check TM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific

  5. Miniature semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Takacs, G.; Cornelius, I. M.; Yudelev, M.; Zaider, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon mini-semiconductor detectors are found in wide applications for in vivo personal dosimetry and dosimetry and Micro-dosimetry of different radiation oncology modalities. These applications are based on integral and spectroscopy modes of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor and silicon p-n junction detectors. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed. (authors)

  6. Fundamentals of x-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamental information about x-ray dosimetry is presented. Definitions are given and expanded on for dose, absorbed dose including microdosimetry, radiation physics (properties of the radiation that are important to dosimetry), and dosimetry (how the properties are dealt with in determining dose). 5 figs, 12 refs

  7. Acoustic forcing of a liquid drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of systems such as acoustic levitation chambers will allow for the positioning and manipulation of material samples (drops) in a microgravity environment. This provides the capability for fundamental studies in droplet dynamics as well as containerless processing work. Such systems use acoustic radiation pressure forces to position or to further manipulate (e.g., oscillate) the sample. The primary objective was to determine the effect of a viscous acoustic field/tangential radiation pressure forcing on drop oscillations. To this end, the viscous acoustic field is determined. Modified (forced) hydrodynamic field equations which result from a consistent perturbation expansion scheme are solved. This is done in the separate cases of an unmodulated and a modulated acoustic field. The effect of the tangential radiation stress on the hydrodynamic field (drop oscillations) is found to manifest as a correction to the velocity field in a sublayer region near the drop/host interface. Moreover, the forcing due to the radiation pressure vector at the interface is modified by inclusion of tangential stresses.

  8. Annual Occurrence of Meteorite-Dropping Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Natalia; Jopek, Tadeusz J.

    2016-07-01

    The event of Chelyabinsk meteorite has brought about change the earlier opinion about limits of the sizes of potentially dangerous asteroidal fragments that crossed the Earth's orbit and irrupted in the Earth's atmosphere making the brightest fireball. The observations of the fireballs by fireball networks allows to get the more precise data on atmospheric trajectories and coordinates of predicted landing place of the meteorite. For the reason to search the periods of fireball activity is built the annual distribution of the numbers of meteorites with the known fall dates and of the meteorite-dropping fireballs versus the solar longitude. The resulting profile of the annual activity of meteorites and meteorite-dropping fireballs shows several periods of increased activity in the course of the year. The analysis of the atmospheric trajectories and physical properties of sporadic meteorite-dropping fireballs observed in Tajikistan by instrumental methods in the summer‒autumn periods of increased fireballs activity has been made. As a result the structural strength, the bulk density and terminal mass of the studied fireballs that can survive in the Earth atmosphere and became meteorites was obtained. From the photographic IAU MDC_2003 meteor database and published sources based on the orbit proximity as determined by D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins the fireballs that could be the members of group of meteorite-dropping fireballs, was found. Among the near Earth's objects (NEOs) the searching for parent bodies for meteorite-dropping fireballs was made and the evolution of orbits of these objects in the past on a long interval of time was investigated.

  9. Dosimetry-guided high-activity 131I therapy in patients with advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Haenscheid, Heribert; Biko, Johannes; Hategan, Maria C.; Lassmann, Michael; Kreissl, Michael C.; Reiners, Christoph; Luster, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In patients with advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), therapy with the highest safe 131 I activity is desirable to maximize the tumour radiation dose yet avoid severe myelotoxicity. Recently, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) published a standard operational procedure (SOP) for pre-therapeutic dosimetry in DTC patients incorporating a safety threshold of a 2 Gy absorbed dose to the blood as a surrogate for the red marrow. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness in everyday tertiary referral centre practice of treating advanced DTC with high 131 I activities chosen primarily based on the results of dosimetry following this SOP. We retrospectively assessed toxicity as well as biochemical and scintigraphic response in our first ten patients receiving such therapy for advanced DTC. The 10 patients received a total of 13 dosimetrically guided treatments with a median administered activity of 14.0 GBq (range: 7.0-21.4 GBq) 131 I. After 6 of 13 treatments in 6 of 10 patients, short-term side effects of 131 I therapy, namely nausea, vomiting or sialadenitis, were observed. Leukocyte and platelet counts dropped significantly in the weeks after 131 I treatment, but returned to pre-treatment levels by 3 months post-therapy. Serum thyroglobulin levels decreased after 12 of 13 treatments (median reduction: 58%) in 9 of 10 patients. In our initial patient cohort, high-activity 131 I therapy for advanced DTC based on pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry following the EANM SOP was safe and well tolerated. Such treatment almost always produced a partial biochemical tumour response. (orig.)

  10. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  11. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  12. Future developments in etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many laboratories engaged in the field of personal neutron dosimetry are interested in developing better etching processes and improving the CR-39 detecting materials. To know how much effort must still be devoted to the development of etch track dosimetry, it is necessary to understand the advantages. limitations and degree of exploitation of the currently available techniques. So much has been learned about the chemical and electrochemical etching processes that an optimised combination of etching processes could make possible the elimination of many of the existing shortcomings. Limitations of etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry arise mainly because the registration occurs only on the detector surface. These damage type detectors are based on radiation induced chain scission processes in polymers, which result in hole-type tracks in solids. The converse approach, yet to be discovered, would be the development of cure-track detectors, where radiation induced cross linking between organic polymer chains could result in solid tracks in liquids. (author)

  13. A transferability study of the EPR-tooth-dosimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.; Desrosiers, M.; Bouville, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transferability of a measurement protocol from one laboratory to another is an important feature of any mature, standardised protocol. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-tooth dosimetry technique that was developed in Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, AMS (Ukraine) (SCRM) for routine dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators has demonstrated consistent results in several inter-laboratory measurement comparisons. Transferability to the EPR dosimetry laboratory at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) was examined. Several approaches were used to test the technique, including dose reconstruction of SCRM-NIST inter-comparison samples. The study has demonstrated full transferability of the technique and the possibility to reproduce results in a different laboratory environment. (authors)

  14. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  15. Student Perceptions of an Online Medical Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenards, Nishele

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers the first online medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was a need to collect and analyze student perceptions of online learning in medical dosimetry. This research provided a guide for future implementation by other programs as well as validated the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse program. Methodology used consisted of an electronic survey sent to all previous and currently enrolled students in the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse medical dosimetry program. The survey was both quantitative and qualitative in demonstrating attitudinal perceptions of students in the program. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was gathered based on the open-ended responses and the identifying themes from the responses. The results demonstrated an overall satisfaction with this program, the instructor, and the online courses. Students felt a sense of belonging to the courses and the program. Considering that a majority of the students had never taken an online course previously, the students felt there were no technology issues. Future research should include an evaluation of board exam statistics for students enrolled in the online and face-to-face medical dosimetry programs.

  16. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  17. Development and clinical application of In Vivo dosimetry for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Hirofumi; Oita, Masataka; Tominaga, Masahide; Oto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In practical radiotherapy, it is important to deliver radiation to the target correctly and safely according to the treatment planning. The control of radiation dose delivered to each patient in radiotherapy mainly relies on the prediction based on the result of pre-treatment verification and irradiation accuracy of treatment machines. In Vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy is the procedure of quality assurance by the way of direct measurement for the patient whether the calculated prescribed dose in the treatment planning is delivered precisely. The history of In Vivo dosimetry is relatively long, and the TLD dosimetry for clinical radiotherapy started in early 1970's. After 1980's, owing to the development of semiconductor devices such as diode detectors, semiconductor arrays, the clinical applications for the dosimetry and diagnostic radiation imaging devices which contributed to the development of electric portal imaging devices and 2D semiconductor detectors were introduced. In recent years, these radiation measurement devices and non-invasive methods have been developed, they are becoming widespread as clinical practice. In this paper, we reviewed the In Vivo dosimetry devices and their characteristics, and technical application for radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Patient dosimetry improvements in longitudinal field MRI linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oborn, B.M.; Metcalfe, P.E.; Butson, M.J.; Keall, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Many studies exist of the often undesirable dosimetry changes in transverse field MRI-Linacs. Currently there are plans by different groups around the world to develop longitudinal MRT-Linac systems as dosimetry is potentially superior to transverse field sy tems. The objective of this study is to investigate via Monte Carlo simulations, the potential dosimetry improvements expected in lo gitudinal MRI-Linac designs over transverse field designs for advanced image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been performed of the dosimetry from a Varian 2100c 6 MV photon beam in lo gitudinal magnetic field typical of expected MRI-Linac designs. A 30 x 30 x 20 cm' phantom has been simulated in magnetic fields between 0 and 3 T. Beam profiles and skin dose calculations have been performed and compared with transverse field systems. Results The longitudinal magnetic field acts to reduce lateral dose spread in all locations within a patient. As well as this, the electron return effcct is absent. This equates to reductions in penumbral widths and reductions in skin dose. When compared with transverse field systems the dosimetry is superior. This will also allow for further reductions in trcatment margins as compared to transverse field MRI Linac designs.

  19. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  20. Application of MOS structures to gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1978-01-01

    Lattice disorders induced in SiO 2 layers by irradiation are described, and the possibility of using MOS transistors for gamma dosimetry is discussed. Furthermore, experimental results are given for Czechoslovakian MOS transistors of MH 2009 type after gamma irradiation. Reference measurements with other irradiation sources have shown that the transistors respond only to those types of radiation which induce space charges in the oxide layer. They are, therefore, insensitive to neutrons and thus in contrast to dosimetric silicon diodes. Circuitry, sensitivity, and fading of MOS transistors are given, and a physical functional model is compared with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  2. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%

  3. Spinal drop metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.D.; Rafto, S.E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Packer, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Identifying subarachnoid metastatic disease (SAMD) in patients with primary central nervous system tumors is important in determining subsequent therapy. Myelography with CT follow-up has been the gold standard for this evaluation. It is an invasive procedure often performed with general anesthesia in children. Now that gadolinium MR imaging has become available, a comparison of these techniques has been initiated to determine their relative effectiveness in demonstrating SAMD in children. Ten children (seven male, aged 2-19 years) with primitive neuroectoderm tumor (n = 5), ependymoma (n = 2), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 1), diffuse low-grade astrocytoma (n = 1), and rhabdoid/teratoid tumors (n = 1) underwent simultaneous myelography/CT and gadolinium MR imaging. Results are presented

  4. Personal dosimetry and information platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Hidalgo, M.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Jimenez Nartin, A.; Cano Sanchez, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    One question often raised by the hospital personnel dosimetry is the high incidence in the no monthly turnover of dosimeters, which is currently a high number of administrative dose assignments. The high number of workers with personal dosimetry and in many cases, the dispersion of workplaces makes it impossible to personalized management. To make a more direct and personal, and transmit information quickly and with guaranteed reception, has developed and implemented a system of personalized dosimetric information through messaging Short Message Service (SMS) and access to the history of dosimetric dosimetric and management through web space Service Hospital Radio physics.

  5. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  6. Characterization of internal dosimetry practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Heid, K.R.; Mann, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Current practices in internal dosimetry at DOE facilities were evaluated with respect to consistency among DOE Contractors. All aspects of an internal dosimetry program were addressed. Items considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, record systems and ease of information retrieval; ease of integrating internal dose and external dose; modeling systems employed, including ability to modify models depending on excretion data, and verification of computer codes utilized; bioassay procedures, including quality control; and ability to relate air concentration data to individual workers and bioassay data. Feasibility of uranium analysis in solution by laser fluorescence excitation at uranium concentrations of one part per billion was demonstrated

  7. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  8. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  9. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  10. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  11. New solid-state effects used in neutron detection and dosimetry. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hahn, G.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of radiation effects on solids and their usability for personnel neutron dosimetry. Part 1 covers mechanical effects on the crystal lattice of solids (dislocations in copper foils and changes in the bulk modulus, unclear effects in quartz connected with changes in the oscillation frequency), thermal effects of metals embedded in type I superconductors (superheated colloid detectors) or other materials (superheated drop detectors)

  12. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  13. Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Stokke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. Results A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Conclusions Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  14. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Investigations of CR39 dosimeters for neutron routine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, M.; Abraham, A.; Tshuva, A.; German, U.

    2004-01-01

    CR-39 is a polymeric nuclear track detector which is widely used for neutron dosimetry. CR-39 detector development was conducted at a number of laboratories throughout the world(1,2) , and was accepted also for routine dosimetry. However, there are shortcomings which must be taken into consideration the lack of a dosimetry grade material which causes batch variations, significant angular dependence and a moderate sensitivity. CR-39 also under-responds for certain classes of neutron spectra (lower energy neutrons from reactors or high energy accelerator-produced neutrons).In order to introduce CR-39 as a routine dosimeter at NRCN, a series of checks were performed. The present work describes the results of some of our checks, to characterize the main properties of CR-39 dosimeters

  17. Dosimetry practices at the Radiation Technology Centre (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Ennison, I.

    1997-01-01

    Dosimetry practices undertaken to support research and pilot scale gamma irradiation activities at the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission are presented. The Fricke dosemeter was used for calibrating the gamma field of the gammacell-220. The Fricke system and the gammacell-220 were then used to calibrate the ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosemeter. The Fricke and ECB dosemeter systems have become routine dosemeters at the centre. Dosimetry work has covered a wide range of research specimens and pilot scale products to establish the relevant irradiation protocol and parameters for routine treatment. These include yams, pineapple explants, blood for feeding tsetseflies, cocoa bud wood and cassava sticks. Pilot scale dosimetry studies on maize, medical devices like intravenous infusion sets and surgical gauze have also been completed. The results and observations made on some of these products are reported. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  18. Retrospective dosimetry using salted snacks and nuts: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansson, M.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using ordinary household table salt for dosimetry is suggested by its high sensitivity to ionising radiation, which generates a readout of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, to exploit this finding for retrospective human dosimetry, it would be needed to find salt in close proximity to the exposed individual. Finding salty snacks frequently tucked into handbags, backpacks or pockets seemed to be a possibility; these items therefore became the test materials of the present study. The aluminium or cardboard packages used to exclude the moisture that makes crisps and nuts go soft and stale also helps to retain the induced OSL signal. Therefore, different snacks, either their salt component alone or mixed with the snack, are exposed to ionising radiation and then were assessed for their dosimetric properties. The results indicate the feasibility of using some salty snacks for dosimetry, with a minimum detectable dose as low as 0.2 mGy (authors)

  19. Biophysical dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.F.H.; Boreham, D.R.; Rink, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accidental dosimetry utilizing radiation induced paramagnetic species in biophysical tissues like teeth is a technique; that can measure the amount of radiation exposure to an individual. The major problem in implementing this technique at low doses is the presence of native organic signal, and various other artifacts produced as a result of sample processing. After a series of experimental trials, we developed an optimum set of rules, which uses high temperature ultrasonic treatment of enamel in KOH, multiple sample rotation during in-cavity measurement of natural and calibrated added irradiations, and dose construction using a backward extrapolation method. By using this we report the successful dose reconstruction in a few of our laboratory samples in 100 mGy range (76.29 ± 30.14) mGy with reasonably low uncertainty. Keywords: biophysical dosimetry, human tooth enamel, low dose measurements, accidental dosimetry (author)

  20. Chemical dosimetry of Gammacell with ferrous sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austerlitz, Carlos; Campos, Diana; Ferreira, Maria Clara; Benhabib, Sidi; Panettieri, Vanesa; Lopes Filho, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Compton scatter radiation from a Gammacell-220 on the ferric-ion yield [G(Fe +3 )] was determined for the Fricke dosimetry. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the PENELOPE code to obtain the photon spectrum of a 60 Co Nordion teletherapy unit at a depth of 2 cm in a 50x50x50 cm 3 cubic water tank. Published values of G(Fe +3 ) were fitted by a third order polynomial and the resulting equation was used to determine a mean chemical yield of such unit. The same procedure was performed over the spectrum of a Gammacell-220 published by the ASTM. The mass-energy absorption coefficient for the Fricke solution was weighted over the Gammacell-220 spectrum and compared against the Nordion spectrum. The ratio between the mean chemical yields was used to determine the influence of the Compton scatter radiation on the value of G(Fe +3 ). The ratio of the mass-energy absorption coefficient of water to Fricke solution was used to convert the absorbed dose in the Fricke solution to absorbed dose to water. From the results obtained it was concluded that the dosimetry of a Gammacell-220 with the Fricke dosimeter may overestimate the measured absorbed dose to water by a factor of 1.01 due to changes in the G(Fe +3 ) value. Differences in the mean energy of the spectra can lead to large errors in the isodoses curves of samples irradiated with both equipment. To establish evidence that the radiation process will provide the desired results, the knowledge of the radiation spectrum is needed. Alternatively, whenever it is possible, the dosimetry should be performed by positioning the capsule with the Fricke solution inside of dummy samples (author)

  1. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered....... This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From...

  2. Computer dosimetry of 192Ir wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Grimm, D.F.; Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1985-01-01

    The dosimetry of 192 Ir linear sources with a commercial treatment planning computer system has been evaluated. Reference dose rate data were selected from the literature and normalized in a manner consistent with our clinical and dosimetric terminology. The results of the computer calculations are compared to the reference data and good agreement is shown at distances within about 7 cm from a linear source. The methodology of translating source calibration in terms of exposure rate for use in the treatment planning computer is developed. This may be useful as a practical guideline for users of similar computer calculation programs for iridium as well as other sources

  3. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements

  4. Personal dosimetry at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevoznikov, O.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kanchenko, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation accidents of different types and the methods of the dosimetry used at the consequences liquidation are considered. The long-term experience of the population personal instrumental dosimetric control carrying out at the ChNPP accident consequences liquidation is widely covered in details. The concepts are stated out and the results are presented on the functioning of the created system for personal dose monitoring of the population of Ukraine irradiation. The use of the person radiation counters at the internal irradiation population and personal dose assessment is considered in details

  5. Eurados trial performance test for neutron personal dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordy, J.M.; Stadtmann, H.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a neutron trial performance test sponsored by the European Commission and organised by EURADOS. As anticipated, neutron dosimetry results were very dependent on the dosemeter type and the dose calculation algorithm. Fast neutron fields were generally well...

  6. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  7. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  8. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  9. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  10. Dosimetry in radiodiagnosis. Individual irradiation card. Dosimetric application of electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, Albert.

    1981-09-01

    This study deals with a radiodiagnosis dosimetry, and contains two parts. First of all, the combination between a dosimetric data acquisition from an ionization chamber and a micro-computer allows the realization of individual irradiation card for a well established examination. The method is extensible to almost totality of radiological examinations. The second part describes the following of an original work about the application of electrets in radiodiagnosis dosimetry. At least a theorical study is shown; it takes account of different involving phenomena and allows a starting interpretation of experimental results [fr

  11. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  12. The jet mass distribution after Soft Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzani, Simone; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    We present a first-principle computation of the mass distribution of jets which have undergone the grooming procedure known as Soft Drop. This calculation includes the resummation of the large logarithms of the jet mass over its transverse momentum, up to next-to-logarithmic accuracy, matched to exact fixed-order results at next-to-leading order. We also include non-perturbative corrections obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations and discuss analytic expressions for hadronisation and Underlying Event effects.

  13. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research

  14. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  15. Thermoluminescence dosimetry environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, characteristics and performances of an environmental monitoring system with thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. Most of the work deals with the main physical parameters necessary for measurements of ambiental dose. At the end of this report some of level doses in the environment around the site of the ENEA Center of Energy Research Salluggia (Italy) are illustrated

  16. Manual of food irradiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following items are discussed: Fundamentals of dosimetry; description of irradiators; dose distribution in the product and commissioning the process; plant operation and process control; detailed instructions on using various dose-meter systems; references; glossary of some basic terms and concepts

  17. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  18. Biological dosimetry of irradiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.; Chambrette, V.; Le Roy, A.; Paillole, N.; Sorokine, I.; Voisin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biological dosimetry in radiation protection allows to evaluate the received dose by a potentially irradiated person from biological markers such chromosomal abnormalities. The technologies of Hybridization In Situ by Fluorescence (F.I.S.H) allow the detection of steady chromosomal aberrations of translocation type

  19. Drop tests of the Three Mile Island knockout canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Childress, P.C.; Quinn, G.J.; Smith, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    A type of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling canister, called a ''knockout'' canister, was subjected to a series of drop tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Drop Test Facility. These tests confirmed the structural integrity of internal fixed neutron poisons in support of a request for NRC licensing of this type of canister for the shipment of TMI-2 reactor fuel debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Core Examination R and D Program. This report presents the data generated and the results obtained from a series of four drop tests that included two drops with the test assembly in the vertical position and two drops with the assembly in the horizontal position

  20. Pressure Drop of Chamfer on Spacer Grid Strap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euijae; Kim, Kanghoon; Kim, Kyounghong; Nahm, Keeyil [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A swirl flow and cross flow are generated by the spacer grid with mixing vane that enhances the thermal performance and critical heat flux (CHF). The additional pressure drop makes it difficult to meet acceptance criteria for overall pressure drop in fuel assembly depending upon the pump capacity. The chamfer on the end of spacer grid strap is one solution to reduce additional pressure drop without any adverse effect on flow fields. In this research, the pressure drop tests for spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the hydraulic test facility. The result can be applied to develop high performance nuclear fuel assemblies for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. The pressure drop tests for 5x5 spacer grid with and without chamfer as well as 6x6 spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the INFINIT test facility. The Reynolds number ranged about from 16000 to 75000. The sweep-up and sweep-down test showed that the direction of sweep did not affect the pressure drop. The chamfer on spacer grid strap reduced the pressure drop due to the decreased in ratio of inlet area to outlet area. The pressure loss coefficient for spacer grid with chamfer was by up to 13.8 % lower than that for spacer grid without chamfer. Hence, the chamfer on spacer grid strap was one of effective ways to reduce the pressure drop.

  1. Reassessment of the RERF dosimetry system - overview of the new dosimetry system DS02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a major reassessment of the system used at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to determine radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors. This effort has resolved the neutron discrepancy in RERF dosimetry, and has defined the parameters for a replacement system for survivor dose calculation. A Joint US-Japan Working Group undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the calculations that comprise the RERF dosimetry system and the measurements used to verify those calculations. During the course of this reassessment, the working groups, with members from American, German and Japanese universities and national laboratories, have recomputed all of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation calculations, made fast-neutron and low-background thermal-neutron measurements, upgraded the calculation of the radiation shielding provided by terrain and large buildings, and conducted a comprehensive reassessment of all radiation measurements. The new calculations produced during this reassessment agree with both gamma and neutron measurements out to distances from the detonations at which in-situ measurements become indistinguishable from background, effectively resolving the long-standing neutron dose discrepancy. The calculations that produce this agreement are the basis for the new DS02 dosimetry system. New calculations and measurements confirmed the yield and epicenter for the Nagasaki detonation while refining both these values for Hiroshima. Current measurements and calculations confirm a 21-kiloton-yield for the Nagasaki bomb and a burst point to within two meters of previous assessments. In Hiroshima, the estimated yield has been increased from 15 kt to 16 kt and the epicenter has been repositioned 20 meters higher and 15 meters to the west. While these refined parameters make the dosimetry system more accurate and users of the system more confident in the results, the calculated dose to survivors will change only about ten percent

  2. Many Drops Make a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya S. Mudgal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire and drive for excellence in any endeavor in life requires an effort from the individual; in addition it requires a constellation of features around such individuals that help them to become successful. For surgeons, it is the operating room staff, the administrative and medical assistants and our residents and fellows. However, perhaps the most important contribution to a physician’s success, are his or her patients.  As I get older, I find myself doing and saying things that seemingly, just a few years ago I used to hear my own teachers say and do. And then with some wry amusement, I wonder...when did this change happen in me? Change is inevitable, progressive and relentless. However, what remains constant is the compassion and care that our patients need and deserve. In this day and age of advancing technology and minimally invasive surgery, sometimes we surgeons forget that our patients are human beings. Our patients are the ones who teach us the most. It is therefore incumbent upon us to treat them with the greatest amount of dignity and respect that is possible. Sir Isaac Newton had said “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”. My fervent advice to all my trainees is to recognize and acknowledge their own personal giants early and often, for it is their shoulders upon which they will stand to see further. First and foremost among my personal giants are my patients, and then my parents, my teachers, my wife and children. It is they who have collectively helped me to achieve my personal goals.  It is imperative that as clinicians and scientists we strive for excellence, and also continuously remember to be humble. Drs. Ebrahimzadeh, Kachooei and their team embody this very principle. Their efforts in getting this journal organized and come to fruition are enormous. Yet, it is the result of a collective effort to achieve excellence for the ongoing care of our patients; the desire to achieve

  3. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Pomroy, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author)

  4. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duport, P; Pomroy, C [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, D [Saskatchewan Human Resources, Labour and Employment, Regina (Canada)

    1990-12-31

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author).

  5. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  6. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp®. The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  7. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  8. A Monte Carlo calculation model of electronic portal imaging device for transit dosimetry through heterogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jihyung; Jung, Jae Won, E-mail: jungj@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 (United States); Kim, Jong Oh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Yeo, Inhwan [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation model of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based on its effective atomic number modeling in the XVMC code. Methods: A previously developed EPID model, based on the XVMC code by density scaling of EPID structures, was modified by additionally considering effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of each structure and adopting a phase space file from the EGSnrc code. The model was tested under various homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms and field sizes by comparing the calculations in the model with measurements in EPID. In order to better evaluate the model, the performance of the XVMC code was separately tested by comparing calculated dose to water with ion chamber (IC) array measurement in the plane of EPID. Results: In the EPID plane, calculated dose to water by the code showed agreement with IC measurements within 1.8%. The difference was averaged across the in-field regions of the acquired profiles for all field sizes and phantoms. The maximum point difference was 2.8%, affected by proximity of the maximum points to penumbra and MC noise. The EPID model showed agreement with measured EPID images within 1.3%. The maximum point difference was 1.9%. The difference dropped from the higher value of the code by employing the calibration that is dependent on field sizes and thicknesses for the conversion of calculated images to measured images. Thanks to the Z{sub eff} correction, the EPID model showed a linear trend of the calibration factors unlike those of the density-only-scaled model. The phase space file from the EGSnrc code sharpened penumbra profiles significantly, improving agreement of calculated profiles with measured profiles. Conclusions: Demonstrating high accuracy, the EPID model with the associated calibration system may be used for in vivo dosimetry of radiation therapy. Through this study, a MC model of EPID has been developed, and their performance has been rigorously

  9. An assessment of the use of skin flashes in helical tomotherapy using phantom and in-vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournel, Koen; Verellen, Dirk; Duchateau, Michael; Fierens, Yves; Linthout, Nadine; Reynders, Truus; Voordeckers, Mia; Storme, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: In helical tomotherapy the nature of the optimizing and planning systems allows the delivery of dose on the skin using a build-up compensating technique (skin flash). However, positioning errors or changes in the patient's contour can influence the correct dosage in these regions. This work studies the behavior of skin-flash regions using phantom and in-vivo dosimetry. Materials and methods: The dosimetric accuracy of the tomotherapy planning system in skin-flash regions is checked using film and TLD on phantom. Positioning errors are induced and the effect on the skin dose is investigated. Further a volume decrease is simulated using bolus material and the results are compared. Results: Results show that the tomotherapy planning system calculates dose on skin regions within 2 SD using TLD measurements. Film measurements show drops of dose of 2.8% and 26% for, respectively, a 5 mm and 10 mm mispositioning of the phantom towards air and a dose increase of 9% for a 5 mm shift towards tissue. These measurements are confirmed by TLD measurements. A simulated volume reduction shows a similar behavior with a 2.6% and 19.4% drop in dose, measured with TLDs. Conclusion: The tomotherapy system allows adequate planning and delivery of dose using skin flashes. However, exact positioning is crucial to deliver the dose at the exact location

  10. Personnel dosimetry methods introduced in the Czechoslovak national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Singer, J.; Kokta, L.; Prouza, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Personnel dosimetry methods are described that were developed in the Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes and that have been or will be introduced in the national personnel dosimetry service. In Czechoslovakia, workers exposed to a radiation risk are divided into two groups, according to the level of the risk. The criterion is the possibility of exceeding one tenth of the MPD. For the higher risk group, a complex dose meter is usually used for dosimetry of photon and beta radiation; it contains a film dose meter and a radiothermoluminescent (RTL) glass dose meter. The RTL glass dose meter also serves as an accident dose meter. For neutron dosimetry, a dose meter comprising a solid-state track detector in combination with fissionable foils has been introduced. For accident dosimetry, a silicon diode of Czechoslovak production is used. For the lower risk group, only the introduction of an RTL dose meter is foreseen. There will be a three month control period; for neutron dosimetry, the track detector in combination with fissionable foils is retained. For measurements of hand doses, a themoluminescent ring dose meter has been introduced. The dose meters are described, giving information on the types of detectors employed, measurement techniques and descriptions of the basic characteristics of the instruments, their basic dosimetric parameters and the dose and energy ranges which can be measured. The results of international comparisons are presented; these have served to confirm the measurement precision. In conclusion, some questions of dose-meter calibration are summarized, and the problems of dose measurement in mixed fields of neutrons and gamma rays are discussed. (author)

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanyukha, Alex; Benevides, Luis A.; Reyes, Ricardo; Trompier, Francois; Clairand, Isabelle; Swartz, Harold M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the capabilities of new instrumentation and the experience gained in the use of teeth for 'after-the-fact' dosimetry, we have undertaken a systematic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of irradiated fingernails. There have been only a modest number of previous studies of radiation-induced signals in fingernails. While these have given us some promising aspects, overall results have been inconsistent. The most significant problem of EPR fingernail dosimetry is the presence of two signals of non-radiation origin that overlap the radiation-induced signal (RIS), making it almost impossible to do dose measurements below 5 Gy. Historically, these two non-radiation components were named mechanically-induced signal (MIS) and background signal (BKS). In order to investigate them in detail, three different methods of MIS and BKS mutual isolation have been developed and implemented. Having applied these methods, we were able to understand that fingernail tissue, after cut, can be modeled as a deformed sponge, where the MIS and BKS are associated with the stress from elastic and plastic deformations respectively. A sponge has a unique mechanism of mechanical stress absorption, which is necessary for fingernails in order to perform its everyday function of protecting the fingertips from hits and trauma. Like a sponge, fingernails are also known to be an effective water absorber. When a sponge is saturated with water, it tends to restore to its original shape, and when it looses water, it becomes deformed again. The same happens to fingernail tissue. Our suggested interpretation of the mechanical deformation in fingernails gives also a way to distinguish between the MIS and RIS. Obtained results show that the MIS in irradiated fingernails can be almost completely eliminated without a significant change to the RIS by soaking the sample for 10 minutes in water. This is an ongoing study but even at its present state of development, it has shown that it

  12. A pressure drop model for PWR grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  13. Coupling slots without shunt impedance drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleyguier, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that coupling slots between adjacent cells in a π-mode structure reduce shunt impedance per unit length with respect to single cell cavities. To design optimized coupling slots, one has to answer the following question: for a given coupling factor, what shape, dimension, position and number of slots lead to the lowest shunt impedance drop? A numerical study using the 3D code MAFIA has been carried out. The aim was to design the 352 MHz cavities for the high intensity proton accelerator of the TRISPAL project. The result is an unexpected set of four 'petal' slots. Such slots should lead to a quasi-negligible drop in shunt impedance: about -1% on average, for particle velocity from 0.4 c to 0.8 c. (author)

  14. A pressure drop model for PWR grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  15. Semisupervised Community Detection by Voltage Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.

  16. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparison in the UK has been carried out in limited studies since the 1960s. However the first national dosimetry intercomparison involving all radiotherapy centres was conducted in the late 1980s. This was based on visits to each centre, using ionisation chamber dosimetry. It audited megavoltage photon beam calibration and other single field parameters. It also measured doses in a three-field 'treatment' in a trapezoidal phantom constructed from epoxy-resin water-equivalent material and compared these to locally planned doses. This included off-axis points, oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, etc. The study found mean measured beam calibration doses close to stated values (ratio 1.003), with a standard deviation (sd) of the distribution of 1.5% and 97% of doses within the pro-set 3% tolerance. For the planned multi-field irradiations, mean dose ratios (measured/stated) were 1.01 (sd 3%, 90% of results within 5%). A number of discrepancies were identified, leading to improved practice. A follow up study (mid-1990s) for electron beam audit also repeated the megavoltage photon calibration audit. For photons, an improvement was noted (mean ratio 1.003, sd 1.0%, 100% within 3%), whilst for electron beams, the mean ratio of measured/stated dose was 0.994 (sd 1.8%, 94% within 3%, 99% within 5%). In parallel with - and growing out of - this, a national audit network began to develop in 1991/2. It utilised similar methodology to the intercomparison and a network approach to allow parallel developments of the scope of the system. The network has eight regional groups, each with up to 10 radiotherapy centres, serving average populations of 7-8 million. Each group organises audits of its own centres and has developed at its own pace. Most have piloted methodology, phantoms, etc. for new audits which can then be used by other groups. All 65 UK centres are included. The network is co-ordinated by an IPEM Steering Committee (current chair

  17. Automated personal dosimetry monitoring system for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanyshev, E.; Chechyotkin, N.; Kondratev, A.; Plyshevskaya, D.

    2006-01-01

    personal dosimeters (albedo dosimeters). Operational and emergency monitoring of external radiation exposure: - Gamma radiation dose and dose rate measurement using direct reading personal dosimeters. - Gamma radiation dose measurement using radio-photoluminescent personal dosimeters. Monitoring of internal radiation exposure: - Measurement of activity of incorporated radionuclides using whole body counters. Hardware of A.P.D.M.S. represents a complex of automated workplaces based on industrial computers and measuring equipment; all workplaces are connected to one local computational network. Client software installed on automated workplaces processes the results of dosimetry monitoring (spectrum processing, computation of personal dose, report generation, etc.) and provides data exchange with data base of A.P.D.M.S. in the remote server. Communication with A.P.D.M.S. server is organized via the local computational network Ethernet. (authors)

  18. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO 2 ). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 μ M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 μm AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a open-quotes turn-tableclose quotes generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS'publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced

  19. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO{sub 2}). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 {mu} M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 {mu}m AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a {open_quotes}turn-table{close_quotes} generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS`publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced.

  20. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  1. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D.; Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L.; Campi, F.; Garlati, L.; De Errico, F.; Borroni, M.; Carrara, M.; Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  2. Fast neutron dosimetry and spectrometry using radioactivation (1963); Dosimetrie et spectrometrie des neutrons rapides par radioactivation (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberieux, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The author first recalls rapidly a few generalities concerning induced radioactivity detectors and gives, in an appendix, tables summarizing the properties of detector elements which may be used in radioprotection. The excitation functions found in the literature and also given. The technological characteristics of the detectors used are given, together with the counting methods. The many advantages of activation dosimetry for strong or periodic neutron fluxes and for those in the presence of {gamma}-radiation are stressed. The main problem in activation dosimetry is, however, the calculation of the dose absorbed from the results of the measurements. It is shown how the dose is expressed, fairly accurately, as a function of the radioactivities induced in a series of detectors. As an example, the spectrometry and the dosimetry of the neutron flux emitted by a Po-Be source are presented. (author) [French] L'auteur fait d'abord un bref rappel des generalites sur les detecteurs a radioactivite induite, accompagne, en annexe, des tableaux resumant les proprietes d'elements detecteurs utilisables en radioprotection. Les fonctions d'excitation trouvees dans la litterature y sont egalement annexees. On donne ensuite les caracteristiques technologiques des detecteurs employes ainsi que les methodes de comptage utilisees. On souligne les nombreux avantages de la dosimetrie par activation dans les flux de neutrons intenses ou periodiques et en presence de rayonnement {gamma}. Il reste que le probleme central de la dosimetrie par activation est le calcul de la dose absorbee a partir des resultats de mesure. On montre comment la dose s'exprime, de maniere approchee, en fonction des radioactivites induites dans une serie de detecteurs. A titre d'exemple, la spectrometrie et la dosimetrie du flux de neutrons emis par une source de Po-Be sont presentees. (auteur)

  3. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth‐dose constancy check and beam profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in‐phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off‐axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread‐out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5 mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the

  4. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  5. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  6. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  7. The reliability of the systems of personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, O.; Lindborg, L.

    1982-01-01

    The dosimeters of companies and institutions have been irradiated at various energy and dose equivalent levels. Systematic and coincident errors in measurement are presented. The results show that relatively large systematic errors can be made by both the thermoluminescent and film systems. Various techniques to judging the quality of the dosimetry are discussed. (G.B.)

  8. Proceedings of the 5. symposium on neutron dosimetry. Beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantitites, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  9. From nuclei to liquid drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Huidobro, F.; Michaelian, K.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Carjan, N. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Gradignan (France). Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires

    1995-12-31

    Collisions of symmetric mercury-drop pairs have been studied experimentally as a function of impact parameter, in a relative-velocity range going from a coalescence-dominated region to interactions yielding several residues. The experiments are compared with predictions of a dynamical model used in nuclear physics. The time evolution of the shapes is well reproduced by the simulation. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The dynamics of Leidenfrost drops

    OpenAIRE

    van Limbeek, Michiel Antonius Jacobus

    2017-01-01

    Temperature control is omnipresent in today’s life: from keeping your fridge cold, maintaining a room at a pleasant temperature or preventing your computer from overheating. Efficient ways of heat transfer are often based on phase change, making use of the high latent heat of evaporation. In the context of spray cooling, liquid drops are impacting a hot plate to ensure a rapid cooling. At some temperature however, no contact occurs between the liquid and the plate, and the heat transfer rate ...

  11. Impact of water drops on small targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, A.; Prunet-Foch, B.; Vignes-Adler, M.

    2002-10-01

    The collision of water drops against small targets was studied experimentally by means of a high-speed photography technique. The drop impact velocity was about 3.5 m/s. Drop diameters were in the range of 2.8-4.0 mm. The target was a stainless steel disk of 3.9 mm diameter. The drop spread beyond the target like a central cap surrounded by a thin, slightly conical lamella bounded by a thicker rim. By mounting a small obstacle near the target, surface-tension driven Mach waves in the flowing lamella were generated, which are formally equivalent to the familiar compressibility driven Mach waves in gas dynamics. From the measurement of the Mach angle, the values of some flow parameters could be obtained as functions of time, which provided insight into the flow structure. The liquid flowed from the central cap to the liquid rim through the thin lamella at constant momentum flux. At a certain stage of the process, most of the liquid accumulated in the rim and the internal part of the lamella became metastable. In this situation, a rupture wave propagating through the metastable internal part of the lamella caused the rim to retract while forming outwardly directed secondary jets. The jets disintegrated into secondary droplets due to the Savart-Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Prior to the end of the retraction, an internal circular wave of rupture was formed. It originated at the target and then it propagated to meet the retracting rim. Their meeting resulted in a crown of tiny droplets. A theoretical analysis of the ejection process is proposed.

  12. Sporadic frame dropping impact on quality perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Vidal, Ricardo R.; Gicquel, Jean Charles; Colomes, Catherine; Cherifi, Hocine

    2004-06-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in real time video services over packet networks. When considering quality, it is essential to quantify user perception of the received sequence. Severe motion discontinuities are one of the most common degradations in video streaming. The end-user perceives a jerky motion when the discontinuities are uniformly distributed over time and an instantaneous fluidity break is perceived when the motion loss is isolated or irregularly distributed. Bit rate adaptation techniques, transmission errors in the packet networks or restitution strategy could be the origin of this perceived jerkiness. In this paper we present a psychovisual experiment performed to quantify the effect of sporadically dropped pictures on the overall perceived quality. First, the perceptual detection thresholds of generated temporal discontinuities were measured. Then, the quality function was estimated in relation to a single frame dropping for different durations. Finally, a set of tests was performed to quantify the effect of several impairments distributed over time. We have found that the detection thresholds are content, duration and motion dependent. The assessment results show how quality is impaired by a single burst of dropped frames in a 10 sec sequence. The effect of several bursts of discarded frames, irregularly distributed over the time is also discussed.

  13. Improving TL dosimetry for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, S.R.; Velez, G.; Rubio, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In vivo thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has always been one of the most accurate dosimetry method for external radiotherapy control, but the delay in the response is a well know drawback when it is applied. In this work we show some improvements and demonstrate that keeping the precision and accuracy of this technique, it is possible to obtain a response in few hours. Harshaw 4000 TL reader and LiF TLD-100 dosimeters, chips (3,1 x 3,1 x 0,9 mm 3 ) and rods (1 x 1 x 6 mm 3 ) have been used. The thermal treatment necessary to reuse the TLD is only 1h at 400 degree C, by using a glow curve analyser developed at the Ciemat (Spain), that allows a complete, prompt and precise identification of the individuals peaks. The dosimeters are periodically and individually calibrated. We also have study the factors contributing to the relation TL-dose like linearity, energy correction, directional response and fading. All those results are included into an Excel worksheet which automatically give us the dose resulting from the TL reading (peaks areas 4 and 5). The obtained uncertainty is better than 5%. The TLD already irradiated in radiotherapy institutions distant 30-40 Km from our centre can be read and analysed in about 3-4 hours. These facts render our methods rapid and allow a better control of radiotherapy treatment even if it is bi-fractionated. (author) [es

  14. Endocavitary in vivo Dosimetry for IMRT Treatments of Gynecologic Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Sabatino, Domenico; Morganti, Alessio G.; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of endometrial carcinoma treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was assessed by means of in vivo dosimetry. Six patients who had previously undergone radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma were treated with IMRT using a vaginal applicator with radio-opaque fiducial markers. An ion-chamber inserted into the applicator supplied an endocavitary in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance purposes. The ratio R = D/D TPS between the in vivo measured dose D and the predicted dose by the treatment planning system D TPS was determined for every fraction of the treatment. Results showed that 90% and 100% of the ratios resulted equal to 1 within 5% and 10%, respectively. The mean value of the ratios distribution for the 6 patients was R = 0.995 and the SD = 0.034. The ratio R* between the measured and predicted total doses for each patient was near to 1, within 2%. The dosimetric results suggest that the use of a vaginal applicator in an image-guided approach could make the interfractions target position stable and reproducible, allowing a safe use of the IMRT technique in the treatment of postoperative vaginal vault. In vivo dosimetry may supply useful information about the discrimination of random vs. systematic errors. The workload is minimum and this in vivo dosimetry can be applied also in the clinical routine.

  15. Dosimetry Control: Technic and methods. Proceedings of the international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutsko, A.M.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Chudakov, V.A.; Konoplya, E.F.; Milyutin, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    There is a number of unsolved problems of both dosimetric and radiometric control, questions of the biological dosimetry, reconstruction of dozes of irradiation of the population at radiation incidents, which require coordination of efforts of scientists in various areas of a science. The submitted materials are grouped on five units: dosimetry engineering, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation impact, dosimetry of a medical irradiation, normative and measurement assurance of the dosimetric control, monitoring and reconstruction of dozes at radiation incidents

  16. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  17. A microcomputer controlled thermoluminescence dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Kicken, P.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, an automatic thermoluminescence dosimetry system for personal dosimetry and thermoluminescence detector (TLD) research was developed. Process automation, statistical computation and dose calculation are provided by this microcomputer. Recording of measurement data, as well as dose record keeping for radiological workers is carried out with floppy disk. The microcomputer also provides a human/system interface by means of a video display and a printer. The main features of this dosimetry system are its low cost, high degree of flexibility, high degree of automation and the feasibility for use in routine dosimetry as well as in TLD research. The system is in use for personal dosimetry, environmental dosimetry and for TL-research work. Because of its modular set-up several components of the system are in use for other applications, too. The system seems suited for medium sized health physics groups. (author)

  18. Accidental and retrospective dosimetry using TL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesterházy, D.; Osvay, M.; Kovács, A.; Kelemen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry is one of the most important tools of accidental dosimetry for dose estimation when dose measurement was not planned. In the affected area many objects can be applied as natural dosimeters. The paper discusses our recent investigations on various electronic components and common salt (NaCl) having useful thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Among materials investigated the electronic components of cell phones seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes, having high TL responses, proper glow curve peaks and the intensity of TL peaks vs. gamma dose received provided nearly linear response in the dose range of 10 mGy–1.5 Gy. - Highlights: ► Electronic components and common salt were investigated for accidental and retrospective dosimetry. ► SMD resistors seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes. ► Table salt can be used effectively for accidental dosimetry purposes, as well.

  19. Dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology - ICRU and IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Pernicka, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Main aims of patient dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology are to determine dosimetric quantities for establishment and use of guidance levels or diagnostic reference levels and for comparative risk assessment. In the latter case, the average doses to the organs and tissues at risk should be assessed. Only limited number of measurements serve to potential risk assessment of the examination and intervention. An additional objective of dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the assessment of equipment performance. Ionization chambers are the main devices used for dosimetric measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology but other devices with special properties are also used. Important examples are thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and semiconductor detectors. For most dosemeters used in x-ray medical imaging the desired quantity for calibration of dosemeters is the air kerma free-in-air. Calibrations should be made at appropriate radiation qualities, for which recommendations are available for conventional radiology. It is important that the calibrations are traceable to the international measurement system. The uncertainty of dose measurements in medical x-ray imaging, for comparative risk assessments as well as for quality assurance, should not exceed about 7 per cent in terms of the expanded uncertainty using a coverage factor of 2. The dosimetric approaches in general diagnostic radiology, mammography and computed tomography are slightly different, resulting in application specific dosimetric quantities. Consequently, different protocols for patient dosimetry are available for these different purposes. In general diagnostic radiology, various quantities and terminologies have been used for the specification of dose on the central beam axis at the point where the x-ray beam enters the patient (or a phantom representing the patient). These include the exposure at skin entrance (ESE), the input radiation exposure

  20. Introduction [International Reactor Dosimetry File 2002 (IRDF-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti-Corcuera, R.; Zolnay, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The most recently tested version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File, IRDF-90 Version 2 (IRDF-90.2), was released in 1993. Most of the evaluations used in this file were prepared in the mid-1980s, and in the meantime a large amount of new experimental data has become available, along with two new national reactor dosimetry libraries (the Russian Reactor Dosimetry File (RRDF-98) and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL/D-99)). The cross-sections and related uncertainties for several reactions in these libraries may be of better quality than the data in the older IRDF-90 file. These developments have resulted in different cross-section values being applied to the evaluation of experimental data, creating difficulties in comparing the results of reactor dosimetry calculations from the same types of nuclear facility. Therefore, there has been a strong demand from the reactor dosimetry community for an updated and standardized version of the IRDF. The IAEA has in the past supported similar efforts to improve the quality of data for reactor dosimetry applications. A major objective of the present data development project was to prepare and distribute a standardized, updated and tested reactor dosimetry cross-section library accompanied by uncertainty information (IRDF-2002) for use in service life assessments of nuclear power reactors. In order to achieve this objective, two technical meetings were organized. Both meetings were held at the IAEA in Vienna. The first meeting took place from 27 to 29 August 2002, the second from 1 to 3 October 2003. Recommendations were made concerning the following topics and the preparation of the library: reactions to be included, requirements for new evaluations or revisions, nuclear decay data, radiation damage data, testing of the data in benchmark fields and inclusion of computer codes. The participants emphasized that good quality nuclear data for reactor dosimetry are essential to improve assessments of the

  1. Dose intercomparison studies for standardization of high-dose dosimetry in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Hoang Hoa; Duong Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (IC-VAEC) is planning to establish a traceability system for high-dose dosimetry and to provide high-dose standards as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) level in Vietnam. For countries which do not have a standard dosimetry laboratory, the participation in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the most common means to verify own dosimetry performance with a certain uncertainty. This is, however, only one-direction dose intercomparison with evaluation by IAEA including unknown parameter at participant laboratories. The SSDL level laboratory should have traceability as well as compatibility, ability to evaluate uncertainties of its own dosimetry performance by itself In the present paper, we reviewed our dosimetry performance through two-way dose intercomparison studies and self-evaluation of uncertainty in our dosimetry procedure. The performance of silver dichromate dosimeter as reference transfer dosimeter in IC-VAEC was studied through two-way blind dose intercomparison experiments between the IC-VAEC and JAERI. As another channel of dose intercomparison with IAEA, alanine dosimeters issued by IDAS were simultaneously irradiated with the IC-VAEC dichromate dosimeters at IC-VAEC and analyzed by IAEA. Dose intercomparison between IC-VAEC and JAERI results into a good agreement (better than ±2.5%), and IDAS results also show similar agreement within ±3.0%. The uncertainty was self-estimated on the basis of the JAERI alanine dosimetry, and a preliminary value of about 1.86% at a 68% confidence level is established. The results from these intercomparisons and our estimation of the uncertainty are consistent. We hope that our experience is valuable to other countries which do not have dosimetry standard laboratories and/or are planning to establish them. (author)

  2. The dosimetry programme of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities of the IAEA's Dosimetry Laboratory which provides calibration and comparison services for secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) of Member States. In addition, a joint IAEA/WHO postal dosimetry service has been established for radiotherapy centers. The International Measurement System and the calibration ''chain'' from measurement standard instruments of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM) through the primary and secondary standards to the dosimeters of the users are presented as well

  3. Some aspects on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henaish, B.A.; Youssef, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    The American National Council on Radiation Protection and measurements (1) has recently issued a statement regarding dose limitation system for neutrons. The changes proposed in that statement presented substantial problems regarding the personnel exposure to neutrons and had pointed out the need to reassess an adequate current neutron dosimetry practice. Generally, the same types of dosimeters i.e. Nuclear Track (NTA films) and TLD-Albedo, have been used at major nuclear facilities over the past 15 years. here recently, other dosimetry methods such as track etch with polycarbonates such as CR-39 have been developed. However these should be recognized as local systems aiming to the development of better and more applicable dosimeters. 4 tab

  4. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  5. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  6. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  7. Investigation of the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Zachrisson, Sara; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus

    2009-02-01

    Chest tomosynthesis has recently been introduced to healthcare as a low-dose alternative to CT or as a tool for improved diagnostics in chest radiography with only a modest increase in radiation dose to the patient. However, no detailed description of the dosimetry for this type of examination has been presented. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis. The chest tomosynthesis examination was assumed to be performed using a stationary detector and a vertically moving x-ray tube, exposing the patient from different angles. The Monte Carlo based computer software PCXMC was used to determine the effective dose delivered to a standard-sized patient from various angles using different assumptions of the distribution of the effective dose over the different projections. The obtained conversion factors between input dose measures and effective dose for chest tomosynthesis for different angular intervals were then compared with the horizontal projection. The results indicate that the error introduced by using conversion factors for the PA projection in chest radiography for estimating the effective dose of chest tomosynthesis is small for normally sized patients, especially if a conversion factor between KAP and effective dose is used.

  8. Bio-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Kristova, R.; Stainova, A.; Deleva, S.; Popova, L.; Georgieva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The impact of ionizing radiation in medical, occupational and accidental human exposure leads to adverse side effects such as increased mortality and carcinogenesis. Information about the level of absorbed dose is important for risk assessment and for implementation of appropriate therapy. In most cases of actual or suspected exposure to ionizing radiation biological dosimetry is the only way to assess the absorbed dose. What you will learn: In this work we discuss the methods for biodosimetry and technological developments in their application in various emergency situations. The application of biological dosimetry and assessment of the influence of external factors in the conduct of epidemiological studies of radiation effects in protracted low-dose ionizing radiation on humans is presented. Discussion: The results of cytogenetic analysis and biological evaluation of absorbed dose based on the analysis of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes of five people injured in a severe radiation accident in Bulgaria in 2011 are presented. The assessed individual doses of the injured persons are in the range of 1.2 to 5,2 Gy acute homogeneous irradiation and are in line with the estimates of international experts. Conclusion: An algorithm to conduct a biological assessment of the dose in limited radiation accidents and in large scale radiation accidents with large number irradiated or suspected for exposure persons is proposed

  9. Radiation Dosimetry Management: Quality Assurance and Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perle, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In a litigation-prone society, it is prudent for any business to evaluate its potential exposure to legal action, initiated by either an employee or a member of the general public. This potential is exacerbated when the phobia of radiation exposure and radioactive materials is interjected into the equation. This phobia is fuelled by the perceived risks of radiation exposure, be they fact or fantasy. With the current cancer incidence rate being approximately 1 in every 2.5 individuals (for all types of cancer), it is imperative that all facilities take a proactive look at their business vulnerability. When radiation exposure is the issue, records documentation is a critical factor, and a significant amount of effort should be expended to implement a comprehensive records management system. A comprehensive Radiation Dosimetry Management Program is essential if a business is going to mitigate any regulatory or legal intervention. This lecture will address appropriate Records Quality Assurance, and, the appropriate requirements for investigations of dosimetry results. (author)

  10. EPR Dosimetry for ageing effect in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young Ki; Kim, Jong Seog; Jung, Sun Chul

    2005-01-01

    As one of the retrospective dosimetry method, EPR spectroscopy has been studied by many research up to theses days. As a dosimeter for EPR spectroscopy, Alanine is already a well known dosimeter in the field of radiation therapy and dose assessment in radiological accident by its characteristics as good linearity in a wide range of energy level and extremely low signal fading on time. Through technical document of IAEA, the EPR dosimetry method using alanine sample was published in 2000 after research by coordinated project on management of ageing of in-containment I and C cables. Although alanine sample is regarded as a good EPR dosimeter like above ageing assessment field, actually the assessment of radiation should be done at least for two fuel cycles, because of its relatively low irradiation environment in almost all spots in power plant. So, for getting more accurate detection value of radiation, another material is tested for being put in simultaneously inside the power plant with alanine. The test result for lithium formate monohydrate (HCO 2 LiH 2 0) was presented below for checking its possibility for being applied as EPR dosimeter for this project

  11. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D.; Qutob, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-01

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  12. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T M; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S; Mullins, D [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  13. The hydrodynamics of segmented two-phase flow in a circular tube with rapidly dissolving drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Thomas F; Ramachandran, Arun

    2017-05-03

    This article discusses boundary integral simulations of dissolving drops flowing through a cylindrical tube for large aspect ratio drops. The dynamics of drop dissolution is determined by three dimensionless parameters: λ, the viscosity of the drop fluid relative to the suspending fluid; Ca, the capillary number defining the ratio of the hydrodynamic force to the interfacial tension force; and k, a dissolution constant based on the velocity of dissolution. For a single dissolving drop, the velocity in the upstream region is greater than the downstream region, and for sufficiently large k, the downstream velocity can be completely reversed, particularly at low Ca. The upstream end of the drop travels faster and experiences greater deformation than the downstream end. The film thickness, δ, between the drop and the tube wall is governed by a delicate balance between dissolution and changes in the outer fluid velocity resulting from a fixed pressure drop across the tube and mass continuity. Therefore, δ, and consequently, the drop average velocity, can increase, decrease or be relatively invariant in time. For two drops flowing in succession, while low Ca drops maintain a nearly constant separation distance during dissolution, at sufficiently large Ca, for all values of k, dissolution increases the separation distance between drops. Under these conditions, the liquid segments between two adjacent drops can no longer be considered as constant volume stirred tanks. These results will guide the choices of geometry and operating parameters that will facilitate the characterization of fast gas-liquid reactions via two-phase segmented flows.

  14. Dose measurements in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, Ana Claudia M. de; Costa, Alessandro M.; Pardini, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the implementation of a code of practice for dosimetry in dental radiology using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry. General principles for the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters were followed. The irradiations were performed using ten X-ray equipment for intra-oral radiography and an X-ray equipment for panoramic radiography. The incident air kerma was evaluated for five different exposure times used in clinical practice for intra-oral radiographs. Using a backscatter factor of 1.2, it was observed that approximately 40% of the entrance skin dose values found for intra-oral radiographs are above the diagnostic reference level recommended in national regulation. Different configurations of voltage and current were used representing the exposure as a child, woman and man for panoramic radiographs. The results obtained for the air kerma area product were respectively 53.3 +- 5.2 mGy.cm 2 , 101.5 +- 9.5 mGy.cm 2 and 116.8 +- 10.4 mGy.cm 2 . The use of thermoluminescent dosimetry requires several procedures before a result is recorded. The use of dosimeters with ionization chambers or semiconductors provides a simple and robust method for routine measurements. However, the use of thermoluminescent dosimetry can be of great value to large-scale surveys to establish diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  15. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl; Dosage du glucinium dans le beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO{sub 4}NH{sub 4}Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  16. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of luminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olko, Pawel, E-mail: Pawel.Olko@ifj.edu.p [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Science (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    Owing to their excellent dosimetric properties, luminescence detectors of ionizing radiation are now extensively applied in individual dosimetry services. The most frequently used personal dosemeters are based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) or thermoluminescence (TL). Luminescence detectors have also found several applications in clinical dosimetry, especially around new radiation modalities in radiotherapy, such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) or ion beam radiotherapy. Requirements of luminescence detectors applied in individual and clinical dosimetry and some recent developments in luminescence of detectors and techniques leading to significant improvements of the functionality and accuracy of dosimetry systems are reviewed and discussed.

  18. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  19. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  20. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)