WorldWideScience

Sample records for driving specific motor vehicles

  1. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Safety Website

    OpenAIRE

    Tidwell, Scott; Trimble, Tammy; Blanco, Myra

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the CMV Driving Safety website (http://cmvdrivingsafety.org/), which was created by the National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence (NSTSCE) as an outreach effort to assist commercial motor vehicle (CMV) fleets and drivers, driver trainers, CMV training schools, and insurance companies. The website contains 15 unique pages and provides six downloadable training modules on driver distraction, driver health, hours of service, driver drowsiness and fatigue,...

  2. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  3. Analysis of Wheel Hub Motor Drive Application in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of centralized and distributed drive electric vehicles, we found that the wheel hub motor drive mode of the electric vehicles with distributed drive have compact structure, high utilization ratio of interior vehicle space, lower center of vehicle gravity, good driving stability, easy intelligent control and many other advantages, hence in line with the new requirements for the development of drive performance of electric vehicles, and distributed drive will be the ultimate mode of electric vehicles in the future.

  4. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  5. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  6. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  7. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  8. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Lighting devices and reflectors. Tires. Horn. Windshield wiper or wipers. Rear-vision mirror or mirrors.... No driver or any employee of a motor carrier shall: (1) Fuel a motor vehicle with the engine running, except when it is necessary to run the engine to fuel the vehicle; (2) Smoke or expose any open flame in...

  9. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  10. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  11. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  12. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  13. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV Traction Considering Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Anh Huynh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs. Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis.

  14. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  15. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  16. A novel dual motor drive system for three wheel electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmuang, Piyapat; Thongsan, Taweesak; Suwapaet, Nuchida; Laohavanich, Juckamass; Photong, Chonlatee

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel dual motor drive system used for three wheel electric vehicles that have one free wheel at the front and two wheels with a drive system at the end of the vehicles. A novel dual motor drive system consists of two identical DC motors that are independently controlled by its speed-torque controller. Under light load conditions, only one of the DC motors will operate around it rated whilst under hard load conditions both of the DC motors will operate. With this drive system, the motors will operate only at its high performance at rated or else no operate to retain longer lifetime. The simulated results for the Skylab three wheel electric vehicle prototype with 8kW at full load (high torque, low speed) and around 4kW at light/normal operating loads (regular speed-torque) showed that the proposed system provides better dynamic responses with faster overshoot current/voltage recovery time, has lower investment costs, has longer lifetime of the motors and allows the motors to always operate at their high performance and thus achieve more cost effective system compared to a single motor drive system with 8kW DC motors.

  17. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  18. Model based Fault Detection and Isolation for Driving Motors of a Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes model based current sensor and position sensor fault detection and isolation algorithm for driving motor of In-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. From low level perspective, fault diagnosis conducted and analyzed to enhance robustness and stability. Composing state equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM, current sensor fault and position sensor fault diagnosed with parity equation. Validation and usefulness of algorithm confirmed based on IPMSM fault occurrence simulation data.

  19. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  20. [Motor vehicle driving and diabetes mellitus - medical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brož, Jan; Kriváňová, Lenka Syčová; Fedáková, Zuzana; Petrosyan, Lilit; Kvapil, Milan; Polák, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease which may affect the eligibility to hold a driving license and increase the risk of a road accident. Hypoglycemia while driving is considered to be the most risky situation, with diabetes increasing the mentioned risk for instance due to impaired vision in the case of possible retinopathy. The group of drivers with diabetes being at the greatest risk as to accidents are those with a case history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia occurred while driving, or possibly of a road accident. Measuring glycaemia before driving and their knowledge how to prevent and treat hypoglycemia - those are the two crucial preventive elements indispensable for insulin treated diabetes patients in order to secure safe road traffic.

  1. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  2. Dynamic motion stabilization for front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dynamic motion stabilization approach to front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles. The approach includes functions such as traction control system, electronic differential system, and electronic stability control. The presented electric vehicle was endowed with anti-skid performance in longitudinal accelerated start; smooth turning with less tire scrubbing; and safe driving experience in two-dimensional steering. The analysis of the presented system is given in numerical derivations. For practical verifications, this article employed a hands-on electric vehicle named Corsa-electric vehicle to carry out the tests. The presented approach contains an integrated scheme which can achieve the mentioned functions in a single microprocessor. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented methodology.

  3. Driving with Pets as a Risk Factor for Motor Vehicle Collisions among Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A.; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84 95% CI 0.57–1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89 95% CI 1.10–3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue. PMID:23708755

  4. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  5. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  6. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  7. System Efficiency Improvement for Electric Vehicles Adopting a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Direct Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the endurance mileage of electric vehicles (EVs, it is important to decrease the energy consumption of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM drive system. This paper proposes a novel loss optimization control strategy named system efficiency improvement control which can optimize both inverter and motor losses. A nonlinear power converter loss model is built to fit the nonlinear characteristics of power devices. This paper uses double Fourier integral analysis to analytically calculate the fundamental and harmonic components of motor current by which the fundamental motor loss and harmonic motor loss can be accurately analyzed. From these loss models, a whole-frequency-domain system loss model is derived and presented. Based on the system loss model, the system efficiency improvement control method applies the genetic algorithm to adjust the motor current and PWM frequency together to optimize the inverter and motor losses by which the system efficiency can be significantly improved without seriously influence on the system stability over the whole operation range of EVs. The optimal effects of system efficiency is verified by the experimental results in both Si-IGBT-based PMSM system and SiC-MOSFET-based system.

  8. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  9. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  10. The useful field of view assessment predicts simulated commercial motor vehicle driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Benjamin; Heaton, Karen; Vance, David E; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-10-02

    The Useful Field of View (UFOV) assessment, a measure of visual speed of processing, has been shown to be a predictive measure of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in an older adult population, but it remains unknown whether UFOV predicts commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driving safety during secondary task engagement. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the UFOV assessment predicts simulated MVCs in long-haul CMV drivers. Fifty licensed CMV drivers (Mage = 39.80, SD = 8.38, 98% male, 56% Caucasian) were administered the 3-subtest version of the UFOV assessment, where lower scores measured in milliseconds indicated better performance. CMV drivers completed 4 simulated drives, each spanning approximately a 22.50-mile distance. Four secondary tasks were presented to participants in a counterbalanced order during the drives: (a) no secondary task, (b) cell phone conversation, (c) text messaging interaction, and (d) e-mailing interaction with an on-board dispatch device. The selective attention subtest significantly predicted simulated MVCs regardless of secondary task. Each 20 ms slower on subtest 3 was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of an MVC in the simulated drive. The e-mail interaction secondary task significantly predicted simulated MVCs with a 4.14 times greater risk of an MVC compared to the no secondary task condition. Subtest 3, a measure of visual speed of processing, significantly predicted MVCs in the email interaction task. Each 20 ms slower on subtest 3 was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of an MVC during the email interaction task. The UFOV subtest 3 may be a promising measure to identify CMV drivers who may be at risk for MVCs or in need of cognitive training aimed at improving speed of processing. Subtest 3 may also identify CMV drivers who are particularly at risk when engaged in secondary tasks while driving.

  11. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  12. [An intercept survey on the status of driving after alcohol drinking among motor vehicle drivers in 6 counties of Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xin-wei; Song, Xiao-chun; Bao, Ping; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Yun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the status of driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers and to provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 7-day intercept survey on driving after alcohol drinking, having drinking habit or driving after getting drunk, among motor vehicle drivers, was conducted in 6 counties of Zhejiang province, 2010. 16 467 motor vehicle drivers were included in the survey. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol [blood alcohol concentration (BAC) > 0 mg/100 ml], having habit of drinking alcohol (20 mg/100 ml ≤ BAC driving after being drunk (BAC ≥ 80 mg/100 ml), were 1.82%, 1.03% and 0.27% respectively. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol, having habit of drink alcohol and driving and drunk-driving among the drivers from urban areas were significantly higher than those of drivers from rural areas, and those rates of male drivers were significantly higher than female drivers as well. 60.20% of drivers after drinking alcohol, were 35 to 49 year-olds, and the three above said rates all increased along with age. The highest above said three rates were observed at 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Compared with other motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists possessed the highest rates of the three items, as 9.27%, 5.01% and 1.57% respectively. Driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers still prevailed in Zhejiang, especially between 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Drivers from the cities, being male or motorcyclists were among the high-risk populations that called for special attention to be paid in the future, including law enforcement and health promotion to fight against the problem.

  13. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  14. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Monica M

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003 to 2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removed from the motor vehicle; and (3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders... determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure. Internal self-closing stop...

  16. Predicting Motor Vehicle Collisions in a Driving Simulator in Young Adults Using the Useful Field of View Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Benjamin; Cox, Molly K; Vance, David E; Stavrinos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Being involved in motor vehicle collisions is the leading cause of death in 1- to 34-year-olds, and risk is particularly high in young adults. The Useful Field of View (UFOV) task, a cognitive measure of processing speed, divided attention, and selective attention, has been shown to be predictive of motor vehicle collisions in older adults, but its use as a predictor of driving performance in a young adult population has not been investigated. The present study examined whether UFOV was a predictive measure of motor vehicle collisions in a driving simulator in a young adult population. The 3-subtest version of UFOV (lower scores measured in milliseconds indicate better performance) was administered to 60 college students. Participants also completed an 11-mile simulated drive to provide driving performance metrics. Findings suggested that subtests 1 and 2 suffered from a ceiling effect. UFOV subtest 3 significantly predicted collisions in the simulated drive. Each 30 ms slower on the subtest was associated with nearly a 10% increase in the risk of a simulated collision. Post hoc analyses revealed a small partially mediating effect of subtest 3 on the relationship between driving experience and collisions. The selective attention component of UFOV subtest 3 may be a predictive measure of crash involvement in a young adult population. Improvements in selective attention may be the underlying mechanism in how driving experience improves driving performance.

  17. Non-isolated integrated motor drive and battery charger based on the split-phase PM motor for plug-in vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Guillén, Isabel; Bermejo Fernández, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    In electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the utility grid charges the vehicle battery through a battery charger. Different solutions have been proposed to reduce the size and cost of the charger. One solution to achieve this is to include the devices used in the traction circuit in the charger circuit; this is called an integrated motor drive and battery charger. A split-phase PM motor, a motor with double set of windings, gives the opportunity to implement different wind...

  18. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  19. A separately excited synchronous motor as high efficient drive in electric vehicles; Die stromerregte Synchronmaschine als hocheffizienter Traktionsmotor in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)

    2013-08-15

    The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)

  20. Relationship Between Motor Vehicle Collisions and Results of Perimetry, Useful Field of View, and Driving Simulation in Drivers With Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatham, AJ; Boer, E.R.; Gracitelli, CPB; Rosen, PN; Medeiros, FA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between Motor Vehicle Collisions (MVCs) in
    drivers with glaucoma and standard automated perimetry (SAP), Useful Field of View
    (UFOV), and driving simulator assessment of divided attention.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study of 153 drivers from the

  1. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  2. Prevalence of sleepiness while driving four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji: a population-based survey (TRIP 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod

    2013-08-01

    Sleepiness has been shown to be a risk factor for road crashes in high-income countries, but has received little attention in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the prevalence of sleepiness and sleep-related disorders among drivers of four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji. Using a two-stage cluster sampling roadside survey conducted over 12 months, we recruited a representative sample of people driving four-wheel motor vehicles on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire sought self-report information on driver characteristics including sleep-related measures. The 752 motor vehicle drivers recruited (84% response rate) were aged 17-75 years, with most driving in Viti Levu undertaken by male subjects (93%), and those identifying with Indian (70%) and Fijian (22%) ethnic groups. Drivers who reported that they were not fully alert accounted for 17% of driving, while a further 1% of driving was undertaken by those who reported having difficulty staying awake or feeling sleepy. A quarter of the driving time among 15-24-year-olds included driving while sleepy or not fully alert, with a similar proportion driving while chronically sleep deprived (ie, with less than five nights of adequate sleep in the previous week=27%). Driving while acutely or chronically sleep deprived was generally more common among Fijians compared with Indians. Driving while not fully alert is relatively common in Fiji. Sleepiness while driving may be an important contributor to road traffic injuries in this and other low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  4. Powertrain Matching and Optimization of Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System for Electric Vehicle Based on Quantum Genetic Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the driving range and improve the overall performance of all-electric vehicles, a new dual-motor hybrid driving system with two power sources was proposed. This system achieved torque-speed coupling between the two power sources and greatly improved the high performance working range of the motors; at the same time, continuously variable transmission (CVT was achieved to efficiently increase the driving range. The power system parameters were determined using the “global optimization method”; thus, the vehicle’s dynamics and economy were used as the optimization indexes. Based on preliminary matches, quantum genetic algorithm was introduced to optimize the matching in the dual-motor hybrid power system. Backward simulation was performed on the combined simulation platform of Matlab/Simulink and AVL-Cruise to optimize, simulate, and verify the system parameters of the transmission system. Results showed that quantum genetic algorithms exhibited good global optimization capability and convergence in dealing with multiobjective and multiparameter optimization. The dual-motor hybrid-driving system for electric cars satisfied the dynamic performance and economy requirements of design, efficiently increasing the driving range of the car, having high performance, and reducing energy consumption of 15.6% compared with the conventional electric vehicle with single-speed reducers.

  5. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  6. Design and analysis of new fault-tolerant permanent magnet motors for four-wheel-driving electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Gong, Wensheng; Chen, Qian; Jian, Linni; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Wenxiang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor for four-wheel-driving electrical vehicles is proposed. It adopts an outer-rotor topology, which can help generate a large drive torque, in order to achieve prominent dynamic performance of the vehicle. Moreover, by adopting single-layer concentrated-windings, fault-tolerant teeth, and the optimal combination of slot and pole numbers, the proposed motor inherently offers negligible electromagnetic coupling between different phase windings, hence, it possesses a fault-tolerant characteristic. Meanwhile, the phase back electromotive force waveforms can be designed to be sinusoidal by employing PMs with a trapezoidal shape, eccentric armature teeth, and unequal tooth widths. The electromagnetic performance is comprehensively investigated and the optimal design is conducted by using the finite-element method.

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  9. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor vehicle driving in high incidence psychiatric disability: comparison of drivers with ADHD, depression, and no known psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduen, Paula A; Kofler, Michael J; Cox, Daniel J; Sarver, Dustin E; Lunsford, Erin

    2015-05-01

    Although not often discussed in clinical settings, motor vehicle driving is a complex multitasking endeavor during which a momentary attention lapse can have devastating consequences. Previous research suggests that drivers with high incidence psychiatric disabilities such as ADHD contribute disproportionately to collision rates, which in turn portend myriad adverse social, financial, health, mortality, and legal outcomes. However, self-referral bias and the lack of psychiatric comparison groups constrain the generalizability of these findings. The current study addressed these limitations and examined the unique associations among ADHD, Depression, and adverse driving outcomes, independent of self-selection, driving exposure, and referral bias. The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP-2) Naturalistic Driving Study comprises U.S. drivers from six sites selected via probability-based sampling. Groups were defined by Barkley ADHD and psychiatric diagnosis questionnaires, and included ADHD (n = 275), Depression (n = 251), and Healthy Control (n = 1828). Primary outcomes included self-reported traffic collisions, moving violations, collision-related injuries, and collision fault (last 3 years). Accounting for demographic differences, ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for multiple violations (OR = 2.3) and multiple collisions (OR = 2.2). ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for collision fault (OR = 2.1). Depression but not ADHD predicted increased risk for self-reported injury following collisions (OR = 2.4). ADHD appears uniquely associated with multiple collisions, multiple violations, and collision fault, whereas Depression is uniquely associated with self-reported injury following a collision. Identification of the specific mechanisms underlying this risk will be critical to designing effective interventions to improve long-term functioning for drivers with high incidence psychiatric disability. Copyright © 2015

  11. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  12. On the Drive Specificity of Freudian Drives for the Generation of SEEKING Activities: The Importance of the Underestimated Imperative Motor Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kirsch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Doubters of Freud’s theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance. Panksepp used Pankseppian drives as inputs for the SEEKING system but noted the missing explanation of drive-specific generation of SEEKING activities in his description. Drive specificity requires dual action of the drive: the activation of a drive-specific brain area and the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Noticeably, as Freud claimed drive specificity too, it was here analyzed whether a Freudian drive can evoke the generation of drive-specific SEEKING activities. Special importance was addressed to the imperative motor factor in Freud’s drive theory because Panksepp’s formulations focused on neural pathways without specifying underlying neurotransmitter/endocrine factors impelling motor activity. As Panksepp claimed sleep as a Pankseppian drive, we firstly had to classified sleep as a Freudian drive by using three evaluated criteria for a Freudian drive. After that it was possible to identify the imperative motor factors of hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep. Most importantly, all of these imperative motor factors can both activate a drive-specific brain area and release dopamine from dopaminergic neurons, i.e., they can achieve the so-called drive specificity. Surprisingly, an impaired Freudian drive can alter via endocrinological pathways the concentration of the imperative motor factor of a second Freudian drive, obviously in some independence to the level of the metabolic deficit, thereby offering the possibility to

  13. An assessment of commercial motor vehicle driver distraction using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jeffrey S; Hanowski, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed naturalistic driving data from commercial trucks (3-axle and tractor-trailer/tanker) and buses (transit and motorcoach) during a 3-month period. The data set contained 183 commercial truck and bus fleets comprising 13,306 vehicles and included 1085 crashes, 8375 near crashes, 30,661 crash-relevant conflicts, and 211,171 baseline events. Study results documented the prevalence of tertiary tasks and the risks associated with performing these tasks while driving. Results indicated the odds of involvement in a safety-critical event differed as a function of performing different cell phone-related subtasks while driving. Although the odds ratio for talking/listening on a cell phone while driving was found to not significantly increase the likelihood of involvement in a safety-critical event, other cell phone subtasks (e.g., texting, dialing, reaching) were found to significantly increase the odds of involvement in a safety-critical event. The results suggest that cell phone use while driving should not be considered a simple dichotomous task (yes/no). Consideration should instead be made for a set of discrete cell phone subtasks that are each associated with varying levels of risk. Several hypotheses are presented to explain why cell phone use while driving was found to not increase the likelihood of involvement in a safety-critical event.

  14. A High-Performance Control Method of Constant V/f-Controlled Induction Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase induction motor used as a propulsion system for the electric vehicle (EV is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output, and strong coupling system. For such a complicated model system with unmeasured and unavoidable disturbances, as well as parameter variations, the conventional vector control method cannot meet the demands of high-performance control. Therefore, a novel control strategy named least squares support vector machines (LSSVM inverse control is presented in the paper. Invertibility of the induction motor in the constant V/f control mode is proved to confirm its feasibility. The LSSVM inverse is composed of an LSSVM approximating the nonlinear mapping of the induction motor and two integrators. The inverse model of the constant V/f-controlled induction motor drive is obtained by using LSSVM, and then the optimal parameters of LSSVM are determined automatically by applying a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO. Cascading the LSSVM inverse with the induction motor drive system, the pseudolinear system can be obtained. Thus, it is easy to design the closed-loop linear regulator. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on the split-phase PM motors for plug-in vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Haghbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on a split-phase permanent magnet (PM motor is presented and described for a plug-in vehicle. The motor windings are reconfigured by a relay for the traction and charging operation. In traction mode, the motor is like a normal three-phase motor, whereas in the charging mode, after windings reconnection, the system is a three-phase Boost rectifier. One important challenge to use the motor as three inductors in charger circuit is to have it in standstill during the battery charging. Based on the presented mathematical model of a split-phase PM motor, the zero-torque condition of the motor is explained which led to a proper windings reconnection for the charging. Simulation and experimental results of two separate practical systems are provided to verify the proposed integrated battery charger. Some practical limitations and design recommendations are provided to achieve a more realistic practical system.

  16. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  17. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  18. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  19. Driving towards obesity: a systematized literature review on the association between motor vehicle travel time and distance and weight status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Virk, Jagdeep S

    2014-09-01

    Higher levels of sedentary behavior are associated with adverse health outcomes. Over-reliance on private motor vehicles for transportation is a potential contributor to the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to review evidence on the relationship between motor vehicle travel distance and time and weight status among adults. Keywords associated with driving and weight status were entered into four databases (PubMed Medline Transportation Research Information Database and Web of Science) and retrieved article titles and abstracts screened for relevance. Relevant articles were assessed for their eligibility for inclusion in the review (English-language articles a sample ≥ 16 years of age included a measure of time or distance traveling in a motor vehicle and weight status and estimated the association between driving and weight status). The database search yielded 2781 articles, from which 88 were deemed relevant and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies included in the review, 8 found a statistically significant positive association between time and distance traveled in a motor vehicle and weight status. Multilevel interventions that make alternatives to driving private motor vehicles more convenient, such as walking and cycling, are needed to promote healthy weight in the adult population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  1. Household motor vehicle use and weight status among Colombian adults: are we driving our way towards obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Gómez, Luis Fernando; Rutt, Candace; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C; Pratt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine the associations between household motor vehicle ownership and weight status among Colombian adults. Secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Demographic and HealthSurvey of Colombia. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured in 49,079 adults, ages 18 to 64 that resided in urban settings. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference >80 cm in women and >90 cm in men. Prevalence was 19.9% for motor vehicle ownership in household, 33.1% for BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m(2), 14.4% for BMI>30 kg/m(2), and 46% for abdominal obesity. Males reporting any household motor vehicle ownership were more likely to be overweight or obese, and to have abdominal obesity (p for genderexposure variables interaction=motor vehicle ownership is associated with overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Colombian men but not women.

  2. High Temperature All Silicon-Carbide (SiC) DC Motor Drives for Venus Exploration Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of creating high-temperature silicon-carbide (SiC) based motor drives for...

  3. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  4. A Micro-scale Wind Turbine Fed BLDC Motor for Electric Vehicle Drive Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kazraji, Saeed Masoumi; Khanabdal, Saheb; Soflaye, Ramin Bavil; Sabahi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a permanent magnet brushless dc motor (PMBLDCM) based driver with a wind-generator (WG) in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) condition is proposed. The proposed system has a high efficiency buck-type dc/dc converter and control unit running the MPPT function. The WG optimal power characteristic and wind speed measuring data are not required while the WG works in variable speed mode, therefore higher reliability, simplicity, lower cost and less mechanical Tension of the WG are ...

  5. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  6. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  7. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  8. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  11. Department of Transportation vs self-reported data on motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions for stroke survivors: do they agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, Hillel M; Guo, Meiqi; O'Hara, Paddi; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Marshall, Shawn C; Hunt, Lynn; Jessup, Anita; Biggs, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Research on stroke survivors' driving safety has typically used either self-reports or government records, but the extent to which the 2 may differ is not known. We compared government records and self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions in a sample of stroke survivors. The 56 participants were originally recruited for a prospective study on driving and community re-integration post-stroke; the study population consisted of moderately impaired stroke survivors without severe communication disorders who had been referred for a driving assessment. The driving records of the 56 participants for the 5 years before study entry and the 1-year study period were acquired with written consent from the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO), Canada. Self-reports of collisions and convictions were acquired via a semistructured interview and then compared with the MTO records. Forty-three participants completed the study. For 7 (13.5%) the MTO records did not match the self-reports regarding collision involvement, and for 9 (17.3%) the MTO records did not match self-reports regarding driving convictions. The kappa coefficient for the correlation between MTO records and self-reports was 0.52 for collisions and 0.47 for convictions (both in the moderate range of agreement). When both sources of data were consulted, up to 56 percent more accidents and up to 46 percent more convictions were identified in the study population in the 5 years before study entry compared to when either source was used alone. In our population of stroke survivors, self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions differed from government records. In future studies, the use of both government and self-reported data would ensure a more accurate picture of driving safety post-stroke.

  12. Predictive Direct Torque Control Application-Specific Integrated Circuit of an Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ming Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified predictive direct torque control (PDTC application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC of a motor drive with a fuzzy controller for eliminating sampling and calculating delay times in hysteresis controllers. These delay times degrade the control quality and increase both torque and flux ripples in a motor drive. The proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC calculates the stator’s magnetic flux and torque by detecting the three-phase current, three-phase voltage, and rotor speed, and eliminates the ripples in the torque and flux by using a fuzzy controller and predictive scheme. The Verilog hardware description language was used to implement the hardware architecture, and the ASIC was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company through a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process that involved a cell-based design method. The measurements revealed that the proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC of the three-phase induction motor yielded a test coverage of 96.03%, fault coverage of 95.06%, chip area of 1.81 × 1.81 mm2, and power consumption of 296 mW, at an operating frequency of 50 MHz and a supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  13. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Tutelea, L N; University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Boldea, I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Deaconu, S I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Popa, G N

    2014-01-01

    The actual e – continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper

  14. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  15. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  16. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  17. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles. (a) Hazard warning signal flashers. Whenever a commercial motor vehicle... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately...

  18. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine Benn

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... vehicle crashes throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that syncope should be considered as one of several factors in a broad assessment of fitness to drive....

  19. THE ANALISYS OF RAILWAY MULTI MOTORS ELECTRICAL DRIVE DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khilmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of multi motors electrical traction drive dynamic analysis is denoted by its large application in electrical driving railway vehicles. In this paper an analysis is presented for two inducton motors traction drive with frequency inverter, vector control, and speed sensors of each electrical drive. The goal of this work is the analysis of two induction motors electrical drive, taking into account parametric perturbations and also a limited moment of wheel-rail adhesion, by laboratory study and simulation. Because of difference between motor’s parameters, it is necessary for parallel work to select motors with identical resistances and inductive winding. For this purpose the parametric identification method was used for each electrical drive, and also for two parallel motors. The result of identification was used in control setting.The  slippage  of  the  traction  drives  is  difficult  to  reproduce  in  laboratory;  therefore a mathematical modeling and simulation of mechanical part with a traction force restriction, specific for railway transport, were carried out. The suggested simulation is built with account of elastic deformations in kinetic chain, transforming traction force. The model permits to study a dynamic system in various circumstances.The results of laboratory investigations and simulation of dynamic regimes for two motor electrical drives are presented in this article. The results of analysis show, that a minimal difference between any parameters of two motors, parallel connected to convertor, is important for the slippage stability.

  20. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, M; JOUMARD, R

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  1. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 510, 511, 512, 520, 523, 525, 526, and 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0159] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers...

  2. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  3. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  4. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena eBoccia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accident (MVA victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD. With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization.

  5. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183

  6. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  7. An assessment of driving fitness in patients with visual impairment to understand the elevated risk of motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto; Aoki, Yuki; Hara, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-02-27

    To assess the driving fitness of patients with glaucoma by identifying specific areas and degrees of visual field impairment that threaten safe driving. Case-control study. This prospective study included 36 patients with advanced glaucoma, defined as Humphrey field analyzer (HFA; 24-2 SITA standard program) measurements of mean deviation in both eyes of worse than -12 dB, and 36 age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects. All participants underwent testing in a novel driving simulator (DS) system. Participants were recruited between September 2010 and January 2012. The number of collisions with simulated hazards and braking response time in 14 DS scenarios was recorded. Monocular HFA 24-2 test results from both eyes were merged to calculate the binocular integrated visual field (IVF). The position of the IVF subfields in which the collision-involved patients had lower sensitivity than the collision-uninvolved patients was compared with the track of the hazard. The cut-off value to predict an elevated risk of collisions was determined, as were its sensitivity and specificity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Patients with advanced glaucoma were involved in a significantly higher number of collisions in the DS than the age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects (119 vs 40, respectively, p<0.0001), especially in four specific DS scenarios. In these four scenarios, IVF sensitivity was significantly lower in the collision-involved patients than in the collision-uninvolved patients in subfields on or near the track of the simulated hazard (p<0.05). The subfields with the largest AUROC curve had values ranging from 0.72 to 0.91 and were located in the paracentral visual field just below the horizontal. Our novel DS system effectively assessed visual impairment, showing that simulators may have future potential in educating patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  8. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  9. Fuel cell usage in motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellone, R.

    1998-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused by fuel cell usage in motor vehicles, since this technology seems to overcome the conventional limits by other kinds of drive, i.e. the high environmental impact of internal-combustion engines and the drawbacks of electric battery vehicles in terms of maximum operating range and battery recharge time. After 2010 its costs are expected to fall in competitive levels with internal-combustion engines [it

  10. Continuous Steering Stability Control Based on an Energy-Saving Torque Distribution Algorithm for a Four in-Wheel-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as a hierarchical structure, including the reference model level, the upper-level controller, and the lower-level controller. The upper-level controller adopts the direct yaw moment control (DYC, which is designed to work continuously during the steering maneuver to better ensure steering stability in extreme situations, rather than working only after the vehicle is judged to be unstable. An adaptive two-hierarchy energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is developed in the lower-level controller with the friction ellipse constraint as a basis for judging whether the algorithm needs to be switched, so as to achieve a more stable and energy-efficient steering operation. The proposed stability controller was validated in a co-simulation of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different steering maneuvers indicate that the proposed controller, compared with the conventional servo controller and the ordinary continuous controller, can reduce energy consumption up to 23.68% and improve the vehicle steering stability.

  11. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  12. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  13. Electric vehicle machines and drives design, analysis and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K

    2015-01-01

    A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

  14. Dynamics of a motor vehicle taking into consideration the interaction of wheels and road pavement surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prentkovskis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this article focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle on a certain road and propose their specific solution of this problem. A mathematical model of the system “motor vehicle – road” is presented. The motor vehicle is simulated by concentrated masses interconnected by elastic and dissipative links. The presented model of the motor vehicle evaluates the movement of the motor vehicle body in space; the movement and turning of front and rear suspensions with respect to the body; the interaction of the wheel with the road pavement surface; the blocking of the wheel; the changing cohesive forces which influence the motor vehicle. The investigated road pavement surface is simulated by triangular finite elements, the certain height of road pavement surface roughness and the cohesion coefficients of road pavement surface and the motor vehicle wheel in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the wheel are selected in each finite element nodal point. The presented results illustrate: the motor vehicle movement trajectories braking at various initial conditions and on a certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and the motor vehicle driving on the speed reduction bump (“sleeping policeman”.

  15. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  16. DIVISION OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait Times Business Partners Driving Schools Online Service SCHEDULING Appointment at Benson Information Business Partners Driving Schools Defensive Driving Courses International Driving Permit Online Menu DMV Home DMV Home Page Online Services Forms Manuals Driver License, Permit, and State ID Titles

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arising in connection with a fatal traffic accident, reckless driving or racing on the highway even if... prospective locomotive engineer to make a single request for both aspects of the information required under...

  18. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV......) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to three direct drive motors in a few operating points and the MIPMG v.2 seems superior when...

  19. General motors front wheel drive 2-mode hybrid transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, James [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). New Transmission Products Group.; Holmes, Alan G. [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). Powertrain Hybrid Architecture

    2009-07-01

    General Motors now expands the application of two-mode hybrid technology to front wheel drive vehicles with the development of a hybrid electric transmission packaged into essentially the same space as a conventional automatic transmission for front wheel drive. This was accomplished using a space-efficient arrangement based on two planetary gear sets and electric motor-generators with large internal diameters. A combination of damper and hydraulically-controlled clutch allow comfortable shutdown and restarting of large-displacement engines in front wheel drive vehicles. The hybrid system delivers electric low-speed urban driving, two continuously variable ranges of transmission speed ratios, four fixed transmission speed ratios, electric acceleration boosting, and regenerative braking. In the first vehicle application, the two-mode hybrid helps to reduce vehicle fuel consumption by approximately one-third. (orig.)

  20. Active load current sharing in fuel cell and battery fed DC motor drive for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, Premananda; Singh, R.K.; Tripathi, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load current sharing in FC and battery fed dc drive. • Active current sharing control using LabVIEW. • Detail hardware implementation. • Controller performance is verified through MATLAB simulation and experimental results. - Abstract: In order to reduce the stress on fuel cell based hybrid source fed electric drive system the controller design is made through active current sharing (ACS) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed ACS technique is tested on a dc drive system fed from fuel cell and battery energy sources which enables both load current sharing and source power management. High efficiency and reliability of the hybrid system can be achieved by proper energy conversion and management of power to meet the load demand in terms of required voltage and current. To overcome the slow dynamics feature of FC, a battery bank of adequate power capacity has to be incorporated as FC voltage drops heavily during fast load demand. The controller allows fuel cell to operate in normal load region and draw the excess power from battery. In order to demonstrate the performance of the drive using ACS control strategy different modes of operation of the hybrid source with the static and dynamic behavior of the control system is verified through simulation and experimental results. This control scheme is implemented digitally in LabVIEW with PCI 6251 DAQ I/O interface card. The efficacy of the controller performance is demonstrated in system changing condition supplemented by experimental validation.

  1. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification...

  3. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  4. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  5. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  6. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  7. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    rectifier at the front end is presented in this thesis and requirements of a buffer stage in the form of ESI is explained in detail. An equivalent circuit and linear model are developed to give the transfer function and control of the ESI based three-phase rectifier. In this thesis a power converter...... with ESI is designed and tested with standard induction motor to verify functionality of a working drive. One modified version of the ESI based converter has also been looked into to reduce losses of converter, but because of difficulties in reducing the bus-bar inductance in that design, further...

  8. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  9. High-inertia drive motors and their starting characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The motor for a large reactor coolant pump failed while starting. The motor-application and the motor-failure are discussed in detail. A review of applications of motors for high-inertia drives shows that a motor designed and built to today's industry-standards might be overstressed while experiencing abnormal starting conditions, even though its protection is in accord with accepted practice. The inter-relationship between motor characteristics and characteristics of various types of protection are discussed, briefly. The review concludes that motor specifications and motor standards should be augmented. 1 ref

  10. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  11. Integration of motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.C. [Brook Hansen (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the benefits of adopting a second-generation integrated motor and inverter. Removing the barriers to ensure that variable speed drives are more readily applied results in on-going cost savings to the user through energy savings plus process control benefits. In addition, the use of an integrated product instead of two separate components results in cost and time-savings to the installer. The simplification of integration, by transferring the guarantees of performance in efficiency, torque overload and stiffness, speed accuracy, noise and EMC compliance, allows optimisation by the design team to be realised by users and ease of application since the primary design team guarantees the product performance. The introduction of second generation compact product assists user conversion from present inefficient mechanical solutions. This technology is currently applicable in power ratings below 22 kW, which includes the vast majority of practical applications. (orig.)

  12. Drive equipment of the TRANSRAPID 06 with an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsch, C P; Ciessow, G

    1981-01-01

    For the testing of an application orientated Maglev the TRANSRAPID test center Emsland is being installed by the joint venture TRANSRAPID. The drive of the vehicle TRANSRAPID 06 is realized by an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor. A description is given of the principle of this drive, the output of traction motor and substation and of the dynamics of vehicle movement's calculations.

  13. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Breddia, C.A.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of

  14. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  15. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R O

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  17. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed and...

  19. Driver License, Permit, and State ID, Division of Motor Vehicles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skills) Tests Road Test Information Schedule a Road Test Online Business Partners Driving Schools Classes Administration DivisIon of Motor Vehicles Search Minimize Menu DMV Home DMV Home Page Online Services Forms Public Notices Offices DMV Office Locations and Hours DMV Office Wait Times Business Partners Driving

  20. Multi-Motor Drives for Crane Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITROVIC, N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of adjustable speed induction motor drives for gantry cranes. Modern solution considers application of frequency converters for all drives. Multi-motor drives are standard solutions in crane application and requirements of load sharing are present. Presented algorithm provides load sharing proportional to the rated motor power on the simple and practically applicable method on the basis of estimated torques by frequency converters, and controller realized in PLC. Special attention is devoted to wide span gantry drive and algorithm for skew elimination. Solutions for load distribution in multi-motor drive, as well as mode of gantry drive skew elimination, are described. Suggested solution concept is confirmed by the experimental results.

  1. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  2. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  3. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    of the induction motor is set up. The model is able to calculate dynamical electric, magnetic and mechanic state variables, but initially it is used to calculate static characteristics in motors with different number of phases and different voltage supply shapes. This analysis show i.e. that the efficiency....... The multi-phase motor is selected for further analysis. The project is limited to examine if increasing the number of phases can improve the characteristics for induction motor drives. In the literature it is demonstrated that torque production in a six-phase motor can be increased, if a 3rd harmonic......This PhD project commences in modulation of motor drives, i.e. having the advantage of reducing the number of variants and improves the system reliability at error situations. Four different motor drive topologies with modular construction as common denominator are compared on a general level...

  4. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  5. Two-Phase Induction Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of variable-speed drives for two (single induction motor is a reality. This article attempts mainly to investigate the reasons for this lack of variable – speed drives. This paper deals with literature survey of various existing converter topologies, which have been proposed for adjustable speed single phase induction motor drives. Various converter topologies have been compared in this paper. Among these converter topologies, the adjustable frequency PWM inverter is the best choice for single-phase induction motor drives. However, adjustable-frequency drives have not been widely used with single-phase Induction motors. The open-loop constant V/F control law cannot be used with the single-phase induction motor drives as it is used with three phase motors. The variation of the operating frequency at lower speed range with constant load torque causes variation in motor's slip. A constant V/F control is suitable only over the upper speed range.

  6. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  7. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability-one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper

  8. Converted vehicle for battery electric drive. Aspects on the design of the software-driven vehicle control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessler, Martin; Paul, Jens; Gauterin, Frank [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugsystemtechnik (FAST); Fritz, Alexander; Sander, Oliver; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technik der Informationsverarbeitung (ITIV)

    2012-11-01

    At the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) a vehicle was converted for full battery electric drive within a cooperation of several faculties under the direction of the chair of vehicle technology. Within this paper the developed software to control the main functions of the vehicle will be presented and potentials to increase the energy efficiency will be discussed. The software based vehicle control unit is the central control unit to realize drivers command with respect to the system parameters, which are important for safety, dynamics, range and comfort of the vehicle. The structure of the software architecture, the interaction with the main electric vehicle specific control units and components and the main implemented functions will be described within this paper. The converted vehicle consists mainly of one electric motor with water cooled power electronics that drives the front axle, 21 battery modules controlled and managed by the battery management system, one on board charging device and an universal control unit. Not only strategies for power recovery while braking, but also strategies for driving and operation can help increase the energy efficiency. Select measures to recover and safe energy are also shown. (orig.)

  9. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  10. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  11. The risk of a safety-critical event associated with mobile device use in specific driving contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Gregory M; Hanowski, Richard J; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We explored drivers' mobile device use and its associated risk of a safety-critical event (SCE) in specific driving contexts. Our premise was that the SCE risk associated with mobile device use increases when the driving task becomes demanding. Data from naturalistic driving studies involving commercial motor vehicle drivers and light vehicle drivers were partitioned into subsets representative of specific driving contexts. The subsets were generated using data set attributes that included level of service and relation to junction. These attributes were selected based on exogenous factors known to alter driving task demands. The subsets were analyzed using a case-cohort approach, which was selected to complement previous investigations of mobile device SCE risk using naturalistic driving data. Both commercial motor vehicle and light vehicle drivers varied as to how much they conversed on a mobile device but did not vary their engagement in visual-manual subtasks. Furthermore, commercial motor vehicle drivers conversed less frequently as the driving task demands increased, whereas light vehicle drivers did not. The risk of an SCE associated with mobile device use was dependent on the subtask performed and the driving context. Only visual-manual subtasks were associated with an increased SCE risk, whereas conversing was associated with a decreased risk in some driving contexts. Drivers' engagement in mobile device subtasks varies by driving context. The SCE risk associated with mobile device use is dependent on the types of subtasks performed and the driving context. The findings of this exploratory study can be applied to the design of driver-vehicle interfaces that mitigate distraction by preventing visual-manual subtasks while driving.

  12. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  13. 49 CFR 574.9 - Requirements for motor vehicle dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. 574.9... RECORDKEEPING § 574.9 Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. (a) Each motor vehicle dealer who sells a used motor vehicle for purposes other than resale, who leases a motor vehicle for more than 60 days, that is...

  14. Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroenisch, Volker Ewald

    Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.

  15. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  16. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  17. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  18. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles. ...

  19. Adolescents, Peers, and Motor Vehicles The Perfect Storm?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teenagers and in many instances appear linked to negative peer influences on adolescent driving behavior. This article examines a range of developmental and structural factors that potentially increase the risks associated with adolescent driving. Developmental risk factors for adolescents include a propensity toward engaging in deviant and risky behavior, a desire to please peers, and the potential cost to an adolescent of alienating p...

  20. Motor vehicle stocks, scrappage, and sales

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Greenspan; Darrel Cohen

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for forecasting aggregate sales of new motor vehicles; this framework incorporates separate models for the change in the vehicle stock and for the rate of vehicle scrappage. Because this approach requires only a minimal set of assumptions about demographic trends, the state of the economy, consumer ''preferences,'' new vehicle prices and repair costs, and vehicle retirements, it is shown to be especially useful as a macroeconomic forecasting tool. In addition, th...

  1. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  2. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  3. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  4. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle for...

  5. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  6. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  7. Research on Control Strategies of an Open-End Winding Permanent Magnet Synchronous Driving Motor (OW-PMSM-Equipped Dual Inverter with a Switchable Winding Mode for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has a larger range of speed regulation than normal PMSM with the same DC voltage, and the control method is more flexible. It can also manage energy distribution between two power sources without a DC/DC converter. This paper aims at an electric vehicle equipped with OW-PMSM drive system with dual power sources and dual inverters; based on analyzing the external characteristics of each winding mode, we propose a winding mode switching strategy whose torque saturation judgmental algorithm, which is insensitive to motor’s parameters, could automatically realize upswitching of the winding mode. The proposed multi-level current hysteresis modulation algorithm could set the major power source and switch it at any time in independent mode, which accomplishes energy distribution between two power sources; its two control methods, low switching frequency method and high power difference method, could achieve different energy distribution effects. Simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the winding mode switching strategy and current modulation method. They also show that an electric vehicle under the proposed control methods has better efficiency than one equipped with a traditional OW-PMSM drive system under traditional control.

  8. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  9. Integrated traction control strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with improvement of economy and longitudinal driving stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio po...

  10. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  11. Self-Tuning Speed Regulator for CVC Induction Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed.......A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed....

  12. DC Motor Drive with PFC Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lascu Mihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to study theperformances of a hybrid controller used to controlDC Motor drive with a single-phase power factorcorrection rectifier. This study is made usingcomputer simulation (Simulink. The first part isdevoted to the control system of the DC Motors. Inthe second part, the design of the hybrid controllerwill be presented. The third part is the design ofthe fast response single-phase boost power factorcorrection rectifier. The last parts are devoted tosimulation and experimental results.

  13. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  14. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  15. 76 FR 76481 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... similarities incorporating regenerative braking (the electric motor is used as a generator to supplement..., using a scan tool in generic mode on your vehicle could cause damage to your vehicle's electric motor... whether a motor vehicle or item of replacement equipment does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining the...

  17. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  18. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 12.80...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Manufactured on Or After January 1, 1968 § 12.80 Federal motor vehicle safety standards. (a) Standards...

  19. 32 CFR 935.139 - Motor vehicle operator qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle operator qualifications. 935.139... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.139 Motor vehicle operator qualifications. (a) No person may operate a privately owned motor vehicle on Wake Island unless he has an island...

  20. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use. 261.13... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest... have been identified on a motor vehicle use map, it is prohibited to possess or operate a motor vehicle...

  1. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually (on or before December 1) to the contracting officer their plan for acquisition of motor vehicles for the...

  2. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator... storage tank or loading flange. (b) During transfer operations, no person may— (1) Stop or park a motor...

  3. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  4. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization standards...

  5. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kevin R [Albuquerque, NM; Forsythe, James C [Sandia Park, NM; Lippitt, Carl E [Albuquerque, NM; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  6. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  7. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  8. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  9. Electric drives in the vehicle sector. Textbook and manual. 2. enl. ed.; Elektrische Antriebe in der Fahrzeugtechnik. Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiel, Gerhard [FH Dortmund (Germany). Fahrzeugtechnik

    2009-07-01

    The text book under consideration reports on the fundamentals of power generation, energy conversion, induction engine a well as their application in drive systems such as hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. First of all, current and future energy sources for power train drives are presented and compared with one another. Subsequently, electro-chemical energy stores and energy converters such as fuel cell or double-layer condensers are considered. These energy storages and energy converters are used in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Additionally, the transformer and the central topic of interest 'Electrical Engines' are considered. Not only standard machines (direct current motor, asynchronous motor, synchronous motor, linear motor) will be described but also engines which are applied in future passenger car drives and railway drives (reluctance motor, transverse flow engine, BLDC engine). Drive systems are presented by the example of an electric locomotive and a magnetic levitation transport system (superconducting MAGLEV).

  10. Permanent magnet brushless DC motor drives and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chang-liang

    2012-01-01

    An advanced introduction to the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives A thorough reference on the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives, this book covers recent advances in the control of BLDC motor drives, including intelligent control, sensorless control, torque ripple reduction and hardware implementation. With the guidance of the expert author team, readers will understand the principle, modelling, design and control of BLDC motor drives. The advanced control methods and new achievements of BLDC motor drives, of interest to more a

  11. Compulsive Cell Phone Use and History of Motor Vehicle Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Stephen S.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; King, Kevin M.; Kernic, Mary A.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian; Mack, Christopher D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use and explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. Methods We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an on-line assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. Results We found the CPOS to be comprised of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (RR 1.13, CI 1.01 to 1.26). For each one-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Conclusions Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. PMID:23910571

  12. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  14. New Approaches for Estimating Motor Vehicle Emissions in Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, L. C.; Thornhill, D. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The rapid proliferation of megacities and their air quality problems is producing unprecedented air pollution health risks and management challenges. Quantifying motor vehicle emissions in the developing world's megacities, where vehicle ownership is skyrocketing, is critical for evaluating the cities' impacts on the atmosphere at urban, regional, and global scales. The main goal of this research is to quantify gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We apply positive matrix factorization to fast measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants made by the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory as it drove throughout the MCMA in 2006. We consider carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; volatile organic compounds including benzene and formaldehyde; nitrogen oxides; ammonia; fine particulate matter; particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and black carbon. Analysis of the video record confirms the apportionment of emissions to different engine types. From the derived source profiles, we calculate fuel-based fleet-average emission factors and then estimate the total motor vehicle emission inventory. The advantages of this method are that it can capture a representative sample of vehicles in a variety of on-road driving conditions and can separate emissions from gasoline versus diesel engines. The results of this research can be used to help assess the accuracy of emission inventories and to guide the development of strategies for reducing vehicle emissions.

  15. Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

  16. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  17. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating Texas motor vehicle operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A specific Vcost model was developed for Texas conditions based on a sophisticated fuel model for light : duty vehicles, several excellent sources of secondary vehicle cost data, and the ability to measure heavy truck fuel : consumption through both ...

  19. Adolescents, peers, and motor vehicles: the perfect storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P; Brown, B Bradford

    2008-09-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teenagers and in many instances appear linked to negative peer influences on adolescent driving behavior. This article examines a range of developmental and structural factors that potentially increase the risks associated with adolescent driving. Developmental risk factors for adolescents include a propensity toward engaging in deviant and risky behavior, a desire to please peers, and the potential cost to an adolescent of alienating peers with his or her behavior while driving. Structural features of the driving situation that create risks for negative peer influences on driving behavior include the inability of adolescents to look at peers who may be pressuring them, divided attention, the need to behave in a conventional manner among peers who may not value conventional behavior, and the lack of accountability by peers for the effects of any risky driving they promote. A range of potential peer influences are considered, including passive and active distraction and direct disruption of driving, as well as more positive influences, such as peer modeling of good driving behavior and positive reinforcement of good driving. Although the range of risk factors created by peers is large, this range presents a number of promising targets for intervention to improve teen driving safety.

  20. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed by...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles being...

  2. 77 FR 65765 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the key into a... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  3. 77 FR 25534 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... response back to the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  4. Do Emergency Physicians Educate Patients about the Dangers of Drinking and Driving after a Motor Vehicle Collision, and What Are the Barriers or Motivators to Do So?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Meghan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Millard, Wanda; Lim, Rodrick; Miller, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired driving is the leading cause of criminal death in Canada and results in numerous emergency department (ED) visits each year. Methods: An online survey was distributed to 94 emergency physicians and emergency medicine residents at an academic tertiary care hospital in Southwestern Ontario. Descriptive statistics were…

  5. 0-6629 : Texas specific drive cycles and idle emissions rates for using with EPA's MOVES model, [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys : newest emissions model, Motor Vehicle Emission : Simulator (MOVES), enables users to use local : drive schedules(representative vehicle speed : profiles) in order to perform an accurate analysis : of emi...

  6. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  7. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  8. Texas-specific drive cycles and idle emissions rates for using with EPA's MOVES model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) newest emissions model, MOtor Vehicle : Emission Simulator (MOVES), uses a disaggregate approach that enables the users of the model to create : and use local drive schedules (drive cycles) in order ...

  9. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  10. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  11. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  12. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  13. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  14. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  15. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  16. A primer on motor vehicle air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This primer presents a brief state-of-the art review of motor vehicle air pollution. Its purpose is to aid highway personnel in understanding the nature of this environmental problem on our highways and to present possible solutions for its abatement...

  17. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.

  18. A Decoupled Control of 5-Legs PWM Inverter Feeding a two Induction Motors-based Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekheïra Tabbache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a traction drive system for electric vehicles (EVs with two separate induction motor drive-based wheels. In this context, two three-phase induction motors are associated to five legs power inverter which one leg is shared by two phases of the motors. The independent control of the two induction motors allows replacing the mechanical differential speeds by an equivalent electrical module called electric differential (ED. In the proposed EV powertrain based on 5-leg inverter, the challenge is to achieve a decoupled control of the induction motors to ensure the EV stability while cornering or under slippery road condition. For this, the proposed independent control uses Indirect Field Oriented Control to ensure speed and rotor flux control of each induction motor , a Pulse Width Modulation to provide the command sequences to the 5-leg inverter and electric differential to generate the an appropriate reference when the two induction motors should be controlled at different speeds. For this, a numerical implementation of the independent controls on an embedded board (TMS 320F2812 to ensure a separate control of induction motor fed by the 5-leg inverter. Moreover, the proposed control takes into account the EV context such as the EV dynamic and uses European and American normalized driving cycles. EV-specific experimental tests on a digital signal processor TMS320LF2812 are carried-out to show the effectiveness of the proposed independent control for ED in terms of robustness and stability.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  20. Motor integrated permanent magnet gear in a battery electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2013-01-01

    ) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to the drivetrain of the Tesla Roadster and two direct drive axial flux motors in a few...

  1. Series hybrid vehicle system analysis using an in-wheel motor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Kazmin, Evgeny; Gysen, B.L.J.; Lomonova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles, which employ a technology combining gasoline and electric motors, are a hot item these days for transporters looking for ways to cut their fuel bills. To date, commercial systems implement diesel assisted electrical drives. As such the electrical motor is placed in a series or

  2. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  3. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  4. Improving Drive Files for Vehicle Road Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, John G.; Goktan, Ali; French, Mark; Gu, Yi; Jacob, Anil

    2001-09-01

    Shaker tables are commonly used in laboratories for automotive vehicle component testing to study durability and acoustics performance. An example is development testing of car seats. However, it is difficult to repeat the measured road data perfectly with the response of a shaker table as there are basic differences in dynamic characteristics between a flexible vehicle and substantially rigid shaker table. In addition, there are performance limits in the shaker table drive systems that can limit correlation. In practice, an optimal drive signal for the actuators is created iteratively. During each iteration, the error between the road data and the response data is minimised by an optimising algorithm which is generally a part of the feed back loop of the shake table controller. This study presents a systematic investigation to the errors in time and frequency domains as well as joint time-frequency domain and an evaluation of different digital signal processing techniques that have been used in previous work. In addition, we present an innovative approach that integrates the dynamic characteristics of car seats and the human body into the error-minimising iteration process. We found that the iteration process can be shortened and the error reduced by using a weighting function created by normalising the frequency response function of the car seat. Two road data test sets were used in the study.

  5. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby...

  7. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination or...

  8. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.402 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motor vehicles. 101-25.402 Section 101-25.402 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Standards § 101-25.402 Motor vehicles. Replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the...

  10. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  13. General Motors natural gas vehicle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koplow, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    General Motors (GM) has a number of natural gas vehicle (NGV) programs in progress that address various marketing, technical, and production planning issues that lean on the introduction of NGVs from GM. The initial target is light and medium duty trucks sold in non-attainment air quality regions. GM has also embarked on a longer term program that encompasses vehicle and systems development, gas supply and infrastructure development, and customer and market development. The major long-term issues are gas quality, supplier participation, and infrastructure

  14. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  15. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  16. Computer controlled motor vehicle battery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; McAuiliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent consists of a motor vehicle having a DC motor, a pedal biased to a released position and depressed by the driver to increase speed. An alternate switching means affects the vehicle speed control, a foot switch is operated by the pedal and operative when the pedal is depressed to close a circuit enabling energization of the alternate switching means. A microprocessor includes a program for controlling operation of the alternate switching means, the foot switch is operative when the pedal is released to open the enabling circuit. The program includes a register which is incremented with each passage of the logic and is responsive to the incremented count in the register to instruct a change in position of the alternate switching means.

  17. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  18. RISK PREMIUM IN MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANU ÖZGÜREL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pure premium or risk premium is the premium that would exactly meet the expected cost of the risk covered ignoring management expenses, commissions, contingency loading, etc. Claim frequency rate and mean claim size are required for estimation in calculating risk premiums. In this study, we discussed to estimate claim frequency rate and mean claim size with several methods and calculated risk premiums. Data, which supported our study, is provided by insurance company involving with motor vehicle insurance.

  19. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  20. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the key into a digital... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National...

  1. 78 FR 51381 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (Toyota). The specific comments of each entity will be discussed below... Toyota commented specifically on the proposal to amend Sec. 579.21(b) and (c) to require light vehicle.... Toyota indicated that they could determine the vehicle type from vehicle model; while Ford indicated that...

  2. Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Section 202 (1)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended (Section 206 of the Clean Air Act Amendments) (CAAA) of 1990 added paragraph (1) to Section 202 of the (CAA), directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complete a study by May 15, 1992 of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under the Act and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1)(1). Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benezene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel particulate matter, gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as certain of the metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is on carcinogenic risk. The study attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue

  3. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  4. Characterization of metals emitted from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Lough, Glynis C; Shafer, Martin M; Christensen, William F; Arndt, Michael F; DeMinter, Jeffrey T; Park, June-Soo

    2006-03-01

    A systematic approach was used to quantify the metals present in particulate matter emissions associated with on-road motor vehicles. Consistent sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10*) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), including analysis of trace metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sources of metals were analyzed in emissions associated with motor vehicles: tailpipe emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, brake wear, tire wear, and resuspended road dust. Profiles for these sources were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to quantify their relative contributions to the metal emissions measured in roadway tunnel tests in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Roadway tunnel measurements were supplemented by parallel measurements of atmospheric particulate matter and associated metals at three urban locations: Milwaukee and Waukesha, Wisconsin, and Denver, Colorado. Ambient aerosol samples were collected every sixth day for one year and analyzed by the same chemical analysis techniques used for the source samples. The two Wisconsin sites were studied to assess the spatial differences, within one urban airshed, of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter. The measurements were evaluated to help understand source and seasonal trends in atmospheric concentrations of trace metals. ICP-MS methods have not been widely used in analyses of ambient aerosols for metals despite demonstrated advantages over traditional techniques. In a preliminary study, ICP-MS techniques were used to assess the leachability of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter samples and motor vehicle source samples in a synthetic lung fluid.

  5. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  6. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY..., Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has determined... in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of...

  7. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Tesla Motors Inc's. (Tesla) for an... 49 CFR Part 541, Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard. Tesla requested confidential...

  8. Optimization and Model Validation of Operation Control Strategies for a Novel Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion Pure Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.

  9. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle antitampering. 52.2311... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle... Emissions from Motor Vehicles” and 114.5 “Exclusions and Exceptions” on February 24, 1989, and September 6...

  10. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  11. Assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motor vehicle mechanics trainers' are affected by the developments in the modern automobile technology (MAT) that brought about the use of auto scan tools for diagnosis and repair of modern vehicles in Nigeria. This study examined the capacity building needs among motor vehicle mechanics trainers in the use of ...

  12. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Charles E. [VPT, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  13. Towards functional safety in drive-by-wire vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmiller, Peter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This book presents approaches to address key challenges based on a vehicle level view and with a special emphasis on Drive-by-Wire systems. The design and testing of modern vehicle electronics are becoming more and more demanding due to increasing interdependencies among components and the safety criticality of tasks. The development towards Drive-by-Wire functionalities in vehicles with multiple actuators for vehicle control further increases the challenge. The book explicitly takes into account the interactions between components  and aims at bridging the gap between the need to generate additional customer benefits and the effort to achieve functional safety. The book follows a twofold approach: on the one side, it presents a toolchain to support efficient further development of novel functionalities for Drive-by-Wire vehicles. The toolchain comprises appropriate software tools and scaled and full-scale experimental vehicles. On the other side, development towards functionally safe and flexible Drive-by-W...

  14. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  15. Drinking, substance use and the operation of motor vehicles by young adolescents in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pickett

    Full Text Available Impaired driving is a recognized cause of major injury. Contemporary data are lacking on exposures to impaired driving behaviours and related injury among young adolescents, as well as inequities in these youth risk behaviours.Cycle 6 (2009/10 of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey involved 26,078 students enrolled in 436 Canadian schools. We profiled cross-sectionally the reported use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs by on-road and off-road vehicle operators when young adolescents (mean age 13.3 (± 1.6 years were either driving or riding as a passenger. Comparisons were made across vulnerable subgroups. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were used to quantify the effects of the driving behaviours on risks for motor vehicle-related injury. Attributable risk fractions were also estimated. A total of 10% (± 3% of participants reported recent operation of an on-road or off-road motor vehicle after consuming alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs, while 21% (± 3% reported riding as a passenger with a driver under the same conditions. Larger proportions of youth reporting these risk behaviours were males, and from older age groups, rural communities, and socio-economically disadvantaged populations. The behaviours were consistently associated with increased risks for motor vehicle-related injury at the individual level (RR 2.35; 95% CI: 1.54 to 3.58 for frequent vs. no exposure as a driver; RR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.36 for frequent vs. no exposure as a passenger and at the population level (Attributable Risk Fraction: 7.1% for drivers; 14.0% for passengers. The study was limited mainly by its reliance on self-reported data.Impaired driving is an important health priority among young adolescents in Canada. Inequities in the involvement of younger adolescents in these risk behaviours suggest the need for targeted interventions for specific subgroups such as youth from rural communities, and among socially

  16. Permanent magnet motor drives with switched stator windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipp, E.

    1999-06-01

    Permanent magnet (PM) motors are today regarded as an interesting solution for a wide range of inverter-fed variable-speed drives. The generally increased interest in these motors has led to many investigations on their feasibility for vehicle propulsion. Consequently, they are also of interest for traction applications which led to the research project that is presented in this thesis. The most important advantages that are expected in comparison to the state of the art asynchronous motors are lower losses and a higher torque density. Often the field weakening speed range is important, but difficult to obtain with PM machines because the inductance in the direction of the magnetization tends to be low. An alternative can be to switch different coils groups of the stator winding into different configurations. This is the central topic of this thesis. Various aspects of the design of PM motor drives are considered with special attention to the requirements for the application of the switched winding concept. The studies were thereby limited to the inner rotor, radial flux topology. It was found that two winding parts per phase, implying four different winding connections, is the only interesting solution. An advantage of switched windings is that the internal voltage of the machine will never exceed the maximum inverter output, which increases the operation safety. Furthermore the machine design can uncompromisingly be optimized for operation below base speed, which means low inductances implying a large air gap length and thick magnets. A problem with switched windings is that circulating currents can occur. To diminish them, a 2/3 magnet covering of the pole surface must be chosen in combination with a non-salient rotor. Moreover it was found that the eddy current losses in the magnets can reach non-negligible levels and must be considered when designing a drive system. The major drawback of switched stator windings is probably the occurrence of torque

  17. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  19. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang-Nhac Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS, that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers’ vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97

  20. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dang-Nhac; Nguyen, Duc-Nhan; Nguyen, Thi-Hau; Nguyen, Ha-Nam

    2018-03-29

    In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS), that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers' vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features) as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine) contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97.33% that is

  1. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  2. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  3. On Power Stream in Motor or Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszota Zygmunt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a motor or a drive system the quantity of power increases in the direction opposite to the direction of power flow. Energy losses and energy efficiency of a motor or drive system must be presented as functions of physical quantities independent of losses. Such quantities are speed and load. But the picture of power stream in a motor or drive system is presented in the literature in the form of traditional Sankey diagram of power decrease in the direction of power flow. The paper refers to Matthew H. Sankey’s diagram in his paper „The Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines“ of 1898. Presented is also a diagram of power increase in the direction opposite to the direction of power flow. The diagram, replacing the Sankey’s diagram, opens a new prospect for research into power of energy losses and efficiency of motors and drive systems.

  4. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  5. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... unrelated to the barrier's safety. Lift-U also questioned the agency's statement that it could be difficult... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0039] RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for...

  6. The Model of Brushless Dc Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the operation, control, mathematical and simulation models of BLDC motor. A simplified idealized simulation model was designed and tested using Matlab Simulink software package. The simulation model uses Hall effect sensor signals for determining the rotor position. Simulation was done for Maxon, EC-4 pole 22 BL A series motor. The obtained model testing results deviate from the data supplied by the motor manufacturer by as little as 0.2–10.6%; consequently, the implemented model is suitable for BLDC motor control study and research.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  8. Motor drive chassis for the plutonium protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaut, A.L.

    1979-05-01

    A motor drive chassis has been developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System. Rotation of the desired carrousel in a secure storage module is controlled by this chassis which supplies the power and drive pulses required by the carrousel motor. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Physical Protection Program

  9. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.

  10. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  11. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the partial results of a research project that studied the impact of medium voltage PWM ASD (adjustable speed drives) on motor stator insulation system. The findings from this study/ investigation have aided designers to improve the robustness of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors, based on accelerated laboratory tests. (author)

  12. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  13. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  14. Self-regulation of motor vehicle advertising: is it working in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J; Ouschan, Robyn; Ewing, Michael

    2011-05-01

    There is growing concern that certain content within motor vehicle advertising may have a negative influence on driving attitudes and behaviours of viewers, particularly young people, and hence a negative impact on road safety. In response, many developed countries have adopted a self-regulatory approach to motor vehicle advertising. However, it appears that many motor vehicle advertisements in Australia and elsewhere are not compliant with self-regulatory codes. Using standard commercial advertising methods, we exposed three motor vehicle ads that had been the subject of complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board (ASB) to, N = 463, 14-55 year olds to assess the extent to which their perceptions of the content of the ads communicated themes that were contrary to the Australian self-regulatory code. All three ads were found to communicate messages contrary to the code (such as the vehicle's speed and acceleration capabilities). However, the ASB had upheld complaints about only one of the ads. Where motor vehicle advertising regulatory frameworks exist to guide motor vehicle advertisers as to what is and what is not acceptable in their advertising, greater efforts are needed to ensure compliance with these codes. One way may be to make it mandatory for advertisers to report consumer pre-testing of their advertising to ensure that undesirable messages are not being communicated to viewers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  16. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  17. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  18. Two-phase induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lungeanu, Florin; Skaug, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    There is a continuous debate today concerning the ?motor of the future? for low-power applications requiring less than 1-2 kW. The specialists are focusing on superior motors [1] like brushless-dc, permanent-magnet synchronous, or electronically commutated types, because they show improvements...... in efficiency, reliability, torque-per-volume/mass ratio, maintenance, and service life. Despite this effort, the industry seems to be responding with manifest rigidity in changing standard induction motor solutions when considering the installed volume into the field, the investment in manufacturing base...

  19. 77 FR 29752 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover AGENCY: National... part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted, because the agency... be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking...

  20. 76 FR 12220 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover AGENCY: National... 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has... effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of...

  1. Design of outer-rotor type multipolar SR motor for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Suzuki, Yosuke; Goto, Hiroki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design an outer-rotor type multipolar switched reluctance (SR) motor, and examine an application of the SR motor to an electric vehicle (EV). The design is based on a nonlinear magnetic circuit model proposed by the authors. Using the model, we can calculate dynamic characteristics of a SR motor accurately. Furthermore, by combining the nonlinear magnetic circuit model with a motor drive circuit and motion equation of an EV, we can predict dynamic characteristics such as the maximum speed, acceleration torque, and a battery current of the EV

  2. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  3. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For the...

  4. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 41 CFR 109-38.5105 - Motor vehicle local use objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle local use..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5105 Motor vehicle local use objectives. (a) Individual motor vehicle utilization cannot always be...

  6. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  7. Dynamic performances analysis of a real vehicle driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Salim, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle dynamic is the effects of movement of a vehicle generated from the acceleration, braking, ride and handling activities. The dynamic behaviours are determined by the forces from tire, gravity and aerodynamic which acting on the vehicle. This paper emphasizes the analysis of vehicle dynamic performance of a real vehicle. Real driving experiment on the vehicle is conducted to determine the effect of vehicle based on roll, pitch, and yaw, longitudinal, lateral and vertical acceleration. The experiment is done using the accelerometer to record the reading of the vehicle dynamic performance when the vehicle is driven on the road. The experiment starts with weighing a car model to get the center of gravity (COG) to place the accelerometer sensor for data acquisition (DAQ). The COG of the vehicle is determined by using the weight of the vehicle. A rural route is set to launch the experiment and the road conditions are determined for the test. The dynamic performance of the vehicle are depends on the road conditions and driving maneuver. The stability of a vehicle can be controlled by the dynamic performance analysis.

  8. Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Murray V; Klems, Joseph P; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Smith, James N

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the

  9. A Minimization of Speed Ripple of Sensorless DTC for controlled Induction Motors used in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khoucha , Farid; Marouani , Khoudir; Kheloui , Abdelaziz; Benbouzid , Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The main theme of this paper is to present different switching techniques in DTC induction motor drives for electric vehicle applications, witch insert zero-voltage vector and/or more non zero-voltage vectors to the conventional switching table associated to full adaptive flux and speed observer. Those techniques are quite effective in reducing the torque pulsation and the speed ripples of the motors, as demonstrated in experimental results.

  10. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management... Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by revising current policy on the definitions... CONTACT: For clarification of content, contact Mr. James Vogelsinger, Director, Motor Vehicle Management...

  11. 76 FR 24402 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0069] RIN 2127-AK81 Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard AGENCY... address for submission, and the procedure to submit designation of target areas on high theft major parts... the Theft Prevention Standard, manufacturers of high theft passenger motor vehicle lines subject to...

  12. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR Correction 0 In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations... read as follows: Sec. 571.119 Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of...

  13. A geography of moral hazard: sources and sinks of motor-vehicle commuting externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Bland, Widmer; Scott, Darren M

    2014-09-01

    Motor-vehicles are responsible for harms to health that are not directly experienced by individual drivers - such as air pollution and risk of injury to pedestrians. In addition to their direct effects on health, these harms also represent a moral hazard since drivers are not required to consider their effects as part of their decision to drive. We describe an approach for estimating sources of motor-vehicle commuter externalities as a means of understanding the geography of moral hazard, and in particular, the spatial displacement of negative health externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuting. This approach models motor-vehicle commuter traffic flow by trip origin for small geographic areas within the City of Toronto, Ontario. We find that most health-related externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuters are not locally generated, with a large share coming from outside Toronto. Low income is associated with externalities originating outside the municipal boundary, but not with locally sourced externalities. We discuss the impact of geographical moral hazard on the agency of citizens as well as policy options aimed at addressing motor-vehicle externalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance.

  15. A Transformerless Medium Voltage Multiphase Motor Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiphase motor has several major advantages, such as high reliability, fault tolerance, and high power density. It is a critical issue to develop a reliable and efficient multiphase motor drive system. In this paper, a transformerless voltage source converter-based drive system for a medium-voltage (MV multiphase motor is proposed. This drive converter employs cascaded H-bridge rectifiers loaded by H-bridge inverters as the interface between the grid and multiphase motor. The cascaded H-bridge rectifier technique makes the drive system able to be directly connected to the MV grid without the phase-shifting transformer because it can offset the voltage level gap between the MV grid and the semiconductor devices, provide near-sinusoidal AC terminal voltages without filters, and draw sinusoidal line current from the grid. Based on a digital signal processor (DSP, a complete improved Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM method is developed to ensure the individual DC-link capacitor voltage balancing for enhancing the controllability and limiting the voltage and power stress on the H-bridge cells. A downscaled prototype is designed and developed based on a nine-phase motor. The experimental results verify the excellent performances of the proposed drive system and control strategy in steady-state and variant-frequency startup operations.

  16. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  17. Driving the Phileas, a new automated public transport vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Fabriek, Eva; Van Wolffelaar, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Phileas is a high quality public transport vehicle combining characteristics of bus, tram, and the underground. Phileas is equipped with pneumatic tyres and complies with the statutory regulations for buses. Accordingly Phileas may drive everywhere on public roads where buses are allowed to drive.

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.260 - May we replace a Government-owned motor vehicle sooner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanical repairs that exceed the fair market value of the motor vehicle. Determine the fair market value by adding the current market value of the motor vehicle plus any capitalized motor vehicle additions (such...

  19. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section 383.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL...

  20. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: using evidence-based practice to identify risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra

    2013-11-01

    Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  3. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... participation of a vehicle fleet and presents a framework for optimizing charging and discharging of the electric drive vehicles, given the driving patterns of the fleet and the variations in market prices of electricity. When the aggregator is a price-taker the optimization can be stated in terms of linear...... programming whereas a quadratic programming formulation is required when he/she has market power. A Danish case study illustrates the construction of representative driving patterns through clustering of survey data from Western Denmark and the prediction of electricity price variations through regression...

  4. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.53 - Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle operators. 109-38.301-1.53 Section 109-38.301-1.53 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.3-Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 109-38.301-1.53 Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators...

  5. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  6. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  7. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

  8. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  9. Steering redundancy for self-driving vehicles using differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, M.; Thor, M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes how differential braking can be used to turn a vehicle in the context of providing fail-operational control for self-driving vehicles. Two vehicle models are developed with differential input. The models are used to explain the bounds of curvature that differential braking provides and they are then validated with measurements in a test vehicle. Particular focus is paid on wheel suspension effects that significantly influence the obtained curvature. The vehicle behaviour and its limitations due to wheel suspension effects are, owing to the vehicle models, defined and explained. Finally, a model-based controller is developed to control the vehicle curvature during a fault by differential braking. The controller is designed to compensate for wheel angle disturbance that is likely to occur during the control event.

  10. Hybrid drive train technologies for vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Folkson, R.

    This chapter provides a classification of electric hybrid systems for cars and describes the conflicting design challenges involved in designing advanced vehicle propulsion systems. In addition, the chapter provides an analysis of the solution methods currently provided in literature on the coupled

  11. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  12. Simulation of Automated Vehicles' Drive Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    This research has two objectives: 1) To develop algorithms for plausible and legally-justifiable freeway car-following and arterial-street gap acceptance driving behavior for AVs 2) To implement these algorithms on a representative road network, in o...

  13. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  14. Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lazăr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.

  15. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  16. 78 FR 4193 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... transponder is not identified, the CEM will not send an approved key signal to the IAU and the vehicle will be...

  17. IEA Vehicle Efficiency Workshops Drive New Vehicle Policy Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Fuel economy is not only about getting more performance from the engine. Components outside the engine are also large fuel consumers. If fuel-economy test methods always remembered that, vehicle manufacturers would optimise component performance. A number of initiatives addressing component test standards and related policies have been triggered by IEA's recent workshops.

  18. An Impulse Electric Motor for Driving Recording Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, W F

    1923-01-01

    The chief purpose in undertaking the development of this synchronous motor was the creation of a very small, compact power source, capable of driving the film drums of the recording aircraft instruments designed by the staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  19. Nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor driving a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a non-linear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) fed by a PWM voltage source inverter. To improve the performance of this control technique, the input-output linearization technique is proposed for a system driving a mechanical load with two masses. In order to ensure a steady ...

  20. Control and sensor techniques for PAD servo motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a new type of electrical motor that employs piezoelectric multilayer actuators coupled with a form-fitted micro-mechanical gearing to generate rotary motion. The PAD is precise, having a positioning error of less than 2 arc-seconds. Its typical output...

  1. A Senior Project-Based Multiphase Motor Drive System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Ayman S.; Massoud, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable-speed drives based on multiphase motors are of significant interest for safety-critical applications that necessitate wide fault-tolerant capabilities and high system reliability. Although multiphase machines are based on the same conceptual theory as three-phase machines, most undergraduate electrical machines and electric drives…

  2. Air Compressor Driving with Synchronous Motors at Optimal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliu Petrica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of optimal compensation of the reactive load by the synchronous motors, driving the air compressors, used in mining enterprises is presented, taking into account that in this case, the great majority of the equipment (compressors, pumps are generally working a constant load.

  3. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices, large......The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...

  5. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In a petition dated September 30, 2011, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts...

  6. 78 FR 3081 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full Toyota Motor North America, Inc.'s (Toyota) petition for an... a petition dated October 16, 2012, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts-marking requirements...

  7. 76 FR 12221 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota... INFORMATION: In a petition dated January 24, 2011, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts-marking...

  8. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial enterprises, roads, motor... Rules § 35.5 Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft... private rights, there shall be no commercial enterprise and no permanent road within a wilderness unit...

  9. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  10. Post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTSD) and associated risk factors among motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

  11. Permanent magnet DC motor control by using arduino and motor drive module BTS7960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukriyadin, S.; Syahrizal, S.; Mansur, G.; Ramadhan, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study proposes a control system for permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor. PMDC drive control system has two critical parameters: control and monitoring. Control system includes rotation speed control and direction of rotation of motor using motor drive module BTS7960. The PWM signal has a fixed frequency of waves with varying duty cycles (between 0% and 100%), so the motor rotation can be regulated gradually using a potentiometer already programmed on the Arduino Uno board. The motor rotation direction setting uses the H-bridge circuit method using a 3-way switch to set the direction of forward-reverse rotation of the motor. The monitoring system includes measurements of rotational speed, current, and voltage. Motor rotation speed can be adjusted from the armature voltage settings through the duty cycle PWM setting so that the motor speed can be increased or decreased by the desired duty cycle. From the unload PMDC motor test results it has also been shown that the torque of the motor is relatively constant when there is a change in speed from low rpm to high rpm or vice versa.

  12. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  13. Improving commercial motor vehicle safety in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study addressed the primary functions of the Oregon Department of Transportations (ODOTs) Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), which is administered by the Motor Carrier Transportation Division (MCTD). The study first documente...

  14. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  15. On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.; Kazimi, Camilla

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently the stated reason for special measures aimed at controlling motor vehicles. In the United States, motor vehicle emission standards are set explicitly in clean air legislation, while policies at several levels of government are designed to reduce the use of cars for particular purposes like commuting. In Europe, high fuel taxes and subsidies to urban mass transit and intercity rail travel in large part aim to reduce car use.

  16. Measuring a conceptual model of the relationship between compulsive cell phone use, in-vehicle cell phone use, and motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Shain, Lindsey M; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Ebel, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash. Using a structural equation model, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between factors of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale-II (CPOS-II), impulsivity, in-vehicle phone use, and severity and frequency of previous motor vehicle crash. Self-reported miles driven per week and year in college were included as covariates in the model. Our findings suggest that anticipation of incoming communication has a direct association with greater in-vehicle phone use, but was not directly or indirectly associated with increasing risk of previous motor vehicle crash. Of the three latent factors comprising the CPOS-II, only anticipation was significantly associated with elevated cell phone use while driving. Greater impulsivity and use of in-vehicle cell phone use while driving were directly and significantly associated with greater risk of motor vehicle crash. Anticipation of incoming cellular contacts (calls or texts) is associated with greater in-vehicle phone use, while greater in-vehicle cell phone use and impulsive traits are associated with elevated risk of motor vehicle crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  18. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odnokopylov, G; Bragin, A

    2014-01-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed

  19. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  20. 40 CFR 85.1506 - Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles and engines. 85.1506 Section 85.1506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1506 Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and...

  1. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.230 - How am I responsible for protecting Government motor vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... theft or damage; and (b) Lock the unattended Government motor vehicle. (The only exception to this... protecting Government motor vehicles? 102-34.230 Section 102-34.230 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.230 How am I...

  3. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  4. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  5. How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

  6. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  7. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  8. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  9. Assessment of the influence on vehicle emissions of driving style, vehicle technology and traffic measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgwal, H.C. van de; Gense, N.L.J.; Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of traffic measures and driving style on different vehicle emissions and on primary energy consumption, and the definition of vehicle parameters influencing the relation between them, is an interesting issue to be assessed in order to allow more realistic estimations of the impact of

  10. Retrofitting adjustable speed drives for large induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestefeld, M.R.; Merriam, C.H.; Porter, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are used in many power plants to control process flow by varying the speed of synchronous and induction motors. In applications where the flow requirements vary significantly, ASDs reduce energy and maintenance requirements when compared with drag valves, dampers or other methods to control flow. Until recently, high horsepower ASDs were not available for induction motors. However, advances in power electronics technology have demonstrated the reliability and cost effectiveness of ASDs for large horsepower induction motors. Emphasis on reducing operation and maintenance costs and increasing the capacity factor of nuclear power plants has led some utilities to consider replacing flow control devices in systems powered by large induction motors with ASDs. ASDs provide a high degree of reliability and significant energy savings in situations where full flow operation is not needed for a substantial part of the time. This paper describes the basic adjustable speed drive technologies available for large induction motor applications, ASD operating experience and retrofitting ASDs to replace the existing GE Boiling Water Reactor recirculation flow control system

  11. NOISE CONTROL OF VEHICLE DRIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gabbert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall simulation approach to control the noise emission of car engines at a very early stage of the design process where no real prototypes are available. The suggested approach combines different physical models and couples different software tools such as multi-body analysis, fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, magneto-electrodynamics, thermodynamics, acoustics and control as well. The general overall simulation methodology is presented first. Then, this methodology is applied to a combustion engine in order to improve its acoustical behavior by passive means, such as changing the stiffness and the use of damping materials to build acoustic and thermal encapsulations. The active control by applying piezoelectric patch actuators at the oil sump as the noisiest part of the engine is discussed as well. The sound emission is evaluated by hearing tests and a mathematical prediction model of the human perception. Finally, it is shown that the presented approach can be extended to electric engines, which is demonstrated at a newly developed electric wheel hub motor.

  12. Library of Samples for E-Vehicle Propulsion Drive Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassõlkin Anton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of testing cycles for the vehicle comparison is the long-term cycles and could not be used for the short-term transient mode imitations. Also, all the used nowadays testing cycles were designed for internal combustion engine vehicles and take into account not only energy and mechanical aspects, but also pollution and internal combustion engine characteristics. The paper presents a collection of sample signals developed to explore and simulate multiple system impacts to emulate different reference and load conditions. The study describes the major driving modes, such as the constant-speed cruising, speeding up and braking, typical parking regimes, uphill and downhill motion, and taking a turn. The developed testing equipment and software are described. Responses of the battery vehicle drives to the changeable controls and disturbances were studied in the laboratory test bench. The set of test cycles prepared in the frame of the ABB control arrangement was applied to the system evaluation and assessment. The developed methodology can be recommended to adjust the electric drives for different kinds of testing equipment. Experimental validation of the described approach has demonstrated the broad possibilities for the steady-state and transient modes of vehicle quality evaluation. It suits for recommendations that can be made with regard to the tuning of the drive regulators, control looping, sensor allocation, and feedback arrangements.

  13. Procedure of qualification applied to motors driving auxiliaries in fossil fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coperchini, C.; Fises, A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty year operation have enabled EDF to better understand the factors improving the reliability of powerhouse auxiliary drive induction motors. Progress in the behaviour of such machines are mainly due to analysis and handling of full size test results achieved in the Saint-Denis Motor Test Laboratory. This work led to the printing of recommendations and technical specifications. Service and safety requirements of the nuclear plant new generation lead to examine again the procedures of qualification. The analysis made in this report let appear the justification to maintain the present EDF policy with some necessary adjustments, especially as far as the nuclear safety motors are concerned [fr

  14. The Technique of Changing the Drive Method of Micro Step Drive and Sensorless Drive for Hybrid Stepping Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Makoto; Dohmeki, Hideo

    The position control system with the advantage large torque, low vibration, and high resolution can be obtained by the constant current micro step drive applied to hybrid stepping motor. However loss is large, in order not to be concerned with load torque but to control current uniformly. As the one technique of a position control system in which high efficiency is realizable, the same sensorless control as a permanent magnet motor is effective. But, it was the purpose that the control method proposed until now controls speed. Then, this paper proposed changing the drive method of micro step drive and sensorless drive. The change of the drive method was verified from the simulation and the experiment. On no load, it was checked not producing change of a large speed at the time of a change by making electrical angle and carrying out zero reset of the integrator. On load, it was checked that a large speed change arose. The proposed system could change drive method by setting up the initial value of an integrator using the estimated result, without producing speed change. With this technique, the low loss position control system, which employed the advantage of the hybrid stepping motor, has been built.

  15. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance – A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: (1) Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. (2) Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key components of well-functioning motor and drive systems and opportunities for energy performance opportunities. (3) Motor System Economics: Offers recommendations on how to propose improvement projects based on corporate priorities, efficiency gains, and financial payback periods. (4) Where to Find Help: Provides a directory of organizations associated with motors and drives, as well as resources for additional information, tools, software, videos, and training opportunities.

  16. The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the

  17. Modeling Driving Performance Using In-Vehicle Speech Data From a Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jonny; Charlton, Judith L; Koppel, Sjaan; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Cross, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to (a) describe the development and application of an automated approach for processing in-vehicle speech data from a naturalistic driving study (NDS), (b) examine the influence of child passenger presence on driving performance, and (c) model this relationship using in-vehicle speech data. Parent drivers frequently engage in child-related secondary behaviors, but the impact on driving performance is unknown. Applying automated speech-processing techniques to NDS audio data would facilitate the analysis of in-vehicle driver-child interactions and their influence on driving performance. Speech activity detection and speaker diarization algorithms were applied to audio data from a Melbourne-based NDS involving 42 families. Multilevel models were developed to evaluate the effect of speech activity and the presence of child passengers on driving performance. Speech activity was significantly associated with velocity and steering angle variability. Child passenger presence alone was not associated with changes in driving performance. However, speech activity in the presence of two child passengers was associated with the most variability in driving performance. The effects of in-vehicle speech on driving performance in the presence of child passengers appear to be heterogeneous, and multiple factors may need to be considered in evaluating their impact. This goal can potentially be achieved within large-scale NDS through the automated processing of observational data, including speech. Speech-processing algorithms enable new perspectives on driving performance to be gained from existing NDS data, and variables that were once labor-intensive to process can be readily utilized in future research. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. An electric-drive vehicle strategy for Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, D.; Lipman, T. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Lundberg, M. [Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    The strategy that Sweden has taken regarding the use of electric-powered vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the environmental impacts caused by the transportation sector was discussed. Sweden's unique attributes include inexpensive and clean electricity, a strong environmental ethic and a strong automotive sector. All versions of electric-drive technology are considered to be environmentally superior to internal combustion engine vehicles. While the cost of batteries is dropping, they will remain highly priced. However, manufacturers are making larger investments into hybrid EVs and fuel cell EVs. Electric drive buses are also gaining in popularity as a means by which to reduce exhaust gases in urban areas. Sweden's industrial policy is aimed at manufacturing electrically driven heavy duty vehicles such as buses and trucks. The environmental policy is aimed at deploying small EVs for on and off-road transportation use, as well as heavy duty EVs targeted by the industrial policy. refs.

  20. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  1. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boztas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design and analysis of multi-phase brushless direct current (BLDC motor for electric vehicles (EV. In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compare their performances at the same load conditions. The same rotor geometry has been utilized for the motors. However, slot numbers and dimensions of the stator have been determined by considering the motor phase number. Performance curves of phase-currents, output powers, torques, efficiencies and power factors have been presented for these motors at the same operating conditions. It can be possible to use lower power switches in motor drive system thanks to the phase current reduction since the phase currents decrease proportionally to motor phase number. This work shows that the multi-phase BLDC motors are a good alternative in order to obtain lower torque and lower power inverter structure than the 3-phase BLDC motors which are used as standard.

  2. On the Dynamics of Rocking Motion of the Hard-Disk Drive Spindle Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    Excessive rocking motion of the spindle motor system can cause track misregistration resulting in poor throughput or even drive failure. The chance of excessive disk stack rocking increases as a result of decreasing torsional stiffness of spindle motor bearing system due to the market demand for low profile hard drives. As the track density increases and the vibration specification becomes increasingly stringent, rocking motion of a spindle motor system deserves even more attention and has become a primary challenge for a spindle motor system designer. Lack of understanding of the rocking phenomenon combined with misleading paradox has presented a great difficulty in the effort of avoiding the rocking motion in the hard-disk drive industry. This paper aims to provide fundamental understanding of the rocking phenomenon of a rotating spindle motor system, to clarify the paradox in disk-drive industry and to provide a design guide to an optimized spindle system. This paper, theoretically and experimentally, covers a few important areas of industrial interest including the prediction of rocking natural frequencies and mode shape of a rotating spindle, free vibration, and frequency response under common forcing functions such as rotating and fixed-plane forcing functions. The theory presented here meets with agreeable experimental observation.

  3. Slot Optimization Design of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiming; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Xiuhe

    2018-01-01

    Slot design of induction motor has a great influence on its performance. The RMxprt module based on magnetic circuit method can be used to analyze the influence of rotor slot type on motor characteristics and optimize slot parameters. In this paper, the authors take an induction motor of electric vehicle for a typical example. The first step of the design is to optimize the rotor slot by RMxprt, and then compare the main performance of the motor before and after the optimization through Ansoft Maxwell 2D. After that, the combination of optimum slot type and the optimum parameters are obtained. The results show that the power factor and the starting torque of the optimized motor have been improved significantly. Furthermore, the electric vehicle works at a better running status after the optimization.

  4. Investigating the Electromechanical Coupling in Piezoelectric Actuator Drive Motor Under Heavy Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is an accurate, high-torque rotary piezoelectric motor that employs piezoelectric stack actuators and inverse hypocycloidal motion to generate rotation. Important factors that determine motor performance are the proper concentric alignment between the motor...

  5. Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAGADEESAN Karpagam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Direct TorqueControl (DTC of induction motor drive using matrixconverters. DTC is a high performance motor controlscheme with fast torque and flux responses. However,the main disadvantage of conventional DTC iselectromagnetic torque ripple. In this paper, directtorque control for Induction Motors using MatrixConverters is analysed and points out the problem ofthe electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of themost important drawbacks of the Direct TorqueControl. Besides, the matrix converter is a single-stageac-ac power conversion device without dc-link energystorage elements. Matrix converter (MC may becomea good alternative to voltage-source inverter (VSI.This work combines the advantages of the matrixconverter with those of the DTC technique, generatingthe required voltage vectors under unity input powerfactor operation. Simulation results demonstrates theeffectiveness of the torque control.

  6. The latest technical solutions in rail vehicles drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and solutions used in the offers of rail vehicles manufacturers. The study is mainly concerned with the technical solutions used in hybrid rail vehicles, whose development has become one of the priorities for the development of rail vehicles in the European Union in recent years. Stricter emissions standards for harmful compounds in the European Union have forced manufacturers to use increasingly sophisticated technology, including hybrid drives and alternative fuels. The products and solutions offered by the major manufacturers on the market, along with their capabilities and future applications are described. The predicted trends in the development of propulsion technology for rail and road-rail vehicles are also indicated in view of the current legislative aspirations among the EU Member States.

  7. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  8. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  9. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  10. Speed Regulated Continuous DTC Induction Motor Drive in Field Weakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATIC, P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes sensorless speed controlled continuous Direct Torque Control (DTC Induction Motor (IM drive in the field weakening regime. Drive comprises an inner torque loop and an outer speed loop. Torque control is based on Proportional - Integral (PI controller with adaptive Gain Scheduling (GS parameters. The GS PI control provides full DC link voltage utilization and a robust disturbance rejection along with a fast torque response. Outer speed loop has a PI regulator with the gains selected so as to obtain a fast and strictly aperiodic response. Proposed drive fully utilizes the available DC bus voltage. The paper comprises analytical considerations, simulation results, and detailed description of the implementation steps. Experimental verification of the proposed solution is conducted on a fixed point Digital Signal Processor (DSP platform.

  11. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  12. Association Rule Mining on Five Years of Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Jean Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, road accidents kill more than a million people and injure more than 20 million worldwide. This paper aims to offer guidance on road safety and create awareness by pinpointing the major causes of traffic accidents. The study investigates motor vehicle crashes in the Genesee Finger Lakes Region of New York State. Frequency Pattern Growth algorithm is utilized to cultivate knowledge and create association rules to highlight the time and environment settings that cause the most catastrophic crashes. This knowledge can be used to warn drivers about the dangers of accidents, and how the consequences are worse given a specific context. For instance, a discovered rule from the data states that ‘most of the crashes occur between 12:00 pm and 6:00pm’; hence, it is suggested to modify existing navigation application to warn drivers about the increase in risk factor.

  13. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ireland, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Problem Motor ... 0.02-0.05%). Use advanced engineering and technology, such as: Ignition interlocks for all people convicted ...

  15. Light duty vehicle transportation and global climate policy: The importance of electric drive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Longden, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on the interaction between long-term climate targets and personal transport we review the electrification of light duty vehicles (LDVs) within a model that utilizes a learning-by-researching structure. By modeling the demand of vehicles, the use of fuels and emissions implied, the model solves for the optimum RD and D investments that decrease the cost of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. A range of technology and climate policy scenarios provide long term projections of vehicle use that highlight the potential synergies between innovation in the transportation sector and the energy sector. We find that even when the capital cost of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) remains higher than that of traditional combustion engine alternatives, EDVs are likely to play a key role in the decarbonisation implied by stringent climate policy. Limited innovation in batteries results in notable increases in policy costs consistent with a two degree climate policy target. - Highlights: • Significant increase in vehicles across regions in the medium to long term future. • Climate policy costs are sensitive to a lack of electric drive vehicles (EDVs). • Achieving 450ppm with no change in battery costs has a policy cost that is 2.86 percentage points higher than the base 450ppm scenario. • Climate policy hastens the introduction of electrified vehicles, however EDVs do not become the dominant vehicle of choice before the middle of the century

  16. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium and Partners | Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric -Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric

  17. stepping motor - hydraulic motor servo drives for an nc milling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    stepping motor Drive Assembly especially Designed for CNC systems". 13th Machine Tool Design and. Research. (MTDR) conference,. University of Birmingham, 1972. 2 Ertongur, N.A. "Investigation into the instability in an electro hydraulic control system for machine tools" Ph.D. Thesis, University of. Birmingham, UK. 1966 ...

  18. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations. Motor...

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. 109-38.903-50 Section 109-38.903-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. 41 CFR 109-38.204-50 - Records of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 109-38.204-50 Section 109-38.204-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-50 Records of exempted motor vehicles. The Director, Office of...

  1. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  2. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date of... statement: “This vehicle conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety and theft prevention... conforms to the applicable Federal motor vehicle theft prevention standard in effect on the date of...

  3. Accidents in The Netherlands involving heavy motor vehicles : an analysis concerning underrun protection of rear ends, compared to the sides and the front ends. On behalf of RDW Vehicle Technology & Information Centre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1998-01-01

    In this report accident data concerning heavy vehicles (all motor vehicles with a total weight of more than 3500 kg) are studied. Special attention is given to the question whether accidents involving heavy motor vehicles gave specific reason for concern regarding other road users with respect to

  4. Implementation of Permanent Magnet Motors in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Elvestad, Eirik

    2008-01-01

    This thesis has studied permanent magnet motors in electric vehicles (EVs) under the assumption that they are tractable due to a low weight and high compactness. The implementation has been investigated through a case study, which resulted in an EV simulation model. The model contains a maximal torque per ampere and a closed-loop field weakening controller. Abstract Faults are a special concern in permanent magnet motors. Fault sources and faulted behavior are addressed separately. The EV mo...

  5. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  6. Plasticity in the Human Speech Motor System Drives Changes in Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametti, Daniel R.; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594

  7. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  8. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of its own motor, whether such motor is powered by gasoline, diesel fuel, special motor fuels... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of...

  9. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  10. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  11. Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debinski, Beata; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Legislation is an effective strategy for reducing road-related fatalities and injuries. Public opinion can be an impetus for passing new laws and can affect the success of their implementation, but little is known about the current state of public opinion toward existing and proposed road-related policies in the United States. This review describes the scope and results of research on public support for state- and local-level evidence-based motor vehicle- and bicycle-related policies. We identify gaps in our understanding of public support for these policies. Published U.S. literature and all reports from the NHTSA from the past decade (2003-2012) were searched for data on opinions about existing or proposed policies related to motor vehicle or bicycle injury prevention. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all, studies reported public opinion about 7 injury prevention topic areas: all-terrain vehicles (n = 1), automated enforcement with red light and speed cameras (n = 5), distracted driving (n = 4), drinking and driving (n = 5), graduated driver licensing (n = 7), helmets (n = 7), and seat belts (n = 4). Twenty-three studies focused only on one topic, and 3 sought public opinion about multiple topic areas. The studies revealed generally high levels of support for injury prevention policies in all topic areas. Fifteen studies collected information from national samples, and only 7 studies reported data from the state (n = 5) or local (n = 2) level. There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research

  12. Automated driving and autonomous functions on road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. J.; Lidberg, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, road vehicle automation has become an important and popular topic for research and development in both academic and industrial spheres. New developments have received extensive coverage in the popular press, and it may be said that the topic has captured the public imagination. Indeed, the topic has generated interest across a wide range of academic, industry and governmental communities, well beyond vehicle engineering; these include computer science, transportation, urban planning, legal, social science and psychology. While this follows a similar surge of interest - and subsequent hiatus - of Automated Highway Systems in the 1990s, the current level of interest is substantially greater, and current expectations are high. It is common to frame the new technologies under the banner of 'self-driving cars' - robotic systems potentially taking over the entire role of the human driver, a capability that does not fully exist at present. However, this single vision leads one to ignore the existing range of automated systems that are both feasible and useful. Recent developments are underpinned by substantial and long-term trends in 'computerisation' of the automobile, with developments in sensors, actuators and control technologies to spur the new developments in both industry and academia. In this paper, we review the evolution of the intelligent vehicle and the supporting technologies with a focus on the progress and key challenges for vehicle system dynamics. A number of relevant themes around driving automation are explored in this article, with special focus on those most relevant to the underlying vehicle system dynamics. One conclusion is that increased precision is needed in sensing and controlling vehicle motions, a trend that can mimic that of the aerospace industry, and similarly benefit from increased use of redundant by-wire actuators.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles. (10) Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means of support, permanently attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body while... material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the same compartment with employees. (8...

  14. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 2589 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Jeep Patriot vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR Part 543, Exemption from Vehicle Theft Prevention... vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of 49 CFR Part 541, Federal Motor Vehicle...

  16. 75 FR 53375 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... the Fiat 500 vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR Part 543, Exemption From Vehicle Theft Prevention... vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of 49 CFR Part 541, Federal Motor Vehicle...

  17. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2011-04-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EF PAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF PAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF PAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF PAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF PAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.

  18. Loss Minimization Sliding Mode Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Zamanifar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear loss minimization control strategy for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM based on a newly developed sliding mode approach is presented. This control method sets force the speed control of the IPMSM drives and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the losses besides the uncertainties exist in the system such as parameter variations which have undesirable effects on the controller performance except at near nominal conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  19. Predicting Risk of Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Tatham, Andrew J; Boer, Erwin R; Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Rosen, Peter N; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of longitudinal Useful Field of View (UFOV) and simulated driving measurements to predict future occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC) in drivers with glaucoma. Prospective observational cohort study. 117 drivers with glaucoma followed for an average of 2.1 ± 0.5 years. All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP), UFOV, driving simulator, and cognitive assessment obtained at baseline and every 6 months during follow-up. The driving simulator evaluated reaction times to high and low contrast peripheral divided attention stimuli presented while negotiating a winding country road, with central driving task performance assessed as "curve coherence". Drivers with MVC during follow-up were identified from Department of Motor Vehicle records. Survival models were used to evaluate the ability of driving simulator and UFOV to predict MVC over time, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Mean age at baseline was 64.5 ± 12.6 years. 11 of 117 (9.4%) drivers had a MVC during follow-up. In the multivariable models, low contrast reaction time was significantly predictive of MVC, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.19 per 1 SD slower reaction time (95% CI, 1.30 to 3.69; P = 0.003). UFOV divided attention was also significantly predictive of MVC with a HR of 1.98 per 1 SD worse (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.57; P = 0.022). Global SAP visual field indices in the better or worse eye were not predictive of MVC. The longitudinal model including driving simulator performance was a better predictor of MVC compared to UFOV (R2 = 0.41 vs R2 = 0.18). Longitudinal divided attention metrics on the UFOV test and during simulated driving were significantly predictive of risk of MVC in glaucoma patients. These findings may help improve the understanding of factors associated with driving impairment related to glaucoma.

  20. Predicting Risk of Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P B Gracitelli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of longitudinal Useful Field of View (UFOV and simulated driving measurements to predict future occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC in drivers with glaucoma.Prospective observational cohort study.117 drivers with glaucoma followed for an average of 2.1 ± 0.5 years.All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP, UFOV, driving simulator, and cognitive assessment obtained at baseline and every 6 months during follow-up. The driving simulator evaluated reaction times to high and low contrast peripheral divided attention stimuli presented while negotiating a winding country road, with central driving task performance assessed as "curve coherence". Drivers with MVC during follow-up were identified from Department of Motor Vehicle records.Survival models were used to evaluate the ability of driving simulator and UFOV to predict MVC over time, adjusting for potential confounding factors.Mean age at baseline was 64.5 ± 12.6 years. 11 of 117 (9.4% drivers had a MVC during follow-up. In the multivariable models, low contrast reaction time was significantly predictive of MVC, with a hazard ratio (HR of 2.19 per 1 SD slower reaction time (95% CI, 1.30 to 3.69; P = 0.003. UFOV divided attention was also significantly predictive of MVC with a HR of 1.98 per 1 SD worse (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.57; P = 0.022. Global SAP visual field indices in the better or worse eye were not predictive of MVC. The longitudinal model including driving simulator performance was a better predictor of MVC compared to UFOV (R2 = 0.41 vs R2 = 0.18.Longitudinal divided attention metrics on the UFOV test and during simulated driving were significantly predictive of risk of MVC in glaucoma patients. These findings may help improve the understanding of factors associated with driving impairment related to glaucoma.

  1. Direct Torque Control With Feedback Linearization for Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a direct-torque-controlled (DTC) induction motor (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control (SMC). A new feedback linearization approach is proposed, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC-type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using SMC with proportional control in the vicinity of the sliding surface. SMC assures...... in simulations. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme with and without feedback linearization. Extensive experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  2. A novel integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Zong, Changfu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a systematic design with multiple hierarchical layers is adopted in the integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles. A reference model and the optimal preview acceleration driver model are utilised in the driver control layer to describe and realise the driver's anticipation of the vehicle's handling characteristics, respectively. Both the sliding mode control and terminal sliding mode control techniques are employed in the vehicle motion control (MC) layer to determine the MC efforts such that better tracking performance can be attained. In the tyre force allocation layer, a polygonal simplification method is proposed to deal with the constraints of the tyre adhesive limits efficiently and effectively, whereby the load transfer due to both roll and pitch is also taken into account which directly affects the constraints. By calculating the motor torque and steering angle of each wheel in the executive layer, the total workload of four wheels is minimised during normal driving, whereas the MC efforts are maximised in extreme handling conditions. The proposed controller is validated through simulation to improve vehicle stability and handling performance in both open- and closed-loop manoeuvres.

  3. Elimination of torque pulsations in a direct drive EV wheel motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hredzak, B.; Gair, S. [Napier Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Double sided axial field machines are attractive for direct wheel drives in electric vehicles. This is due to the fact that stator/rotor misalignments can be accommodated. In this case the stator of the machine is envisaged mounted on the chassis of the car while the rotor directly drives the road wheel. Since the wheel is perturbed by the road surface the rotor will move vertically between the outside stator assemblies and thus give rise to torque pulsations. A vector control scheme has been implemented whereby the torque pulsations are eliminated by (i) calculation of the flux variation due to the rotor perturbation and (ii) using this signal for the modulation of the motor input current.

  4. Comparison of 48V rare-earth-free reluctance traction motor drives for mild hybrid powertrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, J.; Boynov, K.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Wijnands, C.G.E. (Korneel); Lomonova, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of three types of electrical drives with rare-earth- free reluctance motors for next-generation 48V mild hybrid automotive applications. The drives with switched reluctance motors (SRM), variable flux reluctance motors (VFRM) and synchronous reluctance

  5. 76 FR 31545 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY: Office of... Services Administration is proposing to amend the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by revising current....C. 553(a)(2) because it applies to agency management. However, this proposed rule is being published...

  6. Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth after Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Zollner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state…

  7. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are among the leading causes of injury in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of being sober and buckled up during ever automobile trip.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  8. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  9. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  10. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and

  11. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND OF BOARD ON AND ON NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the t...

  12. 76 FR 38209 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of Justice...

  13. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY... a meeting of Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS...., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Brighton, Designated Federal Employee (DFE...

  14. Manufacturing: SiC Power Electronics for Variable Frequency Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bench Reese, Samantha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This brochure, published as an annual research highlight of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), summarizes CEMAC analysis of silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics for variable frequency motor drives. The key finding presented is that variations in manufacturing expertise, yields, and access to existing facilities impact regional costs and manufacturing location decisions for SiC ingots, wafers, chips, and power modules more than do core country-specific factors such as labor and electricity costs.

  15. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  16. Learning to breathe? Feedforward regulation of the inspiratory motor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Van den Bergh, Omer; Fannes, Stien; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-09-15

    Claims have been made that breathing is in part controlled by feedforward regulation. In a classical conditioning paradigm, we investigated anticipatory increases in the inspiratory motor drive as measured by inspiratory occlusion pressure (P100). In an acquisition phase, an experimental group (N=13) received a low-intensity resistive load (5 cmH2O/l/s) for three consecutive inspirations as Conditioned Stimulus (CS), preceding a load of a stronger intensity (20 cmH2O/l/s) for three subsequent inspirations as unconditioned stimulus (US). The control group (N=11) received the low-intensity load for six consecutive inspirations. In a post-acquisition phase both groups received the low-intensity load for six consecutive inspirations. Responses to the CS-load only differed between groups during the first acquisition trials and a strong increase in P100 during the US-loads was observed, which habituated across the experiment. Our results suggest that the disruption caused by adding low to moderate resistive loads to three consecutive inspirations results in a short-lasting anticipatory increase in inspiratory motor drive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of motor vehicle legislation on injury claim incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Olszynski, W P

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous strategies to prevent motor vehicle collisions and their subsequent injuries, few have been effective in preventing motor vehicle injury claims. In this paper, we examine the role of legislation and compensation system in altering injury claim incidence. The population base for our natural experiment was all Saskatchewan, Manitoba, British Columbia and Quebec residents who submitted personal injury claims to their respective motor vehicle insurance provider from 1990 to 1999. The provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba switched from Tort to pure No-Fault insurance on January 1, 1995 and on March 1, 1994 respectively. British Columbia maintained tort insurance and Quebec maintained pure no-fault insurance throughout the entire 10-year period. The conversion from tort insurance to pure no-fault motor vehicle insurance resulted in a five-year 31% (RR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.68-0.70) reduction in total injury claims per 100,000 residents in Saskatchewan and a five-year 43% (RR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.56-0.58) reduction in Manitoba. At the same time, the province of British Columbia retained tort insurance and had a five-year 5% reduction (RR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.94-0.99). Quebec, which retained pure no-fault throughout the entire 10-year period, had less than one third of the injury claims per 100,000 residents than the tort province of British Columbia. The conversion from tort to pure no-fault legislation has a large influence in reducing motor vehicle injury claim incidence in Canada. Legislative system and injury compensation scheme have an observable impact on injury claim incidence and can therefore have significant impact on the health care system.

  18. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Saberi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency. Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features. Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license. Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  20. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Evaporative and Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasolineand Methanol-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Technical Amen

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1993 EPA finalized a new test procedure to measure evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The amendments modify several of the test procedure’s tolerances, equipment specifications, and procedural steps.

  1. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  2. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  3. Study on the VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) for RCP (Reactor Coolant Pump) Motors of APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Ha; Robert, M. Field; Kim, Tae Ryong [Department of NPP Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Most industrial facilities are continually searching for ways to reduce energy costs while increasing or maintaining current production. In terms of electric motors, Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) units represent a critical opportunity for energy savings. Currently, VFDs are used on about ten (10) percent of industrial process motors, and this percentage is increasing every year. Properly applied VFDs have been documented to save as much as fifty percent of the energy consumed by certain industrial processes. Nuclear Power - Power plants in general and Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in particular are slow to adopt new technology. The nuclear power industry requires a nearly absolute demonstration through operating experience in other industries in which the new approach will result in a net improvement in plant reliability without any surprises. Only recently has the nuclear industry begun to adapt VFD units for large motors. Specifically, there are several examples in the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fleet of replacing Motor-Generator (M-G) sets with VFD units for Reactor Recirculation (RR) pump motor service. At one station, VFD units were introduced upstream of the Circulating Water (CWP) pump motors to address environmental issues. They units are taking advantage of VFD technology whose benefits include increased reliability, reduction in electrical house load, improved flow control, and reduced maintenance. RCP Application - In the case of new generation, it has been reported that the Westinghouse AP1000 will make use of VFD units for the Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) motors.

  4. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  5. Transrapid 06 test vehicle and its drive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitlhuber, E

    1984-06-01

    To prove the practicability of a high-speed maglev transport system, a large-scale test facility is now under construction in Emsland with the backing of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The TRANSRAPID 06 test vehicle is designed to carry 192 seated passengers at a maximum speed of 400 km/h. With running tests now in progress, the project has entered a decisive phase. The article describes the objectives, concept and design of the Tr 06 vehicle and its drive system. Upon conclusion of the main operational preparations by the construction consortium, the facility will be taken over and operated by the MVP, a joint subsidiary of the DB, Lufthansa German Airlines and the IABG. Following a successful changeover, the aim will be to ensure feedback of operating experience to the industry.

  6. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  7. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006 through...

  8. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  9. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor vehicle...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  11. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most

  12. 14 CFR 1204.1600 - Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work... ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Temporary Duty Travel-Issuance of Motor Vehicle for Home-to-Work Transportation § 1204.1600 Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work. When a NASA employee on temporary duty...

  13. 76 FR 5248 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2005...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...] Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2005 Reporting Year... on motor vehicle theft for the 2005 reporting year. Section 33112(h) of Title 49 of the U.S. Code... report provides information on theft and recovery of vehicles; rating rules and plans used by motor...

  14. 49 CFR 565.14 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.14 Motor vehicles imported into the United States. (a) Importers shall utilize the VIN assigned by the original manufacturer of the motor vehicle. (b) All passenger cars...

  15. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported into... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have a...

  16. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1159 - Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and... Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance. (a) Revisions submitted by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection on October 20, 2000, to the motor vehicle inspection and maintenance...

  18. 19 CFR 10.310 - Election to average for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to average for motor vehicles. 10.310... Free Trade Agreement § 10.310 Election to average for motor vehicles. (a) Election. In determining whether a motor vehicle is originating for purposes of the preferences under the Agreement or a Canadian...

  19. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...

  1. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  2. 22 CFR 151.8 - Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles. 151.8... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.8 Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles... insurance throughout the period of registration on all motor vehicles owned or leased or otherwise regularly...

  3. 78 FR 42153 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...- 2012-0162), the Ford Motor Company stated in pertinent part: Vehicles that are designed and...-0074] Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National... decisions by NHTSA that certain motor vehicles not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable...

  4. 75 FR 23306 - Establishment of Advisory Committee on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Advisory Committee on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Advisory Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

  5. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  6. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  7. 41 CFR 109-38.204-4 - Report of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of exempted motor..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-4 Report of exempted motor vehicles. DOE offices shall provide upon request the...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  9. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... fuel economy calculations. This section applies to data used for fuel economy labeling under Subpart D...

  10. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Greece. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaionnou, Skevos; Patsatzis, N.

    A study listed and analyzed the vocational training and continuing training systems for staff in the motor vehicle repair and sales sector in Greece. Heavy taxation on motor vehicles led to difficulty in replacing vehicles that resulted in a very high demand for vehicle repairs, which, in conjunction with the ambiguous legislation governing the…

  11. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  12. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  13. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  14. Driving Simulator Study of Effect of Inside Shoulder on Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Design Specification for Highway Alignment (JTG D20-2006, eight-lane expressways should be paved with an inside shoulder of 2.5 m; however, this regulation is rarely obeyed in engineering practice. On the basis of driving simulator experiment, this research examined the impacts of inside shoulder on vehicle operation with and without the speed limitation. A virtual scenario, consisting of five expressways with different inside shoulder widths, was created and displayed in driving simulator, and vehicle operational data—speed and lane position—were recorded. Authors used analysis of variance (ANOVA and contrast analysis to examine whether inside shoulder width had statistically significant effects on travel speed and lane position. Analytical results indicated that there is a kind of quadratic relationship between inside shoulder width and driver's speed choice, while driver's speed choice is not significantly affected by inside shoulder width. What is more, inside shoulder width has statistically significant effects on vehicle's lane positions, and vehicle's lane position is negatively correlated to inside shoulder width. Specifically, the vehicle can be maintained at the center of lane when the inside shoulder width is 2.5 m.

  15. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  16. 32 CFR 634.9 - Suspension or revocation of driving or privately owned vehicle registration privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violations or safe vehicle operation, is not limited or restricted by this part. (a) Suspension. (1) Driving... Government vehicles. (3) Immediate suspension of installation or overseas command POV driving privileges... which the vehicle is being operated if the jurisdiction imposes a suspension solely on the basis of the...

  17. Control concepts for vehicle drive line to reduce fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossyra, J.C.

    2005-07-01

    In this work advanced drive line control concepts for off-road vehicles have been developed and investigated to reduce the power losses and finally the fuel consumption of the entire drive system by use of on-line optimization procedure. Two separate closed loop speed controls have been developed for the use on a microcontroller onboard the vehicle: one to control the hydrostatic transmission and the other to control the engine speed. Considering the loss characteristics of the displacement machines in the hydrostatic transmission and the steady state characteristics of the combustion engine by use of pure mathematical approximations of measured curves, a direct optimization strategy is used, which works on-line on a microcontroller. A laboratory hardware-in-the loop test rig has been used to investigate the proposed control concepts. For different typical and desired work cycles of an off-road machine on level ground and uphill a slope the effectiveness of the proposed control concepts have been proven. (orig.)

  18. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  19. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...

  20. Bus systems in motor vehicles; Bussysteme im Kfz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schule, Roland

    2008-07-01

    There is hardly any modern vehicle without a bus system. This interactive learning software explains why electric and electronic systems in motor vehicles should be linked and uses various bus types to illustrate the various alternatives, bus structures, and data types. The physical side of bus systems is gone into, the data structure is explained, and the various bus typologies are outlined. From the fundamentals of bus systems, the software proceeds to present the most important bus systems and their main properties. Subjects: Diagnosis bus, LIN bus, CAN bus, MOST bus, Bluetooth. The bus systems EIA-485, LVDS, D{sup 2}B, byteflight, and Flexray are briefly characterised. (orig.)

  1. Improvements in EMC performance of inverter-fed motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, E.; Lipo, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation of conducted radio-noise emission from a conventional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter of medium power feeding an induction motor is described. It is determined that the inverter system generates considerable impulse currents through the power leads feeding the system resulting in serious conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems and significant voltage waveform distortion in the power system. The dominant emission sources in the system are identified. A proposed model of the drive system for the purpose of evaluation of EMI are developed. Several low-cost strategies for improvement in EMC performance of the PWM inverter are then proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that disturbance from the modified system can be dramatically reduced and that the EMC performance of the system has come very close to meeting the IEC CISPR and FCC limits on conducted emissions for digital devices

  2. Driver sleepiness and risk of motor vehicle crash injuries: a population-based case control study in Fiji (TRIP 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-03-01

    Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in roadside surveys (controls). An interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by drivers or proxies collected information on potential risks for crashes including sleepiness while driving, and factors that may influence the quantity or quality of sleep. Following adjustment for confounders, there was an almost six-fold increase in the odds of injury-involved crashes for vehicles driven by people who were not fully alert or sleepy (OR 5.7, 95%CI: 2.7, 12.3), or those who reported less than 6 h of sleep during the previous 24 h (OR 5.9, 95%CI: 1.7, 20.9). The population attributable risk for crashes associated with driving while not fully alert or sleepy was 34%, and driving after less than 6 h sleep in the previous 24 h was 9%. Driving by people reporting symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnoea was not significantly associated with crash risk. Driver sleepiness is an important contributor to injury-involved four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, highlighting the need for evidence-based strategies to address this poorly characterised risk factor for car crashes in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel multi-drive electric vehicle system control based on multi-input multi-output PID controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel-motor drive electric vehicle (EV is an innovative configuration of the modern EV, in which each wheel is driven individually by an electric motor. The classical traction motor control called the Independent Machine Control Structure (IMCS using a PID speed controller presents major inconveniences in modern EV safety, when the proposed control can not ensure stability of the EV with differing road topology and variations of speed. A new approach is proposed for a control of a two-in-wheel-motor drive EV, called the Maximum Control Structure MCS. This is based on a multivariable PID (MIMO-PID strategy, which is employed to estimate the linear speed error of each of the two back driving wheels, when the error of each wheel is taken into account in the other speed control computations. Simulation results show that the new control system presents increased safety for the EVs compared with the IMCS strategy and can maintain the error slip rate within the optimal range, ensuring the stability of the vehicle either in a straight or a curved line.

  4. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller

  5. Converging Mechanisms of p53 Activation Drive Motor Neuron Degeneration in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Simon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, an inherited disease caused by ubiquitous deficiency in the SMN protein, is the selective degeneration of subsets of spinal motor neurons. Here, we show that cell-autonomous activation of p53 occurs in vulnerable but not resistant motor neurons of SMA mice at pre-symptomatic stages. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of p53 prevents motor neuron death, demonstrating that induction of p53 signaling drives neurodegeneration. At late disease stages, however, nuclear accumulation of p53 extends to resistant motor neurons and spinal interneurons but is not associated with cell death. Importantly, we identify phosphorylation of serine 18 as a specific post-translational modification of p53 that exclusively marks vulnerable SMA motor neurons and provide evidence that amino-terminal phosphorylation of p53 is required for the neurodegenerative process. Our findings indicate that distinct events induced by SMN deficiency converge on p53 to trigger selective death of vulnerable SMA motor neurons.

  6. Impact of reformulated fuels on motor vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas

    Motor vehicles continue to be an important source of air pollution. Increased vehicle travel and degradation of emission control systems have offset some of the effects of increasingly stringent emission standards and use of control technologies. A relatively new air pollution control strategy is the reformulation of motor vehicle fuels, both gasoline and diesel, to make them cleaner- burning. Field experiments in a heavily traveled northern California roadway tunnel revealed that use of oxygenated gasoline reduced on-road emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 23 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were not significantly affected. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in California led to large changes in gasoline composition including decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents, and an increase in oxygen content. The combined effects of RFG and fleet turnover between summers 1994 and 1997 were decreases in on-road vehicle exhaust emissions of CO, non-methane VOC, and NOx by 31 +/- 5, 43 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 4%, respectively. Although it was difficult to separate the fleet turnover and RFG contributions to these changes, it was clear that the effect of RFG was greater for VOC than for NOx. The RFG effect on exhaust emissions of benzene was a 30-40% reduction. Use of RFG reduced the reactivity of liquid gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors by 23 and 19%, respectively. Increased use of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline led to increased concentrations of highly reactive formaldehyde and isobutene in vehicle exhaust. As a result, RFG reduced the reactivity of exhaust emissions by only about 5%. Per unit mass of fuel burned, heavy-duty diesel trucks emit about 25 times more fine particle mass and 15-20 times the number of fine particles compared to light-duty vehicles. Exhaust fine particle emissions from heavy-duty diesels contain more black carbon than particulate

  7. Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne; Klepeis, Neil; Switzer, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The air change rates of motor vehicles are relevant to the sheltering effect from air pollutants entering from outside a vehicle and also to the interior concentrations from any sources inside its passenger compartment. We made more than 100 air change rate measurements on four motor vehicles under moving and stationary conditions; we also measured the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM(2.5)) decay rates from 14 cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle. With the vehicle stationary and the fan off, the ventilation rate in air changes per hour (ACH) was less than 1 h(-1) with the windows closed and increased to 6.5 h(-1) with one window fully opened. The vehicle speed, window position, ventilation system, and air conditioner setting was found to affect the ACH. For closed windows and passive ventilation (fan off and no recirculation), the ACH was linearly related to the vehicle speed over the range from 15 to 72 mph (25 to 116 km h(-1)). With a vehicle moving, windows closed, and the ventilation system off (or the air conditioner set to AC Max), the ACH was less than 6.6 h(-1) for speeds ranging from 20 to 72 mph (32 to 116 km h(-1)). Opening a single window by 3'' (7.6 cm) increased the ACH by 8-16 times. For the 14 cigarettes smoked in vehicles, the deposition rate k and the air change rate a were correlated, following the equation k=1.3a (R(2)=82%; n=14). With recirculation on (or AC Max) and closed windows, the interior PM(2.5) concentration exceeded 2000 microg m(-3) momentarily for all cigarettes tested, regardless of speed. The concentration time series measured inside the vehicle followed the mathematical solutions of the indoor mass balance model, and the 24-h average personal exposure to PM(2.5) could exceed 35 microg m(-3) for just two cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations

  9. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  10. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  11. Undiagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M M; McFarlane, A C; Hunter, C E; Griggs, W M

    1993-10-18

    To determine the pattern of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among motor vehicle accident victims and to examine the influence of PTSD on subsequent levels of disability. A longitudinal study of motor vehicle accident victims one month and 18 months after the accident. Twenty-four motor vehicle accident victims admitted by the trauma team at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. A 52% response rate was achieved. Post-traumatic stress disorder as diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and disability as measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. Eighteen months after their accidents, six of the 24 subjects had clinically significant PTSD and one was considered borderline. None had been previously diagnosed or treated. The group with PTSD had higher scores on all measures of psychological distress one month after the accident and were more likely to use immature psychological defences. There was no association between physical outcome (measured with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months and subsequent diagnosis of PTSD. However, the group with PTSD had higher levels of disability on assessment with the Sickness Impact Profile, particularly in the domain of social functioning. The results suggest PTSD was associated with work-related dysfunction equal to that associated with severe physical handicap. The data from this pilot study suggest that PTSD after motor vehicle accidents is an important cause of disability, which may also become the focus for damages in litigation. Thus, there is a need for further investigation of the early patterns of distress and to design preventive programs for victims of road accidents.

  12. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial enterprises, roads..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.6 Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles... National Forest Wilderness no commercial enterprises; no temporary or permanent roads; no aircraft landing...

  13. Motor vehicle evaluative criteria: Using unmet expectations as signals for dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Brijball Parumasur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses whether motor vehicle consumers base their purchases on functional or symbolic needs. It also evaluates motor vehicle buyer’s level of importance attached to evaluative criteria and the extent to which they believe the purchased vehicle fulfils the evaluative criteria, in order to assess whether expectations have been met or not and hence, the potential for cognitive dissonance. Biographical correlates (race, marital status, age, education, occupation, income, gender are evaluated and the influence of range of motor vehicle is also analysed. A sample of 200 brand new motor vehicle buyers was drawn using the stratified random sampling technique based on range of motor vehicle purchased, month of purchases, gender and age of the buyer. Only new motor vehicle buyers (within KwaZulu-Natal who concluded their purchases in one major, reputable and leading motor vehicle manufacturing company and who owned the vehicle for a maximum period of seven months were considered, so as to avoid cognitive intrusion. The results indicate that consumer’ expectations were not met in terms of price, economy and performance yet these were buyers’ most highly rated evaluative criteria, thereby reflecting the potential for dissonance. Significant biographical correlates were noted in terms of race, age, occupation, income, gender and motor vehicle evaluative criteria. Whilst bottom and middle of the range motor vehicle consumers favour functional or utilitarian value, top of the range motor vehicle consumers aim to fulfil symbolic needs

  14. MOVES (MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION SIMULATOR) MODEL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer model, intended to eventually replace the MOBILE model and to incorporate the NONROAD model, that will provide the ability to estimate criteria and toxic air pollutant emission factors and emission inventories that are specific to the areas and time periods of interest, at scales ranging from local to national. Development of a new emission factor and inventory model for mobile source emissions. The model will be used by air pollution modelers within EPA, and at the State and local levels.

  15. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  16. Optimal control strategy design for extending all-electric driving capability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, S.S [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, P.D Ziogas Power Electronics Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    The high voltage energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is usually a rechargeable type that service a dual purpose, notably to supplement the power delivered by the internal combustion engine, and to provide partial propulsion energy from an off-board source of electricity. The energy storage devices in electric vehicles typically improve vehicle efficiency through engine downsizing and by recapturing braking energy. However, since PHEVs have the ability to recharge their energy storage systems directly from the power grid, the periods of all-electric operation can be extended, thereby reducing the dependence on the internal combustion engine. This is particularly useful in city driving conditions. Developers of PHEV technology are faced with the challenge of choosing the appropriate energy storage battery in order to improve the all-electric drive range. In this study, control strategies were modeled for specific driving load conditions using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software. This paper presented specific control algorithms for PHEV operation for various city driving loads. The optimal design strategy considered the improvement of critical energy storage parameters, overall drive train efficiency, and vehicle performance characteristics. Future trends in the design and development of PHEV drive trains were also presented. 13 figs.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  18. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  19. Frequency and time domain characteristics of digital control of electric vehicle in-wheel drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzebowicz Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel electric drives are promising as actuators in active safety systems of electric and hybrid vehicles. This new function requires dedicated control algorithms, making it essential to deliver models that reflect better the wheel-torque control dynamics of electric drives. The timing of digital control events, whose importance is stressed in current research, still lacks an analytical description allowing for modeling its influence on control system dynamics. In this paper, authors investigate and compare approaches to the analog and discrete analytical modeling of torque control loop in digitally controlled electric drive. Five different analytical models of stator current torque component control are compared to judge their accuracy in representing drive control dynamics related to the timing of digital control events. The Bode characteristics and stepresponse characteristics of the analytical models are then compared with those of a reference model for three commonly used cases of motor discrete control schemes. Finally, the applicability of the presented models is discussed.

  20. Texting while driving: A study of 1211 U.S. adults with the Distracted Driving Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gliklich, Emily; Guo, Rong; Bergmark, Regan W.

    2016-01-01

    Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS), an 11-ite...

  1. Full drive-by-wire dynamic control for four-wheel-steer all-wheel-drive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farbod

    2013-03-01

    Most of the controllers introduced for four-wheel-steer (4WS) vehicles are derived with the assumption that the longitudinal speed of the vehicle is constant. However, in real applications, the longitudinal speed varies, and the longitudinal, lateral, and yaw dynamics are coupled. In this paper, the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously. This way, the effect of driving/braking forces of the tires on the lateral and yaw motions of the vehicle are automatically included in the control laws. To address the dynamic parameter uncertainty of the vehicle, a chatter-free variable structure controller is introduced. Elimination of chatter is achieved by introducing a dynamically adaptive boundary layer thickness. It is shown via simulations that the proposed control approach performs more robustly than the controllers developed based on dynamic models, in which longitudinal speed is assumed to be constant, and only lateral speed and yaw rate are used as system states. Furthermore, this approach supports all-wheel-drive vehicles. Front-wheel-drive or rear-wheel-drive vehicles are also supported as special cases of an all-wheel-drive vehicle.

  2. Brushless traction PM Machines using commercial drive technology, part I: Design methodology and motor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmin, Evgeny; Lomonova, E.A.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    A concept design approach for the brushless PM traction motor, which has crucial constraints on volume envelope and on the drive, is presented. The considered motor drive is the three-phase DC/AC converter, which is commercially available on the modern market of the standard variable frequency

  3. Evaluation of Low-Cost Topologies for Two-Phase Induction Motor Drives, in Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lungeanu, Florin; Skaug, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    on the other side. Another contradiction comes from the benefits as well as from the drawbacks related with the ac running capacitor. It is concluded that the two-phase induction motor drives are more depending on the load characteristic than the three-phase motor drives, while the best topology...

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  5. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  6. Designing for enhancing situational awareness of semi-autonomous driving vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Steeghs, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Gorle, A.; Dey, D.; Van De Star, S.; Sudhakaran, A.; Terken, J.M.B.; Hu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous driving technology is evolving quickly, and self-driving cars are fast becoming a reality. In the level 2 autonomous driving stage, the system will take full control of the vehicle. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to immediately intervene at any time if the automated

  7. Performance Analysis of Regenerative Braking in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adib

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and analysis of a regenerative braking system for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive for electric vehicle (EV applications. First studied is the principle for electric braking control of a PMSM motor under field-oriented control (FOC. Next, the maximum braking torque in the regeneration mode as well as the braking torque for the maximum regeneration power, respectively, are deduced. Additionally, an optimum switching scheme for the inverter is developed with the objective of maximizing energy recovery during regenerative braking to the DC-bus capacitor. The integration of an ultra-capacitor module with the battery allows for the efficient and high power transfer under regenerative braking. It was important to manage the power flow to the DC-bus as this is a key issue that affects the efficiency of the overall system. Finally, the amounts of braking energy that can be recovered, and the efficiency with which it can be returned to the battery/ultra-capacitor, is analyzed for a PMSM coupled with a DC motor as the load. The results of the analysis are validated through experimentation.

  8. 76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to expand the required field of view for all passenger cars, trucks, multipurpose passenger... rear-mounted video camera and an in- vehicle visual display. Adoption of this proposal would...

  9. Microcontroller based Stator Winding Resistance Determination of Induction Motor Drive on Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Ahmed T; Sukhdeo Sao; K.S.R Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possi...

  10. Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents Related to Sleepiness at the Wheel: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Arnaud, Mickael; Sagaspe, Patricia; Moore, Nicholas; Salvo, Francesco; Philip, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Sleepiness at the wheel is widely believed to be a cause of motor vehicle accidents. Nevertheless, a systematic review of studies investigating this relationship has not yet been published. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between sleepiness at the wheel and motor vehicle accidents. A systematic review was performed using Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science. The outcome measure of interest was motor vehicle accident defined as involving four- or two-wheeled vehicles in road traffic, professional and nonprofessional drivers, with or without objective consequences. The exposure was sleepiness at the wheel defined as self-reported sleepiness at the wheel. Studies were included if they provided adjusted risk estimates of motor vehicle accidents related to sleepiness at the wheel. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were extracted and pooled as odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effect model. Heterogeneity was quantified using Q statistics and the I2 index. The potential causes of heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regressions. Ten cross-sectional studies (51,520 participants), six case-control studies (4904 participants), and one cohort study (13,674 participants) were included. Sleepiness at the wheel was associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (pooled OR 2.51 [95% CI 1.87; 3.39]). A significant heterogeneity was found between the individual risk estimates (Q = 93.21; I2 = 83%). Sleepiness at the wheel increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents and should be considered when investigating fitness to drive. Further studies are required to explore the nature of this relationship. PROSPERO 2015 CRD42015024805. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  12. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  13. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  15. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  16. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... between Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems and Dana Corporation; and ArvinMeritor. The agency received four...

  17. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...

  18. 49 CFR 177.823 - Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.823 Movement of motor vehicles in... government; (2) The carrier has permission from the Department; or (3) Movement of the transport vehicle is...

  19. 78 FR 67213 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Porsche Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Porsche Cars North America, Inc. AGENCY... From Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has determined that... reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the 49 CFR...

  20. 77 FR 20486 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... exemption of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR part 543, Exemption From the Theft... motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the 49 CFR part 541, Federal...

  1. 77 FR 15351 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0174] RIN 2127-AK88 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and... (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 114, Theft Protection and Rollaway... requesting that certain information, including vehicle owner questionnaires (VOQs) referenced in the NPRM, be...

  2. 76 FR 2444 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Ford Motor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Ford Motor Company AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR Part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This... standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance...

  3. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  4. Identification of vehicle components associated with severe thoracic injury in motor vehicle crashes: a CIREN and NASS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, R; Pintar, F A

    2008-01-01

    Thoracic trauma secondary to motor vehicle crashes (MVC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Specific vehicle features may increase the risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. We sought to determine which vehicle contact points were associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury in MVC to focus subsequent design modifications necessary to reduce thoracic injury. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) databases from 1993 to 2001 and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) databases from 1996 to 2004 were analyzed separately using univariate and multivariate logistic regression stratified by restraint use and crash direction. The risk of driver thoracic injury, defined as an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) of score > or =3, was determined as it related to specific points of contact between the vehicle and the driver. The incidence of severe chest injury in NASS and CIREN were 5.5% and 33%, respectively. The steering wheel, door panel, armrest, and seat were identified as contact points associated with an increased risk of severe chest injury. The door panel and arm rest were consistently a frequent cause of severe injury in both the NASS and CIREN data. Several vehicle contact points, including the steering wheel, door panel, armrest and seat are associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. These elements need to be further investigated to determine which characteristics need to be manipulated in order to reduce thoracic trauma during a crash.

  5. A Novel Harmonic Elimination Approach in Three-Phase Multi-Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2015-01-01

    and may cause unnecessary losses in power system transformers. Both degradations are apt to occur in motor drive applications. As a consequence, it calls for advanced and intelligent control strategies for the power electronics based drive systems like adjustable speed drives in industry. At present, many...

  6. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  7. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  8. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

  9. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  10. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  11. Design of linear pulse motor for control element drive mechanism of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    49 Control Rod Drive Mechanisms(CEDMs) are densely installed on the reactor central head of SMART. The structural design should ensure the space for maintenance/repair, cable routing, and heat release from the motor. In this paper, an improved design is presented to enlarge the space between CEDMs by decreasing the diameter of linear pulse motor. The reduction of motor thrust force due to the decrease of the motor diameter is compensated by resizing the other structural components

  12. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Graphic of a 24-cell (bottom). Images: Courtesy of EC Power NREL's work on the U.S. Department of Energy Computer-Aided

  13. Advising on human factors for field trials with (partially) self-driving vehicles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Boele, M.J. Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E. & Hoekstra, A.T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Vehicles are increasingly equipped with systems that take over (elements of) the driving task. Eventually, this is expected to result in fully self-driving vehicles. The human role will shift from driver to supervisor, and ultimately to passenger. These systems are assumed to reduce the risk of

  14. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  15. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.

  16. CyberTORCS: An Intelligent Vehicles Simulation Platform for Cooperative Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulation platforms play an important role in helping intelligent vehicle research, especially for the research of cooperative driving due to the high cost and risk of the real experiments. In order to ease and bring more convenience for cooperative driving tests, we introduce an intelligent vehicle simulation platform, called CyberTORCS, for the research in cooperative driving. Details of the simulator modules including vehicle body control, vehicle visualization modeling and track visualization modeling are presented. Two simulation examples are given to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed simulation platform.

  17. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  18. Vision and commercial motor vehicle driver safety : vol. 1 : evidence report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    The purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) that pertain to vision and commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver safety. Each of these key questions was develope...

  19. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... petitions for reconsideration from Harley-Davidson Motor Company (January 18, 2008) and Ford Motor Company... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-28322] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and... part, the petitions for reconsideration of the December 4, 2007, final rule reorganizing Federal Motor...

  20. Modeling and Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jamuna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Speed control of induction motor drives using neural networks is presented. The mathematical model of single phase induction motor is developed. A new simulink model for a neural network-controlled bidirectional chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Under normal operation, the true drive parameters are real-time identified and they are converted into the controller parameters through multilayer forward computation by neural networks. Comparative study has been made between the conventional and neural network controllers. It is observed that the neural network controlled drive system has better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and faster transient response than the conventional controlled system.