WorldWideScience

Sample records for driver fatality rates

  1. The association of graduated driver licensing with miles driven and fatal crash rates per miles driven among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Cummings, Peter; Zhao, Songzhu; Coben, Jeffrey H; Smith, Gordon S

    2015-04-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws are associated with reduced crash rates per person-year among adolescents. It is unknown whether adolescents crash less per miles driven or drive less under GDL policies. We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1995-1996, 2001-2002 and 2008-2009. We compared adolescents subject to GDL laws with those not by estimating adjusted IRRs for being a driver in a crash with a death per person-year (aIRRpy) and per miles driven (aIRRm), and adjusted miles driven ratios (aMR) controlling for changes in rates over time. Comparing persons subject to GDL policies with those not, 16 year olds had fewer fatal crashes per person-year (aIRRpy 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.91), drove fewer miles (aMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98) and had lower crash rates per miles driven (aIRRm 0.83, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.06). For age 17, the aIRRpy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.17), the aMR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.03) and the aIRRm 1.03 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.35). For age 18, the aIRRpy was 0.93 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.19), the aMR 0.92 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.09) and the aIRRm 1.01 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.23). If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced crashes per person-year by about one-third among 16 year olds; half the reduction was due to fewer crashes per miles driven and half to less driving. For ages 17 and 18, there was no evidence of reduced crash rates per miles driven. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  3. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  4. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  5. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fatal versus non-fatal heroin "overdose": blood morphine concentrations with fatal outcome in comparison to those of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Christoph; Recker, Sabine; Reiter, Arthur; Friedrich, Hans Juergen; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2002-11-05

    The study was performed to distinguish fatal from non-fatal blood concentrations of morphine. For this purpose, blood levels of free morphine and total morphine (free morphine plus morphine conjugates) in 207 cases of heroin-related deaths were compared to those in 27 drivers surviving opiate intoxication. The majority of both survivors and non-survivors were found to show a concomitant use of depressants including alcohol or stimulants. Blood morphine levels in both groups varied widely, with a large area of overlap between survivors (free morphine: 0-128 ng/ml, total morphine: 10-2,110 ng/ml) and non-survivors (free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 33-5,000 ng/ml). Five (18.5%) survivors and 87 (42.0%) non-survivors exhibit intoxication only by morphine. In these cases, too, both groups overlapped (survivors-free morphine: 28-93 ng/ml, total morphine: 230-1,451 ng/ml; non-survivors-free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 119-4,660 ng/ml). Although the blood levels of free or total morphine do not allow a reliable prediction of survival versus non-survival, the ratio of free/total morphine may be a criterion to distinguish lethal versus survived intoxication. The mean of the ratio of free to total morphine for all lethal cases (N=207) was 0.293, for those that survived (N=27) 0.135, in cases of intoxication only by morphine 0.250 (N=87) and 0.080 (N=5), respectively. Applying a cut-off of 0.12 for free/total morphine and performing ROC analyses, fatal outcome can be predicted in 80% of the cases correctly, whereas 16% of the survivors were classified as dead. Nevertheless, in this study, all cases with a blood concentration of 200 ng/ml and more of free morphine displayed a fatal outcome.

  8. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  9. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  12. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2011-04-01

    Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology.

  13. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S. [ORNL; Jones, Donald W. [ORNL; Reuscher, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Schmoyer, Richard S. [ORNL; Truett, Lorena F. [ORNL

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  14. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  15. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  16. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  17. Drivers of measles mortality: the historic fatality burden of famine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A S; Alam, N; Metcalf, C J E

    2017-12-01

    Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Estimates of the case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles have varied widely from place to place, as well as in the same location over time. Amongst populations that have experienced famine or armed conflict, measles CFR can be especially high, although past work has mostly focused on refugee populations. Here, we estimate measles CFR between 1970 and 1991 in a rural region of Bangladesh, which experienced civil war and famine in the 1970s. We use historical measles mortality data and a mechanistic model of measles transmission to estimate the CFR of measles. We first demonstrate the ability of this model to recover the CFR in the absence of incidence data, using simulated mortality data. Our method produces CFR estimates that correspond closely to independent estimates from surveillance data and we can capture both the magnitude and the change in CFR suggested by these previous estimates. We use this method to quantify the sharp increase in CFR that resulted in a large number of deaths during a measles outbreak in the region in 1976. Most of the children who died during this outbreak were born during a famine in 1974, or in the 2 years preceding the famine. Our results suggest that the period of turmoil during and after the 1971 war and the sustained effects of the famine, is likely to have contributed to the high fatality burden of the 1976 measles outbreak in Matlab.

  18. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  19. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  20. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  1. Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelotte, Jayson D; Brown, Lawrence H; Luftman, Kevin M; Mardock, Alexandra L; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Coopwood, Ben; Brown, Carlos V R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics. Pre-recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post-recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = -0.4, +0.9). Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.

  2. Effectiveness of Taxicab Security Equipment in Reducing Driver Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K.C.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Damadi, Parisa; Wu, Nan; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Taxicab drivers historically have had one of the highest work-related homicide rates of any occupation. In 2010 the taxicab driver homicide rate was 7.4 per 100,000 drivers, compared to the overall rate of 0.37 per 100,000 workers. Purpose Evaluate the effectiveness of taxicab security cameras and partitions on citywide taxicab driver homicide rates. Methods Taxicab driver homicide rates were compared in 26 major cities in the U.S. licensing taxicabs with security cameras (n=8); bullet-resistant partitions (n=7); and cities where taxicabs were not equipped with either security cameras or partitions (n=11). News clippings of taxicab driver homicides and the number of licensed taxicabs by city were used to construct taxicab driver homicide rates spanning 15 years (1996–2010). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to model the Poisson-distributed homicide rates on city-specific safety equipment installation status, controlling for city homicide rate and the concurrent decline of homicide rates over time. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Cities with cameras experienced a threefold reduction in taxicab driver homicides compared with control cities (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0.12, 0.61; p=0.002). There was no difference in homicide rates for cities with partitions compared with control cities (RR=1.15; 95% CI=0.80, 1.64; p=0.575). Conclusions Municipal ordinances and company policies mandating security cameras appear to be highly effective in reducing taxicab driver deaths due to workplace violence. PMID:23790983

  3. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  4. Microcephaly Case Fatality Rate Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Brazil: Current Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da; de Magalhães-Barbosa, Maria Clara; Lima-Setta, Fernanda; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Prata-Barbosa, Arnaldo

    2017-05-01

    Considering the currently confirmed cases of microcephaly and related deaths associated with Zika virus in Brazil, the estimated case fatality rate is 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 7.2-9.6). However, a third of the reported cases remain under investigation. If the confirmation rates of cases and deaths are the same in the future, the estimated case fatality rate will be as high as 10.5% (95% confidence interval: 9.5-11.7).

  5. Crash data and rates for age-sex groups of drivers, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The results of this research note are based on 1996data for fatal crashes, driver licenses, and estimates of total crashes based upon data obtained from the nationally representative sample of crashes gathered in the General Estimates System (GES). T...

  6. Intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among Canada's immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiagi, R

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C E

    1989-12-01

    Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since 1981. Their observed use rates have been consistently close to 100%. This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas (which are equipped with three-point manual belts) using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. From this, the fatality-reducing effectiveness for the Toyota automatic belts is estimated to be 40% with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness.

  8. Older driver involvements in police reported crashes and fatal crashes: trends and projections

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, S; Ferguson, S; Braver, E; Williams, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Older drivers have become a larger part of the driving population and will continue to do so as the baby boomers reach retirement age. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential effects of this population increase on highway safety.

  9. Effect of mobile phone proliferation on crash notification times and fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Jimmy L; Kempema, James M; Brown, Lawrence H

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increased proliferation of mobile telephones has been associated with decreased MVC notification times and/or decreased MVC fatality rates in the United States (US). We used World Bank annual mobile phone market penetration data and US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) fatal MVC data for 1994-2014. For each year, phone proliferation was measured as mobile phones per 100 population. FARS data were used to calculate MVC notification time (time EMS notified - time MVC occurred) in minutes, and to determine the MVC fatality rate per billion vehicle miles traveled (BVMT). We used basic vector auto-regression modeling to explore relationships between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median and 90th percentile MVC notification times, as well as MVC fatality rates. From 1994 to 2014, larger year-over-year increases in phone proliferation were associated with larger decreases in 90th percentile notification times for MVCs occurring during daylight hours (p=0.004) and on the national highway system (p=0.046) two years subsequent, and crashes off the national highway system three years subsequent (p=0.023). There were no significant associations between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median crash notification times, nor with subsequent changes in MVC fatality rates. Between 1994 and 2014 increased mobile phone proliferation in the U.S. was associated with shorter 90th percentile EMS notification times for some subgroups of fatal MVCs, but not with decreases in median notification times or overall MVC fatality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic and cultural correlates of road-traffic accident fatality rates in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygisiz, Esma

    2009-10-01

    The relationships between economic conditions, cultural characteristics, personality dimensions, intelligence scores, and road-traffic accident mortality rates were investigated in 30 member and five accession countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Economic indicators included the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, the unemployment rate, and the Gini index. Cultural variables included five Hofstede's cultural dimensions, seven Schwartz cultural value dimensions, NEO-PI-R scales, and the intelligence quotient (IQ). The results showed positive associations between favorable economic conditions (high income per capita, high employment rate, and low income inequality) and high traffic safety. Countries with higher road-traffic accident fatality rates were characterized by higher power distance and uncertainty avoidance as well as embeddedness and emphasis on social hierarchy. Countries with lower road-traffic accident fatality rates were more individualistic, egalitarian, and emphasized autonomy of individuals. Conscientiousness (from NEO-PI-R) and IQ correlated negatively with road-traffic accident fatalities.

  11. Extended investigation on road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N B; Hoque, M A; Steele, M C; Yong, S Y

    2018-06-08

    Road fatality is one of the leading causes of death in Brunei with 79 deaths in 1993, the highest ever recorded. The Brunei government has been trying to reduce this by implementing new traffic measures and successfully reduced fatalities to 24 fatalities in 2014. Yearly road fatality has been fluctuating, but there has been a declining tendency overall. The aim of this study is to investigate road fatality in Brunei by extending the research. We developed a multiple regression model and carried out an analysis on road fatality in Brunei. Our analysis indicates that the road fatality appears to rise depending on the increase in the number of young drivers between 15 to 24 years and the number of unemployed people. Comparisons of Brunei road fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles are made with some other countries and we conclude that Brunei has approximately the same rate as Australia in 2014.

  12. Inpatient case fatality rates improvements in children under 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa (SA),[2] and contribute significantly to the under-5 mortality rate. In 2015, pneumonia ... under-5 deaths (excluding perinatal causes), accounting for 16% and ... Corresponding author: L Bamford (lesley.bamford@health.gov.za). Data on ...

  13. Comparing avian and bat fatality rate estimates among North American wind energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Shawn

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy development has expanded rapidly, and so have concerns over bird and bat impacts caused by wind turbines. To assess and compare impacts due to collisions, investigators use a common metric, fatalities/MW/year, but estimates of fatality rates have come from various wind turbine models, tower heights, environments, fatality search methods, and analytical methods. To improve comparability and asses large-scale impacts, I applied a common set of assumptions and methods to data in fatality monitoring reports to estimate fatality rates of birds and bats at 71 wind projects across North America (52 outside the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, APWRA). The data were from wind turbines of 27 sizes (range 0.04-3.00 MW) and 28 tower heights (range 18.5-90 m), and searched at 40 periodic intervals (range 1-90 days) and out to 20 distances from turbines (range 30-126 m). Estimates spanned the years 1982 to 2010, and involved 1-1,345 turbines per unique combination of project, turbine size, tower height, and search methodology. I adjusted fatality rates for search detection rates averaged from 425 detection trials, and for scavenger removal rates based on 413 removal trials. I also adjusted fatality rates for turbine tower height and maximum search radius, based on logistic functions fit to cumulative counts of carcasses that were detected at 1-m distance intervals from the turbine. For each tower height, I estimated the distance at which cumulative carcass counts reached an asymptote, and for each project I calculated the proportion of fatalities likely not found due to the maximum search radius being short of the model-predicted distance asymptote. I used the same estimator in all cases. I estimated mean fatalities/MW/year among North American wind projects at 12.6 bats (80% CI: 8.1-17.1) and 11.1 birds (80% CI: 9.5-12.7), including 1.6 raptors (80% CI: 1.3-2.0), and excluding the Altamont Pass I estimated fatality rates at 17.2 bats (80% CI: 9

  14. A review of fatal accident incidence rate trends in fishing international

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Pétursdóttir, G; Abrahamsen, Annbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background. Injury prevention in fishing is one of the most important occupational health challenges. The aim was to describe and compare internationally the trends of the fatal injury incidence rates and to discuss the impact of the implemented safety programs. Methods. The review is based...... on journal articles and reports from the maritime authorities in Poland, UK, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, US and Alaska and Canada. The original incidence rates were recalculated as per 1000 person-years for international comparison of the trends. Results. The risk of fatal accidents in fishing in the northern...... countries has been reduced by around 50% to an average of about 1 per 1000 person-years. Norway and Canada keep the lowest rates with around 0.5 and 0.25 per 1000 person-years. About half of the fatal injuries are related to vessel disasters and drowning. The safety programs seem to have good effects still...

  15. On case-fatality rate: review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between log cumulative number of patients (X) and that of deaths (Y) in an epidemic follows the equation logY = klogX - klogN(0), where k is a constant determining the slope and N(0) is the value of X when Y = 1. Diseases with k = 1 are Ebola hemorrhagic fever, avian influenza H5N1, cholera, and hand, foot, and mouth disease; those with k > 1 are the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic in countries other than Mexico and the SARS epidemic in some countries; and those with k Mexico. Epidemics with k > 1 can be simulated by postulating two subpopulations (normal population [NP] and vulnerable population [VP]), where the epidemic proceeds at higher speed and at higher mortality in VP than in NP. Epidemics with k 1 was simulated using parameters that are fractions of subpopulations NP or VP from the total population (f) and NP- or VP-specific patient multiplication (M) and mortality (D) rates. An epidemic with k < 1 was simulated using parameters that are fractions of HVV- or LVV-infected human populations (f), and HVV- or LVV-specific M and D.

  16. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Austral...

  17. The work-related fatal injury study: numbers, rates and trends of work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C

    2001-01-26

    To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.

  18. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  19. Subway-Related Trauma: An Urban Public Health Issue with a High Case-Fatality Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Simon G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wall, Stephen; Sim, Vasiliy; Frangos, Spiros G; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Bukur, Marko; Tandon, Manish; Todd, S Rob; Marshall, Gary T

    2018-05-09

    Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Poisson regression approach for modeling fatal injury rates amongst Malaysian workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarulzaman Ibrahim; Heng Khai Theng

    2005-01-01

    Many safety studies are based on the analysis carried out on injury surveillance data. The injury surveillance data gathered for the analysis include information on number of employees at risk of injury in each of several strata where the strata are defined in terms of a series of important predictor variables. Further insight into the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables may be obtained by the poisson regression approach. Poisson regression is widely used in analyzing count data. In this study, poisson regression is used to model the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables which are year (1995-2002), gender, recording system and industry type. Data for the analysis were obtained from PERKESO and Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. It is found that the assumption that the data follow poisson distribution has been violated. After correction for the problem of over dispersion, the predictor variables that are found to be significant in the model are gender, system of recording, industry type, two interaction effects (interaction between recording system and industry type and between year and industry type). Introduction Regression analysis is one of the most popular

  1. Beginning teenage drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  2. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  3. Meningococcal meningitis: clinical and laboratorial characteristics, fatality rate and variables associated with in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with meningococcal meningitis, and to identify associated factors with mortality. This was a retrospective study, between 2006 and 2011, at a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality. We included 316 patients. The median age was 16 years (IQR: 7–27 and 60% were male. The clinical triad: fever, headache and neck stiffness was observed in 89% of the patients. The cerebrospinal triad: pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and low glucose levels was present in 79% of patients. Factors associated with mortality in the multivariate model were age above 50 years, seizures, tachycardia, hypotension and neck stiffness. The classic clinical and laboratory triads of meningococcal meningitis were variable. The fatality rate was low. Age, seizures and shock signs were independently associated with mortality.

  4. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; Dégano, Irene R; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-22

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

    2013-11-01

    Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

  6. A national cholera epidemic with high case fatality rates--Kenya 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loharikar, Anagha; Briere, Elizabeth; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Njeru, Ian; Gathigi, Lucy; Makayotto, Lyndah; Ismail, Abdirizak M; Thuranira, Martin; Abade, Ahmed; Amwayi, Samuel; Omolo, Jared; Oundo, Joe; De Cock, Kevin M; Breiman, Robert F; Ayers, Tracy; Mintz, Eric; O'Reilly, Ciara E

    2013-11-01

    Cholera remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We characterized the 2009 cholera outbreaks in Kenya and evaluated the response. We analyzed surveillance data and estimated case fatality rates (CFRs). Households in 2 districts, East Pokot (224 cases; CFR = 11.7%) and Turkana South (1493 cases; CFR = 1.0%), were surveyed. We randomly selected 15 villages and 8 households per village in each district. Healthcare workers at 27 health facilities (HFs) were surveyed in both districts. In 2009, cholera outbreaks caused a reported 11 425 cases and 264 deaths in Kenya. Data were available from 44 districts for 6893 (60%) cases. District CFRs ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Surveyed household respondents (n = 240) were aware of cholera (97.5%) and oral rehydration solution (ORS) (87.9%). Cholera deaths were reported more frequently from East Pokot (n = 120) than Turkana South (n = 120) households (20.7% vs. 12.3%). The average travel time to a HF was 31 hours in East Pokot compared with 2 hours in Turkana South. Fewer respondents in East Pokot (9.8%) than in Turkana South (33.9%) stated that ORS was available in their village. ORS or intravenous fluid shortages occurred in 20 (76.9%) surveyed HFs. High CFRs in Kenya are related to healthcare access disparities, including availability of rehydration supplies.

  7. The case-fatality rate of meningococcal disease in Catalonia, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Angela; Cardeñosa, Neus; Pañella, Helena; Orcau, Angels; Companys, Maria; Alseda, Miquel; Oviedo, Manuel; Carmona, Glòria; Minguell, Sofia; Salleras, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to analyse the case-fatality rate (CFR) of meningococcal disease (MD) in Catalonia, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out. Clinical histories of cases of MD reported for the period 1990-1997 in Catalonia were reviewed. For all cases, the variables gender, age, clinical type, y of presentation, province, phenotype and death by meningococcal disease were collected. The association between death and the other variables was studied by bivariate and unconditional logistic regression analysis. In the 2343 cases studied there were 146 deaths (6.2%) due to meningococcal disease. The CFR was higher in females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.1), in the 20 to 49 y (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2-4.9) and > or = 50 y (OR: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.8-10.1) age groups, in cases with septicaemia (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5), in the cases produced by serogroup A (OR: 4.7, 95%CI: 1.0-23.4) and in cases occurring during 1993 (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.1-4.1) or in the province of Lleida (OR: 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-7.2). In the multivariate analysis, death was associated with the 20-49 y age group (OR: 3.9, 95%CI: 1.8-8.4), the > or = 50 y age group (OR: 7.3, 95%CI: 3.6-14.7), septicaemia (OR: 3.1; 95%CI: 2.0-4.7) and residing in the province of Lleida (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.5). The CFR of meningococcal disease in Catalonia was not associated with the emergent phenotype C:2b:P1.2,5 strain, which caused an outbreak in other regions of Spain.

  8. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  9. Obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: sex difference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Laud, P W; Pintar, F; Kim, J-E; Shih, A; Shen, W; Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Zhu, S

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is whether there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10,962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1 versus 52.2%), but experienced a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7 versus 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk (logistic coefficients of body mass index (BMI) for moderate, serious and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470 and 0.1792, respectively; all Pobese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies.

  10. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  11. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity,

  12. Longitudinal Study of Driver Licensing Rates among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Allison E.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Huang, Patty; Metzger, Kristi B.

    2018-01-01

    Driving may increase mobility and independence for adolescents with autism without intellectual disability (autism spectrum disorder); however, little is known about rates of licensure. To compare the proportion of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder who acquire a learner's permit and driver's license, as well as the rate at…

  13. Road crash fatality rates in France: a comparison of road user types, taking account of travel practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaoun, Liacine; Haddak, Mohamed Mouloud; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    Travel practices are changing: bicycle and motorized two-wheeler (MTW) use are rising in some of France's large cities. These are cheaper modes of transport and therefore attractive at a time of economic crisis, but they also allow their users to avoid traffic congestion. At the same time, active transport modes such as walking and cycling are encouraged because they are beneficial to health and reduce pollution. It is therefore important to find out more about the road crash risks of the different modes of transport. To do this, we need to take account of the number of individuals who use each, and, even better, their travel levels. We estimated the exposure-based fatality rates for road traffic crashes in France, on the basis of the ratio between the number of fatalities and exposure to road accident risk. Fatality data were obtained from the French national police database of road traffic casualties in the period 2007-2008. Exposure data was estimated from the latest national household travel survey (ENTD) which was conducted from April 2007 to April 2008. Three quantities of travel were computed for each mode of transport: (1) the number of trips, (2) the distance traveled and (3) the time spent traveling. Annual fatality rates were assessed by road user type, age and sex. The overall annual fatality rates were 6.3 per 100 million trips, 5.8 per billion kilometers traveled and 0.20 per million hours spent traveling. The fatality rates differed according to road user type, age and sex. The risk of being killed was 20 to 32 times higher for motorized two-wheeler users than for car occupants. For cyclists, the risk of being killed, both on the basis of time spent traveling and the number of trips was about 1.5 times higher than for car occupants. Risk for pedestrians compared to car occupants was similar according to time spent traveling, lower according to the number of trips and higher according to the distance traveled. People from the 17-20 and 21-29 age

  14. Frequency and irregularity of heart rate in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2008-12-01

    Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major active component of cannabis. Cardiovascular effects of THC have previously been reported: tachycardia after intake, but also bradycardia at higher doses. The purpose of this study was, firstly, to investigate the frequency and irregularity of heart rate in a group of cannabis users in their natural surroundings. We also compared THC-positive drivers with a regular pulse with THC-positive drivers with an irregular pulse. The division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse (DFTDA) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath analyzes blood samples from all drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. We studied pulse rate and regularity in 502 THC-positive drivers who tested negative for other substances. As a control group, we randomly selected 125 drug-negative cases from the database of the DFTDA; no alcohol, narcotics, or medicinal drugs of abuse were detected. The Delta9-THC-positive drivers had a higher mean pulse rate than the control group [82.8 beats/min (SD 16.3) versus 75.6 beats/min (SD 9.2)] and more cases with tachycardia were detected in the Delta9-THC-positive group (19.4% versus 1.6%). There was only one driver with an irregular heart beat in the control group, while there were nine among the Delta9-THC-positive drivers. The drivers with an irregular pulse were over-represented amongst those with the lowest blood Delta9-THC concentrations. This report represents a large study of subjects in a real-life situation and includes observations on pulse frequency, regularity, and blood Delta9-THC concentration. A substantial fraction of Delta9-THC-positive drivers had tachycardia, but there was no correlation between blood Delta9-THC concentration and pulse rate in the present study. We had no further diagnostic information on the cause of the pulse irregularities, but our results indicate that occasional users of cannabis tend to have irregular heart rates at low THC concentrations and at low

  15. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntosh, R.R.; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, D.R.; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials

  16. Impact direction effect on serious-to-fatal injuries among drivers in near-side collisions according to impact location: focus on thoracic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xinghua; Ma, Chunsheng; Hu, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Occupant injury in real world vehicle accidents can be significantly affected by a set of crash characteristics, of which impact direction and impact location (or damage location) in general scale interval (e.g., frontal impact is frequently defined as general damage to vehicle frontal end with impact angle range of 11-1 o'clock) have been identified to associate with injury outcome. The effects of crash configuration in more specific scale of interval on the injury characteristics have not been adequately investigated. This paper presents a statistical analysis to investigate the combined effects of specific impact directions and impact locations on the serious-to-fatal injuries of driver occupants involved in near-side collisions using crash data from National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the calendar years of 1995-2005. The screened injury dataset is categorized by three impact locations (side front, side center and side distributed) and two impact directions (oblique impact at 10 o'clock and pure lateral impact at 9 o'clock), resulting in six crash configurations in total. The weighted counts and the risks of different types of injuries in each subgroup are calculated, with which the relative risks along with 95% confidence intervals under oblique impacts versus lateral impacts in each impact location category are computed. Accordingly, the most frequent injury patterns, the risks and the coded-sources of serious thoracic injuries in different crash configurations are identified. The approach adopted in the present study provides new perspectives into occupant injury outcomes and associated mechanism. Results of the analyses reveal the importance of consideration of the crash configurations beyond the scope of existing side-impact regulatory tests and stress the necessity of vehicle crashworthiness and restraint system design in omni-direction to better protect occupants in real-world crash scenarios. Copyright © 2012

  17. Improvements in Symbol Sign Design To Aid Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Studies have shown that older drivers have higher rates of accidents, injuries, and fatalities on a per-mile-driven basis. A major cause of roadway accidents for older drivers is failure to heed traffic signs. Previous research found that older drive...

  18. Wind energy development: Methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dalthorp, Daniel; Miller, T J; Bruns, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fatalities at wind energy facilities after they have been constructed can provide valuable information regarding impacts of wind power development on wildlife. The objective of this monitoring is to estimate abundance of a super-population of carcasses that entered the area within a designated period of time. By definition, the population is not closed and carcasses can enter as they are killed through collision with turbines, and leave as they are removed by scavengers or decompose to a point where they are not recognizable. In addition, the population is not inherently mobile, but can only change location through some external force. A focus on number of animal carcasses comprising the super-population, combined with peculiar traits that resist classic assumptions, distinguish fatality estimation at wind-power facilities from more classic abundance estimates that can be addressed through mark-recapture techniques or other well-known abundance estimators. We review the available methods to estimate the super-population of carcasses at wind power facilities. We discuss the role of these estimates in determining appropriate levels of minimization and mitigation of impacts to individual species of concern. We discuss the potential to extrapolate these measurements to reflect the cumulative effect of the industry on individual species. Finally, we suggest avenues of research needed to strengthen our understanding of the effect wind power development has, and might have in the future, on wildlife on this continent and worldwide.

  19. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  20. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. An interrupted time-series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery-related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout-related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. The average annual crude rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non-significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full-time equivalents (95% CI -0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing. There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after.

  1. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. Design An interrupted time‐series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery‐related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout‐related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. Results The average annual crude rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non‐significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full‐time equivalents (95% CI −0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing. Conclusions There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after. PMID:17916891

  2. High repetition rate driver circuit for modulation of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, B.R.; Goel, J.; Wolkstein, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    An injection laser modulator comprises a self-biased field effect transistor (FET) and an injection laser to provide a quiescent state during which lasing of the injection laser occurs in response to a high repetition rate signal of pulse coded modulation (pcm). The modulator is d.c. coupled to an input pulse source of pcm rendering it compatible with an input pulse referenced to ground and not being subject to voltage level shifting of the input pulse. The modulator circuit in its preferred and alternate embodiments provides various arrangements for high impedance input and low impedance output matching. In addition, means are provided for adjusting the bias of the FET as well as the bias of the injection laser

  3. Subtypes and case-fatality rates of stroke: a hospital-based stroke registry in Taiwan (SCAN-IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, J S; Lee, T K; Chang, Y C; Huang, Z S; Ng, S K; Chen, R C; Yip, P K

    1998-04-01

    Stroke data bank can afford important information regarding risk factors, pathogenesis, prognosis, etc. By means of hospital-based stroke registry, we investigated the risk factors and case-fatality rates in different types of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 1995. After excluding ineligible patients, 995 patients aged 1-98 years (575 men and 420 women) were recruited. Men predominated in all age groups for stroke and TIA in general except for cerebral hemorrhage (CH) in patients aged or = 45 years. Of these, 676 (67.9%), 41 (4.1%), 228 (22.9%) and 50 (5%) patients were classified in the categories of cerebral infarction (CI), TIA, CH and SAH, respectively. The CI/CH ratio was 2.96. Hypertension remained one of the most important risk factors for CI, CH and TIA patients. Severe extracranial carotid artery stenosis (> or = 50%) was found in 12% of the CI patients and 27% of the TIA patients, but not found in the CH and SAH patients. Of these patients, the 30-day case-fatality rate was 10.9%, highest in SAH (30%), followed by CH (24.1%) and CI (5.6%). There were 41 in-hospital stroke patients who had significantly higher case-fatality rates than the other stroke patients (PTaiwan, there is a secular trend of increasing CI/CH ratios. These findings in Taiwan were compared with those in other populations, including other Asian, Caucasian and black populations. The CI/CH ratios in Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese and Korean, were much lower than those in Caucasian and black populations. Dietary, environmental and genetic factors probably play important roles in these differences.

  4. [The estimated incidence and case fatality rate of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease in 2002 in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugat, Jaume; Arboix, Adrià; García-Eroles, Lluís; Salas, Teresa; Vila, Joan; Castell, Conxa; Tresserras, Ricard; Elosua, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an estimate of the incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the Spanish population in 2002. The study involved data on patients aged over 24 years for the year 2002 contained in both the death register and the Minimum Basic Data Set from 65 of the 84 Catalan general hospitals (i.e., 90.7% of all acute hospital beds in Catalonia). Total and age-adjusted mortality rates, cumulative incidence, and hospitalization rates, and the 28-day case fatality rate for CVD in the Catalan population were calculated after cases of traumatic and transient disease had been excluded. The unadjusted CVD mortality rate per 100,000 population aged over 24 years in Catalonia was 92 in men and 119 in women. The age-adjusted rates were 58 (95% confidence interval or CI, 56-61) and 43 (95% CI, 41-44), respectively. The cumulative incidence of CVD per 100,000 population was 218 (95% CI, 214-221) in men and 127 (95% CI, 125-128) in women. The unadjusted 28-day case fatality rate in the population was 36.2%: 30.3% in men and 42.0% in women. Some 62.5% of patients (57.2% of men and 66.4% of women) died from CVD outside hospital. These findings indicate that CVD mortality and incidence rates in Catalonia are among the lowest in developed countries. More than half of the deaths that took place within 28 days after the onset of symptoms occurred outside hospital.

  5. The effect of performance feedback on drivers' hazard perception ability and self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Garth, Megan; Hill, Andrew; Watson, Marcus O

    2017-04-01

    Drivers' hazard perception ability has been found to predict crash risk, and novice drivers appear to be particularly poor at this skill. This competency appears to develop only slowly with experience, and this could partially be a result of poor quality performance feedback. We report an experiment in which we provided high-quality artificial feedback on individual drivers' performance in a validated video-based hazard perception test via either: (1) a graph-based comparison of hazard perception response times between the test-taker, the average driver, and an expert driver; (2) a video-based comparison between the same groups; or (3) both. All three types of feedback resulted in both an improvement in hazard perception performance and a reduction in self-rated hazard perception skill, compared with a no-feedback control group. Video-based and graph-based feedback combined resulted in a greater improvement in hazard perception performance than either of the individual components, which did not differ from one another. All three types of feedback eliminated participants' self-enhancement bias for hazard perception skill. Participants judged both interventions involving video feedback to be significantly more likely to improve their real-world driving than the no feedback control group. While all three forms of feedback had some value, the combined video and graph feedback intervention appeared to be the most effective across all outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bronchial mucosal tolerance following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy: clinical and laboratory correlates in late complication assessment of fatal hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; McDonald, S.; Nakamura, C.; Philips, A.; Ojomo, Karanita; Hernady, E.; Williams, J. P.; Smudzin, T.; Johnstone, D.; Feins, R.; Speiser, B.L.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study reviews treatment related late complications following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB) for primary lung cancers. Radiation dose contribution from HDR-EB treatment alone, or combined HDR-EB and external beam (EBRT) were analyzed in relation to the linear representation of the tracheobronchial anatomy. Results were presented in a dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for the risk estimate of late complications from HDR-EB. Bronchial mucosal tolerance is estimated from the clinical experience study and histopathologic changes in laboratory animals treated with HDR-EB. Methods: 1.) There were forty one patients with primary lung cancer received HDR-EB as part of the radiation treatment between December 1990 and June 1994. Six of these developed late complications manifested as either fatal hemoptysis or endobronchial deposition of fibrinous material/bronchial stenosis. Treatment planning films were reviewed to map the volume treated with HDR-EB and EBRT along the tracheobronchial segments. DVH was constructed and compared for patients with and without late complications. Other clinical parameters of interest which were analyzed included: dose per fraction, EBRT total dose, HDR total dose, combined EBRT and HDR total dose, number of catheters per treatment, and points of prescriptions for HDR-EB. 2.) Forty four New Zealand White rabbits underwent HDR-EB of the major airway to a treatment length of 2 cm (1 cm above and below the carina) to a single fraction dose of 10 Gy, 30 Gy, or 50 Gy. Histopathologic changes were examined at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days post-treatment and compared with the control rabbits which received no irradiation. Results: 1.) The late complication rate is 14.5% with three patients developing fibrinous deposits/bronchial stenosis and four patients who experienced fatal hemoptysis in a total of six patients. There is a significant difference in DVH of HDR-EB treatment in the tracheobronchial high dose region

  7. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  8. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  9. Estimation of Subjective Mental Work Load Level with Heart Rate Variability by Tolerance to Driver's Mental Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Michimasa; Oguri, Koji

    Most of the traffic accidents have been caused by inappropriate driver's mental state. Therefore, driver monitoring is one of the most important challenges to prevent traffic accidents. Some studies for evaluating the driver's mental state while driving have been reported; however driver's mental state should be estimated in real-time in the future. This paper proposes a way to estimate quantitatively driver's mental workload using heart rate variability. It is assumed that the tolerance to driver's mental workload is different depending on the individual. Therefore, we classify people based on their individual tolerance to mental workload. Our estimation method is multiple linear regression analysis, and we compare it to NASA-TLX which is used as the evaluation method of subjective mental workload. As a result, the coefficient of correlation improved from 0.83 to 0.91, and the standard deviation of error also improved. Therefore, our proposed method demonstrated the possibility to estimate mental workload.

  10. First-Ever Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Incidence and 30-Day Case-Fatality Rates in a Population-Based Study in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahit, M Cecilia; Coppola, Mariano L; Riccio, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological data about stroke are scarce in low- and middle-income Latin-American countries. We investigated annual incidence of first-ever stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 30-day case-fatality rates in a population-based setting in Tandil, Argentina....... METHODS: We prospectively identified all first-ever stroke and TIA cases from overlapping sources between January 5, 2013, and April 30, 2015, in Tandil, Argentina. We calculated crude and standardized incidence rates. We estimated 30-day case-fatality rates. RESULTS: We identified 334 first-ever strokes.......1% (95% CI, 14.2-36.6) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.8) for TIA. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first prospective population-based stroke and TIA incidence and case-fatality estimate in Argentina. First-ever stroke incidence was lower than that reported in previous Latin...

  11. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  12. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  13. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  14. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  15. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, R; García, M A; Ramos, J; Bragós, R; Fernández, M

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  16. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  18. Drivers 55 Plus: Test Your Own Performance. A Self-Rating Form of Questions, Facts and Suggestions for Safe Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfetti, James L.; Winter, Darlene J.

    This booklet contains a 15-question rating form that provides some guidance to older drivers in beginning to assess their driving skills. The pages following the self-rating form discuss the various questions on the form. After a general introduction, the discussion is divided into five areas that traffic safety authorities have judged critical to…

  19. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tong-Ding, E-mail: snuohui@126.com; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-21

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  20. An empirical examination of the influence of industry and firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, B.

    A gradual shift in U.S. firms' 'center of gravity' toward international markets is taking place. This study seeks to explain which drivers are related to this push toward international markets by U.S. firms. In addressing internationalization, previous research has not focused on various drivers that influence the rate of internationalization. Drivers refer to forces, both within and outside the firm, that impact (both positively and negatively) a firm's extent of internationalization. The role of these drivers on the rate of internationalization, though acknowledged in the literature, is yet to be validated through empirical research. This research seeks to narrow the gap in the literature by testing the various relationships among industry drivers, firm drivers, and the rate of internationalization. The objectives of this study are: (A) To develop a conceptual framework that takes into account various forces that influence the internationalization strategy of a firm; (B) To examine empirically (a) the influence of industry drivers on the rate of internationalization pursued by firms; and, (b) the influence of firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms. The sample for this study consists of 158 large U.S.- based multinational firms drawn from seven different industries. Data for the study is gathered from a variety of sources including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; COMPUSTAT; and WORLDSCOPE databases. Set-wise regression models were used for data analysis. This study found that global market growth rate, domestic market growth rate, relative size of domestic market to international market, employee productivity, administrative investments, as well as new plant and equipment influences the international strategy of firms. This study explains about 24 percent of the variance of the rate of internationalization. This research finding is contributory to our existing understanding of internationalization in many ways

  1. Rates, drivers and impacts of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakwiye, B.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, R.

    2017-12-01

    Within East-Africa, Rwanda is the most heavily populated, predominantly rural country where 85% of the population heavily depends on smallholder agriculture and natural resources. The biodiversity-rich, high elevation western region of Rwanda has historically experienced unprecedented forest loss and degradation, resulting in major losses of wildlife habitat, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Forest loss peaked during the 1990s civil wars and genocide when forests sheltered both civilians and combatants or were cleared to resettle refugees. Since the 2000s, national and international initiatives have encouraged reforestation and afforestation activities aiming to reconnect remnant fragments and improve environmental resiliency. However, consistent spatially- and temporally-explicit regional assessments of these afforestation and reforestation activities are still lacking. This study links satellite and in situ socio-ecological data to document the rates and drivers of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda. Random Forest classification was used to map the extent of forests using multitemporal Landsat-5, -7 and -8 images covering the period from 1986 to 2016. Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were used to identify the potential drivers of afforestation and reforestation. Preliminary results show a net increase of 0.05% in forest cover from 2001 to 2016, predominantly occurring on former croplands and pasture/grasslands. Around 90% of afforested and reforested areas are patchy monocultures of Eucalyptus and Alnus species, valued for timber and wood by-products but with relatively low potential to provide other ecosystem services compared to native tree species. These results highlight the need for an integrated approach to afforestation and reforestation to ensure the sustainable provision of diverse ecosystem services.

  2. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  3. Femme fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tardío Gastón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our history is full of myths and topics. Therefore the image of femme fatale is frequent in the works of all periods and places. The author of this article first analyzes how the history and literature consistently showed and defined these women, and then presents examples that come from ancient Greece. The art is powered by their power of seduction and the article explains how this femme fatale appeared in literature and film. The article concludes with a brief overview of various arguments concerning women and feminism, present in the literary criticism.

  4. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R.

    1999-01-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 ampersand micro;s at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle

  5. Islamic fatalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Ringgren

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The author sketches the historical background, then the teaching of the Koran, and finally, the development of the typical Islamic fatalism. The fatalism of Islam has to be viewed against the background of the ideas of pre-Islamic Arabia. Unfortunately, there is no other evidence from this epoch that a few poems on a very restricted range of topics which have been able to survive Islamic censure. The conventional and stereotyped character of these poems makes it difficult to decide to what extent they reflect commonly accepted views or the ideas of a certain group. In any case, they present a picture of the pagan Arab which is extremely idealized and formed after a rigid pattern. Historically speaking, Islamic 'fatalism' is the result of a combination of pre-Islamic fatalism and Muhammad's belief in God's omnipotence. From another point of view it is an interpretation of destiny that expresses man's feeling of total dependence, not on an impersonal power or universal order, but on an omnipotent God.

  6. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.

  7. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  8. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  9. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  10. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  11. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  12. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  13. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  14. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  15. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  16. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  17. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  18. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  19. Global incidence and case fatality rate of pulmonary embolism following major surgery: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgoua, Mazou N; Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Agbor, Valirie Ndip; Danwang, Celestin; Endomba, Francky Teddy A; Nkemngu, Njinkeng J

    2017-12-04

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition common after major surgery. Although the high incidence (0.3-30%) and mortality rate (16.9-31%) of PE in patients undergoing major surgical procedures is apparent from findings of contemporary observational studies, there is a lack of a summary and meta-analysis data on the epidemiology of postoperative PE in this same regard. Hence, we propose to conduct the first systematic review to summarise existing data on the global incidence, determinants and case fatality rate of PE following major surgery. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, WHO global health library (including LILACS), Web of Science and Google scholar from inception to April 30, 2017, will be searched for cohort studies reporting on the incidence, determinants and case fatality rate of PE occurring after major surgery. Data from grey literature will also be assessed. Two investigators will independently perform study selection and data extraction. Included studies will be evaluated for risk of bias. Appropriate meta-analytic methods will be used to pool incidence and case fatality rate estimates from studies with identical features, globally and by subgroups of major surgical procedures. Random-effects and risk ratio with 95% confidence interval will be used to summarise determinants and predictors of mortality of PE in patients undergoing major surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis will provide the most up-to-date epidemiology of PE in patients undergoing major surgery to inform health authorities and identify further research topics based on the remaining knowledge gaps. PROSPERO CRD42017065126.

  20. Is a driver's license age waiver worth a teen's life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dawn M; Miller, Beverly K; Mullins, Samantha H; Porter, Mary E; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers. This is a brief report on an informative query exploring risk factors related to age waivers. Publicly available databases were utilized for across state comparisons. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems (WISQARS) was utilized to calculate motor vehicle crash crude death rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data were utilized to identify seat belt use rates. The Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was utilized to identify crash fatality risks for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas (N = 24). Age waiver data were obtained from the Arkansas Driver Control Administration. De-identified data on fatal crashes and rates of age waiver issuance in Arkansas for 14 and 15 year olds from 2004 through 2016 were calculated. We reviewed crash data for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas between 2004 and 2014 to determine fatality risks. Thirty-one out of seventy-five counties in Arkansas were above the state age waiver issuance rate of 30.4 per 1000 14 to 15 year old teens. Among the four states that had similar age waivers for 14 to 15 year olds, Arkansas had the highest motor vehicle death rate of 10.2 per 100,000 young teens and the lowest seat belt use rate at 73%. Arkansas had the highest reported teen crash fatality rates among 4 states with age waivers. The volume of age waivers issued in Arkansas is concerning. Further research is needed

  1. Investigation of elevated case-fatality rate in poliomyelitis outbreak in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Christopher J; Ndiaye, Serigne; Patel, Minal; Hakizamana, Elisaphan; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ndinga, Edouard; Chu, Susan; Talani, Pascal; Kretsinger, Katrina

    2012-11-15

    Multiple cases of paralysis, often resulting in death, occurred among young adults during a wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 outbreak in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo, in 2010. We conducted an investigation to identify factors associated with fatal outcomes among persons with poliomyelitis in Pointe Noire. Polio cases were defined as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases reported from 7 October to 7 December 2010 with either a stool specimen positive for WPV or clinically classified as polio-compatible. Data were obtained from medical records, hospital databases, AFP case investigation forms and, when possible, via interviews with persons with polio or surrogates using a standard questionnaire. A total of 369 polio cases occurred in Pointe Noire between 7 October and 7 December 2010. Median age was 22 years for nonsurvivors and 18 years for survivors (P = .01). Small home size, as defined by ≤2 rooms, use of a well for drinking water during a water shortage, and age ≥15 years were risk factors for death in multivariate analysis. Consideration should be given during polio risk assessment planning and outbreak response to water/sanitation status and potential susceptibility to polio in older children and adults. Serosurveys to estimate immunity gaps in older age groups in countries at high risk of polio importation might be useful to guide preparedness and response planning.

  2. Drivers of CO2 Emission Rates from Dead Wood Logs of 13 Tree Species in the Initial Decomposition Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemo Kahl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Large dead wood is an important structural component of forest ecosystems and a main component of forest carbon cycles. CO2 emissions from dead wood can be used as a proxy for actual decomposition rates. The main drivers of CO2 emission rates for dead wood of temperate European tree species are largely unknown. We applied a novel, closed chamber measurement technique to 360 dead wood logs of 13 important tree species in three regions in Germany. We found that tree species identity was with 71% independent contribution to the model (R2 = 0.62 the most important driver of volume-based CO2 emission rates, with angiosperms having on average higher rates than conifers. Wood temperature and fungal species richness had a positive effect on CO2 emission rates, whereas wood density had a negative effect. This is the first time that positive fungal species richness—wood decomposition relationship in temperate forests was shown. Certain fungal species were associated with high or low CO2 emission rates. In addition, as indicated by separate models for each tree species, forest management intensity, study region, and the water content as well as C and N concentration of dead wood influenced CO2 emission rates.

  3. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers' Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-12

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO₂, NO x , HC, and CO emissions. CO₂ was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  4. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  5. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  6. Mechanical Design of the Radio-Isotope Source Driver Module for an Initial Prototype of Medium Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Tri Harjanto; Hendra Prasetia

    2012-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy equipment for therapy against cervical cancer is developed by empowering local products. An Iridium-192 with 5 Curies of energy is used. The source is wrapped in a capsule and combined with a wire diameter of 1 mm and length 1800 mm. The therapy is carried out by inserting the radiation source into the patient's body through an applicator. The system for loading-unloading the isotope source is divided into three modules: the source driver module, the source container modules, and channel distributor module. In this paper, the discussion is focused on engineering activities of the first module that serves to drive forward and backward position of the Iridium-192 isotope sources. The activity begins with the development of preliminary design sketches that produces drawings of mechanical components required. Furthermore, the calculations are carried out in order to establish the main component specifications. From this stage, a stepper motor type M66-A50K-G10 as a mechanical driver is chosen. The next stage is developing the detailed design and producing detailed drawings for all components. The fabrication of each component refers to the detailed design drawings. All components are assembled completely into the source driver module. Test also shows that the module works manually well. By rotating the manual handle in both directions, the tip of the wire moves alternately in forward and backward directions. (author)

  7. Truck drivers' opinion on road safety in Tanzania--a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Katja; Andersson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10,000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore, it is important to implement measures to increase traffic safety as soon as possible, and in order to be able to do this in an efficient way, it is important to investigate where the main problems lie. Within the European Union (EU) project ASSET-Road a questionnaire study on road safety was conducted with 250 truck drivers in Tanzania. The study was done to increase the knowledge about the situation of the Tanzanian truckers, who are the most frequent road users in the country. The drivers were interviewed in 3 different towns in southern Tanzania, and participation was voluntary. The questionnaire treated demographics, the state of the drivers' vehicles, the frequency of breakdowns, and the maintenance of the vehicles. Further questions concerned driver behavior, crash involvement, crash risk, and crash mitigation. The drivers who participated in the study were predominantly male and their average age was 36 years. Truck drivers reported driving 10.6 h without a break on average, with several drivers reporting that they had to drive 24 h without rest. Around 40 percent of the trucks did not have any seat belts installed, with a larger share of older trucks lacking belts. Most of the drivers who had seat belts reported using them, however. Almost 40 percent of the drivers reported being involved in at least one crash, and 45 percent of those drivers had experienced fatal crashes. This underlines that the crash frequency per vehicle is very high, and the results are often severe, especially when heavy vehicles are involved. When asked what the 3 most common crash causations were, driver-related causes were named frequently. Drivers were

  8. Incidence and 30-day case fatality rate of first-ever stroke in urban Nigeria: the prospective community based Epidemiology of Stroke in Lagos (EPISIL) phase II results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Mustapha A; Okubadejo, Njideka U; Ojini, Frank I; Ojo, Oluwadamilola O

    2013-08-15

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major contributor to global disease burden. Although epidemiologic information from a community perspective is important in determining the magnitude of the burden in specific regions, and directing equitable distribution of health resources, data on the incidence of stroke in developing countries in Africa are scarce. To determine the current incidence rate and short-term (30-day) case fatality rate (CFR) of stroke in urban Nigeria, and provide age-adjusted and gender-specific incidence rates to enable comparison with global populations. The study was a prospective community-based stroke registry enrolling hospitalized and non-hospitalized first-ever in a lifetime stroke cases presenting at all health facilities (hospitals, homeopathic caregivers, physiotherapy clinics) located in the designated community. Pre-hospitalization deaths due to stroke were not included in our study. The study was conducted between January 1st and December 31st 2007 in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, south western Nigeria, a mixed-income urban locality with a population of approximately 750,000 based on data from the National Population Commission. Stroke was defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria. Case fatality at 30-days post stroke was determined at follow-up on 160 hospitalized stroke cases. 189 first-ever strokes, comprised of 112 men and 77 women (mean±SD age 58.5±13.5 years) were documented, giving a crude incidence rate of 25.2 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 21.6- 28.8). The gender-specific rates were 28.3/100,000 and 21.3/100,000 for males and females respectively. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 54.08 per 100,000 per year (adjusted to the WHO New World Population). Hospitalization rate was 84.6%, while the CFR (hospitalized) was 16.2%. The stroke incidence in this urban sub-Saharan African community remains lower than that in emerging and developed economies

  9. How did the economic recession (2008-2010) influence traffic fatalities in OECD-countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Schedule II opioids and stimulants & CMV crash risk and driver performance : evidence report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Driving a large commercial truck is dangerous work. Truck drivers have a fatal work injury : rate of 22.1 per 100,000 workers, the eighth highest in the nation.1 : According to the Federal : Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), large trucks w...

  11. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  13. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC analysis and a support vector machine (SVM classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use.

  14. The distribution of fatal risk in Ontario industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate non-radiological risks of occupational fatalities in Ontario industries. The distribution of high-risk occupations was found to vary widely between the different industries for a number of reasons including the fact that insufficient data in some instances resulted in less than desirable reliability. However, in spite of various data limitations, a number of occupations had above average fatal risk rates in several industries, including Material Handlers and Related, N.E.C. (SOC-9319), Welders and Flame Cutters (SOC-8335), Truck Drivers (SOC-9175) and Mechanics and Repairmen, except Electrical (SOC-8589). The majority of occupations had rates below or close to the industry average; however, between 15% and 30% of the occupations in any given industry had fatal risk rates above the industry average. When the number of workers involved in different occupations was considered, between 18% and 40% of workers were in occupations with above average risk. Recommendations for future work are also provided

  15. Traffic citation rates among drivers of different residency status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Tippetts, Scott; Fell, James; Eichelberger, Angela; Grosz, Milton; Wiliszowski, Connie

    2013-03-01

    Racial/ethnic groups in the United States may be overrepresented in motor-vehicle incidents (crashes and violations), particularly among low-acculturated immigrants coming from countries in which traffic laws are not well enforced. Some evidence suggests just the opposite. We collected and analyzed information on the residency status of licensed drivers in Florida and Tennessee to examine the hypothesis that the prevalence of seat-belt nonuse, DWI, speeding, and failures to obey a traffic signal was higher among recent immigrants than among US citizens. We rejected this hypothesis. Both in Florida and Tennessee, US citizens were more likely to be cited for DWI, seat-belt, or speeding violations than the noncitizens. However, immigrants were more often cited for failure-to-obey than US citizens. We concluded that residency status does, appear to play a role in the likelihood of traffic violations, but this role is far from uniform; varying depending upon the type of traffic violation, the racial/ethnic group, and the state in which the violation occurred. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A chief safety officer as the driver and guardian of a great safety rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Oliver; Zenker, Daniel; Beatty, Tom

    2013-02-01

    If the Pharmaceutical Industry were to align to broad metrics that objectively state each product's "Safety Rating" two things would happen. First, Life Sciences companies would refocus dramatically on safety (followed by outcomes). Second, companies that have the highest aggregate "Safety Rating" would enjoy a significant competitive advantage. To achieve and maintain a high safety rating, the role of Safety officer needs to be elevated to the C-Suite.

  17. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  18. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  19. Climate is a stronger driver of tree and forest growth rates than soil and disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.; Peña-Claros, M.; Alarcón, A.; Balcázar, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Llanque, O.; Vroomans, V.; Zuidema, P.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Essential resources such as water, nutrients and light vary over space and time and plant growth rates are expected to vary accordingly. We examined the effects of climate, soil and logging disturbances on diameter growth rates at the tree and stand level, using 165 1-ha permanent sample plots

  20. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  1. Stroke incidence and 30-day and six-month case fatality rates in Udine, Italy: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Francesco; Gigli, Gian Luigi; D'Anna, Lucio; Cancelli, Iacopo; Perelli, Anna; Canal, Giessica; Russo, Valentina; Zanchettin, Barbara; Valente, Mariarosaria

    2013-10-01

    Stroke incidence in high-income countries is reported to decrease, and new data on stroke incidence and outcome are needed to design stroke services and to ameliorate stroke management. This study is part of a two-year prospective community-based registry of all cerebrovascular events in the district of Udine (153,312 inhabitants), Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, northeast of Italy, between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2009. Overlapping sources for case finding were used, combining hot and cold pursuit. We identified 784 stroke cases, 640 (81.6%) incident. The crude overall annual incidence rate per 100,000 residents was 256 (95% confidence interval 241-271) for all strokes and 209 (95% confidence interval 195-223) for first-ever strokes. Incidence rate for first-ever strokes was 181 (95% confidence interval 155-211) after adjustment to the 2007 Italian population and 104 (95% confidence interval 88-122) compared with the European standard population. Incidence rates for first-ever strokes was 215 (196-235) for women, 202 (183-223) for men. Crude annual incidence rates per 100,000 population were 167 (153-178) for ischemic stroke, 31 (26-37) for intracerebral hemorrhage, 8.1 (5.7-11.4) for sub-arachnoid hemorrhage, and 4.6 (2.8-7.1) for undetermined stroke. Overall case fatality rates for first-ever stroke were 20.6% at 28 days and 30.2% at 180 days. Our study shows incidence rates higher than previously reported in our region but not supporting the view of higher incidence rates in Northern than in Southern Italy. Results contribute to time-trends analysis on epidemiology, useful for dimensioning services in Italy and show the persistence of a gap between the outcome of stroke in Italy and that of the best performing European countries, urging to adopt better stroke management plans. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  3. Identifying the Macro-Level Drivers of Adolescent Fertility Rate in Latin America: The Role of School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, Claudia N.; Dávalos, Eleonora

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to explain macrolevel drivers of adolescent fertility rate using a panel data set derived from 17 Latin American countries over a period of 16 years (1997-2012). While many studies of adolescent fertility have focused on individual-level explanations, this study explores whether adolescent fertility rate is correlated to…

  4. Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  5. Determining the rates and drivers of headwall erosion within glaciated catchments in the NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, E.; Owen, L. A.; Saha, S.; Caffee, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Rates of headwall erosion are defined for fourteen glaciated catchments in the NW Himalaya by measuring 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in supraglacial debris. The investigated catchments are located throughout three broad climatic zones, which include the Lesser Himalaya (rainfall >1000 mm a-1), Greater Himalaya (500-1000 mm a-1) and Transhimalaya (arid catchments that are occupied by sub-polar glaciers, suggesting that there are additional controls upon periglacial domain landscape change. Other factors and catchment-specific dynamics influencing these landscapes include, temperature, surface processes, topography, valley morphology, geologic setting and glacial history. Defining rates of headwall erosion is one of the first steps to understanding the nature of sediment production and transfer within high-altitude glaciated catchments, and highlights the importance of periglacial rockfall processes in landscape evolution.

  6. Are 1994 alcohol production and the sales deregulation policy in Japan associated with increased road traffic fatalities among adult and teenage males and females in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Scime, Giulia; Sasges, Deborah; Pike, Ian; Shimizu, Shinji

    2009-10-01

    International studies have shown a significant association between alcohol availability and traffic crashes that involve alcohol-impaired drivers. A key limitation to previous alcohol availability and motor vehicle crash (MVC) evaluation research is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the policies. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on different segments of the Japanese population by comparing MVC fatality rates from before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRR) in adult males, adult females, teenage males and teenage females. To control potential confounders, unemployment rate, vehicle miles of travel (VMT), vehicle registration, and number of drivers licensed in Japan were added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to incidence rate ratios. Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities among adult or teenage males or females in Japan. We found that male adult fatalities demonstrated a statistically significant decline following enactment of the deregulation policy in 1994. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation in Japanese society following implementation of the deregulation policy in 1994. Further well designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: using evidence-based practice to identify risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra

    2013-11-01

    Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. COMPARISON OF SEVERITY AFFECTING FACTORS BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS INVOLVED IN SINGLE VEHICLE CRASHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda DISSANAYAKE, Ph.D., P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single vehicle crashes contribute to a significant amount of fatalities in the United States. At the same time, fatality crash involvement rates of young and older drivers are well above the average and both groups are identified as critical groups when it comes to highway safety. Therefore, the study described in this paper developed separate models to predict crash severity of single vehicle crashes by young and older drivers. By using the models, factors affecting towards increased crash severity were identified for each group and comparisons were made. Almost all the common identified factors influenced both driver groups in the same manner except in the case of alcohol and drug usage, which indicated an interesting finding in the case of crash severity of older drivers. Speeding and non-usage of a restraint device were the two most important factors affecting towards increased crash severity for both driver groups at all severity levels. Additionally, ejection and existence of curve/grade were determinants of higher young driver crash severity at all levels. For older drivers, having a frontal impact point was a severity determinant at all levels. County of residence and weather condition were not effective in making any changes with respect to crash severity at any level, while some other factors had a minimal affect. Findings of this study are beneficial in investigating the potential ways of reducing crash severity, which could also be influential in reducing the occurrence of crashes as well.

  9. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  10. Do inter-hospital comparisons of in-hospital, acute myocardial infarction case-fatality rates serve the purpose of fostering quality improvement? An evaluative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molenberghs Geert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-hospital case-fatality rates in patients, admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CFRs, are internationally used as a quality indicator. Attempting to encourage the hospitals to assume responsibility, the Belgian Ministry of Health decided to stimulate initiatives of quality improvement by means of a limited set of indicators, among which AMI-CFR, to be routinely analyzed. In this study we aimed, by determining the existence of inter-hospital differences in AMI-CFR, (1 to evaluate to which extent Belgian discharge records allow the assessment of quality of care in the field of AMI, and (2 to identify starting points for quality improvement. Methods Hospital discharge records from all the Belgian short-term general hospitals in the period 2002-2005. The study population (N = 46,287 included patients aged 18 years and older, hospitalized for AMI. No unique patient identifier being present, we tried to track transferred patients. We assessed data quality through a comparison of MCD with data from two registers for acute coronary events and through transfer and sensitivity analyses. We compared AMI-CFRs across hospitals, using multivariable logistic regression models. In the main model hospitals, Charlson's co-morbidity index, age, gender and shock constituted the covariates. We carried out two types of analyses: a first one wherein transferred-out cases were excluded, to avoid double counting of patients when computing rates, and a second one with exclusion of all transferred cases, to allow the study of patients admitted into, treated in and discharged from the same hospital. Results We identified problems regarding both the CFR's numerator and denominator. Sensitivity analyses revealed differential coding and/or case management practices. In the model with exclusion of transfer-out cases, the main determinants of AMI-CFR were cardiogenic shock (ORadj 23.0; 95% CI [20.9;25.2], and five-year age groups ORadj 1.23; 95

  11. Do inter-hospital comparisons of in-hospital, acute myocardial infarction case-fatality rates serve the purpose of fostering quality improvement? An evaluative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelvoet, Willem; Terryn, Nathalie; Molenberghs, Geert; De Backer, Guy; Vrints, Christiaan; van Sprundel, Marc

    2010-12-08

    In-hospital case-fatality rates in patients, admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CFRs), are internationally used as a quality indicator. Attempting to encourage the hospitals to assume responsibility, the Belgian Ministry of Health decided to stimulate initiatives of quality improvement by means of a limited set of indicators, among which AMI-CFR, to be routinely analyzed. In this study we aimed, by determining the existence of inter-hospital differences in AMI-CFR, (1) to evaluate to which extent Belgian discharge records allow the assessment of quality of care in the field of AMI, and (2) to identify starting points for quality improvement. Hospital discharge records from all the Belgian short-term general hospitals in the period 2002-2005. The study population (N = 46,287) included patients aged 18 years and older, hospitalized for AMI. No unique patient identifier being present, we tried to track transferred patients. We assessed data quality through a comparison of MCD with data from two registers for acute coronary events and through transfer and sensitivity analyses. We compared AMI-CFRs across hospitals, using multivariable logistic regression models. In the main model hospitals, Charlson's co-morbidity index, age, gender and shock constituted the covariates. We carried out two types of analyses: a first one wherein transferred-out cases were excluded, to avoid double counting of patients when computing rates, and a second one with exclusion of all transferred cases, to allow the study of patients admitted into, treated in and discharged from the same hospital. We identified problems regarding both the CFR's numerator and denominator.Sensitivity analyses revealed differential coding and/or case management practices. In the model with exclusion of transfer-out cases, the main determinants of AMI-CFR were cardiogenic shock (OR(adj) 23.0; 95% CI [20.9;25.2]), and five-year age groups OR(adj) 1.23; 95% CI [1.11;1.36]). Sizable inter-hospital and inter

  12. Impact of the 1994 alcohol production and sales deregulation policy on traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Dutt, Namrata; Arason, Neil; Pike, Ian

    2012-09-01

    . Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on the Japanese population by comparing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash rates before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Participants and method. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in the population. To control for potential confounders, per capita alcohol consumption, unemployment rate, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) were also added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to the IRRs. . Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities and other traffic crashes in Japan. In the overall study results, nighttime fatalities were reduced statistically significantly by 6% since the implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Discussion. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation. Further well-designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  13. Nordic ski jumping fatalities in the United States: a 50-year summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R

    1988-06-01

    Nordic ski-jumping fatalities are rare events. Six jumping fatalities have occurred in the United States during the past 50 years. The fatality rate for nordic ski jumping, estimated to be roughly 12 fatalities/100,000 participants annually, appears to be within the range of fatality rates for other "risky" outdoor sports. Cervical fractures appear to be the most frequent fatal ski-jumping injury.

  14. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  15. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  16. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  17. Epidemiology and patterns of transport-related fatalities in Austria 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Rusnak, Martin; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Brazinova, Alexandra; Leitgeb, Johannes; Mauritz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Transport-related accidents remain the largest single cause of death among people aged 15 to 29 in the European Union, and despite the decrease in number of fatalities from 1990 onwards they remain a significant public health problem. The aim of this article was to analyze the long-term trends and patterns of transport-related fatalities, identify the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries in different road users, and identify the primary populations at risk of transport-related death in Austria between 1980 and 2013. Data on transport-related fatalities based on death certificates were obtained from Statistics Austria for the analyzed period. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated and broken down by age, gender, and month of death, and the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries were identified. Potential years of life lost before age 75 (PYLL-75) were used as a measure of public health impact. A total of 39,709 transport-related fatalities were identified for the studied years; 74% were males and the mean age was 42.1 years (range 0-103). A decrease in the number of fatalities (from 2018 in 1980 to 554 in 2012), mortality rates (from 26 in 1980 to 7 in 2012), and PYLL-75 (from 68,960 in 1980 to 14,931 in 2012) was observed. Introduction of major prevention milestones (compulsory use of seat belts or child restraints) may have contributed to this decrease. Men 16-24 years old were at the highest risk of transport-related death. Pedestrian victims were more likely to be women and car drivers and motorcyclists were more often men. Most fatal transport accidents occurred between the months of May and October and prevailingly in towns of fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Injuries to the head were the most significant injuries in all user groups (>50% of cases in all road user types). Reduced mortality rates could translate into higher prevalence of long-term disabilities in survivors of transport accidents. Despite

  18. Study on driver`s stress in lane-change maneuver. Evaluation and analysis of heat rate change; Shasen henkoji no untensha no kinchodo kaiseki. Shinpaku hendo no gen`in bunrui to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, S; Shimizu, Y [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We measured the changes of heart rate in order to analyze the drivers` stress while they tried high speed lane-change on the stationary driving simulator. We concluded that the reasons of the chances were mainly dependent on the following two items. (1) mental pressure caused by the coming task of lane-change, (2) mental disturbance by the task to keep the vehicle inside the lane. By using the mental pressure and disturbance, we could evaluate the stability of the vehicles in lane-change maneuver. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  20. Road crash injuries and fatalities in Isfahan, Iran from March 2006 to March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents have continued to increase, and have become the primary public hazard to humans. The main goal of the present study was to investigate road traffic crash (RTC) fatalities and injuries in the city of Isfahan, Iran. A sample of 150,940 accident cases was considered from Isfahan Police Safety Driving Department, involving drivers and passengers of all ages, and covering a 3-year period. The record linkage identified 24,608 drivers and passengers injured or died as a result of RTC in the city of Isfahan over the 3-year period. The finding of this study shows that the highest rate of RTC fatality was 40% and 58%, which comprises the male drivers and female passengers within the age classes 25-34 and 35-44, respectively. On average, there were one death every 3 days and every hour, someone was injured and taken to an emergency department for RTCs in the city of Isfahan. The highest men to women death and injured ratios were 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The use of seat belt devices in our population was worrisome. The article ends with a number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety.

  1. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  2. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  3. The Effects of Vehicle Redesign on the Risk of Driver Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Lund, Adrian K

    2015-01-01

    This study updates a 2006 report that estimated the historical effects of vehicle design changes on driver fatality rates in the United States, separate from the effects of environmental and driver behavior changes during the same period. In addition to extending the period covered by 8 years, this study estimated the effect of design changes by model year and vehicle type. Driver death rates for consecutive model years of vehicle models without design changes were used to estimate the vehicle aging effect and the death rates that would have been expected if the entire fleet had remained unchanged from the 1985 calendar year. These calendar year estimates are taken to be the combined effect of road environment and motorist behavioral changes, with the difference between them and the actual calendar year driver fatality rates reflecting the effect of changes in vehicle design and distribution of vehicle types. The effects of vehicle design changes by model year were estimated for cars, SUVs, and pickups by computing driver death rates for model years 1984-2009 during each of their first 3 full calendar years of exposure and comparing with the expected rates if there had been no design changes. As reported in the 2006 study, had there been no changes in the vehicle fleet, driver death risk would have declined during calendar years 1985-1993 and then slowly increased from 1993 to 2004. The updated results indicate that the gradual increase would have continued through 2006, after which driver fatality rates again would have declined through 2012. Overall, it is estimated that there were 7,700 fewer driver deaths in 2012 than there would have been had vehicle designs not changed. Cars were the first vehicle type whose design safety generally exceeded that of the 1984 model year (starting in model year 1996), followed by SUVs (1998 models) and pickups (2002 models). By the 2009 model year, car driver fatality risk had declined 51% from its high in 1994, pickup driver

  4. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  5. Exploring Challenges in Developing a Smart and Effective Assistive System for Improving the Experience of the Elderly Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sebin; Meng, Hong-Ying; Qin, Sheng-Feng

    2017-09-01

    As the overall population ages, driving-related accidents and injuries, associated with elderly drivers, have risen. Existing research about elderly drivers mainly focuses on factual data collection and analysis, indicating the elderly's growing fatal accident rates and their different behaviours compared to younger drivers. However, few research has focused on design-led practical solutions to mitigate the elderly's growing fatal accidents, by considering their usability and body conditions, afflicting the elderly, such as decreased vision, hearing, and reaction times. In this paper, first, current worldwide situations on growing fatal accident rates for elderly drivers is reviewed and the key impact factors are identified and discussed with regarding to usability and design trend in the automotive technology for elderly. Second, existing smart vehicle technology-based solutions to promote safe driving are explored and their pros and cons are discussed and analysed. Most of solutions are not created by people with driving difficulties, which are caused by health problems most commonly afflicting the elderly. Thirdly, diverse design-led research activities are taken, such as a survey, observation, and interviews to gain new understanding of what kinds of driving problems elderly drivers have and demonstrate how new system concepts could be developed for the elderly's benefits. Finally, it is found that the elderly's low vision and late reaction are main factors causing their driving difficulties. Based on this finding, usable vehicle system design ideas have been proposed, by utilising facial expression sensing technology as a solution. The proposed solutions would ensure reducing both the elderly's driving problems and high fatal accident rates and provide a more enjoyable driving environment for the elderly population.

  6. The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2018-01-02

    The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognized as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has been recognized as a pervasive young driver problem. Though progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilization and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates. The aim of the research was to explore sex differences in self-reported risky driving behaviors of young drivers, including the associations with crash involvement, in a sample of young drivers attending university in Colombia. The Spanish version of the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS-Sp) was applied in an online survey to a sample of 392 students (225 males) aged 16-24 years attending a major university. Appropriate comparative statistics and logistic regression modeling were used when analyzing the data. Males reported consistently more risky driving behaviors, with approximately one quarter of all participants reporting risky driving exposure. Males reported greater crash involvement, with violations such as speeding associated with crash involvement for both males and females. Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviors as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviors than young female drivers, a finding consistent with the behaviors of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investigate how these

  7. Drinking-driving fatalities and consumption of beer, wine and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Asbridge, Mark; Suurvali, Helen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2006-07-01

    Drinking-driving is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Canada. The purpose of this paper was to examine factors that influenced drinking driver deaths in Ontario. We examined the impact of per capita consumption of total alcohol, and of beer, wine and spirits separately, on drinking-driving deaths in Ontario from 1962 to 1996, as well as the impact of the introduction of Canada's per se law and the founding of People to Reduce Impaired Driving Everywhere - Mothers Against Drunk Driving (PRIDE - MADD) Canada. We utilised time-series analyses with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. As total alcohol consumption increased, drinking driving fatalities increased. The introduction of Canada's per se law, and of PRIDE-MADD Canada, acted to reduce drinking driving death rates. Among the specific beverage types, only consumption of beer had a significant impact on drinking driver deaths. Several factors were identified that acted to increase and decrease drinking driver death rates. Of particular interest was the observation of the impact of beer consumption on these death rates. In North America, beer is taxed at a lower rate than other alcoholic beverages. The role of taxation policies as determinants of drinking-driving deaths is discussed.

  8. Conceptual design of compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver with an r.f. LINAC with high acceleration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, T.; Sasa, K.; Okamura, M.; Ito, T.; Tomizawa, H.; Katayose, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Yoshida, T.; Isokawa, K.; Aoki, M.; Fujita, N.; Okada, M.

    1996-01-01

    The interdigital-H-type (IH) linear accelerator (LINAC) is well known for its high shunt impedance at low and medium particle velocities. Therefore, it can be used to operate efficiently with a high acceleration gradient. The IH LINAC cavity is able to generate 10 MV m -1 (average acceleration gradient) with focusing of the particles by a superconducting solenoid and quadrupole. The LINAC can accelerate particles with a charge to mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/250 from 0.3 MeV a.m.u. -1 . In a compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver design, the total effective length of the IH LINAC cavities is about 1250 m. (orig.)

  9. No to fatalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1980-01-01

    By saying 'No to fatalism', M. Pecqueur is forming the wish that the recent awarness of the energy situation, far from bringing about resignation, speeds up the implementation of the indispensable measures on which the economic and political stability of the world depends in the decade ahead [fr

  10. Electrodermal Activity Based Wearable Device for Drowsy Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, D.; Dorathi Jayaseeli, JD; Madhuri, S.; Senthilkumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Road safety and road accident mortality rate are a serious concern for the government. With rise in fatal road accidents, who’s leading cause is the driver being drowsy behind the wheel, measures to alleviate this problem becomes the prime task. To meet the purpose, methods adopted must be of minimum discomfort for the driver, easy to install, provide good detection accuracy and timely alert to circumvent a probable accident. A good candidate to meet these specifications is EDA. As it detects the level of sweat which directly corresponds to the mental state of the person, using EDA for the purposes of driver safety forms a good option. The novelty of this project lies in making use of EDA as a measure to detect if a person is drowsy or not. Much of the challenge lies in building a device equipped with the necessary sensors and processing the data on real-time. The novelty of this work lies in development of an embedded device interfaced with sensors and actuators to detect and alert a driver when found drowsy using sweat as a parameter.

  11. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking violation) arising in connection with a fatal accident 60 days 60 days 120 days 120 days. (6... less than 120 days No less than 1 year. (4) The driver fails to have sufficient space to drive... driver fails to negotiate a crossing because of insufficient undercarriage clearance * * * No less than...

  12. Intersection assistance : A safe solution for older drivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations

  13. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  15. Fatal falls in the US construction industry, 1990 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, J; Forst, L; Chen, H Y; Conroy, L

    2001-10-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) database allows for the detailed analysis of risk factors surrounding fatal occupational events. This study used IMIS data to (1) perform a risk factor analysis of fatal construction falls, and (2) assess the impact of the February 1995 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart M OSHA fall protection regulations for construction by calculating trends in fatal fall rates. In addition, IMIS data on fatal construction falls were compared with data from other occupational fatality surveillance systems. For falls in construction, the study identified several demographic factors that may indicate increased risk. A statistically significant downward trend in fatal falls was evident in all construction and within several construction categories during the decade. Although the study failed to show a statistically significant intervention effect from the new OSHA regulations, it may have lacked the power to do so.

  16. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A; Zegeer, Charles V

    2003-09-01

    We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates.

  17. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 19...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation.......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  18. Quasi-likelihood generalized linear regression analysis of fatality risk data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Transportation-related fatality risks is a function of many interacting human, vehicle, and environmental factors. Statistically valid analysis of such data is challenged both by the complexity of plausible structural models relating fatality rates t...

  19. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  1. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  2. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  3. Fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan by demographic group and occupation for 1994-2005. Data on deaths due to injuries at work from 1994 through 2005 were obtained from the Department of Health which is responsible for the death registration system in Taiwan. Employment data, which were used as the denominators of fatality rates in this study, were retrieved from the Directorate-General of Budget and Accounting Statistics 'Employment and Earnings' database. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in various occupations while controlling for demographic characteristics. Overall fatal occupational injury rates declined during the study period among all demographic groups and occupations. Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decrease of 13.6% a year in machine operators/related workers to a decrease of 35.9% in clerks. The annual decrement was faster for males than for females and for older workers compared to young workers. Despite declining rates, the number of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan remains significant because of the growing work force. Future research should focus on the disparities in fatal injury trends.

  4. Adolescent drivers: a developmental perspective on risk, proficiency, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2008-09-01

    Despite considerable improvement in the rates of crashes, injuries, and fatalities among adolescent drivers, attributable in part to effective interventions such as graduated driver licensing, these rates and their associated health risks remain unacceptably high. To understand the sources of risky driving among teens, as well as to identify potential avenues for further advances in prevention, this article presents a review of the relevant features of contemporary research on adolescent development. Current research offers significant advances in the understanding of the sources of safe driving, proficient driving, and risky driving among adolescents. This multifaceted perspective--as opposed to simple categorization of good versus bad driving--provides new opportunities for using insights on adolescent development to enhance prevention. Drawing on recent work on adolescent physical, neural, and cognitive development, we argue for approaches to prevention that recognize both the strengths and the limitations of adolescent drivers, with particular attention to the acquisition of expertise, regulatory competence, and self-regulation in the context of perceived risk. This understanding of adolescent development spotlights the provision of appropriate and effective scaffolding, utilizing the contexts of importance to adolescents--parents, peers, and the broader culture of driving--to support safe driving and to manage the inherent risks in learning to do so.

  5. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  6. Community Poverty and Child Abuse Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  8. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  9. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  10. Clinical Features of Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Zuei Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the clinical features of fatal asthma, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who died of an acute asthma attack in our hospital during a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003. Twelve patients had fatal asthma during this period, including eight who were dead on arrival in the emergency room (ER and three who died within 1 hour of admission to the ER. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the clinical presentations during the fatal attack: (1 rapid (< 3 hours decompensation in four patients; (2 gradual development of respiratory failure over several days in two patients; and (3 acute deterioration after unstable asthma lasting several days in six patients. All patients in groups 1 and 2 had reported previous near-fatal attacks. The proportion of young patients was highest in group 3, with half of them (3/6 younger than 35 years of age. Only one patient in group 3 had had a previous near-fatal attack. Five of the seven patients, with previous near-fatal attacks, had a pattern of decompensation during their fatal attack that was similar to their previous attacks. In conclusion, nearly all patients with fatal asthma in this study died outside of the hospital or within 1 hour after admission to the ER. Patients had patterns of decompensation during the fatal attack that were similar to those of their previous attacks. Early detection of warning signs, early admission to the ER, adequate treatment, and extremely close observation of patients, especially within 1 hour after ER arrival, may prevent or decrease the incidence of fatal asthmatic attack.

  11. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  12. Fatal Drownings in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Carter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = .008, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.62) and the number of days comprising public holidays/weekends ( P = .018, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.60). Furthermore, the multiple coefficient of determination ( r 2 = .4976) indicated that almost half the variation in drownings was explained by rainfall and public holidays/weekend periods. Inadequate supervision, an inability to identify or carry out safe rescue techniques, and limited water-safety knowledge were identified as common risk factors. To overcome this preventable cause of death, technically guided interventions need to be actively embedded into a range of government policies and community health promotions, disaster management, and education programs.

  13. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...

  14. Catastrophic shifts in vegetation-soil systems may unfold rapidly or slowly independent of the rate of change in the system driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states under gradual change of a driver. Such critical transitions often result in considerable long-term damage because strong hysteresis impedes reversion, and the transition becomes catastrophic. Critical transitions largely reduce our capability of forecasting future system states because it is hard to predict the timing of their occurrence [2]. Moreover, for many systems it is unknown how rapidly the critical transition unfolds when the tipping point has been reached. The rate of change during collapse, however, is important information because it determines the time available to take action to reverse a shift [1]. In this study we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a vegetation-soil system on a hillslope from a state with considerable vegetation cover and large soil depths, to a state with sparse vegetation and a bare rock or negligible soil depths. Using a distributed, stochastic model coupling hydrology, vegetation, weathering and water erosion, we derive two differential equations describing the vegetation and the soil system, and their interaction. Two stable states - vegetated and bare - are identified by means of analytical investigation, and it is shown that the change between these two states is a critical transition as indicated by hysteresis. Surprisingly, when the tipping point is reached under a very slow increase of grazing pressure, the transition between the vegetated and the bare state can either unfold rapidly, over a few years, or gradually, occurring over decennia up to millennia. These differences in the rate of change during the transient state are explained by differences in bedrock weathering rates. This finding emphasizes the considerable uncertainty associated with forecasting catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, which is due to both difficulties in forecasting the timing of the tipping point and the rate of change when the transition unfolds. References [1] Hughes

  15. Alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and drunk-driving fatal accidents in the United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Miller, Emily N

    2017-06-01

    Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U.S. We estimate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents by state and month as a function of the volume of alcohol-control PSAs aired during the previous 8months. Models include controls for state anti-drunk-driving laws and regulations, state demographic characteristics, state taxes on alcohol, calendar year, and seasonality. Results indicate that higher volumes of anti-drunk driving PSAs airing in the preceding 2 to 3months are associated, albeit modest in magnitude, with reduced rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents. The regression coefficients are largest for adults (relative to underage drunk drivers) and when the PSAs air during prime time (relative to daytime or nighttime). We conclude that PSAs could play an important contributing role in reducing drunk-driving fatal accidents, although levels of exposure and potential effects likely remain modest due to reliance on donated air time. Well-funded anti-drunk driving campaigns could achieve higher levels of exposure and have a larger impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New evidence concerning fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M

    2001-05-01

    Fatal crash rates for passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. A prior study, based on fatal crash experience through 1995, reported that vehicle models with antilock brakes were more likely than identical but 1-year-earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, but were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles. Overall, there was no significant effect of antilocks on the likelihood of fatal crashes. Similar analyses, based on fatal crash experience during 1996-98, yielded very different results. During 1996-98, vehicles with antilock brakes were again less likely than earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles, but they were no longer overinvolved in crashes fatal to their own occupants.

  17. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  19. High-rate irradiation of 15 mm muon drift tubes and development of an ATLAS compatible readout driver for micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zibell, Andre

    2014-01-01

    of around 72% for a single tube layer at 10 kHz/cm 2 irradiation rate. A second proposal for a New Small Wheel detector technology are Micromegas detectors. These highly segmented planar gaseous detectors are capable of very high rate particle tracking with single plane angular resolution or track reconstruction. The ATLAS community has decided in 2013 in favor of this technology for precision tracking in the New Small Wheels. A prototype Micromegas detector will be installed in summer 2014 on the present ATLAS Small Wheel to serve as test case of the technology and as template for the necessary changes to the ATLAS hardware and software infrastructure. To fully profit from this installation, an ATLAS compatible Read Out Driver (ROD) had to be developed, that allows to completely integrate the prototype chamber into the ATLAS data acquisition chain. This device contains state-of-the-art FPGAs and is based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS) of the RD51 collaboration. The system design, its necessary functionalities and its interfaces to other systems are presented at use of APV25 frontend chips. Several initial issues with the system have been solved during the development. The new ROD was integrated into the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube Readout and into a VME based readout system of the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility. Additional successful operation has been proven meanwhile in several test cases within the ATLAS infrastructure. The whole data acquisition chain is ready for productive use in the ATLAS environment.

  20. High-rate irradiation of 15 mm muon drift tubes and development of an ATLAS compatible readout driver for micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibell, Andre

    2014-06-06

    reconstruction efficiency of around 72% for a single tube layer at 10 kHz/cm{sup 2} irradiation rate. A second proposal for a New Small Wheel detector technology are Micromegas detectors. These highly segmented planar gaseous detectors are capable of very high rate particle tracking with single plane angular resolution or track reconstruction. The ATLAS community has decided in 2013 in favor of this technology for precision tracking in the New Small Wheels. A prototype Micromegas detector will be installed in summer 2014 on the present ATLAS Small Wheel to serve as test case of the technology and as template for the necessary changes to the ATLAS hardware and software infrastructure. To fully profit from this installation, an ATLAS compatible Read Out Driver (ROD) had to be developed, that allows to completely integrate the prototype chamber into the ATLAS data acquisition chain. This device contains state-of-the-art FPGAs and is based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS) of the RD51 collaboration. The system design, its necessary functionalities and its interfaces to other systems are presented at use of APV25 frontend chips. Several initial issues with the system have been solved during the development. The new ROD was integrated into the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube Readout and into a VME based readout system of the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility. Additional successful operation has been proven meanwhile in several test cases within the ATLAS infrastructure. The whole data acquisition chain is ready for productive use in the ATLAS environment.

  1. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  2. Predominance of alcohol and illicit drugs among traffic accidents fatalities in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Peres, Mariana Dadalto; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; de Paula, Daniela Mendes Louzada; de Faria, Maria das Graças Corrêa; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

    2016-10-02

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use among victims of fatal traffic accidents in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil, during the period 2011-2012. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of drugs from 391 deceased victims of traffic crashes that occurred in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil. The victims included drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, day of the week, and period of the year in which the accidents occurred were recorded. The analyses were performed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization method for alcohol and by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis. The results showed that 44.8% (n = 175) of all cases were positive for alcohol and/or illicit drugs. The detection of alcohol and/or drugs was more frequent in young males, aged 17 to 34, whose samples were positive in 46.8% of cases. Small differences among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians were observed (drivers = 45.9%, passengers = 46.4%, and pedestrians = 45.6%). In general, the most prevalent drug was alcohol, with 141 positive cases (36.1%), followed by cocaine, with 47 positive cases (12%). Amphetamines and cannabis had positivity rates of 4.1 and 4.3%, with 16 and 17 positive cases, respectively. The combined use of alcohol and other drugs was found in 36 cases (9.2%). Crack cocaine use was observed in 27.7% of the positive cases for cocaine. For the effective reduction of traffic accidents related to driving under influence of drugs (DUID), we suggest the intensification of enforcement actions against the use of alcohol by drivers, the definition of which illicit drugs should be surveyed, as well the cutoff values, the promotion of changing legislation to oblige drivers to provide samples for toxicological testing, and the establishment of public information programs and specific actions aimed at young drivers to

  3. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  4. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Čičević

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.

  5. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  7. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  8. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  9. Driver behavior at highway-railroad grade crossings : a literature review from 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Accidents at grade crossings continue to be the leading cause of fatalities in the railroad industry. A large proportion of these accidents are the result of driver error. The purpose of this report is to review research that addresses driver behavio...

  10. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  11. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  12. Cognitive problems, self-rated changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving in old drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    Ageing in general is associated with functional decline that may have an adverse effect on driving. Nevertheless, older drivers have been found to show good judgement and to self-regulate their driving, which may enable them to continue driving safely despite functional decline. The process...... of the self-monitoring of driving ability and the awareness of functional decline, and its association with the self-regulation of driving is, however, not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the perceived changes in driving skills, the discomfort experienced in driving, and the self......-related discomfort is an important factor affecting the self-regulation of driving. Finally, the findings indicate that driving-related discomfort functions as an indirect self-monitoring of driving ability and may contribute to the safe driving performance of Danish older drivers....

  13. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  14. Occupational fatalities due to electrocutions in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicak, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational fatalities due to contact with electricity account for approximately 9% of all deaths in the construction industry and is the fourth leading cause of death in this industry. Differences in the proportions of electrocutions in the construction industry are significantly different from other industries based upon the age of the worker and the source of the electricity. This study found that, in the construction industry, the proportion of occupational fatalities due to contact with electric current is significantly higher for workers in the 16 to 19 years old age group. Contact with overhead power lines occurred more frequently with younger workers, while contact with electric wiring, transformers, and related equipment was found to occur more frequently with older workers. The proportion of fatalities due to this event was also found to account for a significantly greater proportion of fatalities in the construction industry overall. The proportions of electrocution fatalities in the construction industry were found to be significantly higher for younger workers when compared to all other industries. Focusing prevention measures toward younger workers who work near overhead power lines could have a significant impact upon death rates. For older workers, the focus should be on those who work on or near transformers, electrical wiring, and components. Across the construction industry, implementation of effective lockout-tagout programs, and verification of energy isolation, can prevent approximately 125 fatalities per year in the construction industry.

  15. Sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in truck drivers : risk analysis of road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rosa; Spratley, Jorge; Catarino, Isabel; Lunet, Nuno; Pais-Clemente, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Portugal has one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in Europe. A clear association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and traffic accidents has been previously demonstrated. This study aimed to determine prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and other sleep disorder symptoms among truck drivers and to identify which individual traits and work habits are associated to increased sleepiness and accident risk. We evaluated a sample of 714 truck drivers using a questionnaire (244 face-to-face interviews, 470 self-administered) that included sociodemographic data, personal habits, previous accidents, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Twenty percent of drivers had EDS and 29 % were at high risk for having obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Two hundred sixty-one drivers (36.6 %) reported near-miss accidents (42.5 % sleep related) and 264 (37.0 %), a driving accident (16.3 % sleep related). ESS score ≥ 11 was a risk factor for both near-miss accidents (odds ratio (OR)=3.84, paccidents (OR=2.25, paccidents (OR=3.30, p=0.03). We found an association between high Mallampati score (III-IV) and near misses (OR=1.89, p=0.04). In this sample of Portuguese truck drivers, we observed a high prevalence of EDS and other sleep disorder symptoms. Accident risk was related to sleepiness and antidepressant use. Identifying drivers at risk for OSAS should be a major priority of medical assessment centers, as a public safety policy.

  16. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  17. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  18. Fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M; Lund, A K; Trempel, R E; Braver, E R

    1997-11-01

    Fatal crash rates of passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. Vehicles selected for analysis had no other significant design changes between the model years being compared, and the model years with and without antilocks were no more than two years apart. The overall fatal crash rates were similar for the two model years. However, the vehicles with antilocks were significantly more likely to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, particularly single-vehicle crashes. Conversely, antilock vehicles were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles or nonoccupants (pedestrians, bicyclists). Overall, antilock brakes appear to have had little effect on fatal crash involvement. Further study is needed to better understand why fatality risk has increased for occupants of antilock vehicles.

  19. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  20. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  3. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  4. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures......./capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  5. Disentangling age-gender interactions associated with risks of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, Amira K; Padmadas, Sabu S; Zhang, Li-Chun; Al-Maniri, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in Oman, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Injury prevention strategies often overlook the interaction of individual and behavioural risk factors in assessing the severity of RTI outcomes. We conducted a systematic investigation of the underlying interactive effects of age and gender on the severity of fatal and non-fatal RTI outcomes in the Sultanate of Oman. We used the Royal Oman Police national database of road traffic crashes for the period 2010-2014. Our study was based on 35 785 registered incidents: of these, 10.2% fatal injuries, 6.2% serious, 27.3% moderate, 37.3% mild injuries and 19% only vehicle damage but no human injuries. We applied a generalised ordered logit regression to estimate the effect of age and gender on RTI severity, controlling for risk behaviours, personal characteristics, vehicle, road, traffic, environment conditions and geographical location. The most dominant group at risk of all types of RTIs was young male drivers. The probability of severe incapacitating injuries was the highest for drivers aged 25-29 (26.6%) years, whereas the probability of fatal injuries was the highest for those aged 20-24 (26.9%) years. Analysis of three-way interactions of age, gender and causes of crash show that overspeeding was the primary cause of different types of RTIs. In particular, the probability of fatal injuries among male drivers attributed to overspeeding ranged from 3%-6% for those aged 35 years and above to 13.4% and 17.7% for those aged 25-29 years and 20-24 years, respectively. The high burden of severe and fatal RTIs in Oman was primarily attributed to overspeed driving behaviour of young male drivers in the 20-29 years age range. Our findings highlight the critical need for designing early gender-sensitive road safety interventions targeting young male and female drivers.

  6. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  7. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  8. A call to improve sampling methodology and reporting in young novice driver research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Senserrick, T

    2017-02-01

    Young drivers continue to be over-represented in road crash fatalities despite a multitude of research, communication and intervention. Evidence-based improvement depends to a great extent upon research methodology quality and its reporting, with known limitations in the peer-review process. The aim of the current research was to review the scope of research methodologies applied in 'young driver' and 'teen driver' research and their reporting in four peer-review journals in the field between January 2006 and December 2013. In total, 806 articles were identified and assessed. Reporting omissions included participant gender (11% of papers), response rates (49%), retention rates (39%) and information regarding incentives (44%). Greater breadth and specific improvements in study designs and reporting are thereby identified as a means to further advance the field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...... and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...

  10. Fatal injuries to teenage construction workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruda, Anthony; Philips, Peter; Lillquist, Dean; Sesek, Richard

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is second only to agriculture in the annual number of fatal injuries in workers less than 18 years of age. We examined fatal injury reports for youth and adult workers to determine risk factors for injury and applicability of existing child labor regulations. The US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) investigation data for fatal work injuries from 1984 through 1998 were reviewed with respect to type of event, employer characteristics, and apparent violations of existing child labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). We also examined whether the employer met exemption criteria for federal enforcement of child labor or OSHA regulations. The fatality rate for teenage construction workers age 19 and younger was 12.1 per 100,000 per year, slightly less than for adult workers. Teenage workers who were fatally injured were more likely than adults to have been employed at non-union construction firms (odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, P worker. Fatalities in teenagers were more likely to occur in special construction trades such as roofing. Among fatalities in workers less than 18 years of age, approximately one-half (49%) of the 76 fatal injuries were in apparent violation of existing child labor regulations. We estimated that in 41 of the 76 cases (54%) the employer's gross annual income exceeded the $500,000 threshold for federal enforcement of child labor laws. Only 28 of 76 cases (37%) were at construction firms with 11 or more employees, which are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Fatal injuries in teenage construction workers differed from those in adults in that they were more likely to be at small, non-union firms of which a substantial proportion were exempt from federal enforcement of child labor laws and from routine OSHA inspections. Safety programs for young construction workers should include small, non-union construction firms and those in special construction trades such as roofing. We did not identify

  11. Fatal consequences of synergistic anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly being preferred by clinicians (and patients because they have a wide therapeutic window and therefore do not require monitoring of anticoagulant effect. Herein, we describe the unfortunate case of a patient who had fatal consequences as a result of switching from warfarin to rivaroxaban. Case Summary: A 90-year-old Caucasian woman, with atrial fibrillation on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. She was treated with levofloxacin. In the same admission, her warfarin was switched to rivaroxaban. On Day 3 after the switch, her INR was found to be 6, and she developed a cervical epidural hematoma from C2 to C7. She ultimately developed respiratory arrest, was put on comfort care and died. Discussion: Rivaroxaban and warfarin are known to have a synergistic anticoagulant effect, usually seen shortly after switching. Antibiotics also increase the effects of warfarin by the inhibition of metabolizing isoenzymes. It is hypothesized that these two effects led to the fatal cervical spinal hematoma. Conclusion: The convenience of a wide therapeutic window and no requirement of laboratory monitoring makes the NOACs a desirable option for anticoagulation. However, there is lack of data and recommendations on how to transition patients from Warfarin to NOACs or even how to transition from one NOAC to another. Care should be taken to ensure continuous monitoring of anticoagulation when stopping, interrupting or switching between NOACS to avoid the possibility of fatal bleeding and strokes.

  12. Predictors of Self-reported Crashes among Iranian Drivers: Exploratory Analysis of an Extended Driver Behavior Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 16,500 people lose their lives each year due to traffic crashes in Iran, which reflects one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in the world. The aim of the present study is to investigate the factors structure of an extended Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and to examine the gender differences in the extracted factors among Iranian drivers. Further, the study tested the association between DBQ factors, demographic characteristics, and self-reported crashes. Based on Iranian driving culture, an extended (36 items Internet-based version of the DBQ was distributed among Iranian drivers. The results of Exploratory Factor Analysis based on a sample of 632 Iranians identified a five-factor solution named “Speeding and Pushing Violations”, “Lapses and Errors”, “Violations Causing Inattention”, “Aggressive Violations” and “Traffic Violations” which account for 44.7 percent of the total variance. The results also revealed that females were more prone to Lapses and Errors, whereas males reported more violations than females. Logistic regression analysis identified Violations Causing Inattention, Speeding and Pushing Violations as predictors of self-reported crashes in a three-year period. The results were discussed in line with road traffic safety countermeasures suitable for the Iranian context.

  13. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  14. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  15. The New Zealand child work-related fatal injury study: 1985-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Langley, John; Wren, John

    2004-05-21

    To estimate the numbers and rates of work-related fatal injury for children under the age of 15 years. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged workplace work-related fatalities were identified. The vast majority of children identified were fatally injured while a bystander to another person's work. Workplace bystander involvement was found to vary by age, with the majority of workers identified aged 10-14 years old. With a third of all fatalities, the agricultural industry was the most common industry for workplace work-related fatalities in children. In the period 1985-94, children New Zealand's total workplace bystander deaths. Children contribute significantly to the overall burden of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand, especially as bystanders to other people's work. The high contribution to bystander deaths by children aged <15 years suggests that hazard control in certain work settings is lacking.

  16. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  17. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology unit of University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the year 2006 by reviewing the autopsy reports. There were 61 cases of GIT perforation out of 5579 autopsies conducted during a period of ten years (1996-2005). The incidence rate of fatal gastrointestinal perforation was 1.09% during this period. Out of these 61 cases, ...

  18. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  19. Determination of the Main Influencing Factors on Road Fatalities Using an Integrated Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud Rahimi

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposed an integrated algorithm of neuro-fuzzy techniques to examine the complex impact of socio-technical influencing factors on road fatalities. The proposed algorithm could handle complexity, non-linearity and fuzziness in the modeling environment due to its mechanism. The Neuro-fuzzy algorithm for determination of the potential influencing factors on road fatalities consisted of two phases. In the first phase, intelligent techniques are compared for their improved accuracy in predicting fatality rate with respect to some socio-technical influencing factors. Then in the second phase, sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate the pure effect on fatality rate of the potential influencing factors. The applicability and usefulness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using the data in Iran provincial road transportation systems in the time period 2012-2014. Results show that road design improvement, number of trips, and number of passengers are the most influencing factors on provincial road fatality rate.

  20. Fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd Razzak B; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia's Social Security organization, the Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO). We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the 5-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  2. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  3. Typhoid fever complicated by intestinal perforation: a persisting fatal disease requiring surgical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, T.; Knight, J.; Nath, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Roy, S. K.; Azad, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In Bangladesh, clinical records of 323 patients with typhoid fever were reviewed to study the incidence, fatality, and optimal therapy of the complication of intestinal perforation. Fifteen patients (4.6%) developed intestinal perforation. Case-fatality rates were six of nine patients treated

  4. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2008-01-01

    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  5. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  6. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  7. The effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsi Shekari Soleimanloo

    Full Text Available Young drivers (18-24 years are over-represented in sleep-related crashes (comprising one in five fatal crashes in developed countries primarily due to decreased sleep opportunity, lower tolerance for sleep loss, and ongoing maturation of brain areas associated with driving-related decision making. Impaired driving performance is the proximal reason for most car crashes. There is still a limited body of evidence examining the effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance, with discrepancies in the methodologies used, and in the definition of outcomes. This study aimed to identify the direction and magnitude of the effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance, and to appraise the quality of current evidence via a systematic review. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses (PRISMA approach, 16 eligible studies were selected for review, and their findings summarised. Next, critical elements of these studies were identified, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE guidelines augmented to rate those elements. Using those criteria, the quality of individual papers was calculated and the overall body of evidence for each driving outcome were assigned a quality ranking (from 'very low' to 'high-quality'. Two metrics, the standard deviation of lateral position and number of line crossings, were commonly reported outcomes (although in an overall 'low-quality' body of evidence, with significant impairments after sleep loss identified in 50% of studies. While speed-related outcomes and crash events (also with very low- quality evidence both increased under chronic sleep loss, discrepant findings were reported under conditions of acute total sleep deprivation. It is crucial to obtain more reliable data about the effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance by using higher quality experimental designs, adopting common protocols, and the use of consistent

  8. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  9. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  10. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between US Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel and Mass, for Individual Vehicle Models over Time (Model Year)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-07-27

    This report presents a new approach to analyze the relationship between vehicle mass and risk: tracking fatality risk by vehicle model year and mass, for individual vehicle models. This approach is appealing as it greatly minimizes the influence of driver characteristics and behavior, and crash circumstances, on fatality risk. However, only the most popular vehicle models, with the largest number of fatalities, can be analyzed in this manner. While the analysis of all vehicle models of a given type suggests that there is a relationship between increased mass and fatality risk, analysis of the ten most popular four-door car models separately suggests that this relationship is weak: in many cases when the mass of a specific vehicle model is increased societal fatality risk is unchanged or even increases. These results suggest that increasing the mass of an individual vehicle model does not necessarily lead to decreased societal fatality risk.

  12. Is More Better? - Night Vision Enhancement System's Pedestrian Warning Modes and Older Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; He, Yefei; Roe, Cheryl; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pedestrian fatalities as a result of vehicle collisions are much more likely to happen at night than during day time. Poor visibility due to darkness is believed to be one of the causes for the higher vehicle collision rate at night. Existing studies have shown that night vision enhancement systems (NVES) may improve recognition distance, but may increase drivers' workload. The use of automatic warnings (AW) may help minimize workload, improve performance, and increase safety. In this study, we used a driving simulator to examine performance differences of a NVES with six different configurations of warning cues, including: visual, auditory, tactile, auditory and visual, tactile and visual, and no warning. Older drivers between the ages of 65 and 74 participated in the study. An analysis based on the distance to pedestrian threat at the onset of braking response revealed that tactile and auditory warnings performed the best, while visual warnings performed the worst. When tactile or auditory warnings were presented in combination with visual warning, their effectiveness decreased. This result demonstrated that, contrary to general sense regarding warning systems, multi-modal warnings involving visual cues degraded the effectiveness of NVES for older drivers.

  13. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  14. Occupational fatality risks in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Staetsky, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There are very few careful studies of differences in occupational fatality rates across countries, much less studies that try to account for those differences. We compare the rate of work injury fatalities (excluding deaths due to highway motor vehicle crashes and those due to violence) identified by the US Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in recent years with the number reported to the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom (UK) and by other European Union (EU) members through Eurostat. In 2010, the fatality rate in the UK was about 1/3 the rate in the US. In construction the rate was about ¼ the US rate, a difference that had grown substantially since the 1990s. Several other EU members had rates almost as low as the UK rate. Across EU countries, lower rates were associated with high-level management attention to safety issues and to in-house preparation of "risk assessments." Although work fatality rates have declined in the US, fatality rates are much lower and have declined faster in recent years in the UK. Efforts to find out the reasons for the much better UK outcomes could be productive. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  16. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  17. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  18. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  19. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  20. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  1. What vehicle features are considered important when buying an automobile? An examination of driver preferences by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkljan, Brenda H; Anaby, Dana

    2011-02-01

    Certain vehicle features can help drivers avoid collisions and/or protect occupants in the event of a crash, and therefore, might play an important role when deciding which vehicle to purchase. The objective of this study was to examine the importance attributed to key vehicle features (including safety) that drivers consider when buying a car and its association with age and gender. A sample of 2,002 Canadian drivers aged 18 years and older completed a survey that asked them to rank the importance of eight vehicle features if they were to purchase a vehicle (storage, mileage, safety, price, comfort, performance, design, and reliability). ANOVA tests were performed to: (a) determine if there were differences in the level of importance between features and; (b) examine the effect of age and gender on the importance attributed to these features. Of the features examined, safety and reliability were the most highly rated in terms of importance, whereas design and performance had the lowest rating. Differences in safety and performance across age groups were dependent on gender. This effect was most evident in the youngest and oldest age groups. Safety and reliability were considered the most important features. Age and gender play a significant role in explaining the importance of certain features. Targeted efforts for translating safety-related information to the youngest and oldest consumers should be emphasized due to their high collision, injury, and fatality rates. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  3. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  5. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  6. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  7. Analysis of Driver Evasive Maneuvering Prior to Intersection Crashes Using Event Data Recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Intersection crashes account for over 4,500 fatalities in the United States each year. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that have the potential to help drivers safely navigate across intersections and prevent intersection crashes and injuries. The performance of an I-ADAS is expected to be highly dependent upon driver evasive maneuvering prior to an intersection crash. Little has been published, however, on the detailed evasive kinematics followed by drivers prior to real-world intersection crashes. The objective of this study was to characterize the frequency, timing, and kinematics of driver evasive maneuvers prior to intersection crashes. Event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from vehicles involved in intersection crashes were investigated as part of NASS-CDS years 2001 to 2013. A total of 135 EDRs with precrash vehicle speed and braking application were downloaded to investigate evasive braking. A smaller subset of 59 EDRs that collected vehicle yaw rate was additionally analyzed to investigate evasive steering. Each vehicle was assigned to one of 3 precrash movement classifiers (traveling through the intersection, completely stopped, or rolling stop) based on the vehicle's calculated acceleration and observed velocity profile. To ensure that any significant steering input observed was an attempted evasive maneuver, the analysis excluded vehicles at intersections that were turning, driving on a curved road, or performing a lane change. Braking application at the last EDR-recorded time point was assumed to indicate evasive braking. A vehicle yaw rate greater than 4° per second was assumed to indicate an evasive steering maneuver. Drivers executed crash avoidance maneuvers in four-fifths of intersection crashes. A more detailed analysis of evasive braking frequency by precrash maneuver revealed that drivers performing complete or rolling stops (61.3%) braked less often than drivers

  8. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  9. Driver's views and behaviors about safety in China--what do they NOT know about driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Roetting, Matthias; Wang, Ying; Wei, Hua

    2006-01-01

    Driving safety has become an extremely severe problem in China due to rapid motorization. Unless more effective measures are taken, the fatality risk and the total fatalities due to road traffic accidents are expected to continue to increase. Therefore, focus group discussions were conducted to explore driver attitudes and safe driver characteristics. The results were then compared with a similar study conducted with US drivers. Although similarities were found, differences were of more importance. The Chinese drivers concentrate more on driving skills and capabilities, whereas the US drivers concentrate more on practical safe driving guidelines. Then direct field observations were conducted for the Chinese drivers to empirically investigate the issues discovered. The use of safety belts, running lights, headlights, and turn signals were observed to investigate the drivers' behaviors. Results show that the safety belt use ratio is about 64%, running light use is nearly zero during rainy and snowy weather, headlights use after sunset is substantially delayed, and only about 40% of drivers use turn signals to indicate their intention to change lanes. These findings indicate that the authorities need to take appropriate countermeasures to change the views of the Chinese drivers regarding driving safety and their unsafe driving behaviors. Improvement of training content and methods as well as police enforcement would be recommended.

  10. The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyin Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles, people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles, “ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates.

  11. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  12. Disaster-related fatalities among US citizens traveling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Bouslough, David; Proano, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    To describe the locations and risk of death associated with natural disaster fatalities for US citizens traveling abroad. A retrospective database review of US citizen disaster deaths occurring worldwide. None. Information on fatalities due to disasters was abstracted from the US Department of State Web site reporting deaths of US citizens abroad by non-natural causes from October 2002 through June 2012. The main outcome measures were the frequency of disaster deaths and countries where disasters occurred. Descriptive statistics and rates were used to evaluate the study data. There were 7,963 total non-natural deaths of US citizens traveling abroad during the study period. Of these, 163 (2.0 percent) were disaster-related deaths, involving 19 disaster events in 15 countries. Only two disaster-related events resulted in more than two deaths of US travelers-the 2010 earthquake in Haiti causing 121 fatalities (74.2 percent of disaster deaths), and the 2004 tsunami in Thailand causing 22 fatalities (13.5 percent of disaster deaths). The approximate annual mean death rate for US citizen travelers as a result of disaster events is 0.27 deaths/1 million travelers, compared with 1.4 deaths/1 million residents due to disaster annually within the United States. The risk of disaster-related fatality is low for US citizens traveling abroad. Although disaster-related death among travelers is unpredictable, during a period of almost 10 years, there was only one reported death due to disaster in the five countries most frequently visited by US travelers. Further investigation may identify population-, seasonal-, country-, or location-specific risks from which prevention strategies can be developed.

  13. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  14. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  15. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  16. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  17. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  18. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  19. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  20. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs.

  1. Changes in Fe Oxidation Rate in Hydrothermal Plumes as a Potential Driver of Enhanced Hydrothermal Input to Near-Ridge Sediments During Glacial Terminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, J. T.; Coogan, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have hypothesized that changes in sea level due to glacial-interglacial cycles lead to changes in the rate of melt addition to the crust at mid-ocean ridges with globally significant consequences. Arguably the most compelling evidence for this comes from increases in the hydrothermal component in near-ridge sediments during glacial-interglacial transitions. Here we explore the hypothesis that changes in ocean bottom water [O2] and pH across glacial-interglacial transitions would lead to changes in the rate of Fe oxidation in hydrothermal plumes. A simple model shows that a several fold increase in the rate of Fe oxidation is expected at glacial-interglacial transitions. Uncertainty in bottom water chemistry and the relationship between oxidation and sedimentation rates prevent direct comparison of the model and data. However, it appears that the null hypothesis of invariant hydrothermal vent fluxes into ocean bottom water that changed in O2 content and pH across these transitions cannot currently be discounted.

  2. The Epidemiology of Fatal road traffic Collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavin D. Gopaul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary of what was known• Few studies on road traffic collisions conducted in Latin American and the Caribbean region• Increasing car ownership within the region• Lack of seatbelt usage in Trinidad• Most accidents are associated with alcohol usage• High mortality among pedestriansSummary of what this study adds• Most collisions occur at night• Most collisions occur at weekends• Collisions are evenly distributed throughout the year• More males than females die in fatal collisions• The most productive age group (15–44 is affected the most• More drivers than pedestrians are affected• Reflects the pattern of developed rather than developing countries with respect to time of day for RTCs Background: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of road traffic collisions (RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago by characterizing RTCs in terms of number of collisions, fatalities, victim profiles, and locations for the purpose of informing accident prevention programs. Previous studies of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago were primarily concerned with patterns of drivers use of seat belts, road collisions as a cause of mortality in young men, and the economic burden of road collisions. Attempts were made to model road fatalities, but limited epidemiological data meant that it was difficult to determine trends or develop models. Methods: This study determined the epidemiology of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago over the period 2000–2011using data collected by the Trinidad and Tobago Road Traffic Branch of the Police Service and secondary data from the Central Statistical Office. Data were analyzed using Excel, SPSS, and R statistical packages. Results: Fatalities were greater among men (80% than among women (20% and were highest on two major freeways in Trinidad [the Churchill–Roosevelt Highway and the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway]. Most collisions occurred during the night among individuals between the ages of

  3. High-rate irradiation of 15mm muon drift tubes and development of an ATLAS compatible readout driver for micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zibell, Andre

    The upcoming luminosity upgrades of the LHC accelerator at CERN demand several upgrades to the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, mainly due to the proportionally increasing rate of uncorrelated background irradiation. This concerns also the "Small Wheel" tracking stations of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, where precise muon track reconstruction will no longer be assured when around 2020 the LHC luminosity is expected to reach values 2 to 5 times the design luminosity of $1 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$, and when background hit rates will exceed 10 kHz/cm$^2$. This, together with the need of an additional triggering station in this area with an angular resolution of 1 mrad, requires the construction of "New Small Wheel" detectors for a complete replacement during the long maintenance period in 2018 and 2019. As possible technology for these New Small Wheels, high-rate capable sMDT drift tubes have been investigated, based on the ATLAS 30 mm Monitored Drift Tube technology, but with a smalle...

  4. Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis following Episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Almarzouqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon condition in general practice but one that provokes serious morbidity. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscle. Herein, we report a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis in a young healthy woman after episiotomy. Case Report. A 17-year-old primigravida underwent a vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed on the 5th postpartum day, when the patient was referred to our tertiary care medical center. Surgical debridement was initiated together with antibiotics and followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient died due to septic shock after 16 hours from the referral. Conclusion. Delay of diagnosis and consequently the surgical debridement were most likely the reasons for maternal death. In puerperal period, a physician must consider necrotizing fasciitis as a possible diagnosis in any local sings of infection especially when accompanied by fever and/or tenderness. Early diagnosis is the key for low mortality and morbidity.

  5. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  6. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  7. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  8. The legacy of fear: is fear impacting fatal and non-fatal drowning of African American children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Carol C; Irwin, Richard L; Ryan, Timothy D; Drayer, Joris

    2011-01-01

    African American children’s rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning events are alarmingly elevated, with some age groups having three times the rate as compared to White peers. Adequate swimming skills are considered a protective agent toward the prevention of drowning, but marginalized youth report limited swimming ability. This research examined minority children’s and parents/caregivers’ fear of drowning as a possible variable associated with limited swimming ability. Results confirmed that there were significant racial differences concerning the fear of drowning, and adolescent African American females were notably more likely to fear drowning while swimming than any other group. The “fear of drowning” responses by parents/ caregivers of minority children were also significantly different from their White counterparts.

  9. Road traffic fatalities in selected governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: prospective surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, Eva; Maliniak, Maret; Sultan, Abdul-Salam Saleh; Hassan, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Jaffar; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    The insurgency tactics that characterize modern warfare, such as suicide car bombs and roadside bombs, have the potential to significantly impact road traffic injuries in conflict affected-countries. As road traffic incidents are one of the top ten causes of death in Iraq, changes in incidence have important implications for the health system. We aimed to describe patterns of road traffic fatalities for all demographic groups and types of road users in Iraq during a period characterized by a resurgence in insurgency activity. Iraqi Ministry of Health routine prospective injury surveillance collects information on all fatal injuries in eight governorates of Iraq: Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya. From all injury fatalities documented at the coroner office, we analyzed only those attributed to road traffic that occurred between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Coroners ascertain information from physical examinations, police reports and family members. Analysis included 7,976 road traffic fatalities. Overall, 6,238 (78.2 %) fatalities were male and 2,272 (28.5 %) were children under 18 years of age. The highest numbers of road traffic fatalities were among males 15 to 34 years of age and children of both sexes under 5 years of age. 49.2 % of fatalities occurred among pedestrians. Among children and females, the majority of road traffic fatalities were pedestrians, 69.0 % and 56.6 %, respectively. Fatalities among motorcyclists (3.7 %) and bicyclists (0.4 %) were least common. Rates of road traffic fatalities ranged from 8.6 to 10.7 per 100,000 population. The injury surveillance system provides the first data from a conflict-affected country on road traffic fatalities disaggregated by type of road user. The highest numbers of fatalities were among children and young men. Nearly half of fatalities were pedestrians, a proportion nearly double that of any neighboring country. As insurgency activity increased in

  10. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  11. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  12. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  13. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  16. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  17. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  18. NWS Weather Fatality, Injury and Damage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Awareness Floods, Wind Chill, Tornadoes, Heat... Education Weather Terms, Teachers, Statistics government web resources and services. Natural Hazard Statistics Statistics U.S. Summaries 78-Year List of Severe Weather Fatalities Preliminary Hazardous Weather Statistics for 2017 Now

  19. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  20. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.207 Fatality. (a) In the..., United States Code (but not the agent of the Secretary for purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act...

  1. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  2. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  3. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  5. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  6. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  7. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  8. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  9. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  10. Smeed's law and expected road fatality reduction: An assessment of the Italian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, Luca; Gigli, Roberto; Usami, Davide Shingo

    2015-12-01

    Smeed's law defines the functional relationship existing between the fatality rate and the motorization rate.While focusing on the Italian case and based on the Smeed's law, the study assesses the possibility for Italy of reaching the target of halving the number of road fatalities by 2020, in light of the evolving socioeconomic situation. A Smeed's model has been calibrated based on the recorded Italian data. The evolution of the two indicators, fatality and motorization rates, has been estimated using the predictions of the main parameters (population, fleet size and fatalities). Those trends have been compared with the natural decreasing trend derived from the Smeed's law. Nine scenarios have been developed showing the relationship between the fatality rate and the motorization rate. In case of a limited increase (logistic regression) of the vehicle fleet and according to the estimated evolution of the population, the path defined by motorization and fatality rate is very steep, diverging from the estimated confidence interval of the Smeed's model. In these scenarios the motorization rate is almost constant during the decade. In the actual economic context, a limited development of the vehicle fleet is more plausible. In these conditions the target achievement of halving the number of fatalities in Italy may occur only in case of a structural break (i.e., the introduction of highly effective road safety policies). Practical application: The proposed tools can be used both to evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of road safety improvements and to assess if a relevant effort is needed to reach the established road safety targets.

  11. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  12. Is More Better? — Night Vision Enhancement System’s Pedestrian Warning Modes and Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; He, Yefei; Roe, Cheryl; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pedestrian fatalities as a result of vehicle collisions are much more likely to happen at night than during day time. Poor visibility due to darkness is believed to be one of the causes for the higher vehicle collision rate at night. Existing studies have shown that night vision enhancement systems (NVES) may improve recognition distance, but may increase drivers’ workload. The use of automatic warnings (AW) may help minimize workload, improve performance, and increase safety. In this study, we used a driving simulator to examine performance differences of a NVES with six different configurations of warning cues, including: visual, auditory, tactile, auditory and visual, tactile and visual, and no warning. Older drivers between the ages of 65 and 74 participated in the study. An analysis based on the distance to pedestrian threat at the onset of braking response revealed that tactile and auditory warnings performed the best, while visual warnings performed the worst. When tactile or auditory warnings were presented in combination with visual warning, their effectiveness decreased. This result demonstrated that, contrary to general sense regarding warning systems, multi-modal warnings involving visual cues degraded the effectiveness of NVES for older drivers. PMID:21050616

  13. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents. It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set.

  14. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel

    2001-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in 1997 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the results are compared to a similar investigation from 1991. A common definition of ‘‘drug addict’’ was applied...... by the participating countries. The highest death rate by poisoning in drug addicts was observed in Denmark, where it was 6.54 per 105 inhabitants, followed by Norway with 6.35, Sweden with 2.21, Finland with 1.63 and Iceland with 1.20 per 105 inhabitants. All countries showed a higher death rate in 1997 than in 1991...

  15. Microcontroller based driver alertness detection systems to detect drowsiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenin, Hasibah; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo

    2018-04-01

    The advancement of embedded system for detecting and preventing drowsiness in a vehicle is a major challenge for road traffic accident systems. To prevent drowsiness while driving, it is necessary to have an alert system that can detect a decline in driver concentration and send a signal to the driver. Studies have shown that traffc accidents usually occur when the driver is distracted while driving. In this paper, we have reviewed a number of detection systems to monitor the concentration of a car driver and propose a portable Driver Alertness Detection System (DADS) to determine the level of concentration of the driver based on pixelated coloration detection technique using facial recognition. A portable camera will be placed at the front visor to capture facial expression and the eye activities. We evaluate DADS using 26 participants and have achieved 100% detection rate with good lighting condition and a low detection rate at night.

  16. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  17. Driver behavior analysis for right-turn drivers at signalized intersections using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianqing; Xu, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos. Different factors of drivers, vehicles, roads and environments were studied for their influence on driver behavior. An influencing index function was developed and the index was calculated for each influencing factor to quantitatively describe its influencing level. The influencing index was applied to prioritize the factors, which facilitates development and selection of safety countermeasures to improve intersection safety. Drivers' speed control was analyzed under different conditions with consideration of the prioritized influencing factors. Vehicle type, traffic signal status, conflicting traffic, conflicting pedestrian and driver age group were identified as the five major influencing factors on driver observation. This research revealed that drivers have high acceleration and low observation frequency under Right-Turn-On-Red (RTOR), which constituted potential danger for other roadway users, especially for pedestrians. As speed has a direct influence on crash rates and severities, the revealed speed patterns of the different situations also benefit selection of safety countermeasures at signalized intersections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  19. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  20. Diferença de letalidade hospitalar do infarto agudo do miocárdio entre homens e mulheres submetidos a angioplastia primária Difference in the case-fatality rate of acute myocardial infarction between men and women submitted to primary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santana Passos

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a letalidade hospitalar (LH de homens e mulheres submetidos a angioplastia transluminal coronária primária (ATCP como estratégia de reperfusão no infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo baseado em informações de prontuários médicos de pacientes hospitalizados devido a IAM em hospital de referência para doença coronária, utilizando preferencialmente a ATCP como técnica de reperfusão miocárdica precoce. Foram incluídos 83 pacientes, 35 (42% mulheres e 48 (58% homens, que preencheram critérios para reperfusão miocárdica precoce. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres foi superior a dos homens (66±10 vs 58±11 anos; pPURPOSE: To compare the in-hospital case-fatality rate of men and women submitted to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA as a strategy of reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on information abstracted from medical records of MI patients admitted to a hospital where PTCA is used as the prefered method for early myocardial reperfusion. A total of 83 patients, 35 (42% women and 48 (58% men, who met the criteria for early myocardial reperfusion was included in the analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of women was higher than that of men (66±10 vs 58±11 years; p<0.001. The women also had a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (37.1% vs 6.4%; p<0.001. Despite these differences in age and in the frequency of diabetes mellitus, the percentage of patients in whom the PTCA was considered successful was similar between men (83.3% and women (82.3%. The case-fatality rate was also similar between men and women; 14.6% and 14.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The possibility that the excess risk of death in women with MI may be reduced and even eliminated with the use of PTCA, supports to the need for the development of a clinical trial to assess this question.

  1. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  3. Influence of obesity on mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dietrich; Gemme, Seth; Jehle, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes involving at least one fatality. Fatalities were selected from 155,584 drivers included in the 2000-2005 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Drivers were stratified by body mass index, confounders were adjusted for, and multiple logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of death in each body mass index class compared with normal weight. The adjusted risk of death from lowest to highest, reported as the OR of death compared with normal weight with 95% confidence intervals, was as follows: (1) overweight (OR, 0.952; 0.911-0.995; P = .0293), (2) slightly obese (OR, 0.996; 0.966-1.026; P = .7758), (3) normal weight, (4) underweight (OR, 1.115; 1.035-1.201; P = .0043), (5) moderately obese (OR, 1.212; 1.128-1.302; P obese (OR, 1.559; 1.402-1.734; P obese, morbidly obese, and underweight drivers and a decreased risk in overweight drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol intake in relation to non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING: A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospecti...

  5. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  6. How to Train Safe Drivers: Setting Up and Evaluating a Fatigue Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamos Giannis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is considered as a serious risk driving behavior, causing road accidents, which in many cases involve fatalities and severe injuries. According to CARE database statistics, professional drivers are indicated as a high-risk group to be involved in a fatigue-related accident. Acknowledging these statistics, a training program on driving fatigue was organized, aiming at raising awareness of professional drivers of a leading company in building materials, in Greece. Selected experimental methods were used for collecting data before and after the training program, which allowed monitoring and assessing the potential behavioural changes. A questionnaire survey was conducted before the program implementation to 162 drivers of the company, while two months after the program, the same drivers replied to a second questionnaire. Impact assessment of the program relied on statistical analysis of the responses. Results showed the degree of penetration of the training program in the professional drivers' behavior towards safe driving.

  7. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-12-11

    To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25 were murders, 35 were traffic accidents not directly related to work activities, and three were suicides at work. The proportional mortality rate for homicides, traffic accidents, and suicides among fatal work-related accidents was estimated at 30.5%, 42.7%, and 3.7%, respectively. Urban violence accounted for three-fourths of the fatal work-related accidents recorded in the period studied.

  8. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, S; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  11. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...

  12. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-12-15

    The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19,403) included children near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ(2) and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0-4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Views of US drivers about driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2003-01-01

    To assess how drivers view dangers on the highway, what motivates them to drive safely, how they say they reduce their crash and injury risk, and how they rate their own driving skills. Most drivers rated their skills as better than average. The biggest motivating factor for safe driving was concern for safety of others in their vehicle, followed by negative outcomes such as being in a crash, increased insurance costs, and fines. The greatest threats to their safety were thought to be other drivers' actions that increase crash risk such as alcohol impairment or running red lights. In terms of reducing crashes and injuries, drivers tended to focus on actions they could take such as driving defensively or using seat belts. There was less recognition of the role of vehicles and vehicle features in crash or injury prevention. Knowing how drivers view themselves and others, their concerns, and their motivations and techniques for staying out of trouble on the roads provides insight into the difficulty of changing driving practices.

  14. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  15. Driver's mental workload prediction model based on physiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shengyuan; Tran, Cong Chi; Wei, Yingying; Habiyaremye, Jean Luc

    2017-09-15

    Developing an early warning model to predict the driver's mental workload (MWL) is critical and helpful, especially for new or less experienced drivers. The present study aims to investigate the correlation between new drivers' MWL and their work performance, regarding the number of errors. Additionally, the group method of data handling is used to establish the driver's MWL predictive model based on subjective rating (NASA task load index [NASA-TLX]) and six physiological indices. The results indicate that the NASA-TLX and the number of errors are positively correlated, and the predictive model shows the validity of the proposed model with an R 2 value of 0.745. The proposed model is expected to provide a reference value for the new drivers of their MWL by providing the physiological indices, and the driving lesson plans can be proposed to sustain an appropriate MWL as well as improve the driver's work performance.

  16. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  17. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that ... To compare Safe Travel to School Programme driver safety perfor- .... The SA government has recognised the challenges faced with.

  18. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  19. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better description of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of fatal patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is important in alerting clinicians of severe dengue and improving management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 309 adults with DHF, 10 fatal patients and 299 survivors (controls were retrospectively analyzed. Regarding causes of fatality, massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was found in 4 patients, dengue shock syndrome (DSS alone in 2; DSS/subarachnoid hemorrhage, Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia, ventilator associated pneumonia, and massive GI bleeding/Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia each in one. Fatal patients were found to have significantly higher frequencies of early altered consciousness (≤24 h after hospitalization, hypothermia, GI bleeding/massive GI bleeding, DSS, concurrent bacteremia with/without shock, pulmonary edema, renal/hepatic failure, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among those experienced early altered consciousness, massive GI bleeding alone/with uremia/with E. faecalis bacteremia, and K. pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia were each found in one patient. Significantly higher proportion of bandemia from initial (arrival laboratory data in fatal patients as compared to controls, and higher proportion of pre-fatal leukocytosis and lower pre-fatal platelet count as compared to initial laboratory data of fatal patients were found. Massive GI bleeding (33.3% and bacteremia (25% were the major causes of pre-fatal leukocytosis in the deceased patients; 33.3% of the patients with pre-fatal profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000/µL, and 50% of the patients with pre-fatal prothrombin time (PT prolongation experienced massive GI bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our report highlights causes of fatality other than DSS in patients with severe dengue, and suggested hypothermia, leukocytosis and bandemia may be warning signs of severe dengue. Clinicians should be alert to the potential development of massive GI bleeding

  20. Bats and wind energy in Canada : causes, consequences and variation of fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, R.; Baerwald, E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed various aspects of bat mortalities that occur at wind turbines. The majority of bat fatalities related to wind turbines take place in the Fall among Hoary, Silver-haired, and Eastern red bat species. The fatality rate varies geographically. Migratory routes explain the geographic variations of bats. Tall wind turbines kill more bats than birds. Activity and fatality rates vary geographically. Small-scale geographic patterns were discussed along with bat mortality rates at different wind farm facilities. Higher turbines are known to disrupt bat activities. During a 1-year period in Alberta only 189 bird mortalities were recorded compared to 1775 bat mortalities. Across North America, 3940 bats died in collisions with wind turbines compared to only 1241 birds. It was concluded that monitoring studies conducted from the ground do not fully indicate the risks of wind turbines to bats. tabs., figs.

  1. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups

  2. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...

  3. Fatal accidents analysis in Peruvian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, R. C.; Hennies, W. T.; Azevedo, R. c.; Almeida, I.G.; Soto, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)

  4. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, Frank G. A.; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic

  5. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  6. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  7. Modeling wrong-way crashes and fatalities on arterials and freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wrong way driving (WWD research and mitigation measures have primarily focused on limited access facilities. This is most likely due to the higher incidence of fatal WWD crashes with dramatic consequences on freeways, media attention, and a call for innovative solutions to address the problem. While public agencies and published literature address WWD incidence on freeway systems, the crash analyses on non-limited access facilities, i.e., arterial corridors, remains untouched. This research extends previous works and attempts to provide many new perspectives on arterial WWD incidence. In particular, one work showed that while WWD fatalities are more likely to occur on freeways, the likelihood of these crashes is higher on arterials. Hence this work with univariate and multivariate analyses of WWD and non-WWD crashes, and fatal and non-fatal WWD incidents. Results show the impressive negative impacts of alcohol use, driver defect, nighttime and weekend incidence, poor street lighting, low traffic volumes, rural geography, and median and shoulder widths. The objective here is to highlight the need for paying greater attention to WWD crashes on arterial corridors as is done with fatal WWD incidents on freeway systems. It suffices to say that while engineering countermeasures should evolve from the traditional signing and pavement markings to connected vehicle technology applications, there is a clear and compelling need to focus on educational campaigns specifically targeting drunken driving, and enforcement initiatives with an objective to mitigate WWD in the most efficient manner possible. Keywords: Wrong-way driving, Modeling, Arterials and freeways, Logistic regression, Likelihood

  8. Unintentional non-traffic injury and fatal events: Threats to children in and around vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Ramsay, Mackenzie L; Fennell, Janette E; Andreasen, Amber

    2018-02-17

    There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about non-traffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various non-traffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. Instances of non-traffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 to December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication. Over the 25-year period, there were at least 11,759 events resulting in 3,396 deaths. The median age of the affected child was 3.7 years. The incident types included 3,115 children unattended in hot vehicles resulting in 729 deaths, 2,251 backovers resulting in 1,232 deaths, 1,439 frontovers resulting in 692 deaths, 777 vehicles knocked into motion resulting in 227 deaths, 415 underage drivers resulting in 203 deaths, 172 power window incidents resulting in 61 deaths, 134 falls resulting in 54 deaths, 79 fires resulting in 41 deaths, and 3,377 other incidents resulting in 157 deaths. Non-traffic injuries and fatalities present an important threat to the safety and lives of very young children. Future efforts should consider complementary surveillance mechanisms to systematically and comprehensively capture all non-traffic incidents. Continued education, engineering modifications, advocacy, and legislation can help continue to prevent these incidents and must be incorporated in overall child vehicle safety initiatives.

  9. Driver electronic device use in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  10. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, T; Casini, V

    1996-06-01

    Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

  11. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  12. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  13. Space Age Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  14. Trends and factors associated with dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Santos Paixão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Studies that generate information that may reduce the dengue death risk are essential. This study analyzed time trends and risk factors for dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil from 2001 to 2011.METHODS:Time trends for dengue mortality and fatality rates were analyzed using simple linear regression. Associations between the dengue mortality and the case fatality rates and socioeconomic, demographic, and health care indicators at the municipality level were analyzed using negative binomial regression.RESULTS:The dengue hemorrhagic fever case fatality rate increased in Brazil from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.67; p=0.036, in patients aged 0-14 years (β=0.48; p=0.030 and in those aged ≥15 years (β=1.1; p<0.01. Factors associated with the dengue case fatality rate were the average income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.038 and the number of basic health units per population (MRR=0.89; p<0.001. Mortality rates increased from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.350; p=0.002.Factors associated with mortality were inequality (RR=1.02; p=0.001 high income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.005, and higher proportions of populations living in urban areas (MRR=1.01; p<0.001.CONCLUSIONS:The increases in the dengue mortality and case fatality rates and the associated socioeconomic and health care factors, suggest the need for structural and intersectoral investments to improve living conditions and to sustainably reduce these outcomes.

  15. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  16. Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José M; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Roca-González, Joaquín; Romero, Samuel; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2017-12-01

    Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in fatal snakebites in Venezuela, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jesús A; Rifakis, Pedro M; Vargas, Jair A; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2007-01-01

    There have been few studies evaluating snakebite mortality in Venezuela and South America. In this study we evaluate trends in fatal snakebites occurring in Venezuela between 1995 and 2002. Epidemiological data for this study were retrieved from the records of the Ministry of Health of Venezuela. Using these data, we analyzed the impact of snakebites in Venezuela during the study period. During the study period, there were 266 reports of death due to snakebite; 79.7% were males, and 20.3% were females (P Mortality rate by age showed an age-dependent rate, with higher rates in older ages (P = .038). Snake envenomations are an important cause of injury and deaths in Venezuela as in many American countries. Surveillance of envenomations is essential for establishing guidelines, planning therapeutic supplies, and training medical staff on snakebite treatment, as well as assessing risk zones for travelers.

  18. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be fatal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During the hot summer months,the ... and keeping hydrated. “Dehydration is very dangerous. It can lead to an emergency visit, and it can ...

  19. The role of alcohol in road traffic accidents with fatal outcome: 10-year period in Croatia Split-Dalmatia County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Scepanovic, Antonija; Bosnjak, Marinko; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and fatal road traffic accidents that took place in Split-Dalmatia County (Croatia) during a 10-year period (from August 2001 to August 2011). A retrospective analysis of 474 autopsy reports was performed, with an emphasis on 337 toxicologal findings of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the mode of participation in traffic (driver, passenger, pedestrian, or cyclist). Relations between the BAC, the weekday on which death occurred, victim's age and gender, and differences according to 3 successive legislation periods within the observed time frame were analyzed. The BAC was measured by gas chromatography with headspace and flame ionization detection. Alcohol was regarded as a contributive death factor if BAC was positive; that is, higher than 0.5 g/kg. BAC was positive in 177 cases. Most often it was the car driver who had a positive BAC. Victims of traffic accidents were mostly male drivers, and those accidents were more often associated with alcohol consumption. Consumption of alcohol produced a significant increase in culpability. The results of our study show that alcohol remains one of the main contributing factors of traffic accidents in Split-Dalmatia County. Unfortunately, legislation changes regarding the allowed BAC did not cause any reduction in casualties among drivers driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA). Chi-square test of the number of total driver victims and driver victims who were DUIA revealed no significant difference (P = .173).

  20. Fatal and serious road crashes involving young New Zealand drivers: a latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    , infrastructure characteristics, environmental conditions, demographic characteristics, driving behaviour, and pre-crash manoeuvres. The analysis yielded 15 and 8 latent classes of, respectively, single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes, and average posterior probabilities measured the odds of correct...

  1. Senior automobile crashes and fatalities in Texas : are older Texas drivers safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Many factors can contribute to a senior being involved in a traffic accident, i.e. poor vision, declining : health, roadway hazards, and declining driving skills, etc. Throughout the US, laws are being enacted to : ensure that seniors can continue dr...

  2. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  3. Non-fatal disease burden for subtypes of depressive disorder: population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel-Leliefeld, Karolien E M; Kok, Gemma D; Bockting, Claudi L H; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Schaik, Anneke; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Smit, Filip

    2016-05-12

    Major depression is the leading cause of non-fatal disease burden. Because major depression is not a homogeneous condition, this study estimated the non-fatal disease burden for mild, moderate and severe depression in both single episode and recurrent depression. All estimates were assessed from an individual and a population perspective and presented as unadjusted, raw estimates and as estimates adjusted for comorbidity. We used data from the first wave of the second Netherlands-Mental-Health-Survey-and-Incidence-Study (NEMESIS-2, n = 6646; single episode Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV depression, n = 115; recurrent depression, n = 246). Disease burden from an individual perspective was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression' for each person in the dataset. From a population perspective it was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression *number of people affected'. The presence of mental disorders was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0. Single depressive episodes emerged as a key driver of disease burden from an individual perspective. From a population perspective, recurrent depressions emerged as a key driver. These findings remained unaltered after adjusting for comorbidity. The burden of disease differs between the subtype of depression and depends much on the choice of perspective. The distinction between an individual and a population perspective may help to avoid misunderstandings between policy makers and clinicians.

  4. Factors associated with urban non-fatal road-accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Carlucci, Fabio; Cirà, Andrea; Restaino, Marialuisa

    2018-02-05

    This paper reports on the factors associated with non-fatal urban-road accident severity. Data on accidents were gathered from the local traffic police in the City of Palermo, one of the six most populated cities in Italy. Findings from a mixed-effects logistic-regression model suggest that accident severity increases when two young drivers are involved, road traffic conditions are light/normal and when vehicles crash on a two-way road or carriageway. Speeding is more likely to cause slight or serious injury even when compared to a vehicle moving towards the opposite direction of traffic. An accident during the summer is more likely to result in a slight or serious injury than an accident during the winter, which is in line with evidence from Southern Europe and the Middle East. Finally, the severity of non-fatal accident injuries in an urban area of Southern Europe was significantly associated with speeding, the age of the driver and seasonality.

  5. Is the contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries being underestimated in the acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, O

    2011-04-05

    Alcohol consumption in Ireland has nearly doubled during the period 1989-2001. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol to fatal head injuries in the acute hospital setting we created a data base of all fatal traumatic brain injuries in the Department of Neuropathology at Beaumont Hospital over a ten year period (1997-2006 inclusive). 498 cases were identified (351 males: 147 females). Fatalities were highest in males aged 19-25 years (N=101) and 51-70 years (N=109). Falls (N=210) and road traffic accidents (N=183) were the commonest modes of presentation. 36\\/210 (17%) falls had positive blood alcohol testing, 9\\/210 (4.3%) had documentation of alcohol in notes but no testing, 35\\/210 (16.7%) tested negative for alcohol and 130\\/210 (61.9%) were not tested. The RTA group (N=183) comprised drivers (n=79), passengers (n=47) and pedestrians (n=57). 65\\/79 (82.2%) of drivers were males aged 19-25 years. Blood alcohol was only available in 27\\/79 (34.1%) drivers and was positive in 13\\/27 (48.1%). 14\\/75 (18.7%) pedestrians were tested for alcohol, 4\\/14 (28.6%) were positive. Overall 142\\/183 (77.6%) of the RTA group were not tested. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries is probably being underestimated due to omission of blood alcohol concentration testing on admission to hospital. Absence of national guidelines on blood alcohol testing in the emergency department compounds the problem.

  6. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  7. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...

  8. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...

  9. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SAFE DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ITS projects in Japan, Europe and the US have been characterized by a strong emphasis on safe driver assistance systems designed to prevent traffic accidents. As it has become clear that eradicating accidents will be impossible by means of vehicle passive safety and single-vehicle active safety efforts alone, research and development of systems for preventing accidents through road-vehicle cooperation and vehicle-vehicle cooperation have been promoted in Japan (ASV, AHS, Europe (PReVENT, SAFESPOT and the US (VII. The key to such technology is road-to-vehicle communications and inter-vehicle communications. On the other hand, a number of driver assistance systems have been brought to market, including lidar-based forward collision warnings, ACC, lane keeping support and drowsiness warnings, but their penetration rates in Japan are extremely low. Furthermore, one major challenge is that safe driver assistance systems based on road-vehicle and vehicle-vehicle cooperation are premised upon a high penetration rate. Finally, we introduce a system for improving driver acceptance of safe driver assistance systems based on driver monitoring and forward monitoring as well as cooperative driver assistance systems for elderly drivers, an issue now receiving attention in Japan.

  10. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  11. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. A Rare Fatal Complication of Llizarov Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Kumar, Mahesh; Dhaka, Shivani; Subramanian, Arulselvi

    2018-03-01

    Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India. During her first distraction process, she suddenly collapsed at the hospital and could not be revived. At postmortem, a small hematoma was seen around the surgically fractured area. On histopathology of internal organs, fat globules were present in the vasculature of brain and lungs. Cause of death was opined as due to fat embolism. This is the first case reported of a fatal fat embolism following Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening in a healthy adult. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Is it reliable that speed-calming solutions as ISA can reach the drivers, who needed it most?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels

    A significant number of trials with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) have been carried out within the last two decades. Almost all with a promising result; the drivers reduce their proportion of speeding and are in general positive to ISA. However, two tings question this offhand success story; 1......: there has been no commercial break through for ISA so far, even though estimated has shown that ISA can reduce the n. of fatalities in traffic accidents with up to 59%, and 2: in the only ISA trial included drivers, who not participated voluntary in the trial, ISA had virtually no effect on these drivers...

  14. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  15. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  16. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  17. Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational......-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most...... notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected...

  18. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Janet C; Wunder, Elsio A; Popper, Stephen J; Min, Jin-Na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P; Raddassi, Khadir; Lee, Patty J; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert C; Hagan, Jose E; Araújo, Guilherme C; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A; Kim, Charles C; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  19. Clash of Desires: Detective vs. Femme Fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pituková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theme of desire presented in American hard-boiled detective fiction and its subsequent transformation on the screen in form of films noir of the 1940’s. The works in focus are novels The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett, Farewell, My Lovely by Raymond Chandler and Build My Gallows High by Daniel Mainwaring and their film noir adaptations – The Maltese Falcon (1941, Murder, My Sweet (1944 and Out of the Past (1947. The proposed paper seeks to offer a contrastive analysis of the novels and the films and situate them in their respective social and cultural contexts. The central conflict of this article is presented by the clash between the femme fatale’s and detective’s desires. Hard-boiled novels present femme fatale as a dame with a past, a spider woman, and the detective as a hero with no future, caught in her web of intrigues. The only way out for the detective is to suppress the sexual desire for the woman and hold strong to his professional code. The femme fatale’s desire for more and for better is deadly and dangerous for those who succumb to her lure, but the detective’s desire for truth can be fatal for the dark lady too.  This clash presented in the novels is confronted with the 1940’s Hollywood production. When the detective frees himself from the sexual lure of the fatal woman he has a chance to live and even bring her to justice, but she can still escape or decide herself what to do with her destiny. Both, the dame and the hero are victims of their desires. The 1940’s films noir’s femme fatales have to pay for their crimes, no matter how crafty, seductive or manipulative they are.  Thus these films present the masculine dominance as strong and undefeated.

  20. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  1. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50% is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased, fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004 and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02 at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005 and death (P = 0.04, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  2. [Anaerobiospirillum thomasii bacteremia with fatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitenberger, Edgardo R; Chavez, Claudio M; Rizzo, Mabel S; Suarez, Ariel I

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobiospirillum thomasii has been reported as a causative agent of diarrhea in humans; however no bacteremia associated with this pathogen has been described so far. We present here the first case of fatal A. thomasii bacteremia in an alcoholic patient. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  4. Investigation of hot air balloon fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T S; Smialek, J E; Capron, R G

    1985-04-01

    The rising popularity of the sport of hot air ballooning has been accompanied by several recent incidents, both in this country and other parts of the world, where mechanical defects and the improper operation of balloons have resulted in several fatalities. A study was conducted to identify the location and frequency of hot air ballooning accidents. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify those accidents that were the result of improper handling on the part of the balloon operators and those that were related to specific defects in the construction of the balloon. This paper presents a background of the sport of hot air ballooning, together with an analysis of the construction of a typical hot air balloon, pointing out the specific areas where defects may occur that could result in a potential fatal balloon crash. Specific attention is given to the two recent balloon crashes that occurred in Albuquerque, N.M., hot air balloon capital of the world, and that resulted in multiple fatalities.

  5. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  6. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  7. Determinant of Road Traffic Crash Fatalities in Iran: A Longitudinal Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Karami Matin, Behzad; Bazyar, Mohammad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Najafi, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Injuries and deaths from road traffic crashes are one of the main public health problems throughout the world. This study aimed to identify determinants of fatality traffic accident in Iran for the twenty-span year from 1991 to 2011. A time series analysis (1991-2011) was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization, unemployment rate and motorization rate) on deaths from road traffic in Iran. In order to examine long- and short-run effects of variables, we employed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and error correction method (ECM). The data for the study was obtained from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC) and Legal medical organizations (LMO). GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate had a significant impact on fatality from road traffic in Iran. We did not observe any short- and long-term effects of the unemployment rate on fatality from road traffic. GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate were identified as main determinant of fatality from road traffic accidents in Iran. We hope the results of the current study enable health policy-makers to understand better the factors affecting deaths from road traffic accidents in the country.

  8. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Monica M

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003 to 2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  11. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  12. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  13. A programmable CCD driver circuit for multiphase CCD operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewin, A.J.; Reed, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable CCD driver circuit was designed to drive CCD's in multiphased modes. The purpose of the drive electronics was to operate developmental CCD imaging arrays for NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tiltable (MODIS-T). Five prototype arrays were designed. Valid's Graphics Editor (GED) was used to design the driver. With this driver design, any of the five arrays can be readout. Designing the driver with GED allowed functional simulation, timing verification, and certain packaging analyses to be done on the design before fabrication. The driver verified its function with the master clock running up to 10 MHz. This suggests a maximum rate of 400 Kpixels/sec. Timing and packaging parameters were verified. the design uses 54 TTL component chips

  14. Free Electron Laser as Energy Driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Ul'yanov, Yu.N.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    A FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength λ = 0.5 μm and providing flash energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 10 22 W cm -2 sr -1 within steering pulse duration 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. Dimensions of such an ICF driver are comparable with those of heavy-ion ICF driver, while the problem of technical realization seems to be more realistic. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R and D. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

  16. Case-fatality of COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis and statistical modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, M; Hoogenveen, R T; Rutten-van Mölken, M P

    2010-01-01

    %-confidence interval. The meta-analysis based on six studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria resulted in a weighted average case-fatality rate of 15.6% (95%CI:10.9%-20.3%), ranging from 11.4% to 19.0% for the individual studies. A severe COPD exacerbation requiring hospitalization not only results...

  17. Reduction in Fatalities, Ambulance Calls, and Hospital Admissions for Road Trauma After Implementation of New Traffic Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Herbert; Brasher, Penelope; Erdelyi, Shannon; Desapriya, Edi; Asbridge, Mark; Purssell, Roy; Macdonald, Scott; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the public health benefits of traffic laws targeting speeding and drunk drivers (British Columbia, Canada, September 2010). Methods. We studied fatal crashes and ambulance dispatches and hospital admissions for road trauma, using interrupted time series with multiple nonequivalent comparison series. We determined estimates of effect using linear regression models incorporating an autoregressive integrated moving average error term. We used neighboring jurisdictions (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Washington State) as external controls. Results. In the 2 years after implementation of the new laws, significant decreases occurred in fatal crashes (21.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.3, 26.4) and in hospital admissions (8.0%; 95% CI = 0.6, 14.9) and ambulance calls (7.2%; 95% CI = 1.1, 13.0) for road trauma. We found a very large reduction in alcohol-related fatal crashes (52.0%; 95% CI = 34.5, 69.5), and the benefits of the new laws are likely primarily the result of a reduction in drinking and driving. Conclusions. These findings suggest that laws calling for immediate sanctions for dangerous drivers can reduce road trauma and should be supported. PMID:25121822

  18. Epidemiology of subway-related fatalities in New York City, 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Nandi, Vijay; Vlahov, David; Bucciarelli-Prann, Angela; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Subway transit is a relatively safe mode of transportation, yet compared to all other forms of mass transit in the United States (U.S.), subways have the highest fatality rate. The aim of this paper is to characterize subway-related fatalities in order to identify opportunities for risk reduction. Medical examiner records for all New York City (NYC) subway-related deaths (1990-2003) were reviewed. Data were abstracted on decedents' demographics and autopsy findings, including laboratory findings. There were 668 subway-related fatalities, of these, 10 (1.5%) were homicides, 343 (51.3%) were determined to be suicides, and 315 (47.2%) were accidental. Although decedent characteristics varied between fatality categories, they were not particularly informative with regard to prevention. Prevention strategies that focus on structural controls are likely to be most efficacious in improving the overall safety of the NYC subway systems. These findings suggest that structural rather than individual-level interventions would be most successful in preventing subway fatalities.

  19. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  20. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  2. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  3. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included

  4. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  5. Fatal acute pulmonary injury associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Pieter; Nollet, Joke; Benoit, Dominique; Praet, Marleen; Caes, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To report a case of fatal alveolar hemorrhage associated with the use of everolimus in a patient who underwent a solid organ transplant. In a 71-year-old cardiac transplant patient, cyclosporine was replaced with everolimus because of worsening renal function. Over the following weeks, the patient developed nonproductive cough and increasing dyspnea. His condition deteriorated to acute respiratory failure with hemoptysis, requiring hospital admission. Bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates were apparent on chest X-ray and computed tomography. Cardiac failure was ruled out and empiric antimicrobial therapy was initiated. Additional extensive workup could not document opportunistic infection. Everolimus was discontinued and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was initiated. Despite this, the patient required invasive mechanical ventilation and died because of refractory massive hemoptysis. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor approved for use as an immunosuppressant and antineoplastic agent. Its main advantage over calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine) is a distinct safety profile. Although it has become clear that everolimus induces pulmonary toxicity more frequently than initially thought, most published cases thus far represented mild and reversible disease, and none was fatal. Here, we report a case of pulmonary toxicity developing over weeks following the introduction of everolimus, in which a fatal outcome could not be prevented by drug withdrawal and corticosteroid treatment. The association of everolimus and this syndrome was probable according to the Naranjo probability scale. This case indicates that with the increasing use of everolimus, clinicians should be aware of the rare, but life-threatening manifestation of pulmonary toxicity.

  6. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  7. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  8. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baganoff, D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  9. Fatality as a Feature of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sada Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of an interesting clinical scenario, we want to introduce a discussion about fatality in our daily practice and the need to accept that. An 80 year-old man with non-traumatic spontaneous bleeding tendency came to the clinics. Although being on warfarin as a consequence of primary thrombotic prophylaxis due to an atrial fibrillation, full assessment was performed. Not only the rare entity found on him, but also the severe complication that happened afterwards challenged clinicians and led them to risky treatment options.

  10. A fatal case of Perthes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Jobé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perthes syndrome, or traumatic asphyxia, is a clinical syndrome associating cervicofacial cyanosis with cutaneous petechial haemorrhages and subconjonctival bleeding resulting from severe sudden compressive chest trauma. Deep inspiration and a Valsalva maneuver just prior to rapid and severe chest compression, are responsible for the development of this syndrome. Current treatment is symptomatic: urgent relief of chest compression and cardiopulmonary resuscitation if needed. Outcome may be satisfactory depending on the duration and severity of compression. Prolonged thoracic compression may sometimes lead to cerebral anoxia, irreversible neurologic damage and death. We report a fatal case of Perthes syndrome resulting from an industrial accident.

  11. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  12. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  13. [Fatal air embolism during open eye surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermigny, F; Daelman, F; Guinot, P-G; Hubert, V; Jezraoui, P; Thomas, F; Milazzo, S; Dupont, H

    2008-10-01

    Gas embolism is well known for a specific subset of surgical interventions. Prevention and early detection are the main objectives of the anesthetic and surgical team. However, it may exceptionally occur during eye surgery with dramatic outcomes. We report the case of a 51-year-old man, ASA physical status 1, who presented a cardiac arrest during an open eye surgery for the extraction of a foreign body with intraocular air injection. Multiple organ failure has not been improved by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the outcome was fatal.

  14. A comment on "Novel scavenger removal trials increase wind turbine-caused avian fatality estimates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Smallwood et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare their “novel” approach to conducting carcass removal trials with what they term the “conventional” approach and to evaluate the effects of the different methods on estimated avian fatality at a wind power facility in California. A quick glance at Table 3 that succinctly summarizes their results and provides estimated fatality rates and 80% confidence intervals calculated using the 2 methods reveals a surprising result. The confidence intervals of all of their estimates and most of the conventional estimates extend below 0. These results imply that wind turbines may have the capacity to create live birds. But a more likely interpretation is that a serious error occurred in the calculation of either the average fatality rate or its standard error or both. Further evaluation of their methods reveals that the scientific basis for concluding that “many estimates of scavenger removal rates prior to [their] study were likely biased low due to scavenger swamping” and “previously reported estimates of avian fatality rates … should be adjusted upwards” was not evident in their analysis and results. Their comparison to conventional approaches was not applicable, their statistical models were questionable, and the conclusions they drew were unsupported.

  15. Is pregnancy fatalism normal? An attitudinal assessment among women trying to get pregnant and those not using contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K

    2018-05-21

    To assess factors associated with pregnancy fatalism among U.S. adult women. I used data from the Change and Consistency in Contraceptive Use study, which collected information from a national sample of 4634U.S. women aged 18-39 at baseline (59% response rate). I assessed pregnancy fatalism based on agreement with the statement: "It doesn't matter whether I use birth control, when it is my time to get pregnant, it will happen." I compare fatalism among all respondents to fatalism among respondents who were trying to get pregnant and those who did not want to get pregnant but were not using contraception. I used logistic regression to assess associations between nonuse of contraception and pregnancy fatalism at baseline and whether respondents were trying to get pregnant six months later. Overall, 36% of the sample expressed some degree of pregnancy fatalism, and proportions were higher for respondents trying to get pregnant (55%) and those not using contraception (57%). The association between pregnancy fatalism and trying to get pregnant was maintained after controlling for other characteristics (OR 1.4, p=.01), as was the association for nonuse of contraception (OR 2.08, p<.001). Contraceptive nonusers at baseline were more likely than users to be trying to get pregnant six months later, especially if they expressed a fatalistic outlook at baseline. Pregnancy fatalism may be a common outlook among women who are trying to get pregnant. Associations between fatalism and nonuse of contraception may be more complex than previously recognized. Gaining a better understanding of the dynamics of pregnancy planning might inform our understanding of why some women do not use contraception. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  17. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  18. National young-driver survey: teen perspective and experience with factors that affect driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Winston, Flaura K; Senserrick, Teresa M; García-España, Felipe; Kinsman, Sara; Quistberg, D Alex; Ross, James G; Elliott, Michael R

    2008-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality and acquired disability in adolescents. Young, inexperienced drivers are overrepresented in crashes. Our goal was to explore the adolescent perspective on driving safety to provide a better understanding of factors that influence safety and teenagers' exposure to driving hazards. Adolescents generated, prioritized, and explained their viewpoint by using the teen-centered method. These viewpoints were obtained from a school-based nationally representative survey of 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-graders (N = 5665) from 68 high schools, conducted in spring 2006, that included teen-generated items. The main outcome measures were rating of risk and prevalence of witnessing driving hazards. Drinking while driving was ranked as the greatest hazard (87% of the respondents reported that it made a lot of difference), although only 12% witnessed it often. Ranked next as dangers while driving were text-messaging, racing, impairment from marijuana, and road rage. Sixty percent viewed inexperience as a significant hazard, although only 15% reported seeing it often. Cell phone use was viewed as a significant hazard by 28%, although 57% witnessed it frequently. Only 10% viewed peer passengers as hazardous, but 64% frequently observed them. Distracting peer behaviors, among other distractions, were viewed as more dangerous. Subpopulations varied in the degree they perceived hazards. For example, black and Hispanic adolescents viewed substance use while driving as less hazardous than did white adolescents but witnessed it more frequently. Adolescents generally understand the danger of intoxicated driving. However, some groups need to better recognize this hazard. Distractions take teenagers' focus off the road, but not all are viewed as hazardous. Although inexperience is the key factor that interacts with other conditions to cause crashes, adolescents do not recognize what merits experience. Future research is needed to explore how to

  19. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Aviation Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B

    2015-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA's General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board's data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes.

  20. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  1. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Acryloylfentanyl: Identification in seized powder and a fatal forensic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breindahl, Torben; Kimergård, Andreas; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    identified in a forensic pathology case, where it was suspected to have caused a fatal overdose in combination with aspiration. This is an example of a rapidly transforming drug market, where new synthetic opioids emerge at a growing rate and cause harm. New synthetic opioids of the fentanyl class......Background Powder in a capsule seized during a smuggling attempt in a forensic psychiatric department in Denmark was analysed and unambiguously identified as the new synthetic opioid acryloylfentanyl. Shortly after, in the same geographical region, a 28-year-old male was found dead. The police...... and a forensic physician performed a crime scene investigation. The decedent was a known drug user, and he and a friend had been snorting “fentanyl and benzo”. Medico-legal autopsy was performed on the deceased and relevant samples were submitted for toxicological examination. Methods Identification...

  3. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace P Erickson

    Full Text Available Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW] for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows], and domestic cats have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top

  4. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  5. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  6. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-06-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  7. A collection of evidence for the impact of the economic recession on road fatalities in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Louise; Wallbank, Caroline; Broughton, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    There was a considerable reduction in the number of fatalities on British roads between 2007 and 2010. This substantial change led to debate as to the cause of the reduction. Multiple sources of information and evidence have been collated including STATS19 road accident data, population data, socio-demographic data, economic patterns, weather trends and traffic and vehicle data. Summary analyses of these data sources show a reduction in overall traffic, a large reduction in HGV traffic, a reduction in young male drivers, a reduction in speeding, and a reduction in drink driving during the recession period. All of these reductions can be associated with a reduction in fatal accidents and have led to the conclusion that the economic recession changed behaviours in such a way that fewer people were killed on the roads in Britain during this period. Copyright © 2015 TRL Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Neglecting safety precautions may lead to trenching fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, J Harold; Furches, Lisa K; Radcliffe, Mike; Schriver, William R; Wagner, John P

    2004-06-01

    Trench collapses ranked as the seventh leading cause of the possible twenty-nine causes of OSHA-inspected fatal construction events during the period 1991-2001. This study aims to examine why these fatalities occurred. Forty-four case files from OSHA inspections of fatal trench collapses were reviewed. Improper protection of the excavation site where work was taking place was the leading fatality cause. Several organizational or physical conditions were present at many fatal sites; the most frequent was that no training had been provided for trenching. Presence of a competent, diligent person at the site would have prohibited most fatalities. The top cited violation was lack of protection, that is, benching, shoring, sloping, trench boxes, etc. (29 CFR 1926.652 (a) (1)). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Work-related agricultural fatalities in Australia, 1982-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, S M; Driscoll, T R; Harrison, J E; Frommer, M S; Leigh, J

    1993-06-01

    Work-related agricultural fatalities were examined as part of a larger population-based study of all work-related fatalities in Australia in the period 1982-1984. A total of 257 farm-related fatalities were identified, of which 223 were deaths of persons in the employed civilian labor force (19.4 deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and 34 were deaths of children less than 15 years of age. The fatality incidence was higher among men, older age groups, and nonmanagers in general and in certain occupations in particular. Mobile mechanical equipment (particularly tractors) was the main fatal agent, roll-overs accounting for many of the fatalities. Better provision of information to agricultural workers, improvements in compliance to and enforcement of legislation, and changes in farming work practices are recommended to improve the safety of farms and farm work.

  10. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  11. Petrochemical industry drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  12. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  13. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  14. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Boxing fatalities in relation to rule changes in Japan: secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Cushman, Daniel M; Willick, Stuart E

    2018-01-18

    To examine whether changing weigh-in from the same day of the match to the day before the match and prohibiting 6-oz gloves are associated with fatalities in boxing matches sanctioned by the Japan Boxing Commission (JBC). We analyzed the rates of boxing fatalities before and after the two rule changes above via secondary analysis of data. Demographics and boxing records of deceased boxers were examined using descriptive statistics, exact binomial test the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and Fisher's exact tests. As of this study, a total of 38 boxers (23.9 ± 3.3 years of age) reportedly died due to injuries sustained in JBC-sanctioned boxing matches since 1952. Changing weigh-in to the day before the match or prohibiting 6-oz gloves was not significantly associated with the rates of boxing fatalities 5 years and 10 years before and after the rule changes (p > 0.05). Deceased boxers after these rule changes were significantly older, completed significantly more rounds in the final match, and were significantly less likely to lose the previous match (prior to the final match) and to do so by knockouts (p boxing fatalities.

  16. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  17. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  18. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  19. Behavior and lifestyle characteristics of male Kuwaiti drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemoud, Ali M; Simmons, Rodney J; Al-Asfoor, May M

    2010-08-01

    The high traffic accident risk among young drivers is a well-known and well-documented fact in most countries. Lifestyle has proven to affect driving behavior as well as accident risk. This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young male Kuwaiti drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 302 male Kuwaiti drivers (mean age=28 years; range 25-35 years) answer 39 questions related to behavioral and social factors, road conditions, police enforcement, and life satisfaction. They also report their involvement in accidents and traffic violations. The questionnaire's validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.7) were achieved. Principal component analysis reduced the 39 items on the questionnaire to 5 factors. Inadequate police enforcement is strongly correlated (r=0.862) to accident risk and traffic violations and is thus considered the best predictor of traffic accidents in Kuwait. As driving-related incidents (on-the-job and off-the-job) are a significant source of fatalities and lost-work-days, the study points to the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of comprehensive safety programs for industry. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Modeling road traffic fatalities in India: Smeed's law, time invariance and regional specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical formulations linking road traffic fatalities to vehicle ownership, regional population, and economic growth continue to be developed against the backdrop of Smeed and Andreassen models. Though a few attempts were made, Smeed's law has not been fully tested in India. Using the 1991–2009 panel data from all states, this work (a developed the generalized Smeed and Andreassen models; (b evaluated if traffic fatalities were impacted by structural changes; and (c examined if – in relation to the generalized model – the individual (time and regional models are more relevant for application. Seven models (Smeed: original, generalized, time-variant, state-variant; and Andreassen: generalized, time-variant, state-variant were developed and tested for fit with the actual data. Results showed that the per vehicle fatality rate closely resembled Smeed's formulation. Chow-test yielded a significant F-stat, suggesting that the models for four pre-defined time-blocks are structurally different from the 19-year generalized model. The counterclockwise rotation of the log-linear form also suggested lower fatality rates. While the new government policies, reduced vehicle operating speeds, better healthcare, and improved vehicle technology could be the factors, further research is required to understand the reasons for fatality rate reductions. The intercept and gradients of the time-series models showed high stability and varied only slightly in comparison to the 19-year generalized models, thus suggesting that the latter are pragmatic for application. Regional formulations, however, indicate that they may be more relevant for studying trends and tendencies. This research illustrates the robustness of Smeed's law, and provides evidence for time-invariance but state-specificity.

  1. The prevalence of drugs and alcohol found in road traffic fatalities: a comparative study of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Woolacott, Helen; Braithwaite, Robin

    2009-03-01

    Researchers have studied the involvement of drugs and alcohol in fatal road traffic incidents, but with particular emphasis on the possible impairment of the driver. This paper describes a comparative study of drug and alcohol findings in various victim groups (drivers of cars, vans or lorries, car passengers, motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, cyclists and pedestrians) between 2000 and 2006. Post-mortem blood and urine specimens submitted were analysed by immunoassay, GC-NPD, GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. The results of 1047 cases indicated 54% of all victims were positive for drugs and/or alcohol, with the highest percentage of positive findings occurring in pedestrians (63%). Males between the ages of 17-24 were most likely to be involved in a road traffic accident, whether being in control of a vehicle (driver) or involved indirectly (car passenger, pedestrian, motorcycle passenger). A wide range of drugs were detected (e.g., drugs of abuse, anti-convulsants, anti-histamines, anti-inflammatories, anti-psychotics, cardiac drugs and over-the-counter products), but alcohol and cannabinoids were the most frequent substances across the victim groups. When detected, alcohol was commonly above the legal driving limit in blood and urine (>63% in those in control and >60% not in control). Overall, the presence of drugs and/or alcohol was of similar frequency in those victims in control (55% of driver, 48% of motorcyclists, 33% of cyclists) and not in control of a vehicle (52% of car passengers, 63% of pedestrians). This degree of frequency strongly implicates the involvement of drugs and alcohol in road traffic incidents and infers an effect on driving ability and individual impairment.

  2. Cyclist-related content in novice driver education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Jennifer; Johnson, Marilyn

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, the increasing public profile and policy interest in cycling contrasts with variable cycling participation rates across jurisdictions (Australian Bicycle Council, 2017) and lack of cyclist-specific infrastructure. Cyclists and drivers often share road space, usually without indication from the built environment about how to maximise each other's safety and utility. Yet despite this regular interaction, cyclists are largely absent from the driver licensing process in Australia. That is, novice drivers are not taught how to share the road with cyclists. This case study used a mixed methods approach to examine the cyclist-related content in the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The case study was conducted in four stages: 1) content analysis of all documents used through the GDLS; 2) observations of the Road Ready course and learner driver lessons; 3) online survey; and, 4) semi-structured interviews. Cyclists are rarely mentioned in the GDLS in the ACT and references often constructed cyclists as problematic or were based in instructors' personal opinion (rather than scripted responses). Outcomes from this study have directly informed a new vulnerable road user driver licence competency in the ACT and findings include recommendations for greater inclusion of cyclists in the driver licensing system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    The health condition of public transport drivers is one of the factors playing a role in assuring safety of passengers taking use of this kind of transportation means. Therefore, the assessment of pathologies occurring in this occupational group is essential from the prevention point of view. Drivers employed in the municipal transport system are at particular risk. The aim of the study was to define health reasons of work disability among bus and tram drivers in general and to indicate pathologies responsible for disabilities in particular. The study covered 940 drivers (including 788 men and 152 women) employed in a municipal transportation enterprise during the years 1996-2000. Bus (30%) and tram (22%) drivers as well as transport service workers (48%), aged over 45 years, but under the retirement age, were eligible for the study. The analysis of temporary work disability during a five-year period was based on sickness absence, sickness absence rate and the average duration of sickness absence. The analysis revealed that diseases of the circulatory system form the major group of pathologies responsible for total sickness absence among bus drivers (43%), tram drivers (27%) and transport service workers (27%). These disease are also a leading cause of earlier retirement. They mostly include ischemic heart disease in bus drivers and hypertension in tram drivers. Cancers (pleura, kidney and eye) were responsible for 9% of sickness absence in the group of male tram drivers, whereas endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (diabetes, disorders of thyroid gland) in 16% of female tram drivers. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the

  4. US policies to enhance older driver safety: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Barton, Kelli N; Coyle, Caitlin; Lee, Chae Man

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature related to state policies concerning older drivers and to draw policy conclusions about which policies appear to work to reduce older driver crashes and to identify areas needed for further research. Specific policies examined in this paper concern medical reporting and medical review, license renewal processes, and driver testing. A study was included in the systematic review if it met the following criteria: published in English between 1991and January 2013; included data on human subjects aged 65 and older residing in the United States; included information on at least one policy related to older drivers; and had a transportation-related outcome variable (e.g., crash, fatality, renewal). A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies investigated license renewal and seven articles examined medical reporting. In-person license renewal requirements were associated with reduced risk for fatal crashes. Restricted licenses were associated with reduced number of miles driven per week. More intensive renewal requirements and being the subject of a medical report to the licensing authority was associated with delicensure. Given the importance of driving to mobility, quality of life, and public safety, more research is needed.

  5. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  6. A fatal poisoning involving 2-fluorofentanyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Rosendal, Ingrid

    Background/introduction: A fatal intoxication involving 2-fluorofentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, is reported. This is the first serious case associated with 2-fluorofentanyl that to our knowledge have been reported. 2-fluorofentanyl is the common name for N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-[1...... and gastric content samples were submitted for toxicological examination; all samples were screened by ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOFMS) and quantified by specific UPLC-MS/MS methods. Powder recovered from the scene of death was identified......-mortem femoral blood concentrations found were: 2-fluorofentanyl 0.012 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS); alcohol production as the body was moderate decomposed; buprenorphine 0.0004 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; quetiapine 0.088 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; venlafaxine 0.089 mg...

  7. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  8. Fatal Primary Meningoencephalitis Caused By Naegleria Fowleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariq, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Farooqi, B. J.; Husaain, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection. (author)

  9. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  11. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  12. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  13. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  14. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive ... of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour ...

  15. Risk Factors for Fatal Outcome From Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in a Highly Endemic Area—Arizona, 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Joanna J.; Traeger, Marc S.; Humpherys, Dwight; Mahoney, Dianna L.; Martinez, Michelle; Emerson, Ginny L.; Tack, Danielle M.; Geissler, Aimee; Yasmin, Seema; Lawson, Regina; Williams, Velda; Hamilton, Charlene; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Ken; Yost, David A.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease that now causes significant morbidity and mortality on several American Indian reservations in Arizona. Although the disease is treatable, reported RMSF case fatality rates from this region are high (7%) compared to the rest of the nation (<1%), suggesting a need to identify clinical points for intervention. Methods The first 205 cases from this region were reviewed and fatal RMSF cases were compared to nonfatal cases to determine clinical risk factors for fatal outcome. Results Doxycycline was initiated significantly later in fatal cases (median, day 7) than nonfatal cases (median, day 3), although both groups of case patients presented for care early (median, day 2). Multiple factors increased the risk of doxycycline delay and fatal outcome, such as early symptoms of nausea and diarrhea, history of alcoholism or chronic lung disease, and abnormal laboratory results such as elevated liver aminotransferases. Rash, history of tick bite, thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia were often absent at initial presentation. Conclusions Earlier treatment with doxycycline can decrease morbidity and mortality from RMSF in this region. Recognition of risk factors associated with doxycycline delay and fatal outcome, such as early gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of alcoholism or chronic lung disease, may be useful in guiding early treatment decisions. Healthcare providers should have a low threshold for initiating doxycycline whenever treating febrile or potentially septic patients from tribal lands in Arizona, even if an alternative diagnosis seems more likely and classic findings of RMSF are absent. PMID:25697742

  16. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G

    2015-09-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  17. Risk factors for fatality among confirmed adult dengue inpatients in Singapore: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Linn Thein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for death due to dengue fever in adult patients in Singapore. METHODS: Multi-center retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed dengue fever in Singapore between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. Non-fatal controls were selected by matching age and year of infection with fatal cases. World Health Organization 1997, 2009 criteria were applied to define dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, warning signs and severe dengue. Statistical significance was assessed by conditional logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Significantly more fatal cases than matched controls had pre-existing co-morbid conditions, and presented with abdominal pain/tenderness. Median pulse rates were significantly higher while myalgia was significantly less frequent in cases. . Fatal cases also had higher leucocyte counts, platelet counts, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatine and bilirubin levels on admission compared to controls. There was no statistical significant difference between the prevalence of DHF and hematocrit level among cases and controls. Multivariate analysis showed myalgia and leucocyte count at presentation were independent predictors of fatality (adjusted odds ratios 0.09 and 2.94 respectively. None of the controls was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU or given blood transfusion, while 71.4% and 28.6% of fatal cases received ICU admission and blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of myalgia and leucocytosis on admission were independently associated with fatality in our matched case-control study. Fatalities were also commonly associated with co-morbidities and clinicians should be alarmed if dengue patients fulfilled severe dengue case definition on admission.

  18. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  19. Stimulus driver for epilepsy seizure suppression with adaptive loading impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Ming-Dou; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ling

    2011-10-01

    A stimulus driver circuit for a micro-stimulator used in an implantable device is presented in this paper. For epileptic seizure control, the target of the driver was to output 30 µA stimulus currents when the electrode impedance varied between 20 and 200 kΩ. The driver, which consisted of the output stage, control block and adaptor, was integrated in a single chip. The averaged power consumption of the stimulus driver was 0.24-0.56 mW at 800 Hz stimulation rate. Fabricated in a 0.35 µm 3.3 V/24 V CMOS process and applied to a closed-loop epileptic seizure monitoring and controlling system, the proposed design has been successfully verified in the experimental results of Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures.

  20. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  1. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  3. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Case, James T; Kinde, Hailu; Daft, Barbara M; Read, Deryck H; Moore, Janet D; Uzal, Francisco A; Stover, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Retrospective case series. 314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71 %) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

  4. Estimating wind-turbine-caused bird and bat fatality when zero carcasses are observed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Dail, David; Madsen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many wind-power facilities in the United States have established effective monitoring programs to determine turbine-caused fatality rates of birds and bats, but estimating the number of fatalities of rare species poses special difficulties. The loss of even small numbers of individuals may adversely affect fragile populations, but typically, few (if any) carcasses are observed during monitoring. If monitoring design results in only a small proportion of carcasses detected, then finding zero carcasses may give little assurance that the number of actual fatalities is small. Fatality monitoring at wind-power facilities commonly involves conducting experiments to estimate the probability (g) an individual will be observed, accounting for the possibilities that it falls in an unsearched area, is scavenged prior to detection, or remains undetected even when present. When g  ~0.45. Further, we develop extensions for temporal replication that can inform prior distributions of M and methods for combining information across several areas or time periods. We apply the method to data collected at a wind-power facility where scheduled searches yielded X = 0 raptor carcasses

  5. Estimating wind-turbine-caused bird and bat fatality when zero carcasses are observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela M P; Dalthorp, Dan; Dail, David; Madsen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Many wind-power facilities in the United States have established effective monitoring programs to determine turbine-caused fatality rates of birds and bats, but estimating the number of fatalities of rare species poses special difficulties. The loss of even small numbers of individuals may adversely affect fragile populations, but typically, few (if any) carcasses are observed during monitoring. If monitoring design results in only a small proportion of carcasses detected, then finding zero carcasses may give little assurance that the number of actual fatalities is small. Fatality monitoring at wind-power facilities commonly involves conducting experiments to estimate the probability (g) an individual will be observed, accounting for the possibilities that it falls in an unsearched area, is scavenged prior to detection, or remains undetected even when present. When g -0.45. Further, we develop extensions for temporal replication that can inform prior distributions of M and methods for combining information across several areas or time periods. We apply the method to data collected at a wind-power facility where scheduled searches yielded X = 0 raptor carcasses.

  6. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  7. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic head injuries in the forensic setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cryan, J

    2010-11-01

    Excessive drinking increases the risk of dying unnaturally. In the Republic of Ireland such deaths are referred to the State Pathologist. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is routinely measured. We created a database of cases presenting to the State Pathologist over a nine year period (2000-2008 inclusive) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol and fatal traumatic brain injuries (FTBI). Of a total of 1778 cases, 332 (275 Male [M]; 57 Female [F]) died of head injuries. Fatalities were highest in males aged 36-50 (N = 97) and 26-35 (N = 73). Assaults (N = 147), falls (N = 95), road traffic accidents (RTA) (N = 50) and suicide (N = 15) were the commonest modes of presentation. A positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found in 36% of assaults, 41% of falls and 40% of suicides. In the RTA group BAC was positive in 59% of pedestrians, 33% of drivers and 14% of passengers. Alcohol clearly plays a significant role in FTBI in the forensic setting.

  8. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  9. Research on driver fatigue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ouyang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the main causes of frequent traffic accidents. In this case, driver fatigue detection system has very important significance in avoiding traffic accidents. This paper presents a real-time method based on fusion of multiple facial features, including eye closure, yawn and head movement. The eye state is classified as being open or closed by a linear SVM classifier trained using HOG features of the detected eye. The mouth state is determined according to the width-height ratio of the mouth. The head movement is detected by head pitch angle calculated by facial landmark. The driver's fatigue state can be reasoned by the model trained by above features. According to experimental results, drive fatigue detection obtains an excellent performance. It indicates that the developed method is valuable for the application of avoiding traffic accidents caused by driver's fatigue.

  10. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  11. Effect of Using Different Vehicle Weight Groups on the Estimated Relationship Between Mass Reduction and U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-08-22

    This report recalculates the estimated relationship between vehicle mass and societal fatality risk, using alternative groupings by vehicle weight, to test whether the trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction as case vehicle mass increases, holds over smaller increments of the range in case vehicle masses. The NHTSA baseline regression model estimates the relationship using for two weight groups for cars and light trucks; we re-estimated the mass reduction coefficients using four, six, and eight bins of vehicle mass. The estimated effect of mass reduction on societal fatality risk was not consistent over the range in vehicle masses in these weight bins. These results suggest that the relationship indicated by the NHTSA baseline model is a result of other, unmeasured attributes of the mix of vehicles in the lighter vs. heavier weight bins, and not necessarily the result of a correlation between mass reduction and societal fatality risk. An analysis of the average vehicle, driver, and crash characteristics across the various weight groupings did not reveal any strong trends that might explain the lack of a consistent trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction in heavier vehicles.

  12. Hospitalised and Fatal Head Injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji: Findings from an Island-Wide Trauma Registry (TRIP 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Bridget; Raj, Naina; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, head injury is a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity. A disproportionately greater burden is borne by low- and middle-income countries. The incidence and characteristics of fatal and hospitalised head injuries in Fiji are unknown. Methods Using prospective data from the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital system, the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised head injuries was investigated (2004–2005). Results In total, 226 hospital admissions and 50 fatalities (66% died prior to admission) with a principal diagnosis of head injury were identified (crude annual rates of 34.7 and 7.7/100,000, respectively). Males were more likely to die and be hospitalised as a result of head injury than females. The highest fatality rate was among those in the 30–44-year age group. Road traffic crashes were the leading causes of injuries resulting in death (70%), followed by ‘hit by person or object’ and falls (14% each). Among people admitted to hospital, road traffic crashes (34.5%) and falls (33.2%) were the leading causes of injury. The leading cause of head injuries in children was falls, in 15–29-year-olds road traffic crashes, and in adults aged 30–44 years or 45 years and older ‘hit by person or object’. Among the two major ethnic groups, Fijians had higher rates of falls and ‘hit by person or object’ and Indians higher rates for road traffic crashes. There were no statistically significant differences between the overall rates of head injuries or the fatal and non-fatal rates among Fijians or Indians by gender following age standardisation to the total Fijian national population. Conclusion Despite underestimating the overall burden, this study identified head injury to be a major cause of death and hospitalisation in Fiji. The predominance of males and road traffic-related injuries is consistent with studies on head injuries conducted in other low- and middle-income countries. The high fatality rate among those aged 30–44

  13. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  14. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  15. Evaluating impacts of different longitudinal driver assistance systems on reducing multi-vehicle rear-end crashes during small-scale inclement weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xing, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hao; Dong, Changyin; Liu, Shanwen

    2017-10-01

    Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Simulation experiments were designed and a large number of simulations were then conducted to evaluate safety effects of different LDAS. Results indicate that the FCW and ACC system have poor performance on reducing MVRE crashes during SSI weather. The slight improvement of sight distance of FCW and the limitation of perception-reaction time of ACC lead the failure of avoiding MVRE crashes in most scenarios. The AEB system has the better effect due to automatic perception and reaction, as well as performing the full brake when encountering SSI weather. The CACC system has the best performance because wireless communication provides a larger sight distance and a shorter time delay at the sub-second level. Sensitivity analyses also indicated that the larger number of vehicles and speed changes after encountering SSI weather have negative impacts on safety performances. Results of this study provide useful information for accident prevention during SSI weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing Trend of Fatal Falls in Older Adults in the United States, 1992 to 2005: Coding Practice or Reporting Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrazi, Rebekah J; Nash, Denis; Mielenz, Thelma J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in death certificate coding and reporting practices explain part or all of the recent increase in the rate of fatal falls in adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Trends in coding and reporting practices of fatal falls were evaluated under mortality coding schemes for International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Ninth Revision (1992-1998) and Tenth Revision (1999-2005). United States, 1992 to 2005. Individuals aged 65 and older with falls listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on their death certificates. The primary outcome was annual fatal falls rates per 100,000 U.S. residents aged 65 and older. Coding practice was assessed through analysis of trends in rates of specific UCD fall ICD e-codes over time. Reporting quality was assessed by examining changes in the location on the death certificate where fall e-codes were reported, in particular, the percentage of fall e-codes recorded in the proper location on the death certificate. Fatal falls rates increased over both time periods: 1992 to 1998 and 1999 to 2005. A single falls e-code was responsible for the increasing trend of fatal falls overall from 1992 to 1998 (E888, other and unspecified fall) and from 1999 to 2005 (W18, other falls on the same level), whereas trends for other falls e-codes remained stable. Reporting quality improved steadily throughout the study period. Better reporting quality, not coding practices, contributed to the increasing rate of fatal falls in older adults in the United States from 1992 to 2005. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  18. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  19. Consideraciones en tomo a "La fatal arrogancia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández Aguado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author makes here an analysis of Friedrick A. Hayek's The Fatal Conceit. This thinker considers that the best political-economical system for human civilization is capitalism, which has arised in an spontaneous, evolutive and adaptative way without any intention or plan thanks to a deus ex machina. Hayek shows himself as an advocate of capitalism and as an enemy of socialism; he despises solidarity and supports egoism as the motor of economy, for, according to him, without it society would not be where it is now. Hayek imports Darwin's evolutionary theory in order to justify economy's blind and fortuitous development, which in turn explains that capitalism is reached through a series of unforeseen and spontaneous events which are overcomed thanks to adaptation. Hayek draws historicist arguments at some poins, in an invalid way, rejecting everything that looks like socialism, and he makes mistakes where philosophical concepts are dealed with. Hayek's continuous reject towards Aristotle and his political-economical thesis obeys to the fact that the author rejects the Catholic Church, which, according to him, gathered the Aristotelian thesis through saint Thomas Aquinas. Hayek proposes a selfish and capitalist moral which one ought to accept if one does not wish for hunger and poverty.

  20. Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R

    2016-03-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy.

  1. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  2. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  3. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Declan J

    2009-06-01

    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection. However, considerable diversity is observed in field populations of each parasite and protection is only assured against homologous challenge. The life cycles of these parasites are complex and involve prolonged exposure to host and vector defence mechanisms. Although the relevant vector mechanisms are poorly defined, protective responses of cattle seem to be tightly focused and variable in their specificity between individuals. This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites.

  4. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A; Quistberg, D Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ACCIDENT TRANSPORT BETWEEN STATE WORKERS OF BAHIA AND BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica de Jesus dos Santos; Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the situation of mortality from traffic accidents among workers are still insufficient. This study aimed to describe the mortality rates for traffic accidents / path between state workers of Bahia and Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive study of fatal work accidents related to traffic accidents / path with the Mortality Information System data in the period from 2009 to 2011. The results show 317 reported deaths from traffic accidents in Bahia and...

  6. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  7. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth.Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31 on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43, while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43. Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP per capita.The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  8. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  9. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  10. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  11. Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Road transport drivers are one of the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Medical documentation was a source of data for the reported study. It derived from medical examinations of truck and bus drivers applying for the new category II driving licence or for prolongation of the one they already had. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% were diagnosed with obesity. Hypertension was noted in the medical records of 36.7% drivers. The prevalence of abnormal BP values was increasing with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. In road transport drivers, the high prevalence of excessive body weight and elevated arterial blood pressure as the risk factors for diabetes indicates a need to undertake multidimensional actions targeted on this particular profession and involving various health care sectors. Prophylactic and detailed pre-placement examinations should be considered, depending on the rate and intensity of the disorders diagnosed. This should be coupled with an introduction of primary and secondary prophylactic activities and monitoring of relevant treatment. A close collaboration with the patient's GP is necessary.

  12. Self- and peer-assessments of ambulance drivers' driving performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sundström

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and examine the quality of the Ambulance Driver Self-assessment Questionnaire (ADSQ and the Ambulance Driver Peer-assessment Questionnaire (ADPQ measuring aspects of, driving performance, driving style and driving competence. In addition the ADSQ measures self-reflection and safety-attitudes. The aim of the study was also to examine ambulance drivers' self- and peer-assessments as well as to examine the accuracy of self-assessments by comparing self-assessed and peer-assessed driving performance, driving style and competence. 76 ambulance drivers employed at two ambulance stations in northern Sweden completed ADSQ and ADPQ. Item analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the items, and based on the results some revisions were made to improve the questionnaires. The revised questionnaires were functioning rather well, although some subscale demonstrated low internal consistency. Subscale inter-correlations provided support for construct validity. Self- and peer-assessments indicated safe driving performance and good driver competence, which is positive from a traffic safety perspective. A comparison of mean self- and peer-assessment ratings, controlling for age, gender and driving experience showed no significant differences, except for the subscale overtaking. This indicates that ambulance drivers' self-assessments are realistic in most areas.

  13. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  14. Map-based repowering and reorganization of a wind resource area to minimize burrowing owl and other bird fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S. [Research Ecologist, 3108 Finch Street, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Neher, L. [Gis Specialist, Neher Consulting, 7241 34th Street, North Highlands, CA 95660 (United States); Bell, D. A. [East Bay Regional Park District, 2950 Peralta Oaks Court, Oakland, CA 94605-0381 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 x 10 m{sup 2} grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California's 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. (author)

  15. Using Occupational Safety and Health Administration accident investigations to study patterns in work fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, J M; Kagey, B T

    1990-11-01

    Investigations of fatalities by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provide the most detailed available information about traumatic workplace deaths that are potentially related to violations of existing safety standards. Comparison of the number of such deaths investigated by OSHA from 1977 to 1986 with the comparable category of deaths reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses indicates that the overall magnitudes have been roughly similar. The OSHA data contain more information than other sources and are especially valuable for analyses of fatalities at smaller workplaces. The OSHA data show that death rates decline sharply with establishment size; the inverted "U" pattern for lost workday injury rates is absent. Because accident investigations are conducted as part of an administrative system, the OSHA data can be influenced by changes in administrative policies. Changes over time in the percent of fatalities in which violations of OSHA standards were cited have clearly been influenced by changes in OSHA citation policy and thus do not provide a valid measure of the rate of violation-caused deaths. Realization of the epidemiological value of this data source depends upon a commitment from OSHA to maintain consistency in investigating accidents and to improve its data collection methods.

  16. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  17. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years many European countries have experienced an increase in the number of fatal traffic accidents with motorcycles. Bos et al. (2008) reports an increase from 17.4% to 21.1% of the total number of fatalities on powered two-wheelers in the European traffic. Several reasons...... for this have been suggested, among the most common is the hypothesis that during the last decade or so, the typical motorcyclist has become older, and as a result of the increase in age, the loss of physical ability in driving and orientation has resulted in the increase in the number of accidents (Værø 2008....... In this analysis we establish relationships between social and demographic characteristics and the probability of being in an accident and being injured in an accident. Logistic regression was applied to both motorcyclists and car drivers with the purpose of calculating the odds ratio with the car drivers...

  19. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    2001-01-01

    results on the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and risk of incident and fatal first-ever stroke. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses are based on prospective cohort data from 12 878 eligible men and women aged 45-84 years, who participated in the first health examination...... adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke...

  20. Look who's talking! A roadside survey of drivers' cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify Melbourne drivers' rates of handheld and hands-free phone use and the driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics associated with phone use. Additionally, this study sought to examine any change in the prevalence of handheld cell phone use by Melbourne drivers between 2006 and 2009. Observational survey of vehicle drivers at various times of the day and week at 3 sites across metropolitan Melbourne during May 2009. A total of 195 (3.4%) of the 5813 drivers observed were using handheld phones and 81 (1.4%) were using hands-free phones. This represents a significant increase in handheld phone usage rates compared to those found in an earlier study conducted in Melbourne in 2006. Cell phone use was associated with a range of driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics. Handheld phone users were predominately young or middle-aged drivers who drove cars or 4-wheel-drive vehicles (4WDs), and this activity was more likely to occur in the late afternoon. Use of hands-free phones did not differ significantly across gender, age group, vehicle type, observation site, or time of day; however, use of hands-free phones was higher on weekdays compared to weekends. Despite legislation being in place, drivers' handheld cell phone use is still a major road safety concern, particularly for young and middle-aged drivers. The effectiveness of other strategies for decreasing handheld usage rates, including increased surveillance and tougher penalties, need to be ascertained.

  1. Headlamps for light based driver assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, M.; Kleinkes, M.

    2008-04-01

    Driving at night is dangerous. Although only 25% of all driving tasks are performed at night, nearly half of all fatal accidents happen in this time. In order to increase safety when driving under poor visibility conditions, automotive front lighting systems have undergone a strong development in the last fifteen years. One important milestone was the introduction of Xenon headlamps in 1992, which provide more and brighter light for road illumination than ever before. Since then the paradigm of simply providing more light has changed toward providing optimised light distributions, which support the driver's perception. A first step in this direction was the introduction of dynamic bend lighting and cornering light in 2003. In 2006 the first full AFS headlamp (Adaptive Front Lighting System) allowed an optimised adoption of the light distribution to the driving situation. These systems use information provided by vehicle sensors and an intelligent algorithm to guide light towards those areas where needed. Nowadays, even more information about the vehicle's environment is available. Image processing systems, for example, allow to detect other traffic participants, their speed and their driving directions. In future headlamp systems these data will be used to constantly regulate the reach of the light distribution thus allowing a maximal reach without providing glare. Moreover, technologies that allow to constantly use a high-beam light distribution are under development. These systems will illuminate the whole traffic area only excluding other traffic participants. LED light sources will play a significant role in these scenarios, since they allow to precisely illuminate certain areas of the road, while neighbouring parts will be left in dark.

  2. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  3. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  4. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  6. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  7. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  8. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  9. Sarcoma de Kaposi clássico fatal Fatal outcome in classic Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Maria Damásio N. Ohe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrito em 1872, o sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia multicêntrica rara originária de células endoteliais com manifestação cutânea e extracutânea. A forma clássica é muito mais frequente em homens idosos, com evolução prolongada e boa resposta a quimioterapia e radioterapia. Apresentaremos um caso de sarcoma de Kaposi clássico com comprometimento cutâneo e visceral em paciente do sexo feminino com rápida evolução fatal.First described in 1872, Kaposi's sarcoma is defined as a rare multifocal tumor that originates in the endothelial cells and presents with cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations. The classic form is most common in elderly men and progression is slow. This tumor responds well to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This report describes a classic case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a woman with skin and visceral manifestations in whom the disease rapidly progressed to a fatal outcome.

  10. The CMS Tracker Readout Front End Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Foudas, C.; Ballard, D.; Church, I.; Corrin, E.; Coughlan, J.A.; Day, C.P.; Freeman, E.J.; Fulcher, J.; Gannon, W.J.F.; Hall, G.; Halsall, R.N.J.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Noy, M.; Pearson, M.; Raymond, M.; Reid, I.; Rogers, G.; Salisbury, J.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.R.; Zorba, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Front End Driver, FED, is a 9U 400mm VME64x card designed for reading out the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, silicon tracker signals transmitted by the APV25 analogue pipeline Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The FED receives the signals via 96 optical fibers at a total input rate of 3.4 GB/sec. The signals are digitized and processed by applying algorithms for pedestal and common mode noise subtraction. Algorithms that search for clusters of hits are used to further reduce the input rate. Only the cluster data along with trigger information of the event are transmitted to the CMS data acquisition system using the S-LINK64 protocol at a maximum rate of 400 MB/sec. All data processing algorithms on the FED are executed in large on-board Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Results on the design, performance, testing and quality control of the FED are presented and discussed.

  11. Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  13. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  14. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  16. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  17. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  18. Situational Factors of Influencing Drivers to Give Precedence to Jaywalking Pedestrians at Signalized Crosswalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. Under a potential conflict between the vehicle and jaywalking pedestrian, giving precedence to the pedestrian will be a proper decision taken by the driver to avoid collision. Field traffic data has been collected by video recording and image processing at two signalized crosswalks. Vehicle speed performance in the single vehicle-pedestrian encounter and platoon vehicle-pedestrian encounter were analyzed for understanding the driver behavior in the conflict process. Binary logic model was proposed to estimate the drivers' giving precedence influenced by the situational factors and the model was validated to predict the drivers' choices accurately. The vehicle speed, pedestrian speed, pedestrian lateral distance and the vehicle longitudinal distance to the conflict point were proved to affect the drivers' choices in platoon driving. The research results would hopefully be helpful to the design of intelligent vehicles and pedestrian protection systems by the knowledge-based decision making process.

  19. The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact driver aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Cole D; Samuel, Siby; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    Speeding greatly attributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a virtual drive was constructed to evaluate how time pressures, or hurried driving, affected driver speed choice and driver behavior. In particular, acceleration profiles, gap acceptance, willingness to pass, and dilemma zone behavior were used, in addition to speed, as measures to evaluate whether being late increased risky and aggressive driving behaviors. Thirty-six drivers were recruited with an equal male/female split and a broad distribution of ages. Financial incentives and completion time goals calibrated from a control group were used to generate a Hurried and Very Hurried experimental group. As compared to the control group, Very Hurried drivers selected higher speeds, accelerated faster after red lights, accepted smaller gaps on left turns, were more likely to pass a slow vehicle, and were more likely to run a yellow light in a dilemma zone situation. These trends were statistically significant and were also evident with the Hurried group but a larger sample would be needed to show statistical significance. The findings from this study provide evidence that hurried drivers select higher speeds and exhibit riskier driving behaviors. These conclusive results have possible implications in areas such as transportation funding and commercial motor vehicle safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.