A kinematic view of loop closure.
Coutsias, Evangelos A; Seok, Chaok; Jacobson, Matthew P; Dill, Ken A
2004-03-01
We consider the problem of loop closure, i.e., of finding the ensemble of possible backbone structures of a chain segment of a protein molecule that is geometrically consistent with preceding and following parts of the chain whose structures are given. We reduce this problem of determining the loop conformations of six torsions to finding the real roots of a 16th degree polynomial in one variable, based on the robotics literature on the kinematics of the equivalent rotator linkage in the most general case of oblique rotators. We provide a simple intuitive view and derivation of the polynomial for the case in which each of the three pair of torsional axes has a common point. Our method generalizes previous work on analytical loop closure in that the torsion angles need not be consecutive, and any rigid intervening segments are allowed between the free torsions. Our approach also allows for a small degree of flexibility in the bond angles and the peptide torsion angles; this substantially enlarges the space of solvable configurations as is demonstrated by an application of the method to the modeling of cyclic pentapeptides. We give further applications to two important problems. First, we show that this analytical loop closure algorithm can be efficiently combined with an existing loop-construction algorithm to sample loops longer than three residues. Second, we show that Monte Carlo minimization is made severalfold more efficient by employing the local moves generated by the loop closure algorithm, when applied to the global minimization of an eight-residue loop. Our loop closure algorithm is freely available at http://dillgroup. ucsf.edu/loop_closure/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 510-528, 2004
Kinetic parameters for source driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.; D'Angelo, A.
2006-01-01
The definition of the characteristic kinetic parameters of a subcritical source-driven system constitutes an interesting problem in reactor physics with important consequences for practical applications. Consistent and physically meaningful values of the parameters allow to obtain accurate results from kinetic simulation tools and to correctly interpret kinetic experiments. For subcritical systems a preliminary problem arises for the adoption of a suitable weighting function to be used in the projection procedure to derive a point model. The present work illustrates a consistent factorization-projection procedure which leads to the definition of the kinetic parameters in a straightforward manner. The reactivity term is introduced coherently with the generalized perturbation theory applied to the source multiplication factor ks, which is thus given a physical role in the kinetic model. The effective prompt lifetime is introduced on the assumption that a neutron generation can be initiated by both the fission process and the source emission. Results are presented for simplified configurations to fully comprehend the physical features and for a more complicated highly decoupled system treated in transport theory. (authors)
Matching-range-constrained real-time loop closure detection with CNNs features.
Bai, Dongdong; Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Bo; Yi, Xiaodong; Tang, Yuhua
2016-01-01
The loop closure detection (LCD) is an essential part of visual simultaneous localization and mapping systems (SLAM). LCD is capable of identifying and compensating the accumulation drift of localization algorithms to produce an consistent map if the loops are checked correctly. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have outperformed state-of-the-art solutions that use traditional hand-crafted features in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. After the great success of CNNs, there has been much interest in applying CNNs features to robotic fields such as visual LCD. Some researchers focus on using a pre-trained CNNs model as a method of generating an image representation appropriate for visual loop closure detection in SLAM. However, there are many fundamental differences and challenges involved in character between simple computer vision applications and robotic applications. Firstly, the adjacent images in the dataset of loop closure detection might have more resemblance than the images that form the loop closure. Secondly, real-time performance is one of the most critical demands for robots. In this paper, we focus on making use of the feature generated by CNNs layers to implement LCD in real environment. In order to address the above challenges, we explicitly provide a value to limit the matching range of images to solve the first problem; meanwhile we get better results than state-of-the-art methods and improve the real-time performance using an efficient feature compression method.
Generic analysis of kinetically driven inflation
Saitou, Rio
2018-04-01
We perform a model-independent analysis of kinetically driven inflation (KDI) which (partially) includes generalized G-inflation and ghost inflation. We evaluate the background evolution splitting into the inflationary attractor and the perturbation around it. We also consider the quantum fluctuation of the scalar mode with a usual scaling and derive the spectral index, ignoring the contribution from the second-order products of slow-roll parameters. Using these formalisms, we find that within our generic framework the models of KDI which possess the shift symmetry of scalar field cannot create the quantum fluctuation consistent with the observation. Breaking the shift symmetry, we obtain a few essential conditions for viable models of KDI associated with the graceful exit.
Towards Stable Adversarial Feature Learning for LiDAR based Loop Closure Detection
Xu, Lingyun; Yin, Peng; Luo, Haibo; Liu, Yunhui; Han, Jianda
2017-01-01
Stable feature extraction is the key for the Loop closure detection (LCD) task in the simultaneously localization and mapping (SLAM) framework. In our paper, the feature extraction is operated by using a generative adversarial networks (GANs) based unsupervised learning. GANs are powerful generative models, however, GANs based adversarial learning suffers from training instability. We find that the data-code joint distribution in the adversarial learning is a more complex manifold than in the...
Synchronous Adversarial Feature Learning for LiDAR based Loop Closure Detection
Yin, Peng; He, Yuqing; Xu, Lingyun; Peng, Yan; Han, Jianda; Xu, Weiliang
2018-01-01
Loop Closure Detection (LCD) is the essential module in the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) task. In the current appearance-based SLAM methods, the visual inputs are usually affected by illumination, appearance and viewpoints changes. Comparing to the visual inputs, with the active property, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) based point-cloud inputs are invariant to the illumination and appearance changes. In this paper, we extract 3D voxel maps and 2D top view maps from LiDAR ...
Full cyclic coordinate descent: solving the protein loop closure problem in Cα space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamelryck Thomas
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various forms of the so-called loop closure problem are crucial to protein structure prediction methods. Given an N- and a C-terminal end, the problem consists of finding a suitable segment of a certain length that bridges the ends seamlessly. In homology modelling, the problem arises in predicting loop regions. In de novo protein structure prediction, the problem is encountered when implementing local moves for Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. Most loop closure algorithms keep the bond angles fixed or semi-fixed, and only vary the dihedral angles. This is appropriate for a full-atom protein backbone, since the bond angles can be considered as fixed, while the (φ, ψ dihedral angles are variable. However, many de novo structure prediction methods use protein models that only consist of Cα atoms, or otherwise do not make use of all backbone atoms. These methods require a method that alters both bond and dihedral angles, since the pseudo bond angle between three consecutive Cα atoms also varies considerably. Results Here we present a method that solves the loop closure problem for Cα only protein models. We developed a variant of Cyclic Coordinate Descent (CCD, an inverse kinematics method from the field of robotics, which was recently applied to the loop closure problem. Since the method alters both bond and dihedral angles, which is equivalent to applying a full rotation matrix, we call our method Full CCD (FCDD. FCCD replaces CCD's vector-based optimization of a rotation around an axis with a singular value decomposition-based optimization of a general rotation matrix. The method is easy to implement and numerically stable. Conclusion We tested the method's performance on sets of random protein Cα segments between 5 and 30 amino acids long, and a number of loops of length 4, 8 and 12. FCCD is fast, has a high success rate and readily generates conformations close to those of real loops. The presence of constraints
Overview of nonlinear theory of kinetically driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.
1998-09-01
An overview is presented of the theory for the nonlinear behavior of instabilities driven by the resonant wave particle interaction. The approach should be applicable to a wide variety of kinetic systems in magnetic fusion devices and accelerators. Here the authors emphasize application to Alfven were driven instability, and the principles of the theory are used to interpret experimental data
A Precise and Real-Time Loop-closure Detection for SLAM Using the RSOM Tree
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siyang Song
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In robotic applications of visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM techniques, loop-closure detection detects whether or not a current location has previously been visited. We present an online and incremental approach to detect loops when images come from an already visited scene and learn new information from the environment. Instead of utilizing a bag-of-words model, the attributed graph model is applied to represent images and measure the similarity between pairs of images in our method. In order to position a camera in visual environments in real-time, the method demands retrieval of images from the database through a clustering tree that we call RSOM (recursive self-organizing feature map. As long as the match is found between the current graph and several graphs in the database, a threshold will be chosen to judge whether loop-closure is accepted or rejected. The results demonstrate the method's accuracy and real-time performance by testing several videos collected from a digital camera fixed on vehicles in indoor and outdoor environments.
Evaluation of Sorbents for Acetylene Separation in Atmosphere Revitalization Loop Closure
Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Barton, Katherine
2012-01-01
State-of-the-art carbon dioxide reduction technology uses a Sabatier reactor to recover water from metabolic carbon dioxide. In order to maximize oxygen loop closure, a byproduct of the system, methane, must be reduced to recover hydrogen. NASA is currently exploring a microwave plasma methane pyrolysis system for this purpose. The resulting product stream of this technology includes unreacted methane, product hydrogen, and acetylene. The hydrogen and the small amount of unreacted methane resulting from the pyrolysis process can be returned to the Sabatier reactor thereby substantially improving the overall efficiency of the system. However, the acetylene is a waste product that must be removed from the pyrolysis product. Two materials have been identified as potential sorbents for acetylene removal: zeolite 4A, a commonly available commercial sorbent, and HKUST-1, a newly developed microporous metal. This paper provides an explanation of the rationale behind acetylene removal and the results of separation testing with both materials
An online visual loop closure detection method for indoor robotic navigation
Erhan, Can; Sariyanidi, Evangelos; Sencan, Onur; Temeltas, Hakan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present an enhanced loop closure method* based on image-to-image matching relies on quantized local Zernike moments. In contradistinction to the previous methods, our approach uses additional depth information to extract Zernike moments in local manner. These moments are used to represent holistic shape information inside the image. The moments in complex space that are extracted from both grayscale and depth images are coarsely quantized. In order to find out the similarity between two locations, nearest neighbour (NN) classification algorithm is performed. Exemplary results and the practical implementation case of the method are also given with the data gathered on the testbed using a Kinect. The method is evaluated in three different datasets of different lighting conditions. Additional depth information with the actual image increases the detection rate especially in dark environments. The results are referred as a successful, high-fidelity online method for visual place recognition as well as to close navigation loops, which is a crucial information for the well known simultaneously localization and mapping (SLAM) problem. This technique is also practically applicable because of its low computational complexity, and performing capability in real-time with high loop closing accuracy.
The spatial kinetic analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, H.; An, Y.; Chen, X.
1998-02-01
The operation of the accelerator driven reactor with subcritical condition provides a more flexible choice of the reactor materials and of design parameters. A deep subcriticality is chosen sometime from the analysis of point kinetics. When a large reactor is operated in deep subcritical condition by using a localized spallation source, the power distribution has strong spatial dependence, and point kinetics does not provide proper analysis for reactor safety. In order to analyze the spatial and energy dependent kinetic behavior in the subcritical reactor, the authors developed a computation code which is composed of two parts, the first one is for creating the group cross section and the second part solves the multi-group kinetic diffusion equations. The reactor parameters such as the cross section of fission, scattering, and energy transfer among the several energy groups and regions are calculated by using a code modified from the Monte Carlo codes MCNPA and LAHET instead of the usual analytical method of ANISN, TWOTRAN codes. Thus the complicated geometry of the accelerator driven reactor core can be precisely taken into account. The authors analyzed the subcritical minor actinide transmutor studied by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using the code
Alternative definitions of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► New definition of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems. ► Difference between effective and average delayed neutron fraction. ► Difference between effective and average prompt neutron lifetime. ► Effect of the neutron source (Cf, D–D, D–T) on k src . ► Effect of the (n, xn) reactions and source energy-angle distribution on k src . - Abstract: This study introduces a new formulation of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems and it is structured into two parts. The first part is dedicated to the classic definition of the kinetic parameters and compares different calculation methodologies. The second part considers a new definition of the kinetic parameters for subcritical assemblies, with particular emphasis on the delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron lifetime. This new definition takes into account neutrons from the external neutron source and (n, xn) reactions, which increase the fraction of prompt neutrons. The developed theoretical framework has been applied by Monte Carlo and deterministic calculations to the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly located in Belarus. This facility can be driven by californium, deuterium–deuterium (D–D), or deuterium–tritium (D–T) external neutron sources. For the D–T neutron source, (n, xn) reactions must be taken into account in order to produce accurate results because the average energy of D–T source neutrons is 14.1 MeV, a value which is much higher than the threshold energy of the (n, 2n) cross section of uranium isotopes.
Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies
Yoon, Peter H.
2017-12-01
The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.
Kinetics of a Migration－Driven Aggregation－Fragmentation Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUANGYou-Yi; LINZhen-Quan; KEJian-Hon~
2003-01-01
We propose a reversible model of the migration-driven aggregation-fragmentation process with the symmetric migration rate kernels K (k; j) = K′(k; j) =λkjv and the constant aggregation rates I1, I2 and fragmentation rates Jl, J2. Based on the mean-field theory, we investigate the evolution behavior of the aggregate size distributions in several cases with different values of index v. We find that the fragmentation reaction plays a more important role in the kinetic behaviors of the system than the aggregation and migration. When Jl = 0 and J2 = O, the aggregate size distributions αk(t) and bk(t) obey the conventional scaling law, while when Jl > 0 and J2 > O, they obey the modified scaling law with an exponential scaling function. The total mass of either species remains conserved.
Kinetics of a Migration-Driven Aggregation-Fragmentation Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUANG You-Yi; LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong
2003-01-01
We propose a reversible model of the migration-driven aggregation-fragmentation process with the sym-metric migration rate kernels K(k;j) = K'(k;j) = λkjv and the constant aggregation rates I1, I2 and fragmentationrates J1, J2. Based on the mean-field theory, we investigate the evolution behavior of the aggregate size distributions inseveral cases with different values of index v. We find that the fragmentation reaction plays a more important role in the kinetic behaviors of the system than the aggregation and migration. When J1 = 0 and J2 = 0, the aggregate sizedistributions ak(t) and bk(t) obey the conventional scaling law, while when J1 ＞ 0 and J2 ＞ 0, they obey the modifiedscaling law with an exponential scaling function. The total mass of either species remains conserved.
Alpha-Effect, Current and Kinetic Helicities for Magnetically Driven ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
Key words. Sun—dynamo, helicity, turbulent convection. Extended abstract. Recent numerical simulations lead to the result that turbulence is much more mag- netically driven than believed. ... positive (and negative in the northern hemisphere), this being just opposite to what occurs for the current helicity which is negative ...
Saturation mechanism of decaying ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with kinetic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Yasuhiro
2016-01-01
We present full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence including kinetic electrons. By comparing decaying ITG turbulence simulations with adiabatic and kinetic electron models, an impact of kinetic electrons on the ITG turbulence is investigated. It is found that significant electron transport occurs even in the ITG turbulence, and both ion and electron temperature profiles are relaxed. In steady states, both cases show upshifts of nonlinear critical ion temperature gradients from linear ones, while their saturation mechanisms are qualitatively different. In the adiabatic electron case, the ITG mode is stabilized by turbulence driven zonal flows. On the other hand, in the kinetic electron case, passing electrons transport shows fine resonant structures at mode rational surfaces, which generate corrugated density profiles. Such corrugated density profiles lead to fine radial electric fields following the neoclassical force balance relation. The resulting E × B shearing rate greatly exceeds the linear growth rate of the ITG mode. (author)
BRIEF COMMUNICATION: On the drift kinetic equation driven by plasma flows
Shaing, K. C.
2010-07-01
A drift kinetic equation that is driven by plasma flows has previously been derived by Shaing and Spong 1990 (Phys. Fluids B 2 1190). The terms that are driven by particle speed that is parallel to the magnetic field B have been neglected. Here, such terms are discussed to examine their importance to the equation and to show that these terms do not contribute to the calculations of plasma viscosity in large aspect ratio toroidal plasmas, e.g. tokamaks and stellarators.
An observationally-driven kinetic approach to coronal heating
Moraitis, K.; Toutountzi, A.; Isliker, H.; Georgoulis, M.; Vlahos, L.; Chintzoglou, G.
2016-11-01
heat electrons and ions with minor enhancements of the local resistivity. This statistical result is independent from the nature of the extrapolation and the spatial resolution of the modeled active-region corona. This finding should be coupled with a complete plasma treatment to determine whether a quasi-steady temperature similar to that of the ambient corona can be maintained, either via a kinetic or via a hybrid, kinetic and fluid, plasma treatment. The finding can also be extended to the quiet solar corona, provided that the currently undetected nanoflares are frequent enough to account for the lower (compared to active regions) energy losses in this case.
Laser driven electron-positron pair creation-kinetic theory versus analytical approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyansky, S.A.; Prozorkevich, A.V.; Bonitz, M.
2013-01-01
The dynamical Schwinger effect of vacuum pair creation driven by an intense external laser pulse is studied on the basis of quantum kinetic theory. The numerical solutions of these kinetic equations exhibit a complex time dependence which makes an analysis of the physical processes difficult. In particular, the question of secondary effects, such as creation of secondary annihilation photons from the focus spot of the colliding laser beams, remains an important open problem. In the present work we, therefore, develop a perturbation theory which is able to capture the dominant time dependence of the produced electron-positron pair density. The theory shows excellent agreement with the exact kinetic results during the laser pulse, but fails to reproduce the residual pair density remaining in the system after termination of the pulse. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren-Tai, Chiang
2003-01-01
An ω-mode first-order perturbation theory is developed for analyzing the time- and space-dependent neutron behavior in Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Systems (ADSS). The generalized point-kinetics equations are systematically derived using the ω-mode first-order perturbation theory and Fredholm Alternative Theorem. Seven sets of the ω-mode eigenvalues exist with using six groups of delayed neutrons and all ω eigenvalues are negative in ADSS. Seven ω-mode adjoint and forward eigenfunctions are employed to form the point-kinetic parameters. The neutron flux is expressed as a linear combination of the products of seven ω-eigenvalue-mode shape functions and their corresponding time functions up to the first order terms, and the lowest negative ω-eigenvalue mode is the dominant mode. (author)
Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2016-06-01
Kinetic energy and scalar spectra from the measurements in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulent flow are presented. Kinetic energy and concentration (scalar) spectra are obtained from the experiments wherein density difference is created using brine and fresh water and temperature spectra are obtained from the experiments in which heat is used. Scaling of the frequency spectra of lateral and longitudinal velocity near the tube axis is closer to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling, while the scalar spectra show some evidence of dual scaling, Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling followed by Obukhov-Corrsin scaling. These scalings are also observed in the corresponding second order spatial structure functions of velocity and concentration fluctuations.
Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Horton, W. [University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Fusion Studies, Austin, Texas (United States)
2002-10-01
A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity {chi} obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the {chi} given by the NCM which is closer to {chi} measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q{sub k} to the temperature fluctuation T{sub k} is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q{sub k}/T{sub k}), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total {chi}. (author)
Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Horton, W.
2002-10-01
A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity χ obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the χ given by the NCM which is closer to χ measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q k to the temperature fluctuation T k is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q k /T k ), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total χ. (author)
Kinetic Digitally-Driven Architectural Structures as ‘Marginal’ Objects – a Conceptual Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sokratis Yiannoudes
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Although the most important reasons for designing digitally-driven kinetic architectural structures seem to be practical ones, namely functional flexibility and adaptation to changing conditions and needs, this paper argues that there is possibly an additional socio-cultural aspect driving their design and construction. Through this argument, the paper attempts to debate their status and question their concepts and practices.Looking at the design explorations and discourses of real or visionary technologically-augmented architecture since the 1960s, one cannot fail to notice the use of biological metaphors and concepts to describe them – an attempt to ‘naturalise’ them which culminates today in the conception of kinetic structures and intelligent environments as literally ‘alive’. Examining these attitudes in contemporary examples, the paper demonstrates that digitally-driven kinetic structures can be conceived as artificial ‘living’ machines that undermine the boundary between the natural and the artificial. It argues that by ‘humanising’ these structures, attributing biological characteristics such as self-initiated motion, intelligence and reactivity, their designers are ‘trying’ to subvert and blur the human-machine (-architecture discontinuity.The argument is developed by building a conceptual framework which is based on evidence from the social studies of science and technology, in particular their critique in modern nature-culture and human-machine distinctions, as well as the history and theory of artificial life which discuss the cultural significance and sociology of ‘living’ objects. In particular, the paper looks into the techno-scientific discourses and practices which, since the 18th century, have been exploring the creation of ‘marginal’ objects, i.e. seemingly alive objects made to challenge the nature-artifice boundary.
Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others
2014-05-15
Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or “exploding pushers,” generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D{sup 3}He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure {sup 3}He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations.
Electromagnetic response in kinetic energy driven cuprate superconductors: Linear response approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Huang, Zheyu; Feng, Shiping; Gonczarek, Ryszard
2010-01-01
Within the framework of the kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the electromagnetic response in cuprate superconductors is studied in the linear response approach. The kernel of the response function is evaluated and employed to calculate the local magnetic field profile, the magnetic field penetration depth, and the superfluid density, based on the specular reflection model for a purely transverse vector potential. It is shown that the low temperature magnetic field profile follows an exponential decay at the surface, while the magnetic field penetration depth depends linearly on temperature, except for the strong deviation from the linear characteristics at extremely low temperatures. The superfluid density is found to decrease linearly with decreasing doping concentration in the underdoped regime. The problem of gauge invariance is addressed and an approximation for the dressed current vertex, which does not violate local charge conservation is proposed and discussed.
Kinetic Behaviors of a Competitive Population and Fitness System in Exchange-Driven Growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Ke; Lin Zhenquan; Sun Yunfei
2008-01-01
We proposed an aggregation model of two species aggregates of fitness and population to study the interaction between the two species in their exchange-driven processes of the same species by introducing the monomer birth of fitness catalyzed by the population, where the fitness aggregates perform self-death process and the population aggregates perform self-birth process. The kinetic behaviors of the aggregate size distributions of the fitness and population were analyzed by the rate equation approach with their exchange rate kernel K 1 (k,j) = K 1 kj and K 2 (k,j) = K 2 kj, the fitness aggregate's self-death rate kernel J 1 (k) = J 1 k, population aggregate's self-birth rate kernel J 2 (k) = J 2 k and population-catalyzed fitness birth rate kernel I(k,j) = Ikj v . The kinetic behavior of the fitness was found depending crucially on the parameter v, which reflects the dependence of the population-catalyzed fitness birth rate on the size of the catalyst (population) aggregate. (i) In the v ≤ 0 case, the effect of catalyzed-birth of fitness is rather weak and the exchange-driven aggregation and self-death of the fitness dominate the process, and the fitness aggregate size distribution a k (t) does not have scale form. (ii) When v > 0, the effect of the population-catalyzed birth of fitness gets strong enough, and the catalyzed-birth and self-death of the fitness aggregates, together with the self-birth of the population aggregates dominate the evolution process of the fitness aggregates. The aggregate size distribution a k (t) approaches a generalized scaling form
On the Neutron Kinetics and Control of Accelerator-Driven Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacuci, D.G.
2004-01-01
This work addresses fundamental aspects of the time- and space-dependent behavior of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Core System (ADS) and presents a paradigm ADS neutron kinetics model that is solved exactly. Thus, this paradigm model can serve for benchmarking two- and/or three-dimensional computational tools. Furthermore, this work also proposes a global optimal control theory framework for the operation and control of an ADS. This framework encompasses conceptually the time- and space-dependent behavior of the ADS coupled neutron kinetics/thermal-hydraulic balance equations and aims at the optimal control of ADS operational objectives, which would include minimization of local flux disturbances, load and source following, etc. Importantly, this new conceptual framework makes no use of a 'fictitious ADS steady state' and yields the correct and complete (i.e., including sources) adjoint equations, without leaving any room for ambiguities. Thus, this new conceptual framework provides a natural basis for developing new computational methods and corresponding verification experiments specifically tailored for the control and operation of ADS
Kinetic Behavior of Exchange-Driven Growth with Catalyzed-Birth Processes
Wang, Hai-Feng; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2006-12-01
Two catalyzed-birth models of n-species (n>=2) aggregates with exchange-driven growth processes are proposed and compared. In the first one, the exchange reaction occurs between any two aggregates Amk and Amj of the same species with the rate kernels Km(k,j) = Kmkj (m = 1,2,...,n, n>=2), and aggregates of An species catalyze a monomer-birth of Al species (l = 1,2,...,n-1) with the catalysis rate kernel Jl(k,j) = Jlkjυ. The kinetic behaviors are investigated by means of the mean-field theory. We find that the evolution behavior of aggregate-size distribution alk(t) of Al species depends crucially on the value of the catalysis rate parameter υ: (i) alk(t) obeys the conventional scaling law in the case of υ0. In the second model, the mechanism of monomer-birth of An-species catalyzed by Al species is added on the basis of the first model, that is, the aggregates of Al and An species catalyze each other to cause monomer-birth. The kinetic behaviors of Al and An species are found to fall into two categories for the different υ: (i) growth obeying conventional scaling form with υ0.
Tracer kinetic model-driven registration for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI time-series data.
Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; O'Connor, James P B; Caunce, Angela; Roberts, Caleb; Cheung, Sue; Watson, Yvonne; Davies, Karen; Hope, Lynn; Jackson, Alan; Jayson, Gordon C; Parker, Geoffrey J M
2007-11-01
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) time series data are subject to unavoidable physiological motion during acquisition (e.g., due to breathing) and this motion causes significant errors when fitting tracer kinetic models to the data, particularly with voxel-by-voxel fitting approaches. Motion correction is problematic, as contrast enhancement introduces new features into postcontrast images and conventional registration similarity measures cannot fully account for the increased image information content. A methodology is presented for tracer kinetic model-driven registration that addresses these problems by explicitly including a model of contrast enhancement in the registration process. The iterative registration procedure is focused on a tumor volume of interest (VOI), employing a three-dimensional (3D) translational transformation that follows only tumor motion. The implementation accurately removes motion corruption in a DCE-MRI software phantom and it is able to reduce model fitting errors and improve localization in 3D parameter maps in patient data sets that were selected for significant motion problems. Sufficient improvement was observed in the modeling results to salvage clinical trial DCE-MRI data sets that would otherwise have to be rejected due to motion corruption. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kinetic Behavior of Exchange-Driven Growth with Catalyzed-Birth Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Haifeng; Lin Zhenquan; Kong Xiangmu
2006-01-01
Two catalyzed-birth models of n-species (n≥2) aggregates with exchange-driven growth processes are proposed and compared. In the first one, the exchange reaction occurs between any two aggregates A m k and A m j of the same species with the rate kernels K m (k,j) = K m kj (m = 1,2,...,n, n≥2), and aggregates of A n species catalyze a monomer-birth of A l species (l = 1,2,...,n-1) with the catalysis rate kernel J l (k,j) = J l kj υ . The kinetic behaviors are investigated by means of the mean-field theory. We find that the evolution behavior of aggregate-size distribution a l k (t) of A l species depends crucially on the value of the catalysis rate parameter υ: (i) a l k (t) obeys the conventional scaling law in the case of υ≤0, (ii) a l k (t) satisfies a modified scaling form in the case of υ>0. In the second model, the mechanism of monomer-birth of A n -species catalyzed by A l species is added on the basis of the first model, that is, the aggregates of A l and A n species catalyze each other to cause monomer-birth. The kinetic behaviors of A l and A n species are found to fall into two categories for the different υ: (i) growth obeying conventional scaling form with υ≤0, (ii) gelling at finite time with υ>0.
Kinetics of pyrophosphate-driven proton uptake by acidocalcisomes of Leptomonas wallacei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moraes Moreira, Bernardo Luiz; Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina A.; Miranda, Kildare; Souza, Wanderley de; Hentschel, Joachim; Plattner, Helmut; Barrabin, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work, we show the kinetics of pyrophosphate-driven H + uptake by acidocalcisomes in digitonin-permeabilized promastigotes of Leptomonas wallacei. The vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity was optimal in the pH range of 7.5-8.0, was inhibited by imidiodiphosphate, and was completely dependent on K + and PPi. H + was released with the addition of Ca 2+ , suggesting the presence of a Ca 2+ /H + antiport. In addition, X-ray elemental mapping associated with energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy showed that most of the Ca, Na, Mg, P, K, Fe, and Zn were located in acidocalcisomes. L. wallacei immunolabeled with antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi pyrophosphatase show intense fluorescence in cytoplasmatic organelles of size and distribution similar to the acidocalcisomes. Altogether, the results show that L. wallacei acidocalcisomes possess a H + -pyrophosphatase with characteristics of type I V-H + -PPase. However, we did not find any evidence, either for the presence of H + -ATPases or for Na + /H + exchangers in these acidocalcisomes
Sun, Kaibiao; Kasperski, Andrzej; Tian, Yuan
2014-10-01
The aim of this study is the optimization of a product-driven self-cycling bioprocess and presentation of a way to determine the best possible decision variables out of a set of alternatives based on the designed model. Initially, a product-driven generalized kinetic model, which allows a flexible choice of the most appropriate kinetics is designed and analysed. The optimization problem is given as the bi-objective one, where maximization of biomass productivity and minimization of unproductive loss of substrate are the objective functions. Then, the Pareto fronts are calculated for exemplary kinetics. It is found that in the designed bioprocess, a decrease of emptying/refilling fraction and an increase of substrate feeding concentration cause an increase of the biomass productivity. An increase of emptying/refilling fraction and a decrease of substrate feeding concentration cause a decrease of unproductive loss of substrate. The preferred solutions are calculated using the minimum distance from an ideal solution method, while giving proposals of their modifications derived from a decision maker's reactions to the generated solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Suvajit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r 0 ). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yunfei; Chen Dan; Lin Zhenquan; Ke Jianhong
2009-01-01
We propose a solvable aggregation model to mimic the evolution of population A, asset B, and the quantifiable resource C in a society. In this system, the population and asset aggregates themselves grow through self-exchanges with the rate kernels K 1 (k, j) = K 1 kj and K 2 (k, j) = K 2 kj, respectively. The actions of the population and asset aggregations on the aggregation evolution of resource aggregates are described by the population-catalyzed monomer death of resource aggregates and asset-catalyzed monomer birth of resource aggregates with the rate kernels J 1 (k, j) = J 1 k and J 2 (k, j) = J 2 k, respectively. Meanwhile, the asset and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of population aggregates with the rate kernel I 1 (k, i, j) = I 1 ki μ j η , and population and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of asset aggregates with the rate kernel I 2 (k, i, j) = I 2 ki v j η . The kinetic behaviors of species A, B, and C are investigated by means of the mean-field rate equation approach. The effects of the population-catalyzed death and asset-catalyzed birth on the evolution of resource aggregates based on the self-exchanges of population and asset appear in effective forms. The coefficients of the effective population-catalyzed death and the asset-catalyzed birth are expressed as J 1e = J 1 /K 1 and J 2e = J 2 /K 2 , respectively. The aggregate size distribution of C species is found to be crucially dominated by the competition between the effective death and the effective birth. It satisfies the conventional scaling form, generalized scaling form, and modified scaling form in the cases of J 1e 2e , J 1e = J 2e , and J 1e > J 2e , respectively. Meanwhile, we also find the aggregate size distributions of populations and assets both fall into two distinct categories for different parameters μ, ν, and η: (i) When μ = ν = η = 0 and μ = ν = 0, η = 1, the population and asset aggregates obey the generalized
Sun, Yun-Fei; Chen, Dan; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong
2009-06-01
We propose a solvable aggregation model to mimic the evolution of population A, asset B, and the quantifiable resource C in a society. In this system, the population and asset aggregates themselves grow through self-exchanges with the rate kernels K1(k, j) = K1kj and K2(k, j) = K2kj, respectively. The actions of the population and asset aggregations on the aggregation evolution of resource aggregates are described by the population-catalyzed monomer death of resource aggregates and asset-catalyzed monomer birth of resource aggregates with the rate kernels J1(k, j) = J1k and J2(k, j) = J2k, respectively. Meanwhile, the asset and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of population aggregates with the rate kernel I1(k, i, j) = I1kiμjη, and population and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of asset aggregates with the rate kernel I2(k, i, j) = I2kivjη. The kinetic behaviors of species A, B, and C are investigated by means of the mean-field rate equation approach. The effects of the population-catalyzed death and asset-catalyzed birth on the evolution of resource aggregates based on the self-exchanges of population and asset appear in effective forms. The coefficients of the effective population-catalyzed death and the asset-catalyzed birth are expressed as J1e = J1/K1 and J2e = J2/K2, respectively. The aggregate size distribution of C species is found to be crucially dominated by the competition between the effective death and the effective birth. It satisfies the conventional scaling form, generalized scaling form, and modified scaling form in the cases of J1e J2e, respectively. Meanwhile, we also find the aggregate size distributions of populations and assets both fall into two distinct categories for different parameters μ, ν, and η: (i) When μ = ν = η = 0 and μ = ν = 0, η = 1, the population and asset aggregates obey the generalized scaling forms; and (ii) When μ = ν = 1, η = 0, and μ = ν = η = 1, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.
2015-01-01
The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D 3 He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K ) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Atzeni, S. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others
2015-06-15
The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.
Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator
Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.
2015-12-01
The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, G.; Jeon, Y.; Kim, J., E-mail: gypark@nfri.re.kr [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)
2012-09-15
Full text: Control of the edge localized modes (ELMs) is one of the most critical issues for a more successful operation of ITER and the future tokamak fusion reactors. This paper reports ITER relevant simulation results from the XGC0 drift-kinetic code, with respect to the collisionality, plasma density, and rotation dependence of the RMP penetration and the RMP-driven transport in diverted DIII-D geometry with neutral recycling. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results, and contribute to the physics understanding needed for more confident extrapolation of the present RMP experiments to ITER. It is found that plasma-responded stochasticity becomes weaker as the collisionality gets higher and RMP-driven transport (i.e., density pump-out) is much weaker in the high collisionality case compared with that in the low collisionality one, which is consistent with the recent experimental results on DIII-D and ASDEX-U tokamaks. As for rotation effect, low rotation is found not to affect the stochasticity much in the edge region, while high rotation significantly suppresses the RMPs in the core. The clear difference in RMP behavior between the low and high collisionality regimes can be understood by examining the perturbed current Fourier amplitude profiles within the range of resonant poloidal mode numbers (m = 8 - 15, n = 3). It can be seen that primary shielding currents are strongly concentrated around the steep pedestal region just inside the separatrix, which naturally produces very strong suppression of RMPs there, in low collisionality case. However, in high collisionality case, primary shielding currents are very weak and accumulating toward inner radii leading to the shielding of RMPs further into the plasma. Our kinetic simulation method is also applied to the modeling of RMP ELM control experiments on KSTAR tokamak and the results will be presented together. (author)
Study of the kinetics parameters for subcritical media driven by source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.M.; Maiorino, J.R.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of reactor kinetics focusing on the methodology of calculation and the experimental measurements of the so-called kinetic parameters. A comparison between the methodology based on the Dulla's formalism and the classical method is made. The objective is to exhibit the dependence of the parameters on sub criticality level and perturbation. Two different slab type systems were considered: thermal one and fast one, both with homogeneous media. One group diffusion model was used for the fast reactor, and for the thermal system, two group diffusion model, considering, in both case only one precursor's family. For reason of simplicity, several additional assumptions were made for calculation of two group method: no up-scattering, fission reaction occurring only in thermal group, etc. The solutions for subcritical systems were obtained using the expansion method, and for critical systems, the methods presented in classical textbooks of reactor physics were applied. The numerical results presented their dependence on sub criticality level and perturbation. (author)
Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azyazov, V.N.; Torbin, A.P.; Pershin, A.A.; Mikheyev, P.A.; Heaven, M.C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Vibrational excitation of O_3 increases the rate constant for O_3 + O_2(a) → 2O_2(X) + O. • Vibrationally excited O_3 is produced by the O + O_2(X) + M → O_3 + M reaction. • Ozone concentrations are impacted by the reactions of vibrationally excited O_3. • Relevant to ozone concentrations in oxygen discharges and the upper atmosphere. - Abstract: The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O_3(υ) formed in O + O_2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O_2(a"1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O_3(υ ⩾ 2) + O_2(a"1Δ) → 2O_2 + O is the main O_2(a"1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O_2(a"1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.
A thermostatted kinetic theory model for event-driven pedestrian dynamics
Bianca, Carlo; Mogno, Caterina
2018-06-01
This paper is devoted to the modeling of the pedestrian dynamics by means of the thermostatted kinetic theory. Specifically the microscopic interactions among pedestrians and an external force field are modeled for simulating the evacuation of pedestrians from a metro station. The fundamentals of the stochastic game theory and the thermostatted kinetic theory are coupled for the derivation of a specific mathematical model which depicts the time evolution of the distribution of pedestrians at different exits of a metro station. The perturbation theory is employed in order to establish the stability analysis of the nonequilibrium stationary states in the case of a metro station consisting of two exits. A general sensitivity analysis on the initial conditions, the magnitude of the external force field and the number of exits is presented by means of numerical simulations which, in particular, show how the asymptotic distribution and the convergence time are affected by the presence of an external force field. The results show how, in evacuation conditions, the interaction dynamics among pedestrians can be negligible with respect to the external force. The important role of the thermostat term in allowing the reaching of the nonequilibrium stationary state is stressed out. Research perspectives are underlined at the end of paper, in particular for what concerns the derivation of frameworks that take into account the definition of local external actions and the introduction of the space and velocity dynamics.
Xue, Dongxu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e. Eu3+, Tb3+ and Y3+) fcu metal‒organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cut-off ideal for selective adsorption kinetics separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in-situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the RE-fcu-MOF plat-form, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded nota-ble gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol and butanol/water pair systems.
Xue, Dongxu
2015-03-31
Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e. Eu3+, Tb3+ and Y3+) fcu metal‒organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cut-off ideal for selective adsorption kinetics separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in-situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the RE-fcu-MOF plat-form, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded nota-ble gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol and butanol/water pair systems.
Xue, Dong-Xu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed
2015-04-22
Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e., Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Y(3+)) fcu metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cutoff, ideal for selective adsorption kinetics based separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the first RE-fcu-MOF platform, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded notable gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol, and butanol/water pair systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yucel Yildirim
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A generic theory of the quasiparticle superconducting gap in underdoped cuprates is derived in the strong-coupling limit, and found to describe the experimental “second gap” in absolute scale. In drastic contrast to the standard pairing gap associated with Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations, the quasiparticle gap is shown to originate from anomalous kinetic (scattering processes, with a size unrelated to the pairing strength. Consequently, the k dependence of the gap deviates significantly from the pure d_{x^{2}-y^{2}} wave of the order parameter. Our study reveals a new paradigm for the nature of the superconducting gap, and is expected to reconcile numerous apparent contradictions among existing experiments and point toward a more coherent understanding of high-temperature superconductivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-04-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 m -1 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Watson-Crick Base Pairing Driven DNA Origami Dimerization.
Zenk, John; Tuntivate, Chanon; Schulman, Rebecca
2016-03-16
We investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA origami dimerization using flat rectangle origami components and different architectures of Watson-Crick complementary single-stranded DNA ("sticky end") linking strategies. We systematically vary the number of linkers, the length of the sticky ends on the linker, and linker architecture and measure the corresponding yields as well as forward and reverse reaction rate constants through fluorescence quenching assays. Yields were further verified using atomic force microscopy. We calculate values of H° and ΔS° for various interface designs and find nonlinear van't Hoff behavior, best described by two linear equations, suggesting distinct regimes of dimerization between those with and those without well-formed interfaces. We find that self-assembly reactions can be tuned by manipulating the interface architecture without suffering a loss in yield, even when yield is high, ∼75-80%. We show that the second-order forward reaction rate constant (k(on)) depends on both linker architecture and number of linkers used, with typical values on the order of 10(5)-10(6) (M·s)(-1), values that are similar to those of bimolecular association of small, complementary DNA strands. The k(on) values are generally non-Arrhenius, tending to increase with decreasing temperature. Finally, we use kinetic and thermodynamic information about the optimal linking architecture to extend the system to an infinite, two-component repeating lattice system and show that we can form micron-sized lattices, with well-formed structures up to 8 μm(2).
Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azyazov, V.N., E-mail: azyazov@fian.smr.ru [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Torbin, A.P.; Pershin, A.A. [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Mikheyev, P.A., E-mail: mikheyev@fian.smr.ru [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Heaven, M.C., E-mail: mheaven@emory.edu [Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)
2015-12-16
Highlights: • Vibrational excitation of O{sub 3} increases the rate constant for O{sub 3} + O{sub 2}(a) → 2O{sub 2}(X) + O. • Vibrationally excited O{sub 3} is produced by the O + O{sub 2}(X) + M → O{sub 3} + M reaction. • Ozone concentrations are impacted by the reactions of vibrationally excited O{sub 3}. • Relevant to ozone concentrations in oxygen discharges and the upper atmosphere. - Abstract: The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O{sub 3}(υ) formed in O + O{sub 2} recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O{sub 3}(υ ⩾ 2) + O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) → 2O{sub 2} + O is the main O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Soisson, F.; Becquart, C. S.; Castin, N.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.; Vincent, E.
2010-11-01
Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations are a powerful tool to study the microstructural and microchemical evolution of alloys controlled by diffusion processes, under irradiation and during thermal ageing. In the framework of the FP6 Perfect program, two main approaches have been applied to binary and multicomponent iron based alloys. The first one is based on a diffusion model which takes into account vacancy and self-interstitial jumps, using simple rigid lattice approximation and broken-bond models to compute the point-defect jump frequencies. The corresponding parameters are fitted on ab initio calculations of a few typical configurations and migration barriers. The second method uses empirical potentials to compute a much larger number of migration barriers, including atomic relaxations, and Artificial Intelligence regression methods to predict the other ones. It is somewhat less rapid than the first one, but significantly more than simulations using "on-the-fly" calculations of all the barriers. We review here the recent advances and perspectives concerning these techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soisson, F.; Becquart, C.S.; Castin, N.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.; Vincent, E.
2010-01-01
Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations are a powerful tool to study the microstructural and microchemical evolution of alloys controlled by diffusion processes, under irradiation and during thermal ageing. In the framework of the FP6 Perfect program, two main approaches have been applied to binary and multicomponent iron based alloys. The first one is based on a diffusion model which takes into account vacancy and self-interstitial jumps, using simple rigid lattice approximation and broken-bond models to compute the point-defect jump frequencies. The corresponding parameters are fitted on ab initio calculations of a few typical configurations and migration barriers. The second method uses empirical potentials to compute a much larger number of migration barriers, including atomic relaxations, and Artificial Intelligence regression methods to predict the other ones. It is somewhat less rapid than the first one, but significantly more than simulations using 'on-the-fly' calculations of all the barriers. We review here the recent advances and perspectives concerning these techniques.
Kinetics of Infection-Driven Growth Model with Birth and Death
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Shunyou; Zhu Shengqing; Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan
2008-01-01
We propose a two-species infection model, in which an infected aggregate can gain one monomer from a healthy one due to infection when they meet together. Moreover, both the healthy and infected aggregates may lose one monomer because of self-death, but a healthy aggregate can spontaneously yield a new monomer. Consider a simple system in which the birth/death rates are directly proportional to the aggregate size, namely, the birth and death rates of the healthy aggregate of size k are J 1 k and J 2 k while the self-death rate of the infected aggregate of size k is J 3 k. We then investigate the kinetics of such a system by means of rate equation approach. For the J 1 > J 2 case, the aggregate size distribution of either species approaches the generalized scaling form and the typical size of either species increases wavily at large times. For the J 1 = J 2 case, the size distribution of healthy aggregates approaches the generalized scaling form while that of infected aggregates satisfies the modified scaling form. For the J 1 2 case, the size distribution of healthy aggregates satisfies the modified scaling form, but that of infected aggregates does not scale
Ge interactions on HfO2 surfaces and kinetically driven patterning of Ge nanocrystals on HfO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanley, Scott K.; Joshi, Sachin V.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Ekerdt, John G.
2006-01-01
Germanium interactions are studied on HfO 2 surfaces, which are prepared through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and by atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programed desorption are used to follow the reactions of germanium on HfO 2 . Germanium chemical vapor deposition at 870 K on HfO 2 produces a GeO x adhesion layer, followed by growth of semiconducting Ge 0 . PVD of 0.7 ML Ge (accomplished by thermally cracking GeH 4 over a hot filament) also produces an initial GeO x layer, which is stable up to 800 K. PVD above 2.0 ML deposits semiconducting Ge 0 . Temperature programed desorption experiments of ∼1.0 ML Ge from HfO 2 at 400-1100 K show GeH 4 desorption below 600 K and GeO desorption above 850 K. These results are compared to Ge on SiO 2 where GeO desorption is seen at 550 K. Exploiting the different reactivity of Ge on HfO 2 and SiO 2 allows a kinetically driven patterning scheme for high-density Ge nanoparticle growth on HfO 2 surfaces that is demonstrated
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.
2009-01-01
-erythrulose. Experiments were performed using automated microwell studies at the 150 or 800 mu L scale. The derived kinetic parameters were then verified in a second round of experiments where model predictions showed excellent agreement with experimental data obtained under conditions not included in the original......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seung Min
2009-01-01
This work presents a theoretical study of reactor kinetics focusing on the methodology of calculation and the experimental measurements of the so-called kinetic parameters. A comparison between the methodology based on the Dulla's formalism and the classical method is made. The objective is to exhibit the dependence of the parameters on subcriticality level and perturbation. Two different slab type systems were considered: thermal one and fast one, both with homogeneous media. One group diffusion model was used for the fast reactor, and for the thermal system, two groups diffusion model, considering, in both case, only one precursor's family. The solutions were obtained using the expansion method. Also, descriptions of the main experimental methods of measurements of the kinetic parameters are presented in order to put a question about the compatibility of these methods in subcritical region. (author)
Taitano, W. T.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.; Keenan, B.
2018-05-01
Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICF capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original Rygg experiments [J. R. Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche [Phys. Plasmas 19, 122706 (2012)], which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-01-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer--Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Fernando Luiz de
2008-01-01
This work describes an analytical solution obtained by the expansion method for the spatial kinetics using the diffusion model with delayed emission for source transients in homogeneous media. In particular, starting from simple models, and increasing the complexity, numerical results were obtained for different types of source transients. An analytical solution of the one group without precursors was solved, followed by considering one precursors family. The general case of G-groups with R families of precursor although having a closed form solution, cannot be solved analytically, since there are no explicit formulae for the eigenvalues, and numerical methods must be used to solve such problem. To illustrate the general solution, the multi-group (three groups) time-dependent problem without precursors was solved and the numerical results of a finite difference code were compared with the exact results for different transients. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behringer, K.
1991-02-01
In a recent paper by Behringer et al. (1990), the Wiener-Hermite Functional (WHF) method has been applied to point reactor kinetics excited by Gaussian random reactivity noise under stationary conditions, in order to calculate the neutron steady-state value and the neutron power spectral density (PSD) in a second-order (WHF-2) approximation. For simplicity, delayed neutrons and any feedback effects have been disregarded. The present study is a straightforward continuation of the previous one, treating the problem more generally by including any number of delayed neutron groups. For the case of white reactivity noise, the accuracy of the approach is determined by comparison with the exact solution available from the Fokker-Planck method. In the numerical comparisons, the first-oder (WHF-1) approximation of the PSD is also considered. (author) 4 figs., 10 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.; Mennig, J.
1990-06-01
The Wiener-Hermite functional (WHF) method has been applied to the point reactor kinetic equation excited by Gaussian random reactivity noise under stationary conditions. Delayed neutrons and any feedback effects are disregarded. The neutron steady-state value and the power spectral density (PSD) of the neutron flux have been calculated in a second order (WHF-2) approximation. Two cases are considered: in the first case, the noise source is low-pass white noise. In both cases the WHF-2 approximation of the neutron PSDs leads to relatively simple analytical expressions. The accuracy of the approach is determined by comparison with exact solutions of the problem. The investigations show that the WHF method is a powerful approximative tool for studying the nonlinear effects in the stochastic differential equation. (author) 5 figs., 29 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
WANG,YIFENG; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.
2000-05-04
Microbial degradation of organic matter is a driving force in many subsurface geochemical systems, and therefore may have significant impacts on the fate of radionuclides released into subsurface environments. In this paper, the authors present a general reaction-transport model for microbial metabolism, redox chemistry, and radionuclide migration in subsurface systems. The model explicitly accounts for biomass accumulation and the coupling of radionuclide redox reactions with major biogeochemical processes. Based on the consideration that the biomass accumulation in subsurface environments is likely to achieve a quasi-steady state, they have accordingly modified the traditional microbial growth kinetic equation. They justified the use of the biogeochemical models without the explicit representation of biomass accumulation, if the interest of modeling is in the net impact of microbial reactions on geochemical processes. They then applied their model to a scenario in which an oxic water flow containing both uranium and completing organic ligands is recharged into an oxic aquifer in a carbonate formation. The model simulation shows that uranium can be reduced and therefore immobilized in the anoxic zone created by microbial degradation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yifeng; Papenguth, Hans W.
2000-01-01
Microbial degradation of organic matter is a driving force in many subsurface geochemical systems, and therefore may have significant impacts on the fate of radionuclides released into subsurface environments. In this paper, the authors present a general reaction-transport model for microbial metabolism, redox chemistry, and radionuclide migration in subsurface systems. The model explicitly accounts for biomass accumulation and the coupling of radionuclide redox reactions with major biogeochemical processes. Based on the consideration that the biomass accumulation in subsurface environments is likely to achieve a quasi-steady state, they have accordingly modified the traditional microbial growth kinetic equation. They justified the use of the biogeochemical models without the explicit representation of biomass accumulation, if the interest of modeling is in the net impact of microbial reactions on geochemical processes. They then applied their model to a scenario in which an oxic water flow containing both uranium and completing organic ligands is recharged into an oxic aquifer in a carbonate formation. The model simulation shows that uranium can be reduced and therefore immobilized in the anoxic zone created by microbial degradation
Hunter, K. S.; Van Cappellen, P.
2000-01-01
Our paper, 'Kinetic modeling of microbially-driven redox chemistry of subsurface environments: coupling transport, microbial metabolism and geochemistry' (Hunter et al., 1998), presents a theoretical exploration of biogeochemical reaction networks and their importance to the biogeochemistry of groundwater systems. As with any other model, the kinetic reaction-transport model developed in our paper includes only a subset of all physically, biologically and chemically relevant processes in subsurface environments. It considers aquifer systems where the primary energy source driving microbial activity is the degradation of organic matter. In addition to the primary biodegradation pathways of organic matter (i.e. respiration and fermentation), the redox chemistry of groundwaters is also affected by reactions not directly involving organic matter oxidation. We refer to the latter as secondary reactions. By including secondary redox reactions which consume reduced reaction products (e.g., Mn2+, FeS, H2S), and in the process compete with microbial heterotrophic populations for available oxidants (i.e. O2, NO3-, Mn(IV), Fe(III), SO42-), we predict spatio-temporal distributions of microbial activity which differ significantly from those of models which consider only the biodegradation reactions. That is, the secondary reactions have a significant impact on the distributions of the rates of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic metabolic pathways. We further show that secondary redox reactions, as well as non-redox reactions, significantly influence the acid-base chemistry of groundwaters. The distributions of dissolved inorganic redox species along flowpaths, however, are similar in simulations with and without secondary reactions (see Figs. 3(b) and 7(b) in Hunter et al., 1998), indicating that very different biogeochemical reaction dynamics may lead to essentially the same chemical redox zonation of a groundwater system.
Plasma Methane Pyrolysis for Spacecraft Oxygen Loop Closure
Greenwood, Z. W.
2018-01-01
Life support is a critical function of any crewed space vehicle or habitat. Human life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include a number of atmosphere revitalization (AR) technologies to provide breathable air and a comfortable living environment to the crew. The Trace Contaminant Control System removes harmful volatile organic compounds and other trace contaminants from the circulating air. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) removes metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) and returns air to the cabin. Humidity is kept at comfortable levels by a number of condensing heat exchangers. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes water to produce oxygen for the crew and hydrogen (H2) as a byproduct. A Sabatier reaction-based CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) was launched to the ISS in 2009 and became fully operational in June 2011.The CRA interfaces with both the OGA and CDRA. Carbon dioxide from the CDRA is compressed and stored in tanks until hydrogen is available from OGA water electrolysis. When the OGA is operational and there is CO2 available, the CRA is activated and produces methane and water via the Sabatier reaction shown in Equation 1... One approach to achieve these higher recovery rates builds upon the ISS AR architecture and includes adding a methane post-processor to recover H2 from CRA methane. NASA has been developing the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to fill the role of a methane post-processor.
Methane Post-Processing for Oxygen Loop Closure
Greenwood, Zachary W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee
2016-01-01
State-of-the-art United States Atmospheric Revitalization carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction is based on the Sabatier reaction process, which recovers approximately 50% of the oxygen (O2) from crew metabolic CO2. Oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of methane to recover hydrogen with the Umpqua Research Company Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) has the potential to further close the Atmospheric Revitalization oxygen loop. The PPA decomposes methane into hydrogen and hydrocarbons, predominantly acetylene, and a small amount of solid carbon. The hydrogen must then be purified before it can be recycled for additional oxygen recovery. Long duration testing and evaluation of a four crew-member sized PPA and a discussion of hydrogen recycling system architectures are presented.
A Simple Hierarchical Pooling Data Structure for Loop Closure
2016-10-16
performance empirically on the KITTI [9], Oxford [6] and TUM RGB- D [29] datasets, as well as demonstrate extensions to general image retrieval on the...of a BoW where each word is an element of a dictionary of descriptors obtained off-line by hierarchical k-means clustering, with each word weighted by...to the inverse docu- ment frequency. This standard pipeline, with different clustering procedures to generate the dictionary and different features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Gasparutto, D.
2009-01-01
It has been stipulated that repair of clustered DNA lesions may be compromised, possibly leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB) and, thus, to deleterious events. Using a variety of model multiply damaged sites (MDS), we investigated parameters that govern the formation of DSB during the processing of MDS. Duplexes carrying MDS were inserted into replicative or integrative vectors, and used to transform yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Formation of DSB was assessed by a relevant plasmid survival assay. Kinetics of excision/incision and DSB formation at MDS was explored using yeast cell extracts. We show that MDS composed of two uracils or abasic sites, were rapidly incised and readily converted into DSB in yeast cells. In marked contrast, none of the MDS carrying opposed oG and hU separated by 38 bp gave rise to DSB, despite the fact that some of them contained preexisting single-strand break (a 1-nt gap). Interestingly, the absence of DSB formation in this case correlated with slow excision/incision rates of lesions. We propose that the kinetics of the initial repair steps at MDS is a major parameter that direct towards the conversion of MDS into DSB. Data provides clues to the biological consequences of MDS in eukaryotic cells. (authors)
Naik, Subhashchandra; Brock, Susan; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Tally, Jon; McGinn-Straub, Wesley; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Gogol, E P; Pentelute, B L; Collier, R John; Fisher, Mark T
2013-09-17
Domain 2 of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) prepore heptamer unfolds and refolds during endosome acidification to generate an extended 100 Å β barrel pore that inserts into the endosomal membrane. The PA pore facilitates the pH-dependent unfolding and translocation of bound toxin enzymic components, lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor, from the endosome to the cytoplasm. We constructed immobilized complexes of the prepore with the PA-binding domain of LF (LFN) to monitor the real-time prepore to pore kinetic transition using surface plasmon resonance and biolayer interferometry (BLI). The kinetics of this transition increased as the solution pH was decreased from 7.5 to 5.0, mirroring acidification of the endosome. Once it had undergone the transition, the LFN-PA pore complex was removed from the BLI biosensor tip and deposited onto electron microscopy grids, where PA pore formation was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. When the soluble receptor domain (ANTRX2/CMG2) binds the immobilized PA prepore, the transition to the pore state was observed only after the pH was lowered to early (pH 5.5) or late (pH 5.0) endosomal pH conditions. Once the pore formed, the soluble receptor readily dissociated from the PA pore. Separate binding experiments with immobilized PA pores and the soluble receptor indicate that the receptor has a weakened propensity to bind to the transitioned pore. This immobilized anthrax toxin platform can be used to identify or validate potential antimicrobial lead compounds capable of regulating and/or inhibiting anthrax toxin complex formation or pore transitions.
Naik, Subhashchandra; Brock, Susan; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Tally, Jon; Mcginn-Straub, Wesley; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Gogol, E. P.; Pentelute, B. L.; Collier, R. John; Fisher, Mark T.
2013-01-01
Domain 2 of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) prepore heptamer unfolds and refolds during endosome acidification to generate an extended 100 Å beta barrel pore that inserts into the endosomal membrane. The PA pore facilitates the pH dependent unfolding and translocation of bound toxin enzymic components, lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor (EF), from the endosome into the cytoplasm. We constructed immobilized complexes of the prepore with the PA-binding domain of LF (LFN) to monitor the real-time prepore to pore kinetic transition using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and bio-layer interferometry (BLI). The kinetics of this transition increased as the solution pH was decreased from pH 7.5 to pH 5.0, mirroring acidification of the endosome. Once transitioned, the LFN-PA pore complex was removed from the BLI biosensor tip and deposited onto EM grids, where the PA pore formation was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. When the soluble receptor domain (ANTRX2/CMG2) binds the immobilized PA prepore, the transition to the pore state was observed only after the pH was lowered to early or late endosomal pH conditions (5.5 to 5.0 respectively). Once the pore formed, the soluble receptor readily dissociated from the PA pore. Separate binding experiments with immobilized PA pores and soluble receptor indicate that the receptor has a weakened propensity to bind to the transitioned pore. This immobilized anthrax toxin platform can be used to identify or validate potential antimicrobial lead compounds capable of regulating and/or inhibiting anthrax toxin complex formation or pore transitions. PMID:23964683
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia
2014-01-01
After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images.......After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifschitz, E.M.; Pitajewski, L.P.
1983-01-01
The textbook covers the subject under the following headings: kinetic gas theory, diffusion approximation, collisionless plasma, collisions within the plasma, plasma in the magnetic field, theory of instabilities, dielectrics, quantum fluids, metals, diagram technique for nonequilibrium systems, superconductors, and kinetics of phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swart, C.A.M. de.
1983-01-01
The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interactions with proteins resulting in anticoagulant and lipolytic effects are discussed in a review (chapter II), which also comprises some clinical aspects of heparin therapy. In chapter III the kinetics of the anticoagulant effect are described after intravenous administration of five commercial heparin preparations. A mathematical model is presented that fits best to these kinetics. The kinetics of the anticoagulant and lipolytic effects after intravenous injection of various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions and their relationship with the disappearance of the radiolabel are described in chapter IV. Chapter V gives a description of the kinetics of two radiolabels after injection of in vitro formed complexes consisting of purified, 125 I-radiolabelled antithrombin III and various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2009-01-01
A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Ahmadi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Saverymuttu, S.H.
1985-01-01
By using density gradient materials enriched with autologous plasma, the authors have been able to isolate granulocutes from other cellular elements and label them with In-111 without separation from a plasma environment. The kinetic behavior of these cells suggests that phenomena attributed to granulocyte activation are greatly reduced by this labeling. Here, they review their study of granulocyte kinetics in health and disease in hope of quantifying sites of margination and identifying principal sites of destruction. The three principle headings of the paper are distribution, life-span, and destruction
Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
1986-01-01
This monograph deals with the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of molecules physisorbed on solid surfaces. Although frequent and detailed reference is made to experiment, it is mainly concerned with the theory of the subject. In this, we have attempted to present a unified picture based on the master equation approach. Physisorption kinetics is by no means a closed and mature subject; rather, in writing this monograph we intended to survey a field very much in flux, to assess its achievements so far, and to give a reasonable basis from which further developments can take off. For this reason we have included many papers in the bibliography that are not referred to in the text but are of relevance to physisorption. To keep this monograph to a reasonable size, and also to allow for some unity in the presentation of the material, we had to omit a number of topics related to physisorption kinetics. We have not covered to any extent the equilibrium properties of physisorbed layers such as structures, phase tr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.
1975-01-01
A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.
1984-01-01
The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total 14 C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with 14 C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of 14 C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate
Kinetic theory of tearing instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.
1975-01-01
The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments
Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.
Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex
2015-11-06
We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.
Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, M.J.
1999-01-01
This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics
Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch
2010-02-15
Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.
Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2010-01-01
Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.A.
1993-01-01
Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)
Neutron inverse kinetics via Gaussian Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picca, Paolo; Furfaro, Roberto
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A novel technique for the interpretation of experiments in ADS is presented. ► The technique is based on Bayesian regression, implemented via Gaussian Processes. ► GPs overcome the limits of classical methods, based on PK approximation. ► Results compares GPs and ANN performance, underlining similarities and differences. - Abstract: The paper introduces the application of Gaussian Processes (GPs) to determine the subcriticality level in accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) through the interpretation of pulsed experiment data. ADSs have peculiar kinetic properties due to their special core design. For this reason, classical – inversion techniques based on point kinetic (PK) generally fail to generate an accurate estimate of reactor subcriticality. Similarly to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gaussian Processes can be successfully trained to learn the underlying inverse neutron kinetic model and, as such, they are not limited to the model choice. Importantly, GPs are strongly rooted into the Bayes’ theorem which makes them a powerful tool for statistical inference. Here, GPs have been designed and trained on a set of kinetics models (e.g. point kinetics and multi-point kinetics) for homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. The results presented in the paper show that GPs are very efficient and accurate in predicting the reactivity for ADS-like systems. The variance computed via GPs may provide an indication on how to generate additional data as function of the desired accuracy.
Antonyuk, Boris P
2009-01-01
This book deals with influencing the properties of solids by light-driven electron transport. The theoretical basis of these effects, light-driven ordering and self-organisation, as well as optical motors are presented. With light as a tool, new ways to produce materials are opened.
Principles of chemical kinetics
House, James E
2007-01-01
James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela
Introduction to chemical kinetics
Soustelle, Michel
2013-01-01
This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re
Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salas, G.
1983-01-01
We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance
Nova-driven winds in globular clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, E.H.; Durisen, R.H.
1978-01-01
Recent sensitive searches for Hα emission from ionized intracluster gas in globular clusters have set upper limits that conflict with theoretical predictions. We suggest that nova outbursts heat the gas, producing winds that resolve this discrepancy. The incidence of novae in globular clusters, the conversion of kinetic energy of the nova shell to thermal energy of the intracluster gas, and the characteristics of the resultant winds are discussed. Calculated emission from the nova-driven models does not conflict with any observations to date. Some suggestions are made concerning the most promising approaches for future detection of intracluster gas on the basis of these models. The possible relationship of nova-driven winds of globular cluster X-ray sources is also considered
Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan
A relevant initiative from the software engineering community called Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is being developed in parallel with the Semantic Web (Mellor et al. 2003a). The MDE approach to software development suggests that one should first develop a model of the system under study, which is then transformed into the real thing (i.e., an executable software entity). The most important research initiative in this area is the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), which is Model Driven Architecture being developed under the umbrella of the Object Management Group (OMG). This chapter describes the basic concepts of this software engineering effort.
Kinetics in radiation chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hummel, A.
1987-01-01
In this chapter the authors first briefly review the kinetics of first- and second-order processes for continuous and pulsed irradiation, without taking the effects of nonhomogeneous formation of the species into consideration. They also discuss diffusion controlled reactions under conditions where interactions of more than two particles can be neglected, first the kinetics of the diffusion-controlled reaction of randomly generated species (homogeneous reaction) and then that of isolated pairs of reactants. The latter is often called geminate kinetics when dealing with pairs of oppositely charged species; they shall use this term for the kinetics of isolated pairs in general. In the last section they discuss briefly the kinetics of groups of more than two reactants
Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting
Ducheine, P.
2014-01-01
Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our knowledge and understanding of the kinetic prevalence. Paradoxically, non-kinetic targeting is not recognized as a separate concept: kinetic and non-kinetic are intertwined facets of targeting. Kinetic tar...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bukh, Per Nikolaj
2009-01-01
Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...
Kinetics of phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, M.O.; Aziz, M.J.; Stephenson, G.B.
1992-01-01
This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations
Irreversible processes kinetic theory
Brush, Stephen G
2013-01-01
Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s
SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...
Thermochemical performance analysis of solar driven CO_2 methane reforming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuqiang, Wang; Jianyu, Tan; Huijian, Jin; Yu, Leng
2015-01-01
Increasing CO_2 emission problems create urgent challenges for alleviating global warming, and the capture of CO_2 has become an essential field of scientific research. In this study, a finite volume method (FVM) coupled with thermochemical kinetics was developed to analyze the solar driven CO_2 methane reforming process in a metallic foam reactor. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model coupled with radiative heat transfer was developed to provide more temperature information. A joint inversion method based on chemical process software and the FVM coupled with thermochemical kinetics was developed to obtain the thermochemical reaction parameters and guarantee the calculation accuracy. The detailed thermal and thermochemical performance in the metal foam reactor was analyzed. In addition, the effects of heat flux distribution and porosity on the solar driven CO_2 methane reforming process were analyzed. The numerical results can serve as theoretical guidance for the solar driven CO_2 methane reforming application. - Highlights: • Solar driven CO_2 methane reforming process in metal foam reactor is analyzed. • FVM with chemical reactions was developed to analyze solar CO_2 methane reforming. • A joint inversion method was developed to obtain thermochemical reaction parameters. • Results can be a guidance for the solar driven CO_2 methane reforming application.
Hurter, Christophe; Diakopoulos, Nicholas ed.; Carpendale, Sheelagh
2018-01-01
This book is an accessible introduction to data-driven storytelling, resulting from discussions between data visualization researchers and data journalists. This book will be the first to define the topic, present compelling examples and existing resources, as well as identify challenges and new opportunities for research.
Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri
2018-01-01
The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Georgiou
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations, coupling thermodynamic and kinetic effects, resolve a longstanding controversy regarding the origin of composition profiles in heteroepitaxial SiGe quantum dots. It is shown that profiles with cores rich in the unstrained (Si component derive from near-equilibrium processes and intraisland diffusion. Profiles with cores rich in the strained (Ge component are of nonequilibrium nature, i.e., they are strain driven but kinetically limited. They are shaped by the distribution of kinetic barriers of atomic diffusion in the islands. The diffusion pathways are clearly revealed for the first time. Geometrical kinetics play a minor role.
Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1977-01-01
The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges
Degradation of chlorocarbons driven by hydrodynamic cavitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Z.L.; Ondruschka, B.; Braeutigam, P. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie und Umweltchemie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Jena (Germany)
2007-05-15
To provide an efficient lab-scale device for the investigation of the degradation of organic pollutants driven by hydrodynamic cavitation, the degradation kinetics of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride and the increase of conductivity in aqueous solutions were measured. These are values which were not previously available. Under hydrodynamic cavitation conditions, the degradation kinetics for chlorocarbons was found to be pseudo first-order. Meanwhile, C-H and C-Cl bonds are broken, and Cl{sub 2}, Cl{sup .}, Cl{sup -} and other ions released can increase the conductivity and enhance the oxidation of KI in aqueous solutions. The upstream pressures of the orifice plate, the cavitation number, and the solution temperature have substantial effects on the degradation kinetics. A decreased cavitation number can result in more cavitation events and enhances the degradation of chlorocarbons and/or the oxidation of KI. A decrease in temperature is generally favorable to the cavitation chemistry. Organic products from the degradation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform have demonstrated the formation and recombination of free radicals, e.g., CCl{sub 4}, C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} are produced from the degradation of CHCl{sub 3}. CHCl{sub 3} and C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} are produced from the degradation of CCl{sub 4}. Both the chemical mechanism and the reaction kinetics of the degradation of chlorocarbons induced by hydrodynamic cavitation are consistent with those obtained from the acoustic cavitation. Therefore, the technology of hydrodynamic cavitation should be a good candidate for the removal of organic pollutants from water. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-12-15
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrizz, Robert Matthew
2006-11-01
Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.
Performance of neutron kinetics models for ADS transient analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Rimpault, G.
2002-01-01
Within the framework of the SIMMER code development, neutron kinetics models for simulating transients and hypothetical accidents in advanced reactor systems, in particular in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs), have been developed at FZK/IKET in cooperation with CE Cadarache. SIMMER is a fluid-dynamics/thermal-hydraulics code, coupled with a structure model and a space-, time- and energy-dependent neutronics module for analyzing transients and accidents. The advanced kinetics models have also been implemented into KIN3D, a module of the VARIANT/TGV code (stand-alone neutron kinetics) for broadening application and for testing and benchmarking. In the paper, a short review of the SIMMER and KIN3D neutron kinetics models is given. Some typical transients related to ADS perturbations are analyzed. The general models of SIMMER and KIN3D are compared with more simple techniques developed in the context of this work to get a better understanding of the specifics of transients in subcritical systems and to estimate the performance of different kinetics options. These comparisons may also help in elaborating new kinetics models and extending existing computation tools for ADS transient analyses. The traditional point-kinetics model may give rather inaccurate transient reaction rate distributions in an ADS even if the material configuration does not change significantly. This inaccuracy is not related to the problem of choosing a 'right' weighting function: the point-kinetics model with any weighting function cannot take into account pronounced flux shape variations related to possible significant changes in the criticality level or to fast beam trips. To improve the accuracy of the point-kinetics option for slow transients, we have introduced a correction factor technique. The related analyses give a better understanding of 'long-timescale' kinetics phenomena in the subcritical domain and help to evaluate the performance of the quasi-static scheme in a particular case. One
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
Bonitz, Michael
2016-01-01
This book presents quantum kinetic theory in a comprehensive way. The focus is on density operator methods and on non-equilibrium Green functions. The theory allows to rigorously treat nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Of particular interest are ultrafast processes in plasmas, condensed matter and trapped atoms that are stimulated by rapidly developing experiments with short pulse lasers and free electron lasers. To describe these experiments theoretically, the most powerful approach is given by non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations that are discussed in detail, including computational aspects.
Privacy driven internet ecosystem
Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo
2012-01-01
The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...
Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph
2012-09-25
We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications.
Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.
Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K
2009-01-30
Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.
Oxidative desulfurization: Kinetic modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhir, S.; Uppaluri, R.; Purkait, M.K.
2009-01-01
Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H 2 O 2 over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel
Modeling chemical kinetics graphically
Heck, A.
2012-01-01
In literature on chemistry education it has often been suggested that students, at high school level and beyond, can benefit in their studies of chemical kinetics from computer supported activities. Use of system dynamics modeling software is one of the suggested quantitative approaches that could
CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimpland, R.H.
1996-01-01
A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented
A Study on the Kinetic Characteristics of Transmutation Process Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1997-07-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid mental as the coolant used in accelerator-driven transmutation process reactor which is related the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclide. At current stage, the accelerator-driven transmutation process is investigated as the most appropriate method among many transmutation process methods. In this study, previous research works are investigated especially about the thermal hydraulics and kinetic behavior of coolant material including heat transfer of coolant in transmutation process reactor. A study on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal is performed based on the thermal hydraulic kinetic characteristics of liquid metal reactor which uses liquid metal coolant. Based on this study, the most appropriate material for the coolant of transmutation reactor will be recommended. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 33 figs. (author)
Phase transformations and systems driven far from equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, E.; Atzmon, M.; Bellon, P.; Trivedi, R.
1998-01-01
This volume compiles invited and contributed papers that were presented at Symposium B of the 1997 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Phase Transformations and Systems Driven Far From Equilibrium, which was held December 1--5, in Boston, Massachusetts. While this symposium followed the tradition of previous MRS symposia on the fundamental topic of phase transformations, this year the emphasis was on materials systems driven far from equilibrium. The central theme of the majority of the work presented is the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations, with significant coverage of metastable materials and externally forced transformations driven, for example, by energy beams or mechanical deformation. The papers are arranged in seven sections: solidification theory and experiments; nucleation; solid state transformations and microstructural evolution; beam-induced transformations; amorphous solids; interfacial and thin film transformations; and nanophases and mechanical alloying. One hundred three papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base
A nonlinear bounce kinetic equation for trapped electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gang, F.Y.
1990-03-01
A nonlinear bounce averaged drift kinetic equation for trapped electrons is derived. This equation enables one to compute the nonlinear response of the trapped electron distribution function in terms of the field-line projection of a potential fluctuation left-angle e -inqθ φ n right-angle b . It is useful for both analytical and computational studies of the nonlinear evolution of short wavelength (n much-gt 1) trapped electron mode-driven turbulence. 7 refs
LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J
2008-09-24
The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.
Functional Domain Driven Design
Herrera Guzmán, Sergio
2016-01-01
Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...
Constellations-driven innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansbøl, Mikala
2011-01-01
The paper presents a science and technology studies and actor-network-theory inspired approach to understanding the development and ongoing re-didactication and re-design of a Danish developed presentation tool called the Theme Board (Tematavlen.dk). It is argued that this approach provides a par...... a particularly useful point of departure for engaging in researching innovation and didactic design of digital teaching and learning instruments such as the Theme Board that are programmed and serviced 'in the sky'. I call this approach: constellation-driven innovations....
Information-Driven Inspections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laughter, Mark D.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar
2010-01-01
New uranium enrichment capacity is being built worldwide in response to perceived shortfalls in future supply. To meet increasing safeguards responsibilities with limited resources, the nonproliferation community is exploring next-generation concepts to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards, such as advanced technologies to enable unattended monitoring of nuclear material. These include attribute measurement technologies, data authentication tools, and transmission and security methods. However, there are several conceptual issues with how such data would be used to improve the ability of a safeguards inspectorate such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to reach better safeguards conclusions regarding the activities of a State. The IAEA is pursuing the implementation of information-driven safeguards, whereby all available sources of information are used to make the application of safeguards more effective and efficient. Data from continuous, unattended monitoring systems can be used to optimize on-site inspection scheduling and activities at declared facilities, resulting in fewer, better inspections. Such information-driven inspections are the logical evolution of inspection planning - making use of all available information to enhance scheduled and randomized inspections. Data collection and analysis approaches for unattended monitoring systems can be designed to protect sensitive information while enabling information-driven inspections. A number of such inspections within a predetermined range could reduce inspection frequency while providing an equal or greater level of deterrence against illicit activity, all while meeting operator and technology holder requirements and reducing inspector and operator burden. Three options for using unattended monitoring data to determine an information-driven inspection schedule are to (1) send all unattended monitoring data off-site, which will require advances in data analysis techniques to
Electrostatically Driven Nanoballoon Actuator.
Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Yan, Aiming; Coh, Sinisa; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Dunn, Gabriel; Wågberg, Thomas; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Zettl, Alex
2016-11-09
We demonstrate an inflatable nanoballoon actuator based on geometrical transitions between the inflated (cylindrical) and collapsed (flattened) forms of a carbon nanotube. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments employing a nanoelectromechanical manipulator show that a collapsed carbon nanotube can be reinflated by electrically charging the nanotube, thus realizing an electrostatically driven nanoballoon actuator. We find that the tube actuator can be reliably cycled with only modest control voltages (few volts) with no apparent wear or fatigue. A complementary theoretical analysis identifies critical parameters for nanotube nanoballoon actuation.
A nondissipative simulation method for the drift kinetic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo; Sato, Tetsuya
2001-07-01
With the aim to study the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, a nondissipative kinetic simulation scheme is developed and comprehensively benchmarked. The new simulation method preserving the time-reversibility of basic kinetic equations can successfully reproduce the analytical solutions of asymmetric three-mode ITG equations which are extended to provide a more general reference for benchmarking than the previous work [T.-H. Watanabe, H. Sugama, and T. Sato: Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 984]. It is also applied to a dissipative three-mode system, and shows a good agreement with the analytical solution. The nondissipative simulation result of the ITG turbulence accurately satisfies the entropy balance equation. Usefulness of the nondissipative method for the drift kinetic simulations is confirmed in comparisons with other dissipative schemes. (author)
Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilic, H.; Linhart, J.G.; Bortolotti, A.; Nardi, V.
1992-01-01
The deposition of thermal energy by laser or ion beams in an ablator is capable of producing a very large acceleration of the adjacent pusher - for power densities of 100 Terrawatts/cm 2 , ablator pressure in the range of 10 Mbar is attainable. In the case of a plasma drive such driving pressures and accelerations are not directly possible. When a snowplough (SP) is used to accelerate a thin liner, the driving pressure is that of the magnetic piston pushing the SP, i.e. at most 0.1 Mbar. However, the initial radius r 0 of the liner can be a few centimeters, instead of 1 (mm) as in the case in direct pellet implosions. In order to compete with the performance of the beam-driven liners, the plasma drive must demonstrate that a) thin liner retains a high density during the implosion (lasting a fraction of a μsec); b) radial compression ratio r 0 /r min of the order of 100 can be attained. It is also attractive to consider the staging of two or more liners in order to get sharpening and amplifications of the pressure and/or radiation pulse. If a) and b) are verified then the final pressures produced will be comparable with those of the beam-driven implosions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.
1981-01-01
Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)
Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trizac, Emmanuel [Center of Theoretical Biological Physics, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0374 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France)
2005-11-25
Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution {epsilon} -a central quantity governing the
Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trizac, Emmanuel
2005-01-01
Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of
Selfconsistent RF driven and bootstrap currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peysson, Y.
2002-01-01
This important problem selfconsistent calculations of the bootstrap current with RF, taking into account possible synergistic effects, is addressed for the case of lower hybrid (LH) and electron cyclotron (EC) current drive by numerically solving the electron drift kinetic equation. Calculations are performed using a new, fast, and fully implicit code which solves the 3-D relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with quasilinear diffusion. These calculations take into account the perturbations to the electron distribution due to radial drifts induced by magnetic field gradient and curvature. While the synergism between bootstrap and LH-driven current does not seem to exceed 15%, it can reach 30-40% with the EC-driven current for some plasma parameters. In addition, considerable current can be generated by judiciously using ECCD with the Okhawa effect. This is in contrast to the usual ECCD which tries to avoid it. A detailed analysis of the numerical results is presented using a simplified analytical model which incorporates the underlying physical processes. (author)
Transport barriers in bootstrap-driven tokamaks
Staebler, G. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Pan, C.; McClenaghan, J.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Lao, L. L.
2018-05-01
Experiments have demonstrated improved energy confinement due to the spontaneous formation of an internal transport barrier in high bootstrap fraction discharges. Gyrokinetic analysis, and quasilinear predictive modeling, demonstrates that the observed transport barrier is caused by the suppression of turbulence primarily from the large Shafranov shift. It is shown that the Shafranov shift can produce a bifurcation to improved confinement in regions of positive magnetic shear or a continuous reduction in transport for weak or negative magnetic shear. Operation at high safety factor lowers the pressure gradient threshold for the Shafranov shift-driven barrier formation. Two self-organized states of the internal and edge transport barrier are observed. It is shown that these two states are controlled by the interaction of the bootstrap current with magnetic shear, and the kinetic ballooning mode instability boundary. Election scale energy transport is predicted to be dominant in the inner 60% of the profile. Evidence is presented that energetic particle-driven instabilities could be playing a role in the thermal energy transport in this region.
Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.
2016-12-01
A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations 500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics of dissolution. The interplay of mineral
Kalikeri, Shankramma; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya
2018-05-01
Mixed-phase bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method using potassium hydroxide as the precipitant. X-ray diffractogram (XRD) of the particles showed the formation of mixed-phase BFO nanoparticles containing BiFeO 3 /Bi 25 FeO 40 phases with the crystallite size of 70 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of quasi-spherical particles. The BFO nanoparticles were uniform sized with narrow size range and with the average hydrodynamic diameter of 76 nm. The band gap energy of 2.2 eV showed its ability to absorb light even in the visible range. Water contaminated with Acid Yellow (AY-17) and Reactive Blue (RB-19) dye was treated by photocatalysis under UV, visible, and solar light irradiation using the BFO nanoparticles. The BFO nanoparticles showed maximum photocatalytical activity under solar light as compared to UV and visible irradiations, and photocatalysis was favored under acidic pH. Complete degradation of AY-17 dyes and around 95% degradation of RB-19 could be achieved under solar light at pH 5. The kinetics of degradation followed the Langmuir-Hinshelhood kinetic model showing that the heterogeneous photocatalysis is adsorption controlled. The findings of this work prove the synthesized BFO nanoparticles as promising photocatalysts for the treatment of dye-contaminated industrial wastewater.
Consistent model driven architecture
Niepostyn, Stanisław J.
2015-09-01
The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm
2015-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the “grand structure” of the phenomenon in order to identify both the underlying processes and core drivers of employee-driven innovation (EDI). Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It particularly applies the insights...... of contemporary research on routine and organizational decision making to the specific case of EDI. Findings – The main result of the paper is that, from a theoretical point of view, it makes perfect sense to involve ordinary employees in innovation decisions. However, it is also outlined that naıve or ungoverned...... participation is counterproductive, and that it is quite difficult to realize the hidden potential in a supportive way. Research limitations/implications – The main implication is that basic mechanisms for employee participation also apply to innovation decisions, although often in a different way. However...
Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy
2003-02-01
Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.
Emotion-driven level generation
Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
2016-01-01
This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
2010-01-01
We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizatio......We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design...
Kinetics of tetrataenite disordering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Scorzelli, R.B.
2015-01-01
Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1 0 -type Fe 50 Ni 50 alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L 10 superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augusiak, R; Cucchietti, F M; Lewenstein, M; Haake, F
2010-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a quantum generalization of classical kinetic Ising models (KIM), described by a certain class of quantum many-body master equations. Similarly to KIMs with detailed balance that are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian systems, our models reduce to a set of Hamiltonian systems determining the dynamics of the elements of the many-body density matrix. The ground states of these Hamiltonians are well described by the matrix product, or pair entangled projected states. We discuss critical properties of such Hamiltonians, as well as entanglement properties of their low-energy states.
THE DOMINANCE OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CONVECTION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam
2013-01-01
Multi-dimensional instabilities have become an important ingredient in core-collapse supernova (CCSN) theory. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the driving mechanism of the dominant instability. We compare our parameterized three-dimensional CCSN simulations with other buoyancy-driven simulations and propose scaling relations for neutrino-driven convection. Through these comparisons, we infer that buoyancy-driven convection dominates post-shock turbulence in our simulations. In support of this inference, we present four major results. First, the convective fluxes and kinetic energies in the neutrino-heated region are consistent with expectations of buoyancy-driven convection. Second, the convective flux is positive where buoyancy actively drives convection, and the radial and tangential components of the kinetic energy are in rough equipartition (i.e., K r ∼ K θ + K φ ). Both results are natural consequences of buoyancy-driven convection, and are commonly observed in simulations of convection. Third, buoyant driving is balanced by turbulent dissipation. Fourth, the convective luminosity and turbulent dissipation scale with the driving neutrino power. In all, these four results suggest that in neutrino-driven explosions, the multi-dimensional motions are consistent with neutrino-driven convection.
Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown
Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.
2015-11-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Nonlinear oxidation kinetics of nickel cermets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galinski, Henning; Bieberle-Huetter, Anja; Rupp, Jennifer L.M.; Gauckler, Ludwig J.
2011-01-01
The oxidation of a cermet of screen-printed nickel (Ni) and gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) with an approximate median porosity of 50 vol.% has been studied via in situ X-ray diffraction and focused ion beam nanotomography in the temperature range 773-848 K. The oxidation kinetics of Ni to NiO is found to be highly nonlinear with an apparent activation energy of 2.8(2) eV in this temperature range. The nonlinear oxidation kinetics found is in good agreement with theoretical works on oxide growth driven by nonlinear inbuilt fields. Stress-induced Kirkendall void formation has been identified as the physical process that enhances the oxidation of Ni/CGO cermets. Compressive stresses within the Ni matrix result from the thermal expansion mismatch of Ni and CGO and cause plastic deformation as they exceed the yield stress of the Ni matrix. The pore size distribution of Kirkendall voids formed has been measured by FIB nanotomography and shows a significant temperature dependence. It is shown that even one cycle of reoxidation changes irreversibly the microstructure of the cermet which can be interpreted as the onset and main contribution to the mechanical degradation of the cermet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))
1989-07-01
This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thames, H.D.
1989-01-01
Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig
Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.
Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko
2015-08-27
When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.
Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol
1996-12-01
This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.
Chemical kinetics of gas reactions
Kondrat'Ev, V N
2013-01-01
Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema
Diffusion Driven Combustion Waves in Porous Media
Aldushin, A. P.; Matkowsky, B. J.
2000-01-01
Filtration of gas containing oxidizer, to the reaction zone in a porous medium, due, e.g., to a buoyancy force or to an external pressure gradient, leads to the propagation of Filtration combustion (FC) waves. The exothermic reaction occurs between the fuel component of the solid matrix and the oxidizer. In this paper, we analyze the ability of a reaction wave to propagate in a porous medium without the aid of filtration. We find that one possible mechanism of propagation is that the wave is driven by diffusion of oxidizer from the environment. The solution of the combustion problem describing diffusion driven waves is similar to the solution of the Stefan problem describing the propagation of phase transition waves, in that the temperature on the interface between the burned and unburned regions is constant, the combustion wave is described by a similarity solution which is a function of the similarity variable x/square root of(t) and the wave velocity decays as 1/square root of(t). The difference between the two problems is that in the combustion problem the temperature is not prescribed, but rather, is determined as part of the solution. We will show that the length of samples in which such self-sustained combustion waves can occur, must exceed a critical value which strongly depends on the combustion temperature T(sub b). Smaller values of T(sub b) require longer sample lengths for diffusion driven combustion waves to exist. Because of their relatively small velocity, diffusion driven waves are considered to be relevant for the case of low heat losses, which occur for large diameter samples or in microgravity conditions, Another possible mechanism of porous medium combustion describes waves which propagate by consuming the oxidizer initially stored in the pores of the sample. This occurs for abnormally high pressure and gas density. In this case, uniformly propagating planar waves, which are kinetically controlled, can propagate, Diffusion of oxidizer decreases
Tournes, C.; Aucouturier, J.; Arnaud, B.; Brasile, J. P.; Convert, G.; Simon, M.
1992-07-01
A current-driven wiggler is the cornerstone of an innovative, compact, high-efficiency, transportable tunable free-electron laser (FEL), the feasibility of which is currently being evaluated by Thomson-CSF. The salient advantages are: compactness of the FEL, along with the possibility to accelerate the beam through several successive passes through the accelerating section (the number of passes being defined by the final wavelength of the radiation; i.e. visible, MWIR, LWIR); the wiggler can be turned off and be transparent to the beam until the last pass. Wiggler periodicities as small as 5 mm can be achieved, hence contributing to FEL compactness. To achieve overall efficiencies in the range of 10% at visible wavelengths, not only the wiggler periodicity must be variable, but the strength of the magnetic field of each period can be adjusted separately and fine-tuned versus time during the macropulse, so as to take into account the growing contribution of the wave energy in the cavity to the total ponderomotive force. The salient theoretical point of this design is the optimization of the parameters defining each period of the wiggler for each micropacket of the macropulse. The salient technology point is the mechanical and thermal design of the wiggler which allows the required high currents to achieve magnetic fields up to 2T.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, R. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)
1996-12-31
Ontario Hydro`s customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro`s Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro`s franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro`s system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henriette Bier
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sensing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to interact with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henriette Bier
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sensing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to interact with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, R.
1996-01-01
Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation
Adsorption analysis equilibria and kinetics
Do, Duong D
1998-01-01
This book covers topics of equilibria and kinetics of adsorption in porous media. Fundamental equilibria and kinetics are dealt with for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous particles. Five chapters of the book deal with equilibria and eight chapters deal with kinetics. Single component as well as multicomponent systems are discussed. In kinetics analysis, we deal with the various mass transport processes and their interactions inside a porous particle. Conventional approaches as well as the new approach using Maxwell-Stefan equations are presented. Various methods to measure diffusivity, such
Thermodynamics in finite time: A chemically driven engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ondrechen, M.J.; Berry, R.S.; Andresen, B.
1980-01-01
The methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to processes whose relaxation parameters are chemical rate coefficients within the working fluid. The direct optimization formalism used previously for heat engines with friction and finite heat transfer rates: termed the tricycle method: is extended to heat engines driven by exothermic reactions. The model is a flow reactor coupled by a heat exchanger to an engine. Conditions are established for the achievement of maximum power from such a system. Emphasis is on how the chemical kinetics control the finite-time thermodynamic extrema; first order, first order reversible, and second order reaction kinetics are analyzed. For the types of reactions considered here, there is always a finite positive flow rate in the reactor that yields maximum engine power. Maximum fuel efficiency is always attained in these systems at the uninteresting limit of zero flow rate
High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Yasuyuki
1988-01-01
A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)
Ruan, Zhongyuan; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Karsai, Márton; Kertész, János
2015-11-01
Diffusion of information, behavioral patterns or innovations follows diverse pathways depending on a number of conditions, including the structure of the underlying social network, the sensitivity to peer pressure and the influence of media. Here we study analytically and by simulations a general model that incorporates threshold mechanism capturing sensitivity to peer pressure, the effect of "immune" nodes who never adopt, and a perpetual flow of external information. While any constant, nonzero rate of dynamically introduced spontaneous adopters leads to global spreading, the kinetics by which the asymptotic state is approached shows rich behavior. In particular, we find that, as a function of the immune node density, there is a transition from fast to slow spreading governed by entirely different mechanisms. This transition happens below the percolation threshold of network fragmentation, and has its origin in the competition between cascading behavior induced by adopters and blocking due to immune nodes. This change is accompanied by a percolation transition of the induced clusters.
The temperature hydration kinetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea Oroian
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.
Beam transient analyses of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors based on neutron transport method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Mingtao; Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, Beijing 100082 (China); Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • A transport-based kinetics code for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors is developed. • The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated. • The impacts of neutronic parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are investigated. - Abstract: The Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) is almost external source dominated since there is no additional reactivity control mechanism in most designs. This paper focuses on beam-induced transients with an in-house developed dynamic analysis code. The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated, including the point kinetics approximation and space–time kinetics methods. Then, the transient responds of beam trip and beam overpower are calculated and analyzed for an ADSR design dedicated for minor actinides transmutation. The impacts of some safety-related neutronics parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are also investigated. The results show that the power distribution varying with burnup leads to large differences in temperature responds during transients, while the impacts of kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients are not very obvious. Classification: Core physic.
Periodic and stochastic thermal modulation of protein folding kinetics.
Platkov, Max; Gruebele, Martin
2014-07-21
Chemical reactions are usually observed either by relaxation of a bulk sample after applying a sudden external perturbation, or by intrinsic fluctuations of a few molecules. Here we show that the two ideas can be combined to measure protein folding kinetics, either by periodic thermal modulation, or by creating artificial thermal noise that greatly exceeds natural thermal fluctuations. We study the folding reaction of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase driven by periodic temperature waveforms. As the temperature waveform unfolds and refolds the protein, its fluorescence color changes due to FRET (Förster resonant Energy Transfer) of two donor/acceptor fluorophores labeling the protein. We adapt a simple model of periodically driven kinetics that nicely fits the data at all temperatures and driving frequencies: The phase shifts of the periodic donor and acceptor fluorescence signals as a function of driving frequency reveal reaction rates. We also drive the reaction with stochastic temperature waveforms that produce thermal fluctuations much greater than natural fluctuations in the bulk. Such artificial thermal noise allows the recovery of weak underlying signals due to protein folding kinetics. This opens up the possibility for future detection of a stochastic resonance for protein folding subject to noise with controllable amplitude.
Reactive tunnel junctions in electrically driven plasmonic nanorod metamaterials
Wang, Pan; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Zayats, Anatoly V.
2018-02-01
Non-equilibrium hot carriers formed near the interfaces of semiconductors or metals play a crucial role in chemical catalysis and optoelectronic processes. In addition to optical illumination, an efficient way to generate hot carriers is by excitation with tunnelling electrons. Here, we show that the generation of hot electrons makes the nanoscale tunnel junctions highly reactive and facilitates strongly confined chemical reactions that can, in turn, modulate the tunnelling processes. We designed a device containing an array of electrically driven plasmonic nanorods with up to 1011 tunnel junctions per square centimetre, which demonstrates hot-electron activation of oxidation and reduction reactions in the junctions, induced by the presence of O2 and H2 molecules, respectively. The kinetics of the reactions can be monitored in situ following the radiative decay of tunnelling-induced surface plasmons. This electrically driven plasmonic nanorod metamaterial platform can be useful for the development of nanoscale chemical and optoelectronic devices based on electron tunnelling.
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-12-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter.
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-01-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter
Kinetic theory of Jeans instability
Trigger, S.A.; Ershkovic, A.I.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Schram, P.P.J.M.
2004-01-01
Kinetic treatment of the Jeans gravitational instability, with collisions taken into account, is presented. The initial-value problem for the distribution function which obeys the kinetic equation, with the collision integral conserving the number of particles, is solved. Dispersion relation is
Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.
1994-01-01
A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt, accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external, moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m 3 per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics
Nonlinear dynamics of a driven mode near marginal stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.
1995-09-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a linearly unstable mode in a driven kinetic system is investigated to determine scaling of the saturated fields near the instability threshold. To leading order, this problem reduces to solving an integral equation with a temporally nonlocal cubic term. This equation can exhibit a self-similar solution that blows up in a finite time. When the blow-up occurs, higher nonlinearities become important and the mode saturates due to plateau formation arising from particle trapping in the wave. Otherwise, the simplified equation gives a regular solution that leads to a different saturation scaling reflecting the closeness to the instability threshold
Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.
1994-01-01
A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m 3 per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics
Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Zhenquan; Ye Gaoxiang; Ke Jianhong
2005-01-01
We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikj υ , and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution a k (t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function Φ(x) = exp (x).
Ponderomotive force effects on temperature-gradient-driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundaram, A.K.; Hershkowitz, N.
1992-01-01
The modification of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities due to the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency fields near the ion cyclotron frequency is investigated in the linear regime. Employing the fluid theory, it is shown that the induced field line compression caused by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) fields makes the net parallel compressibility positive, and thus provides a stabilizing influence on the ion-temperature-gradient-driven mode for an appropriately tailored profile of radio-frequency (rf) pressure. Concomitantly, the radial ponderomotive force generates an additional contribution via coupling between the perturbed fluid motion and the equilibrium ponderomotive force and this effect plays the role of dissipation to enhance or decrease the growth of temperature-gradient-driven modes depending upon the sign of rf pressure gradients. For decreased growth of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities, the plasma density gradients and rf pressure gradients must have opposite signs while enhancement in growth arises when both gradients have the same sign. Finally, the kinetic effects associated with these modes are briefly discussed
Economics-driven software architecture
Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan
2014-01-01
Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider
BRAHMMA - accelerator driven subcritical facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Tushar; Shukla, Shefali; Shukla, M.; Ray, N.K.; Kashyap, Y.S.; Patel, T.; Gadkari, S.C.
2017-01-01
Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems are being studied worldwide for their potential in burning minor actinides and reducing long term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. In order to pursue the physics studies of Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems, a thermal subcritical assembly BRAHMMA (BeOReflectedAndHDPeModeratedMultiplying Assembly) has been developed at Purnima Labs, BARC. The facility consists of two major components: Subcritical core and Accelerator (DT/ DD Purnima Neutron Generator)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi
1980-01-01
Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)
Drift-kinetic Alfven modes in high performance tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.
2001-01-01
The stability of fast-particle driven Alfven eigenmodes is modeled in high performance tokamaks, successively with a conventional shear, an optimized shear and a tight aspect ratio plasma. A large bulk pressure yields global kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are stabilized by mode conversion in the presence of a divertor. This suggests how conventional reactor scenarii could withstand significant pressure gradients from the fusion products. A large safety factor in the core q 0 >2.5 in deeply shear reversed configurations and a relatively large bulk ion Larmor radius in a low magnetic field can trigger global drift-kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are unstable in high performance JET, NSTX and ITER plasmas. (author)
Predicting the dissolution kinetics of silicate glasses using machine learning
Anoop Krishnan, N. M.; Mangalathu, Sujith; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Tandia, Adama; Burton, Henry; Bauchy, Mathieu
2018-05-01
Predicting the dissolution rates of silicate glasses in aqueous conditions is a complex task as the underlying mechanism(s) remain poorly understood and the dissolution kinetics can depend on a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we assess the potential of data-driven models based on machine learning to predict the dissolution rates of various aluminosilicate glasses exposed to a wide range of solution pH values, from acidic to caustic conditions. Four classes of machine learning methods are investigated, namely, linear regression, support vector machine regression, random forest, and artificial neural network. We observe that, although linear methods all fail to describe the dissolution kinetics, the artificial neural network approach offers excellent predictions, thanks to its inherent ability to handle non-linear data. Overall, we suggest that a more extensive use of machine learning approaches could significantly accelerate the design of novel glasses with tailored properties.
Kinetic Simulations of Type II Radio Burst Emission Processes
Ganse, U.; Spanier, F. A.; Vainio, R. O.
2011-12-01
The fundamental emission process of Type II Radio Bursts has been under discussion for many decades. While analytic deliberations point to three wave interaction as the source for fundamental and harmonic radio emissions, sparse in-situ observational data and high computational demands for kinetic simulations have not allowed for a definite conclusion to be reached. A popular model puts the radio emission into the foreshock region of a coronal mass ejection's shock front, where shock drift acceleration can create eletrcon beam populations in the otherwise quiescent foreshock plasma. Beam-driven instabilities are then assumed to create waves, forming the starting point of three wave interaction processes. Using our kinetic particle-in-cell code, we have studied a number of emission scenarios based on electron beam populations in a CME foreshock, with focus on wave-interaction microphysics on kinetic scales. The self-consistent, fully kinetic simulations with completely physical mass-ratio show fundamental and harmonic emission of transverse electromagnetic waves and allow for detailled statistical analysis of all contributing wavemodes and their couplings.
Biodegradation kinetics for pesticide exposure assessment.
Wolt, J D; Nelson, H P; Cleveland, C B; van Wesenbeeck, I J
2001-01-01
necessary to estimate bounding values. Statistical evaluation of measures of central tendency for multisoil kinetic studies shows that geometric means better represent the distribution in soil half-lives than do the arithmetic or harmonic means. Estimates of upper-bound soil half-life values based on the upper 90% confidence bound on the geometric mean tend to accurately represent the upper bound when pesticide degradation rate is biologically driven but appear to overestimate the upper bound when there is extensive coupling of biodegradation with sorptive processes. The limited data available comparing distribution in pesticide soil half-lives between multisoil laboratory studies and multilocation field studies suggest that the probability density functions are similar. Thus, upper-bound estimates of pesticide half-life determined from laboratory studies conservatively represent pesticide biodegradation in the field environment for the purposes of exposure and risk assessment. International guidelines and approaches used for interpretations of soil biodegradation reflect many common elements, but differ in how the source and nature of variability in soil kinetic data are considered. Harmonization of approaches for the use of soil biodegradation data will improve the interpretative power of these data for the purposes of exposure and risk assessment.
Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro
2001-01-01
Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)
Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Madhu
ized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed dur- .... total VCO2 was < 3 % and the average respiratory quotient ..... a part of the nonrespiratory losses of 13CO2 occur to this.
Kinetic equations in dirty superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraehenbuehl, Y.
1981-01-01
Kinetic equations for superconductors in the dirty limit are derived using a method developed for superfluid systems, which allows a systematic expansion in small parameters; exact charge conservation is obeyed. (orig.)
From current-driven to neoclassically driven tearing modes.
Reimerdes, H; Sauter, O; Goodman, T; Pochelon, A
2002-03-11
In the TCV tokamak, the m/n = 2/1 island is observed in low-density discharges with central electron-cyclotron current drive. The evolution of its width has two distinct growth phases, one of which can be linked to a "conventional" tearing mode driven unstable by the current profile and the other to a neoclassical tearing mode driven by a perturbation of the bootstrap current. The TCV results provide the first clear observation of such a destabilization mechanism and reconcile the theory of conventional and neoclassical tearing modes, which differ only in the dominant driving term.
Cell kinetics and therapeutic efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreeff, M.; Abenhardt, W.; Gruner, B.; Stoffner, D.; Mainz Univ.
1976-01-01
The study shows that cell kinetics effects correlate with the effects of cytostatic drugs in the tumour model investigated here. It should, however, be noted that even genetically related tumour cell types may react differently to the same cytostatic drug, and that the cell kinetics effects, due to the changes in the cell cycle, cannot be predicted but should be followed with a very fast method, e.g. sequential flan fluorescence cytophotometry, for optimal therapeutic results. (orig./GSE) [de
Kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric analysis
Kiefer, Richard L.
1993-01-01
High performance polymeric materials are finding increased use in aerospace applications. Proposed high speed aircraft will require materials to withstand high temperatures in an oxidative atmosphere for long periods of time. It is essential that accurate estimates be made of the performance of these materials at the given conditions of temperature and time. Temperatures of 350 F (177 C) and times of 60,000 to 100,000 hours are anticipated. In order to survey a large number of high performance polymeric materials on a reasonable time scale, some form of accelerated testing must be performed. A knowledge of the rate of a process can be used to predict the lifetime of that process. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has frequently been used to determine kinetic information for degradation reactions in polymeric materials. Flynn and Wall studied a number of methods for using TGA experiments to determine kinetic information in polymer reactions. Kinetic parameters, such as the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor, can be determined in such experiments. Recently, researchers at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory suggested that a graph of the logarithm of the frequency factor against the apparent activation energy can be used to predict long-term thermo-oxidative stability for polymeric materials. Such a graph has been called a kinetic map. In this study, thermogravimetric analyses were performed in air to study the thermo-oxidative degradation of several high performance polymers and to plot their kinetic parameters on a kinetic map.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL
2009-01-01
In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.
Knowledge-Driven Versus Data-Driven Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dubois, D.; Hájek, Petr; Prade, H.
2000-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2000), s. 65-89 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 4008 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : epistemic logic * possibility theory * data-driven reasoning * deontic logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Test Driven Development: Performing Art
Bache, Emily
The art of Test Driven Development (TDD) is a skill that needs to be learnt, and which needs time and practice to master. In this workshop a select number of conference participants with considerable skill and experience are invited to perform code katas [1]. The aim is for them to demonstrate excellence and the use of Test Driven Development, and result in some high quality code. This would be for the benefit of the many programmers attending the conference, who could come along and witness high quality code being written using TDD, and get a chance to ask questions and provide feedback.
Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
2000-01-01
Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory is developed as an extension of the existing gyrokinetic theories. In essence, the formalism introduced here is a kinetic description of magnetized plasmas in the gyrocenter coordinates which is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. In particular, provided the gyroradius is smaller than the scale-length of the magnetic field, it can treat high frequency range as well as the usual low frequency range normally associated with gyrokinetic approaches. A significant advantage of this formalism is that it enables the direct particle-in-cell simulations of compressional Alfven waves for MHD applications and of RF waves relevant to plasma heating in space and laboratory plasmas. The gyrocenter-gauge kinetic susceptibility for arbitrary wavelength and arbitrary frequency electromagnetic perturbations in a homogeneous magnetized plasma is shown to recover exactly the classical result obtained by integrating the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. This demonstrates that all the waves supported by the Vlasov-Maxwell system can be studied using the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic model in the gyrocenter coordinates. This theoretical approach is so named to distinguish it from the existing gyrokinetic theory, which has been successfully developed and applied to many important low-frequency and long parallel wavelength problems, where the conventional meaning of gyrokinetic has been standardized. Besides the usual gyrokinetic distribution function, the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory emphasizes as well the gyrocenter-gauge distribution function, which sometimes contains all the physics of the problems being studied, and whose importance has not been realized previously. The gyrocenter-gauge distribution function enters Maxwell's equations through the pull-back transformation of the gyrocenter transformation, which depends on the perturbed fields. The efficacy of the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic approach is
Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist
2013-01-01
An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....
Investigation of ion kinetic effects in direct-drive exploding-pusher implosions at the NIF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Waugh, C. J.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); McKenty, P. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others
2014-12-15
Measurements of yield, ion temperature, areal density (ρR), shell convergence, and bang time have been obtained in shock-driven, D{sub 2} and D{sup 3}He gas-filled “exploding-pusher” inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility to assess the impact of ion kinetic effects. These measurements probed the shock convergence phase of ICF implosions, a critical stage in hot-spot ignition experiments. The data complement previous studies of kinetic effects in shock-driven implosions. Ion temperature and fuel ρR inferred from fusion-product spectroscopy are used to estimate the ion-ion mean free path in the gas. A trend of decreasing yields relative to the predictions of 2D DRACO hydrodynamics simulations with increasing Knudsen number (the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius) suggests that ion kinetic effects are increasingly impacting the hot fuel region, in general agreement with previous results. The long mean free path conditions giving rise to ion kinetic effects in the gas are often prevalent during the shock phase of both exploding pushers and ablatively driven implosions, including ignition-relevant implosions.
Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter
2018-03-01
Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.
Boundary conditions for open quantum systems driven far from equilibrium
Frensley, William R.
1990-07-01
This is a study of simple kinetic models of open systems, in the sense of systems that can exchange conserved particles with their environment. The system is assumed to be one dimensional and situated between two particle reservoirs. Such a system is readily driven far from equilibrium if the chemical potentials of the reservoirs differ appreciably. The openness of the system modifies the spatial boundary conditions on the single-particle Liouville-von Neumann equation, leading to a non-Hermitian Liouville operator. If the open-system boundary conditions are time reversible, exponentially growing (unphysical) solutions are introduced into the time dependence of the density matrix. This problem is avoided by applying time-irreversible boundary conditions to the Wigner distribution function. These boundary conditions model the external environment as ideal particle reservoirs with properties analogous to those of a blackbody. This time-irreversible model may be numerically evaluated in a discrete approximation and has been applied to the study of a resonant-tunneling semiconductor diode. The physical and mathematical properties of the irreversible kinetic model, in both its discrete and its continuum formulations, are examined in detail. The model demonstrates the distinction in kinetic theory between commutator superoperators, which may become non-Hermitian to describe irreversible behavior, and anticommutator superoperators, which remain Hermitian and are used to evaluate physical observables.
Entropy-driven phase transitions
Frenkel, D.
1999-01-01
Increase in visible order can be associated with an increase in microscopic disorder. This phenomenon leads to many counter-intuitive phenomena such as entropy driven crystallization and phase separation. I devote special attention to the entropic depletion interaction as a means to tune the range
Model-driven software engineering
Amstel, van M.F.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Protic, Z.; Verhoeff, T.; Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.
2014-01-01
Software plays an important role in designing and operating warehouses. However, traditional software engineering methods for designing warehouse software are not able to cope with the complexity, size, and increase of automation in modern warehouses. This chapter describes Model-Driven Software
Typology of customer driven manufacturing
Wortmann, J.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Muntslag, D.R.; Timmermans, P.J.M.
1997-01-01
The aim of this chapter has been to introduce a variety of customer driven manufacturing situations. This variety has been placed in a two-dimensional grid, which constitutes a typology. For some of these types, production management issues were discussed in section 6.3. It was concluded that an
Smith, Raymond
2017-01-01
Purpose: The focus on innovation as a foundational element of enhanced organisational performance has led to the promoting and valuing of greater levels of employee participation in innovation processes. An emergent concept of employee-driven innovation could be argued to have hindered understandings of the creative and transformative nature of…
Synchrotron-driven spallation sources
Bryant, P J
1996-01-01
The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...
PC driven integrated vacuum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curuia, M.; Culcer, M.; Brandea, I.; Anghel, M.
2001-01-01
The paper presents a integrated vacuum system which was designed and manufactured in our institute. The main parts of this system are the power supply unit for turbo-melecular pumps and the vacuummeter. Both parts of the system are driven by means of a personal computer using a serial communication, according to the RS 232 hardware standard.(author)
Kinetic evolutionary behavior of catalysis-select migration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Yuan-Gang; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong
2012-01-01
We propose a catalysis-select migration driven evolution model of two-species (A- and B-species) aggregates, where one unit of species A migrates to species B under the catalysts of species C, while under the catalysts of species D the reaction will become one unit of species B migrating to species A. Meanwhile the catalyst aggregates of species C perform self-coagulation, as do the species D aggregates. We study this catalysis-select migration driven kinetic aggregation phenomena using the generalized Smoluchowski rate equation approach with C species catalysis-select migration rate kernel K(k;i,j) = Kkij and D species catalysis-select migration rate kernel J(k;i,j)= Jkij. The kinetic evolution behaviour is found to be dominated by the competition between the catalysis-select immigration and emigration, in which the competition is between JD 0 and KC 0 (D 0 and C 0 are the initial numbers of the monomers of species D and C, respectively). When JD 0 −KC 0 > 0, the aggregate size distribution of species A satisfies the conventional scaling form and that of species B satisfies a modified scaling form. And in the case of JD 0 −KC 0 0 −KC 0 > 0 case. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Bazant, Martin Z
2017-07-01
Motivated by the possibility of electrochemical control of phase separation, a variational theory of thermodynamic stability is developed for driven reactive mixtures, based on a nonlinear generalization of the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations. The Glansdorff-Prigogine stability criterion is extended for driving chemical work, based on variations of nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy. Linear stability is generally determined by the competition of chemical diffusion and driven autocatalysis. Novel features arise for electrochemical systems, related to controlled total current (galvanostatic operation), concentration-dependent exchange current (Butler-Volmer kinetics), and negative differential reaction resistance (Marcus kinetics). The theory shows how spinodal decomposition can be controlled by solo-autocatalytic charge transfer, with only a single faradaic reaction. Experimental evidence is presented for intercalation and electrodeposition in rechargeable batteries, and further applications are discussed in solid state ionics, electrovariable optics, electrochemical precipitation, and biological pattern formation.
Personalized Whole-Cell Kinetic Models of Metabolism for Discovery in Genomics and Pharmacodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bordbar, Aarash; McCloskey, Douglas; Zielinski, Daniel C
2015-01-01
Understanding individual variation is fundamental to personalized medicine. Yet interpreting complex phenotype data, such as multi-compartment metabolomic profiles, in the context of genotype data for an individual is complicated by interactions within and between cells and remains an unresolved...... challenge. Here, we constructed multi-omic, data-driven, personalized whole-cell kinetic models of erythrocyte metabolism for 24 healthy individuals based on fasting-state plasma and erythrocyte metabolomics and whole-genome genotyping. We show that personalized kinetic rate constants, rather than...
Transformation kinetics for nucleus clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villa, Elena; Rios, Paulo R.
2009-01-01
A rigorous mathematical approach based on stochastic geometry concepts is presented to extend previous Johnson-Mehl, Avrami, Kolmogorov treatment of transformation kinetics to situations in which nuclei are not homogeneously located in space but are located in clusters. An exact analytical solution is presented here for the first time assuming that nucleation sites follow a Matern cluster process. The influence of Matern cluster process parameters on subsequent growth kinetics and the microstructural path are illustrated by means of numerical examples. Moreover, using the superposition principle, exact analytical solutions are also obtained when nucleation takes place by a combination of a Matern cluster process and an inhomogeneous Poisson point process. The new solutions presented here significantly increase the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.
Chapter 22. Cell population kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tubiana, M.
1975-01-01
The main contribution of radioisotopes to the development of a new discipline, cell population kinetics, was shown. The aim of this science is to establish, for each tissue of the organism, the life span of its component cells and the mechanisms governing its growth, its differentiation and its homeostasis with respect to outside attacks. Labelling techniques have been used to follow the cells during these various processes. The case of non-dividing cells was considered first, taking as example, the red blood cells of which the lifetime was studied, after which the case of proliferating cells was examined using 14 C- or tritium-labelled thymidine. The methods used to measure the cell cycle parameters were described: labelled-mitosis curve method, double-labelling and continuous labelling methods, proliferation coefficient measurement. Cell kinetics were shown to allow an interpretation of radiobiological data. Finally the practical value of cell kinetics research was shown [fr
Kinetic theory and transport phenomena
Soto, Rodrigo
2016-01-01
This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...
Selected readings in chemical kinetics
Back, Margaret H
2013-01-01
Selected Readings in Chemical Kinetics covers excerpts from 12 papers in the field of general and gas-phase kinetics. The book discusses papers on the laws of connexion between the conditions of a chemical change and its amount; on the reaction velocity of the inversion of the cane sugar by acids; and the calculation in absolute measure of velocity constants and equilibrium constants in gaseous systems. The text then tackles papers on simple gas reactions; on the absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases; on the radiation theory of chemical action; and on the theory of unimolecular reacti
Chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics
Houston, Paul L
2006-01-01
This text teaches the principles underlying modern chemical kinetics in a clear, direct fashion, using several examples to enhance basic understanding. It features solutions to selected problems, with separate sections and appendices that cover more technical applications.Each chapter is self-contained and features an introduction that identifies its basic goals, their significance, and a general plan for their achievement. This text's important aims are to demonstrate that the basic kinetic principles are essential to the solution of modern chemical problems, and to show how the underlying qu
Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.
Deuteration kinetics of the graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nefedov, Alexei; Woell, Christof [KIT, Leopoldshafen (Germany); Paris, Alessio; Calliari, Lucia [FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Verbitskiy, Nikolay [MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Ying; Irle, Stephan [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Fedorov, Alexander [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Haberer, Danny; Knupfer, Martin; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Oetzelt, Martin [BESSY II, Berlin (Germany); Petaccia, Luca [Elettra, Trieste (Italy); Usachov, Dmitry [St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vyalikh, Denis [St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Sagdev, Hermann [MPI fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Yashina, Lada [MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grueneis, Alexander [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
2013-07-01
The kinetics of the hydrogenation/deuteration reaction of graphene was studied by time-dependent x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The graphene layer was then exposed to hydrogen or deuterium atomic gas beams, obtained by thermal cracking in a tungsten capillary at T=3000 K. After each step XPS of the C1s line was performed in order to measure H/C and D/C ratios. We have observed a strong kinetic isotope effect for the hydrogenation/deuteration reaction leading to substantially faster adsorption and higher maximum D/C ratios as compared to H/C (D/C 35% vs. H/C 25%).
Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfven Waves at proton kinetic scales
C.L. Vasconez; F. Valentini (Francesco); E. Camporeale (Enrico); P. Veltri
2014-01-01
htmlabstractKinetic Alfv ́en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length d p and beyond). A
Dynamical prediction of flu seasonality driven by ambient temperature: influenza vs. common cold
Postnikov, Eugene B.
2016-01-01
This work presents a comparative analysis of Influenzanet data for influenza itself and common cold in the Netherlands during the last 5 years, from the point of view of modelling by linearised SIRS equations parametrically driven by the ambient temperature. It is argued that this approach allows for the forecast of common cold, but not of influenza in a strict sense. The difference in their kinetic models is discussed with reference to the clinical background.
Unified theory of ballooning instabilities and temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.
1990-08-01
A unified theory of temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes and ballooning instabilities is developed using kinetic theory in banana regimes. All known results, such as electrostatic and purely magnetic trapped particle modes and ideal MHD ballooning modes (or shear Alfven waves) are readily derived from our single general dispersion relation. Several new results from ion-ion collision and trapped particle modification of ballooning modes are derived and discussed and the interrelationship between those modes is established. 24 refs
Ion beam driven expansion of super-range multilayer plane targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piriz, A.R.
1987-08-01
The expansion of a multilayer plane target driven by an ion beam which has a range shorter than the thickness of the slab is described by means of a simple analytic model. The effect of a two-layer structure is studied and criteria for the optimization of the kinetic energy of the unheated part of the slab, the payload, are set. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs
Instability and transport driven by an electron temperature gradient close to critical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Jian, G.D.; Wang, A.K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.
2003-01-01
Electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in toroidal plasmas is studied with gyrokinetic theory. The full electron kinetics is considered. The upgraded numerical scheme for solving the integral eigenvalue equations allows the study of both growing and damping modes, and thus direct calculation of critical gradient. Algebraic formulas for the critical gradient with respect to ratio of electron temperature over ion temperature and to toroidicity are given. An estimation for turbulence induced transport is presented. (author)
Cyclic combustion driven shocks in a sompressible vortex as a source of MHD power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jenkins, J. M.; Swithenbank, J.
1963-04-15
Theory and experimental data are presented on the properties of cyclic, combustion-driven shocks in a compressible vortex. In this system, part of the chemical energy is converted directly into kinetic energy. Because the temperatures encountered in these combustions approach those obtained in detonations, it is suggested that the cycliccombustion system might be suitable for the production of magnetohydrodynamic power. The experimental data presented are based on observations of rocket motor characteristics. Effects of instabilities are discussed. (T.F.H.)
Point Genetics: A New Concept to Assess Neutron Kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein Meulekamp, R.; Kuijper, J.C.; Schikorr, M.
2005-01-01
Point genetic equations are introduced. These equations are similar to the well-known point kinetic equations but characterize and couple individual fission generations in subcritical systems. Point genetic equations are able to describe dynamic behavior of source-driven subcritical systems on shorter timescales than is possible with point kinetic equations. Point genetic parameters can be used as a first-order characterization of the system and can be calculated using standard Monte Carlo techniques; the implementation in other calculational schemes seems straightforward. A Godiva sphere is considered to show the applicability of the point genetic equations in describing a detector response on short timescales. For this system the point genetic parameters are calculated and compared with reference calculations. Typical dynamic source behavior is considered by studying a transient in which the neutron source energy decreases from 20 to 1 MeV. For all cases studied, the point genetic equations are compared to full space-time kinetic solutions, and it is shown that point genetics performs well
Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.
Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A
2016-08-30
Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond) daughter cell separation (DCS) driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes) or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae Much of our knowledge on bacterial cytokinesis comes from studying rod-shaped model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis Less is known about variations in this process among different bacterial species. While cell division in many bacteria has been characterized to some extent genetically or biochemically, few species have been examined using video microscopy to uncover the kinetics of cytokinesis and daughter cell separation (DCS). In this work, we found that fast (millisecond) DCS is exhibited by species in two independent clades of Gram-positive bacteria and is particularly prevalent
Dynamic analysis of an accelerator-driven fluid-fueled subcritical radioactive waste burning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woosley, M.L. Jr.; Rydin, R.A.
1998-01-01
The recent revival of interest in accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled systems is documented. Several important applications of these systems are mentioned, and this is used to motivate the need for dynamic analysis of the nuclear kinetics of such systems. A physical description of the Los alamos National Laboratory accelerator-based conversion (ABC) concept is provided. This system is used as the basis for the kinetics study in this research. The current approach to the dynamic simulation of an accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled system includes four functional elements: a discrete ordinates model is used to calculate the flux distribution for the source-driven system; a nodal convection model is used to calculate time-dependent isotope and temperature distributions that impact reactivity; a nodal importance weighting model is used to calculate the reactivity impact of temperature and isotope distributions and to feed this information back to the time-dependent nodal convection model; and a transient driver is used to simulate transients, model the balance of plant, and record simulation data. Specific transients that have been analyzed with the current modeling system are discussed. These transients include loss-of-flow and loss-of-cooling accidents, xenon and samarium transients, and cold-plug and overfueling events. The results of various transients have uncovered unpredictable behavior, unresolved design issues, and the need for active control. The need for the development of a nodal-coupling spatial kinetics model is mentioned
Kaehler-driven tribrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David
2012-01-01
We discuss a new class of tribrid inflation models in supergravity, where the shape of the inflaton potential is dominated by effects from the Kaehler potential. Tribrid inflation is a variant of hybrid inflation which is particularly suited for connecting inflation with particle physics, since the inflaton can be a D-flat combination of charged fields from the matter sector. In models of tribrid inflation studied so far, the inflaton potential was dominated by either loop corrections or by mixing effects with the waterfall field (as in 'pseudosmooth' tribrid inflation). Here we investigate the third possibility, namely that tribrid inflation is dominantly driven by effects from higher-dimensional operators of the Kaehler potential. We specify for which superpotential parameters the new regime is realized and show how it can be experimentally distinguished from the other two (loop-driven and p seudosmooth ) regimes
Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold
2015-01-01
Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage an......” woofer where a copper ring in the pole piece has not been implemented to compensate for eddy currents. However the drive method seems to be irrelevant for a 5” woofer where the compliance, force factor as well as the voice coil inductance has been optimized for linearity.......Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
2011-01-01
For customers information technology (IT) is a means to an end. This tight association between IT systems and their use is, however, often absent during their development and implementation, resulting in systems that may fail to produce desired ends. Effects-driven IT development aims to avoid...... change that realize the specified effects, and (c) measuring the absence or presence of the specified effects during pilot use of the system while also remaining alert to the emergence of beneficial but hitherto unspecified effects. In this paper we explore effects-driven IT development and discuss...... the possibilities and challenges involved in making it an instrument for managing IT projects. Two main challenges are that effects must be measured while development is still ongoing, making pilot implementations a central activity, and that vendor and customer must extend their collaboration, particularly...
Security and policy driven computing
Liu, Lei
2010-01-01
Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con
Elements of plasma kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.
1976-01-01
The physical foundations of plasma kinetic equations are exposed inside a series of seminars on plasma and fusion physics. The Vlasov and collisional equations with its application range have been discussed. The momenta equations for the macroscopic magnitudes and the more usual approximations have been obtained: two fluid equations for cold and warm plasmas, magnetohydrodynamic equations and the double-adiabatic theory. (author)
Kinetic studies on leucite precursors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mrázová, M.; Kloužková, A.; Kohoutková, Martina
2009-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 2 (2009), s. 205-210 ISSN 1895-1066 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : leucite * crystallization kinetics * hydrothermal Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2009
Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.
1978-01-01
Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney
Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals
de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez
2016-01-01
The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…
Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, John
2015-01-01
his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The mo...
Resonance transport and kinetic entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Yu.B.; Knoll, J.; Voskresensky, D.N.
2000-01-01
We continue the description of the dynamics of unstable particles within the real-time formulation of nonequilibrium field theory initiated in a previous paper . There we suggest to use Baym's PHI-functional method in order to achieve approximation schemes with 'built in' consistency with respect to conservation laws and thermodynamics even in the case of particles with finite damping width. Starting from Kadanoff-Baym equations we discuss a consistent first order gradient approach to transport which preserves the PHI-derivable properties. The validity conditions for the resulting quantum four-phase-space kinetic theory are discussed under the perspective to treat particles with broad damping widths. This non-equilibrium dynamics naturally includes all those quantum features already inherent in the corresponding equilibrium limit (e.g. Matsubara formalism) at the same level of PHI-derivable approximation. Various collision-term diagrams are discussed including those of higher order which lead to memory effects. As an important novel part we derive a generalized nonequilibrium expression for the kinetic entropy flow, which includes contributions from fluctuations and mass-width effects. In special cases an H-theorem is derived implying that the entropy can only increase with time. Memory effects in the kinetic terms provide contributions to the kinetic entropy flow that in the equilibrium limit recover the famous bosonic type T 3 lnT correction to the specific heat in the case of Fermi liquids like Helium-3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Wann-Quan; Ross, D.W.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.
1989-06-01
Kinetic effects of Alfven wave spatial resonances near the plasma edge are investigated numerically and analytically in a cylindrical tokamak model. In Part 1, cold plasma surface Alfven eigenmodes (SAE's) in a pure plasma are examined. Numerical calculations of antenna-driven waves exhibiting absorption resonances at certain discrete frequencies are first reviewed. From a simplified kinetic equation, an analytical dispersion relation is then obtained with the antenna current set equal to zero. The real and imaginary parts of its roots, which are the complex eigenfrequencies, agree with the central frequencies and widths, respectively, of the numerical antenna-driven resonances. These results serve as an introduction to the companion paper, in which it is shown that, in the presence of a minority species, certain SAE's, instead of heating the plasma exterior, can dissipate substantial energy in the two-ion hybrid layer near the plasma center. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.
2006-01-01
This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)
Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dilip Kumar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.
Holographic kinetic k-essence model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es; Sanchez, Guillermo [Departamento de Matematica y Ciencia de la Computacion, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gsanchez@usach.cl
2009-08-31
We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice c{>=}1, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this Letter we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with c{>=}1 and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X)
252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.
1985-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor, k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily determined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables
A solvable two-species catalysis-driven aggregation model
Ke Jian Hong
2003-01-01
We study the kinetics of a two-species catalysis-driven aggregation system, in which an irreversible aggregation between any two clusters of one species occurs only with the catalytic action of another species. By means of a generalized mean-field rate equation, we obtain the asymptotic solutions of the cluster mass distributions in a simple process with a constant rate kernel. For the case without any consumption of the catalyst, the cluster mass distribution of either species always approaches a conventional scaling law. However, the evolution behaviour of the system in the case with catalyst consumption is complicated and depends crucially on the relative data of the initial concentrations of the two species.
Safety and control of accelerator-driven subcritical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rief, H. [Ispra Establishment (Italy); Takahashi, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, NY (United States)
1995-10-01
To study control and safety of accelertor driven nuclear systems, a one point kinetic model was developed and programed. It deals with fast transients as a function of reactivity insertion. Doppler feedback, and the intensity of an external neutron source. The model allows for a simultaneous calculation of an equivalent critical reactor. It was validated by a comparison with a benchmark specified by the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee of Reactor Physics. Additional features are the possibility of inserting a linear or quadratic time dependent reactivity ramp which may account for gravity induced accidents like earthquakes, the possibility to shut down the external neutron source by an exponential decay law of the form exp({minus}t/{tau}), and a graphical display of the power and reactivity changes. The calculations revealed that such boosters behave quite benignly even if they are only slightly subcritical.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, F.L. de; Maiorino, J.R.; Santos, R.S.
2007-01-01
This paper describes a closed form solution obtained by the expansion method for the general time dependent diffusion model with delayed emission for source transients in homogeneous media. In particular, starting from simple models, and increasing the complexity, numerical results were obtained for different types of source transients. Thus, first an analytical solution of the one group without precursors was solved, followed by considering one precursors family. The general case of G-groups with R families of precursor although having a closed form solution, cannot be solved analytically, since there are no explicit formulae for the eigenvalues, and numerical methods must be used to solve such problem. To illustrate the general solution, the multi-group (three groups) time-dependent without precursors was also solved and the results inter compared with results obtained by the previous one group models for a given fast homogeneous media, and different types of source transients. The results are being compared with the obtained by numerical methods. (author)
Non-classical kinetics processes and morphologies in QSE driven growth in Pb/Si(111
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuntová, Zdeňka; Hupalo, M.; Chvoj, Zdeněk; Tringides, M. C.
2006-01-01
Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 4765-4770 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207; GA MŠk ME 655 Grant - others:US department of Energy by Iowa State University(US) 7405-Eng-82; MCT(US) NSF-INT-0308505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum size effects * self-organized growth * magic thickness * interlayer diffusion nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006
Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy
Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.
2018-05-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies has been shown in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this, we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasi-linear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modelling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.
Kinetics of gravity-driven slug flow in partially wettable capillaries of varying cross section
Nissan, Alon; Wang, Qiuling; Wallach, Rony
2016-11-01
A mathematical model for slug (finite liquid volume) motion in not-fully-wettable capillary tubes with sinusoidally varying cross-sectional areas was developed. The model, based on the Navier-Stokes equation, accounts for the full viscous terms due to nonuniform geometry, the inertial term, the slug's front and rear meniscus hysteresis effect, and dependence of contact angle on flow velocity (dynamic contact angle). The model includes a velocity-dependent film that is left behind the advancing slug, reducing its mass. The model was successfully verified experimentally by recording slug movement in uniform and sinusoidal capillary tubes with a gray-scale high-speed camera. Simulation showed that tube nonuniformity has a substantial effect on slug flow pattern: in a uniform tube it is monotonic and depends mainly on the slug's momentary mass/length; an undulating tube radius results in nonmonotonic flow characteristics. The static nonzero contact angle varies locally in nonuniform tubes owing to the additional effect of wall slope. Moreover, the nonuniform cross-sectional area induces slug acceleration, deceleration, blockage, and metastable-equilibrium locations. Increasing contact angle further amplifies the geometry effect on slug propagation. The developed model provides a modified means of emulating slug flow in differently wettable porous media for intermittent inlet water supply (e.g., raindrops on the soil surface).
How statistical forces depend on thermodynamics and kinetics of driven media
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Basu, U.; Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel
2015-01-01
Roč. 114, č. 25 (2015), "250601-1"-"250601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : stochastic thermodynamics * nonequilibrium steady states * active matter Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015
Kinetic behaviours of aggregate growth driven by time-dependent migration, birth and death
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shengqing; Yang Shunyou; Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan
2008-01-01
We propose a dynamic growth model to mimic some social phenomena, such as the evolution of cities' population, in which monomer migrations occur between any two aggregates and monomer birth/death can simultaneously occur in each aggregate. Considering the fact that the rate kernels of migration, birth and death processes may change with time, we assume that the migration rate kernel is ijf(t), and the self-birth and death rate kernels are ig 1 (t) and ig 2 (t), respectively. Based on the mean-field rate equation, we obtain the exact solution of this model and then discuss semi-quantitatively the scaling behaviour of the aggregate size distribution at large times. The results show that in the long-time limit, (i) if ∫ t 0 g 1 (t') dt'/∫ t 0 g 2 (t') dt' ≥ 1 or exp{∫ t 0 [g 2 (t') - g 1 (t')] dt'}/∫ t 0 f(t') dt' → 0, the aggregate size distribution a k (t) can obey a generalized scaling form; (ii) if ∫ t 0 g 1 (t') dt'/∫ t 0 g 2 (t') dt' → 0 and exp ∫ t 0 [g 2 (t') - g 1 (t') dt'/∫ t 0 f(t') dt' → ∞, a k (t) can take a scale-free form and decay exponentially in size k; (iii) a k (t) will satisfy a modified scaling law in the remaining cases. Moreover, the total mass of aggregates depends strongly on the net birth rate g 1 (t) - g 2 (t) and evolves exponentially as exp{∫ t 0 [g 1 (t') - g 2 (t')] dt'}, which is in qualitative agreement with the evolution of the total population of a country in real world
Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis
Bednarska, K.A.
2015-01-01
Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis – a summary
K.A. Bednarska
The dissertation entitled ‘Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis’ describes the enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetic modelling of liquefaction and saccharification of wheat starch.
Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas
such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...
Data driven marketing for dummies
Semmelroth, David
2013-01-01
Embrace data and use it to sell and market your products Data is everywhere and it keeps growing and accumulating. Companies need to embrace big data and make it work harder to help them sell and market their products. Successful data analysis can help marketing professionals spot sales trends, develop smarter marketing campaigns, and accurately predict customer loyalty. Data Driven Marketing For Dummies helps companies use all the data at their disposal to make current customers more satisfied, reach new customers, and sell to their most important customer segments more efficiently. Identifyi
Implementing Genome-Driven Oncology
Hyman, David M.; Taylor, Barry S.; Baselga, José
2017-01-01
Early successes in identifying and targeting individual oncogenic drivers, together with the increasing feasibility of sequencing tumor genomes, have brought forth the promise of genome-driven oncology care. As we expand the breadth and depth of genomic analyses, the biological and clinical complexity of its implementation will be unparalleled. Challenges include target credentialing and validation, implementing drug combinations, clinical trial designs, targeting tumor heterogeneity, and deploying technologies beyond DNA sequencing, among others. We review how contemporary approaches are tackling these challenges and will ultimately serve as an engine for biological discovery and increase our insight into cancer and its treatment. PMID:28187282
Morphogenesis of Kinetic Reciprocal Frames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario
2011-01-01
Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category of intera......Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category...... (RF) were studied in the past as a practical solution to span distances with shorter elements. Leonardo da Vinci discovered interesting RF patterns and studied three dimensional arch structures for bridges. RF are generally defined as structures that forms closed circuits of forces, and where elements...
Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation
Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.
2017-08-01
Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.
Kinetics of cadmium hydroxide precipitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patterson, J.W.; Marani, D.; Luo, B.; Swenson, P.
1987-01-01
This paper presents some preliminary results on the kinetics of Cd(OH)/sub 2/ precipitation, both in the absence and the presence of citric acid as an inhibiting agent. Batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) precipitation studies are performed by mixing equal volumes of NaOH and Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions, in order to avoid localized supersaturation conditions. The rate of metal removal from the soluble phase is calculated from the mass balance for the CSTR precipitation tests. In addition, precipitation kinetics are studied in terms of nucleation and crystal growth rates, by means of a particle counter that allows a population balance analysis for the precipitation reactor at steady state conditions
Art Engineering and Kinetic Art
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barış Yılmaz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Performing an art, either by painting or by sculpturing, requires to be interdisciplinary. When an artist creates his/her work of art, the process he/she realizes is supported by different engineering disciplines. Therefore, especially modern artists need to understand engineering science and this results in transforming artists into engineers. Opportunities provided by technology and science enable artists to expand his/her vision and to improve his/her works. Especially kinetic art has become an approach that combines art with engineering. Kinetic art, which is nourished with varied disciplines, is an excellent example to prove that art is interdisciplinary and to show the relationship between artist/art and engineering.
Modeling the isochronal crystallization kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahay, S.S.; Krishnan, Karthik
2004-01-01
The classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, originally formulated for the isothermal condition, is often used in conjunction with additivity principle for modeling the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics. This approach at times results in significant differences between the model prediction and experimental data. In this article, a modification to this approach has been imposed via an additional functional relationship between the activation energy and heating rate. The methodology has been validated with experimental isochronal crystallization kinetic data in Se 71 Te 20 Sb 9 glass and Ge 20 Te 80 systems. It has been shown that the functional relationship between heating rate and activation energy, ascribed to the reduction in apparent activation energy due to increasing non-isothermality, provides better phenomenological description and therefore improves the prediction capability of the JMAK model under isochronal condition
Otero, Toribio F
2017-01-18
In this perspective the empirical kinetics of conducting polymers exchanging anions and solvent during electrochemical reactions to get dense reactive gels is reviewed. The reaction drives conformational movements of the chains (molecular motors), exchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte and structural (relaxation, swelling, shrinking and compaction) gel changes. Reaction-driven structural changes are identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The empirical reaction activation energy (E a ), the reaction coefficient (k) and the reaction orders (α and β) change as a function of the conformational energy variation during the reaction. This conformational energy becomes an empirical magnitude. E a , k, α and β include and provide quantitative conformational and structural information. The chemical kinetics becomes structural chemical kinetics (SCK) for reactions driving conformational movements of the reactants. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model describes empirical results and some results from the literature for biochemical reactions. In parallel the development of an emerging technological world of soft, wet, multifunctional and biomimetic tools and anthropomorphic robots driven by reactions of the constitutive material, as in biological organs, can be now envisaged being theoretically supported by the kinetic model.
Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest
Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.
2016-12-01
Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.
Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.
Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U
2016-06-01
Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bumetanide kinetics in renal failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pentikaeinen, P.J.P.; Pasternack, A.; Lampainen, E.; Neuvonen, P.J.; Penttilae, A.
1985-01-01
To study the effects of renal failure on bumetanide kinetics, the authors administered single intravenous doses of 1.0 mg/3.08 microCi 14 C-bumetanide to six healthy subjects and 22 patients with variable degrees of renal failure. The kinetics of 14 C-bumetanide and total 14 C were adequately described by a two-compartment open model in the control subjects and in the patients. The volume of the central compartment and the distribution t1/2 were of the same order in both groups, whereas the mean (+/- SE) volume at steady state was larger (22.1 +/- 1.6 and 16.9 +/- 1.0 L) and the elimination t1/2 was longer (1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 hours) in patients with renal failure than in healthy controls. Bumetanide renal clearance was lower (10 +/- 3 and 90 +/- 13 ml/min) in patients than in subjects and correlated with creatinine clearance (r = 0.784) and log serum creatinine level (r = -0.843), whereas nonrenal clearance was significantly higher in the patients (153 +/- 14 and 99 +/- 6 ml/min). Bumetanide total plasma clearance did not significantly change. The non-protein-bound, free fraction of bumetanide was higher in patients and correlated with plasma albumin levels (r = -0.777). The kinetics of total 14 C showed similar but greater changes than those of 14C-bumetanide. Thus the most important changes in bumetanide kinetics in patients with renal failure are low renal clearance and a high free fraction, with a consequent increase in nonrenal clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination t1/2
Production kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudjoko, D.; Masduki, B.; Sunardjo; Sulistyo, B.
1996-01-01
This research was intended to study the kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride production. The process was carried out in semi continuous reactor, equipped with heater, temperature controller, sublimator and scrubber. The variables investigated were time, temperature and the pellet forming pressure. Within the range of variables studied, the expression of the process in the chemical reaction controller region and diffusion controller region were both presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombard, R.J.; Mas, D.; Moszkowski, S.A.
1991-01-01
We discuss two expressions for the density of kinetic energy which differ by an integration by parts. Using the Wigner transform we shown that the arithmetic mean of these two terms is closely analogous to the classical value. Harmonic oscillator wavefunctions are used to illustrate the radial dependence of these expressions. We study the differences they induce through effective mass terms when performing self-consistent calculations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ristic, M.M.
1962-01-01
Detailed conclusions related to the UO 2 sintering can be drawn from investigating the kinetics of the sintering process. This report gives an thorough analysis of the the data concerned with sintering available in the literature taking into account the Jander and Arrhenius laws. This analysis completes the study of influence of the O/U ratio and the atmosphere on the sintering. Results presented are fundamentals of future theoretical and experimental work related to characterisation of the UO 2 sintering process
KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. Gold
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.
Oxidation kinetics of corium pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2013-09-15
Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.
Oxidation kinetics of corium pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations
Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)
Influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiuchi, Ritoku; Usami, Shunsuke; Ohtani, Hiroaki
2014-01-01
The influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection is investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation in an open system. In a quasi-steady state when reconnection electric field evolves fully, a current layer evolves locally in a narrow kinetic region and its scale decreases in proportion to an electron meandering scale as the guide field is intensified. Here, the meandering scale stands for an average spatial scale of nongyrotropic motions in the vicinity of the reconnection point. Force terms associated with off-diagonal components of electron and ion pressure tensors, which are originating from nongyrotropic motions of charged particles, becomes dominant at the reconnection point and sustain the reconnection electric field even when the guide field is strong. It is also found that thermalization of both ions and electrons is suppressed by the guide field. For the weak guide field, an electron nonthermal component is significantly created through a fast outburst from the kinetic region, while for the strong guide field, an ion nonthermal component is generated through the acceleration by an in-plane electric field near the magnetic separatrix. (author)
Analysis of IBW-driven plasma flows in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carlsson, J.A.; Carter, M.D.; Cesario, R.
2001-01-01
Both theory and experiment have suggested that damping of Ion Bernstein Waves (IBWs) at ion cyclotron frequency harmonics could drive poloidal flows and lead to enhanced confinement for tokamaks. However, the early analyses were based on Reynolds stress closures of moment equations. More rigorous, finite Larmor radius (FLR) expansions of the radio frequency (RF) kinetic pressure for low harmonic interactions indicated that the Reynolds stress approximation was not generally valid, and resulted in significant changes in the plasma flow response. These changes were largest for wave interactions driven by finite Larmour radius effects. To provide a better assessment of higher harmonic interactions and IBW flow drive prospects, the electromagnetic (E and M) and RF kinetic force models are extended with no assumptions regarding the smallness of the ion Larmor radius. For both models, a spectral-width approximation was used to make the numerical analysis tractable. In addition, it was necessary to include the effects of plasma equilibrium gradients on the plasma conductivity and the RF-induced momentum in order to conserve energy and momentum. The analysis of high-harmonic IBW interactions for TFTR and FTU parameters indicates significant poloidal flow shears (relative to turbulence correlation times) for power levels available in present experiments. Recent advances in all-orders calculations of E and M fields in 2-D are also discussed. (author)
The energetics of AGN radiation pressure-driven outflows
Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Maiolino, R.
2018-05-01
The increasing observational evidence of galactic outflows is considered as a sign of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in action. However, the physical mechanism responsible for driving the observed outflows remains unclear, and whether it is due to momentum, energy, or radiation is still a matter of debate. The observed outflow energetics, in particular the large measured values of the momentum ratio (\\dot{p}/(L/c) ˜ 10) and energy ratio (\\dot{E}_k/L ˜ 0.05), seems to favour the energy-driving mechanism; and most observational works have focused their comparison with wind energy-driven models. Here, we show that AGN radiation pressure on dust can adequately reproduce the observed outflow energetics (mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and kinetic power), as well as the scalings with luminosity, provided that the effects of radiation trapping are properly taken into account. In particular, we predict a sublinear scaling for the mass outflow rate (\\dot{M} ∝ L^{1/2}) and a superlinear scaling for the kinetic power (\\dot{E}_k ∝ L^{3/2}), in agreement with the observational scaling relations reported in the most recent compilation of AGN outflow data. We conclude that AGN radiative feedback can account for the global outflow energetics, at least equally well as the wind energy-driving mechanism, and therefore both physical models should be considered in the interpretation of future AGN outflow observations.
On Rank Driven Dynamical Systems
Veerman, J. J. P.; Prieto, F. J.
2014-08-01
We investigate a class of models related to the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model, initially proposed to study evolution. The BS model is extremely simple and yet captures some forms of "complex behavior" such as self-organized criticality that is often observed in physical and biological systems. In this model, random fitnesses in are associated to agents located at the vertices of a graph . Their fitnesses are ranked from worst (0) to best (1). At every time-step the agent with the worst fitness and some others with a priori given rank probabilities are replaced by new agents with random fitnesses. We consider two cases: The exogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from an a priori fixed distribution, and the endogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from the current distribution as it evolves. We approximate the dynamics by making a simplifying independence assumption. We use Order Statistics and Dynamical Systems to define a rank-driven dynamical system that approximates the evolution of the distribution of the fitnesses in these rank-driven models, as well as in the BS model. For this simplified model we can find the limiting marginal distribution as a function of the initial conditions. Agreement with experimental results of the BS model is excellent.
Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-01-01
Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results
Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems
Helbing, Dirk
2001-10-01
Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.
Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.
2013-09-01
Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.
Wang, Ying; Edalji, Rohinton P; Panchal, Sanjay C; Sun, Chaohong; Djuric, Stevan W; Vasudevan, Anil
2017-10-26
It is advocated that kinetic and thermodynamic profiling of bioactive compounds should be incorporated and utilized as complementary tools for hit and lead optimizations in drug discovery. To assess their applications in the EED hit-to-lead optimization process, large amount of thermodynamic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively. Slower dissociation rates (k off ) of the lead compounds were observed as the program progressed. Analysis of the kinetic data indicated that compound cellular activity correlated with both K i and k off . Our analysis revealed that ITC data should be interpreted in the context of chiral purity of the compounds. The thermodynamic signatures of the EED aminopyrrolidine compounds were found to be mainly enthalpy driven with improved enthalpic contributions as the program progressed. Our study also demonstrated that significant challenges still exist in utilizing kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for hit selection.
Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria
Contemporary research on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship have now for a decade or more been focusing on social constructive, pragmatic, socio-cultural and socio-material dimensions of creative and innovative processes and entrepreneurship (Bager et al. 2010, Brinkmann & Tangaard 2010......- and entrepreneurship processes. In this paper we want to continue in line with this new framework of meaning- and wonder-driven innovation by focusing on the possible educational consequences of such an approach. Our empirical departure is our three-year phenomenological action research project called ‘Wonder......-based Entrepreneurship Teaching in Professional bachelor Education’. Ten senior lecturers in nursing and pedagogy participated. The purpose was to investigate whether and how Socratic and philosophical dialogues and different forms of phenomenological and existential reflections upon one´s own professional assumptions...
Customer-driven Product Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Anita Friis
2011-01-01
look for new ways to gain competitive advantage. In competitive markets there is a tendency of shorter product life cycles, and thus a competitive factor is to keep at pace with the market or even driving the market by developing new products. This research study seeks to investigate Customer......Demand chain management is a research area of increasing attention. It is the undertaking of reacting to customer requirements through a responsive chain going from customers through a focal company towards raw material distributors. With faster growing markets and increasing competition, companies......-driven Product Development (CDPD) from a demand chain management perspective. CDPD is the counterpart to typical research and development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. The proposition is that letting customers initiate and participate in the product development process...
Laser driven fusion fission hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.
1977-11-01
The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time
Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains
Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.
2014-08-01
Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.
Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets
Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-01
Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2014-12-15
The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2012-10-08
A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.
Distributions of Autocorrelated First-Order Kinetic Outcomes: Illness Severity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James D Englehardt
Full Text Available Many complex systems produce outcomes having recurring, power law-like distributions over wide ranges. However, the form necessarily breaks down at extremes, whereas the Weibull distribution has been demonstrated over the full observed range. Here the Weibull distribution is derived as the asymptotic distribution of generalized first-order kinetic processes, with convergence driven by autocorrelation, and entropy maximization subject to finite positive mean, of the incremental compounding rates. Process increments represent multiplicative causes. In particular, illness severities are modeled as such, occurring in proportion to products of, e.g., chronic toxicant fractions passed by organs along a pathway, or rates of interacting oncogenic mutations. The Weibull form is also argued theoretically and by simulation to be robust to the onset of saturation kinetics. The Weibull exponential parameter is shown to indicate the number and widths of the first-order compounding increments, the extent of rate autocorrelation, and the degree to which process increments are distributed exponential. In contrast with the Gaussian result in linear independent systems, the form is driven not by independence and multiplicity of process increments, but by increment autocorrelation and entropy. In some physical systems the form may be attracting, due to multiplicative evolution of outcome magnitudes towards extreme values potentially much larger and smaller than control mechanisms can contain. The Weibull distribution is demonstrated in preference to the lognormal and Pareto I for illness severities versus (a toxicokinetic models, (b biologically-based network models, (c scholastic and psychological test score data for children with prenatal mercury exposure, and (d time-to-tumor data of the ED01 study.
Nonlinear Kinetics on Lattices Based on the Kinetic Interaction Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Kaniadakis
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Master equations define the dynamics that govern the time evolution of various physical processes on lattices. In the continuum limit, master equations lead to Fokker–Planck partial differential equations that represent the dynamics of physical systems in continuous spaces. Over the last few decades, nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations have become very popular in condensed matter physics and in statistical physics. Numerical solutions of these equations require the use of discretization schemes. However, the discrete evolution equation obtained by the discretization of a Fokker–Planck partial differential equation depends on the specific discretization scheme. In general, the discretized form is different from the master equation that has generated the respective Fokker–Planck equation in the continuum limit. Therefore, the knowledge of the master equation associated with a given Fokker–Planck equation is extremely important for the correct numerical integration of the latter, since it provides a unique, physically motivated discretization scheme. This paper shows that the Kinetic Interaction Principle (KIP that governs the particle kinetics of many body systems, introduced in G. Kaniadakis, Physica A 296, 405 (2001, univocally defines a very simple master equation that in the continuum limit yields the nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation in its most general form.
A kinetics database and scripts for PHREEQC
Hu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, Y.; Zhu, C.
2017-12-01
Kinetics of geochemical reactions has been increasingly used in numerical models to simulate coupled flow, mass transport, and chemical reactions. However, the kinetic data are scattered in the literature. To assemble a kinetic dataset for a modeling project is an intimidating task for most. In order to facilitate the application of kinetics in geochemical modeling, we assembled kinetics parameters into a database for the geochemical simulation program, PHREEQC (version 3.0). Kinetics data were collected from the literature. Our database includes kinetic data for over 70 minerals. The rate equations are also programmed into scripts with the Basic language. Using the new kinetic database, we simulated reaction path during the albite dissolution process using various rate equations in the literature. The simulation results with three different rate equations gave difference reaction paths at different time scale. Another application involves a coupled reactive transport model simulating the advancement of an acid plume in an acid mine drainage site associated with Bear Creek Uranium tailings pond. Geochemical reactions including calcite, gypsum, and illite were simulated with PHREEQC using the new kinetic database. The simulation results successfully demonstrated the utility of new kinetic database.
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence
Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.
2014-01-01
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4
Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder
Stephens, M
2010-01-01
The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test
Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo
2006-01-01
Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...... of locally ordered structure in the MMG liquids is discussed in terms of the two-order-parameter model. It is found that the Arrhenius activation energy of clusters, h, is proportional to the chemical mixing enthalpy of alloys, Hchem. Fragility of the MMG forming liquids can be described by the ratio...
Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions
Boudart, Michel
2014-01-01
This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc
Kinetic equations with pairing correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauser, R.
1995-12-01
The Gorkov equations are derived for a general non-equilibrium system. The Gorkov factorization is generalized by the cumulant expansion of the 2-particle correlation and by a generalized Wick theorem in the case of a perturbation expansion. A stationary solution for the Green functions in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism is presented taking into account pairing correlations. Especially the effects of collisional broadening on the spectral functions and Green functions is discussed. Kinetic equations are derived in the quasi-particle approximation and in the case of particles with width. Explicit expressions for the self-energies are given. (orig.)
Kinetic theory of radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansur, L.K.
1987-01-01
To help achieve the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of these processes, the kinetic theory of radiation effects has been developed in the DOE basic energy sciences radiation effects and fusion reactor materials programs, as well as in corresponding efforts in other countries. This discipline grapples with a very wide range of phenomena and draws on numerous sub-fields of theory such as defect physics, diffusion, elasticity, chemical reaction rates, phase transformations and thermodynamics. The theory is cast in a mathematical framework of continuum dynamics. Issues particularly relevant to the present inquiry can be viewed from the standpoints of applications of the theory and areas requiring further progress
Rosenberg, M. J.
2016-10-01
Shock-driven laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions have demonstrated the presence of ion kinetic effects in ICF implosions and also have been used as a proton source to probe the strongly driven reconnection of MG magnetic fields in laser-generated plasmas. Ion kinetic effects arise during the shock-convergence phase of ICF implosions when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions (λii) approaches the size of the hot-fuel region (Rfuel) and may impact hot-spot formation and the possibility of ignition. To isolate and study ion kinetic effects, the ratio of N - K =λii /Rfuel was varied in D3He-filled, shock-driven implosions at the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility, from hydrodynamic-like conditions (NK 0.01) to strongly kinetic conditions (NK 10). A strong trend of decreasing fusion yields relative to the predictions of hydrodynamic models is observed as NK increases from 0.1 to 10. Hydrodynamics simulations that include basic models of the kinetic effects that are likely to be present in these experiments-namely, ion diffusion and Knudsen-layer reduction of the fusion reactivity-are better able to capture the experimental results. This type of implosion has also been used as a source of monoenergetic 15-MeV protons to image magnetic fields driven to reconnect in laser-produced plasmas at conditions similar to those encountered at the Earth's magnetopause. These experiments demonstrate that for both symmetric and asymmetric magnetic-reconnection configurations, when plasma flows are much stronger than the nominal Alfvén speed, the rate of magnetic-flux annihilation is determined by the flow velocity and is largely insensitive to initial plasma conditions. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Number DENA0001857.
Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xinrui; Bao Shanglian
2004-01-01
dynamic data, comparing with the pre-existing data-led technique- spectral analysis. The results showed that our kinetic modeling technique for the quantitative analysis of dynamic in vivo radiotracer studies is a transparent data-driven modeling approach as it returns, not only macro parameter values, but also information on the underlying model structure. Furthermore, FOCUSS algorithm can avoid the over complete problems in spectral analysis and improve the error properties. Since this technique does not require a predefined compartmental structure and it can be used to characterize tracer kinetics in various tissue types or even mixtures of different tissue types, it provides a unique tool for image analysis of complex functional structures where image pixels may contain inhomogeneous tissue types. Moreover, it can make work m imaging probe, tracer and drug development, when their characteristic in vivo isn't known. Therefore, this kinetic modeling technique is of use for PET molecular imaging and drug development. (authors)
Kinetic neoclassical transport in the H-mode pedestal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battaglia, D. J.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Grassie, J. S. de [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)
2014-07-15
Multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport through the QH-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D is calculated using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density, and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. The radial electric field (E{sub r}) that maintains ambipolar transport across flux surfaces and to the wall is computed self-consistently on closed and open magnetic field lines and is in excellent agreement with experiment. The E{sub r} inside the separatrix is the unique solution that balances the outward flux of thermal tail deuterium ions against the outward neoclassical electron flux and inward pinch of impurity and colder deuterium ions. Particle transport in the pedestal is primarily due to anomalous transport, while the ion heat and momentum transport are primarily due to the neoclassical transport. The full-f treatment quantifies the non-Maxwellian energy distributions that describe a number of experimental observations in low-collisionallity pedestals on DIII-D, including intrinsic co-I{sub p} parallel flows in the pedestal, ion temperature anisotropy, and large impurity temperatures in the scrape-off layer.
A physiologically based kinetic model for bacterial sulfide oxidation.
Klok, Johannes B M; de Graaff, Marco; van den Bosch, Pim L F; Boelee, Nadine C; Keesman, Karel J; Janssen, Albert J H
2013-02-01
In the biotechnological process for hydrogen sulfide removal from gas streams, a variety of oxidation products can be formed. Under natron-alkaline conditions, sulfide is oxidized by haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria via flavocytochrome c oxidoreductase. From previous studies, it was concluded that the oxidation-reduction state of cytochrome c is a direct measure for the bacterial end-product formation. Given this physiological feature, incorporation of the oxidation state of cytochrome c in a mathematical model for the bacterial oxidation kinetics will yield a physiologically based model structure. This paper presents a physiologically based model, describing the dynamic formation of the various end-products in the biodesulfurization process. It consists of three elements: 1) Michaelis-Menten kinetics combined with 2) a cytochrome c driven mechanism describing 3) the rate determining enzymes of the respiratory system of haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria. The proposed model is successfully validated against independent data obtained from biological respiration tests and bench scale gas-lift reactor experiments. The results demonstrate that the model is a powerful tool to describe product formation for haloalkaliphilic biomass under dynamic conditions. The model predicts a maximum S⁰ formation of about 98 mol%. A future challenge is the optimization of this bioprocess by improving the dissolved oxygen control strategy and reactor design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence
Gary, S. P.
2015-12-01
The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.
Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes
Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali
2017-11-01
Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.
Kinetic and transport theory near the tokamak edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.
1995-12-01
Conventional transport orderings employed in the core of a tokamak plasma allow large divergence-free flows in flux surfaces, but only weak radial flows. However, alternate orderings are required in the edge region where radial diffusion must balance the rapid loss due to free-streaming to divertor plates or limiters. Kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core do not allow such a balance and are, therefore, inapplicable in the plasma edge. Similarly, core transport formulae cannot be extended to the edge region without major, qualitative alteration. Here the authors address the necessary changes. By deriving and solving a novel kinetic equation, they construct distinctive collisional transport laws for the plasma edge. They find that their edge ordering naturally retains the radial diffusion and parallel flow of particles, momentum and heat to lowest order in the conservation equations. To higher order they find a surprising form for parallel transport in the scrape-off layer, in which the parallel flow of particles and heat are driven by a combination of the conventional gradients, viscosity, and new terms involving radial derivatives. The new terms are not relatively small, and could affect understanding of limiter and divertor operation
THE PROPAGATION OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN JETS IN WOLF-RAYET STARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagakura, Hiroki, E-mail: hiroki@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, JapanAND (Japan); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2013-02-20
We numerically investigate the jet propagation through a rotating collapsing Wolf-Rayet star with detailed central engine physics constructed based on the neutrino-driven collapsar model. The collapsing star determines the evolution of the mass accretion rate, black hole mass, and spin, all of which are important ingredients for determining the jet luminosity. We reveal that neutrino-driven jets in rapidly spinning Wolf-Rayet stars are capable of breaking out from the stellar envelope, while those propagating in slower rotating progenitors fail to break out due to insufficient kinetic power. For progenitor models with successful jet breakouts, the kinetic energy accumulated in the cocoon could be as large as {approx}10{sup 51} erg and might significantly contribute to the luminosity of the afterglow emission or to the kinetic energy of the accompanying supernova if nickel production takes place. We further analyze the post-breakout phase using a simple analytical prescription and conclude that the relativistic jet component could produce events with an isotropic luminosity L {sub p(iso)} {approx} 10{sup 52} erg s{sup -1} and isotropic energy E {sub j(iso)} {approx} 10{sup 54} erg. Our findings support the idea of rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars as plausible progenitors of GRBs, while slowly rotational ones could be responsible for low-luminosity or failed GRBs.
A kinetic model for hydrodesulfurisation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sau, M.; Narasimhan, C.S.L.; Verma, R.P. [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research and Development Centre, Faridabad (India)
1997-07-01
Due to stringent environmental considerations and related insistence on low sulfur fuels, hydrodesulfurisation has emerged as an important component of any refining scheme globally. The process is used ranging from Naphta/Kerosine hydrotreating to heavy oil hydrotreating. Processes such as Deep gas oil desulfurisation aiming at reduction of sulfur levels to less than 500 ppm have emerged as major players in the scenario. Hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) involves parallel desulfurisation of different organo-sulfur compounds present in the complex petroleum mixtures. In order to design, monitor, optimise and control the HDS reactor, it is necessary to have a detailed, yet simple model which follows the reaction chemistry accurately. In the present paper, a kinetic model is presented for HDS using continuum theory of lumping. The sulfur distribution in the reaction mixture is treated as continuum and parallel reaction networks are devised for kinetic modelling using continuum theory of lumping approach. The model based on the above approach follows the HDS chemistry reasonably well and hence the model parameters are almost feed invariant. Methods are also devised to incorporate heat and pressure effects into the model. The model has been validated based on commercial kero-HDS data. It is found that the model predictions agree with the experimental/commercial data. 17 refs.
Kinetic Profiles in NSTX Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Bourdelle, C.; Ernst, D.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.J.; Wilson, J.R.
2001-01-01
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new kinetic profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of kinetic profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below
Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails
Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi
The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Lipsztein, J.; Sasso, T.L.; Durbin, P.W.
1980-01-01
Exact and approximate kinetics equations relating to the transfer and elimination of radionuclides from the blood and various organs in the body are presented. These expressions may be used to estimate the instantaneous activity or the total number of disintegrations of a radionuclide in the blood or various organs of reference in the body, hence, also the respective dose rates and doses. The exact kinetics equations may be used to relate measurements of radionuclides in excreta to burdens in the body. They do give better results for exposure intervals long compared to the effective mean lives of the radionuclide in the various organs of reference, and they yield the exact steady state expressions. Fortunately, this condition is often satisfied for the relatively long standard exposure interval of 50 years that is applied to occupational exposure. In addition, the steady state expressions may be used along with metabolic data of the distribution of elements in the body, diet and excreta to estimate values of the rate constants used in both the exact and approximate expressions. A comparison of the exact and approximate expressions is given for the uranium metabolic model of Wrenn et al. and a comparison is made with current ICRP models. (author)
Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.
Inverse kinetics for subcritical systems with external neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Gonçalves, Wemerson de; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando
2017-01-01
Highlights: • It was developed formalism for reactivity calculation. • The importance function is related to the system subcriticality. • The importance function is also related with the value of the external source. • The equations were analyzed for seven different levels of sub criticality. • The results are physically consistent with others formalism discussed in the paper. - Abstract: Nuclear reactor reactivity is one of the most important properties since it is directly related to the reactor control during the power operation. This reactivity is influenced by the neutron behavior in the reactor core. The time-dependent neutrons behavior in response to any change in material composition is important for the reactor operation safety. Transient changes may occur during the reactor startup or shutdown and due to accidental disturbances of the reactor operation. Therefore, it is very important to predict the time-dependent neutron behavior population induced by changes in neutron multiplication. Reactivity determination in subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source can be obtained through the solution of the inverse kinetics equation for subcritical nuclear reactors. The main purpose of this paper is to find the solution of the inverse kinetics equation the main purpose of this paper is to device the inverse kinetics equations for subcritical systems based in a previous paper published by the authors (Gonçalves et al., 2015) and by (Gandini and Salvatores, 2002; Dulla et al., 2006). The solutions of those equations were also obtained. Formulations presented in this paper were tested for seven different values of k eff with external neutrons source constant in time and for a powers ratio varying exponentially over time.
Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics.
Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J
2016-01-01
Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to understand the kinetics of FOG deposit formation in sewers for two types of fat (Canola and Beef Tallow) and two types of calcium sources (calcium chloride and calcium sulfate) under three pH (7 ± 0.5, 10 ± 0.5, and ≈14) and two temperature conditions (22 ± 0.5 and 45 ± 0.5 °C). The results of this study displayed quick reactions of a fraction of fats with calcium ions to form calcium based saponified solids. Results further showed that increased palmitic fatty acid content in source fats, the magnitude of the pH, and temperature significantly affect the FOG deposit formation and saponification rates. The experimental data of the kinetics were compared with two empirical models: a) Cotte saponification model and b) Foubert crystallization model and a mass-action based mechanistic model that included alkali driven hydrolysis of triglycerides. Results showed that the mass action based mechanistic model was able to predict changes in the rate of formation of saponified solids under the different experimental conditions compared to both empirical models. The mass-action based saponification model also revealed that the hydrolysis of Beef Tallow was slower compared to liquid Canola fat resulting in smaller quantities of saponified solids. This mechanistic saponification model, with its ability to track the saponified solids chemical precursors, may provide an initial framework to predict the spatial formation of FOG deposits in municipal sewers using system wide sewer collection modeling software. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy EVolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-20
Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.
Numerical Simulation of the Kinetic Critical Nucleus
Sanada, Masaaki; Nishioka, Kazumi; Okada, Masahumi; Maksimov, Igor, L.
1997-01-01
Our main interest is to see whether the number density indicates a peak at the kinetically stable critical nucleus due to its kinetical stability. We have numerically calculated the time evolution of the number densities of clusters in the case of water vapor nucleation. We employ the condition in which the difference between the size of the thermodynamic crtitical nucleus and that of the kinetic one is appreciable. The results show that the peak does not appear in the number densities of clu...
Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.
Tonge, Peter J
2018-01-17
The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.
Tantalum high-temperature oxidation kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigor'ev, Yu.M.; Sarkisyan, A.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.
1981-01-01
Kinetics of heat release and scale growth during tantalum oxidation within 650-1300 deg C temperature range in oxygen-containing media is investigated. Kinetic equations and temperature and pressure dependences of constants are ound Applicability of the kinetic Lorie mechanism for the description of the tantalum oxidation kinetics applicably to rapid-passing processes is shown. It is stated that the process rate (reaction ability) is determined by adsorption desorption factors on the external surface of the ''protective'' oxide for the ''linear'' oxidation stage [ru
Li, Baiyan
2016-11-04
We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Data-driven architectural production and operation
Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.
2014-01-01
Data-driven architectural production and operation as explored within Hyperbody rely heavily on system thinking implying that all parts of a system are to be understood in relation to each other. These relations are increasingly established bi-directionally so that data-driven architecture is not
Resonances in a periodically driven bosonic system
Quelle, Anton; de Morais Smith, Cristiane
2017-01-01
Periodically driven systems are a common topic in modern physics. In optical lattices specifically, driving is at the origin of many interesting phenomena. However, energy is not conserved in driven systems, and under periodic driving, heating of a system is a real concern. In an effort to better
Role of compressibility on driven magnetic reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Horiuchi, R.; Tanaka, M.; Sawairi, N.; Kusano, K.
1991-08-01
Whether it is induced by an ideal (current driven) instability or by an external force, plasma flow causes a change in the magnetic field configuration and often gives rise to a current intensification locally, thereby a fast driven reconnection being driven there. Many dramatic phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas such as magnetospheric substorms, solar flares, MHD self-organization and tokamak sawtooth crash, may be attributed to this fast driven reconnection. Using a fourth order MHD simulation code it is confirmed that compressibility of the plasma plays a crucial role in leading to a fast (MHD time scale) driven reconnection. This indicates that the incompressible representation is not always applicable to the study of a global dynamical behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. (author)
Data Driven Economic Model Predictive Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Kheradmandi
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This manuscript addresses the problem of data driven model based economic model predictive control (MPC design. To this end, first, a data-driven Lyapunov-based MPC is designed, and shown to be capable of stabilizing a system at an unstable equilibrium point. The data driven Lyapunov-based MPC utilizes a linear time invariant (LTI model cognizant of the fact that the training data, owing to the unstable nature of the equilibrium point, has to be obtained from closed-loop operation or experiments. Simulation results are first presented demonstrating closed-loop stability under the proposed data-driven Lyapunov-based MPC. The underlying data-driven model is then utilized as the basis to design an economic MPC. The economic improvements yielded by the proposed method are illustrated through simulations on a nonlinear chemical process system example.
Driven Phases of Quantum Matter
Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Lazarides, Achilleas; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji
Clean and interacting periodically driven quantum systems are believed to exhibit a single, trivial ``infinite-temperature'' Floquet-ergodic phase. By contrast, I will show that their disordered Floquet many-body localized counterparts can exhibit distinct ordered phases with spontaneously broken symmetries delineated by sharp transitions. Some of these are analogs of equilibrium states, while others are genuinely new to the Floquet setting. I will show that a subset of these novel phases are absolutely stableto all weak local deformations of the underlying Floquet drives, and spontaneously break Hamiltonian dependent emergent symmetries. Strikingly, they simultaneously also break the underlying time-translation symmetry of the Floquet drive and the order parameter exhibits oscillations at multiples of the fundamental period. This ``time-crystallinity'' goes hand in hand with spatial symmetry breaking and, altogether, these phases exhibit a novel form of simultaneous long-range order in space and time. I will describe how this spatiotemporal order can be detected in experiments involving quenches from a broad class of initial states.
Transmutation and accelerator driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapira, J.P.
2001-01-01
Full text: Today, countries who are presently involved in nuclear energy are facing many challenges to maintain this option open for the next few decades. Among them, management of nuclear wastes produced in nuclear reactors and in fuel cycle operations has become a very strong environmental issue among the public. In most countries with sizeable commercial nuclear programs, deep geological disposal of ultimate highly active and long-lived nuclear wastes is considered as the reference long-term management scheme. But, many questions arise on the possibility to demonstrate that such wastes can be dealt in such a way as to protect the future generations and the environment. The characteristics of nuclear wastes, the various back end policies concerning spent fuels and the nuclear wastes long-term management options will be first described. Then recent proposals, based on transmutation, especially those using accelerator driven systems (ADS) and/or thorium will be presented. Finally, the possibility for the nuclear physics community to play a part in alleviating the nuclear wastes burden will be pointed out. (author)
Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.
McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G
2012-01-01
Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required
Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling
McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G
2012-01-01
Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience
Disordering kinetics in surface overlayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesina, A.; Tringides, M.C.
1993-01-01
The disordering kinetics of the O/W(110)-p(2x1)+p(2x2) overlayer, prepared initially in a well-ordered state, are studied with low-energy electron diffraction profile analysis. The decay of the peak intensity, used as a measure of the growing disorder, cannot be fitted to a power law as in the case of ordering processes. The full width at half maximum of the time-dependent structure factor S(q,t) is constant with time, which suggests that the average size remains constant. Diffusion activation energy extracted for the temperature dependence of the disordering is 1.0±0.05 eV, which is different from the value of 0.6 eV measured in ordering processes. The difference can be explained by the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, which contribute differently to the diffusion barrier, in the two experiments
Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms
Turányi, Tamás
2014-01-01
Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.
Nuclear reactor kinetics and control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.
1978-01-01
A consistent, integrated account of modern developments in the study of nuclear reactor kinetics and the problem of their efficient and safe control. It aims to prepare the student for advanced study and research or practical work in the field. Special features include treatments of noise theory, reliability theory and safety related studies. It covers all aspects of the operation and control of nuclear reactors, power and research and is complete in providing physical data methods of calculation and solution including questions of equipment reliability. The work uses illustrations of the main types of reactors in use in the UK, USA and Europe. Each chapter contains problems and worked examples suitable for course work and study. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introductory review; neutron and precursor equations; elementary solutions at low power; linear reactor process dynamics with feedback; power reactor control systems; fluctuations and reactor noise; safety and reliability; nonlinear systems (safety and control); analogue computing. (author)
Method of molybdenum kinetic determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krejngol'd, S.U.; Dzotsenidze, N.E.; Ruseishviyai, T.G.; Nelen', I.M.
1980-01-01
The method molybdenum kinetic determination according to oxidation of pyrogallol with bromate in the medium of 0.05-0.15 M perchloric or sulphuric acids is presented. 1 mg of Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn, Cr(3); 100 μg of Ca, Al, Cu, 10 μg of Cr(4), W; 10 μg of Fe in the presence of 22x10 - 4 M solution of EDTA, as well as 10 - 4 M solutions of chlorides and fluorides, 10 - 5 M solutions of bromides do not interfere with molybdenum determination using the given method. The method is rather simple, it takes 30 min to carry out the analysis. Determination limit of molybdenum constitutes 0.01 μg/ml
Quantum-statistical kinetic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.
1989-01-01
Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived
Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.; Lookman, T.
1995-01-01
The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.
1993-01-01
The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted
Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H.
2013-01-01
The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp®. The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)
Nanoparticle shape, thermodynamics and kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, L D; Peng, L
2016-01-01
Nanoparticles can be beautiful, as in stained glass windows, or they can be ugly as in wear and corrosion debris from implants. We estimate that there will be about 70 000 papers in 2015 with nanoparticles as a keyword, but only one in thirteen uses the nanoparticle shape as an additional keyword and research focus, and only one in two hundred has thermodynamics. Methods for synthesizing nanoparticles have exploded over the last decade, but our understanding of how and why they take their forms has not progressed as fast. This topical review attempts to take a critical snapshot of the current understanding, focusing more on methods to predict than a purely synthetic or descriptive approach. We look at models and themes which are largely independent of the exact synthetic method whether it is deposition, gas-phase condensation, solution based or hydrothermal synthesis. Elements are old dating back to the beginning of the 20th century—some of the pioneering models developed then are still relevant today. Others are newer, a merging of older concepts such as kinetic-Wulff constructions with methods to understand minimum energy shapes for particles with twins. Overall we find that while there are still many unknowns, the broad framework of understanding and predicting the structure of nanoparticles via diverse Wulff constructions, either thermodynamic, local minima or kinetic has been exceedingly successful. However, the field is still developing and there remain many unknowns and new avenues for research, a few of these being suggested towards the end of the review. (topical review)
Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-11-01
The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)
Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.
Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M
2015-03-27
An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19} W/ cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200 MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.
Recent advances towards azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaume García-Amorós
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Photochromic switches that are able to transmit information in a quick fashion have attracted a growing interest within materials science during the last few decades. Although very fast photochromic switching materials working within hundreds of nanoseconds based on other chromophores, such as spiropyranes, have been successfully achieved, reaching such fast relaxation times for azobenzene-based photochromic molecular switches is still a challenge. This review focuses on the most recent achievements on azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting systems. Besides, the main relationships between the structural features of the azo-chromophore and the thermal cis-to-trans isomerisation, the kinetics and mechanism are also discussed as a key point for reaching azoderivatives endowed with fast thermal back-isomerisation kinetics.
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar
2000-01-01
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Towards Free-Form Kinetic Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2012-01-01
of pin-slot paths starting from the local displacements of element [2] [3]. In the design of kinetic structures, in particular when complex three dimensional and non regular configurations are involved, the functionality is frequently related to a global displacement capability of the assembly rather...... for the generation of free-form kinetic structures....
Modeling composting kinetics: A review of approaches
Hamelers, H.V.M.
2004-01-01
Composting kinetics modeling is necessary to design and operate composting facilities that comply with strict market demands and tight environmental legislation. Current composting kinetics modeling can be characterized as inductive, i.e. the data are the starting point of the modeling process and
Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling
Gardiner, Bennett P. J.
2015-02-23
© 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.
Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnham, A.K.
1993-07-01
Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.
A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry
Barton, Janice S.
2011-01-01
This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…
Kinetic equations for the collisional plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rij, W.I. Van; Meier, H.K.; Beasley, C.O. Jr.; McCune, J.E.
1977-01-01
Using the Collisional Plasma Model (CPM) representation, expressions are derived for the Vlasov operator, both in its general form and in the drift-kinetic approximation following the recursive derivation by Hazeltine. The expressions for the operators give easily calculated couplings between neighbouring components of the CPM representation. Expressions for various macroscopic observables in the drift-kinetics approximation are also given. (author)
Chemistry and reaction kinetics of biowaste torrefaction
Stelt, van der M.J.C.
2011-01-01
This thesis addresses the question of how the chemistry and reaction kinetics of torrefaction are influenced by reaction conditions and the effects occuring during the reaction. This research question can be specified by questions such as, what controls their kinetics during torrefaction and what
Determination of the kinetics of ethene epoxidation
Schouten, E.P.S.; Schouten, E.P.S.; Borman, P.C.; Borman, P.C.; Westerterp, K.R.
1996-01-01
Several problems and pitfalls in the use of laboratory reactors for the determination of the kinetics of ethene epoxidation over industrial silver on α-alumina catalyst are discussed. Also, commonly used methodologies for kinetic studies are dealt with because of the general nature of some problems.
Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of some fluoroquinolone ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolonea antibiotics; gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride and gatifloxacin in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of ...
Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling
Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Dallaston, Michael C.; Moroney, Timothy J.
2015-01-01
© 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.
Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.
2002-01-01
We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hummer, Gerhard [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Building 5, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States); Garcia, Angel E. [Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group T-10, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Garde, Shekhar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2000-09-18
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.
Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.
1996-01-01
Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)
Kinetic theory of gases and plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schram, P.P.J.M.
1991-01-01
Kinetic theory provides the link between the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of many-particle systems and macroscopic or phenomenological physics. This volume deals with the derivation of kinetic equations, their limitations and generalizations,and with the applications of kinetic theory to physical phenomena and the calculation of transport coefficients. This book is divided in 12 chapters which discuss a wide range of topics such as balanced equations, the Klimontovich, Vlasov-Maxwell, and Boltzmann equations, Chapman-Enskog theory, the kinetic theory of plasmas, B.G.K. models, linear response theory, Brownian motion and renormalized kinetic theory. Each chapter is concluded with exercises, which not only enable the readers to test their understanding of the theory, but also present additional examples which complement the text. 151 refs.; 35 figs.; 5 tabs
Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.
2014-01-01
of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...
Hydrogen electrode reaction: A complete kinetic description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quaino, P.M.; Gennero de Chialvo, M.R.; Chialvo, A.C.
2007-01-01
The kinetic description of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) in the whole range of overpotentials (-0.2 < η (V) < 0.40) is presented. The Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism was solved considering simultaneously the following items: (i) the diffusional contribution of the molecular hydrogen from and towards the electrode surface, (ii) the forward and backward reaction rates of each elementary step and (iii) a Frumkin type adsorption for the reaction intermediate. In order to verify the descriptive capability of the kinetic expressions derived, an experimental study of the HER was carried out on a rotating platinum disc electrode in acid solution. From the correlation of these results the elementary kinetic parameters were evaluated and several aspects related to the kinetic mechanism were discussed. Finally, the use of these kinetic expressions to interpret results obtained on microelectrodes is also analysed
Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Xiaoming
2012-01-01
The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.
Linear or Rotary Actuator Using Electromagnetic Driven Hammer as Prime Mover
Paine, Jeffrey S. N. (Inventor); Smith, Byron F. (Inventor); Sesler, Joshua J. (Inventor); Paine, Matthew T. (Inventor); McMahan, Bert K. (Inventor); McMahan, Mark C. (Inventor)
2018-01-01
We claim a hammer driven actuator that uses the fast-motion, low-force characteristics of an electro-magnetic or similar prime mover to develop kinetic energy that can be transformed via a friction interface to produce a higher-force, lower-speed linear or rotary actuator by using a hammering process to produce a series of individual steps. Such a system can be implemented using a voice-coil, electro-mechanical solenoid or similar prime mover. Where a typical actuator provides limited range of motion or low force, the range of motion of a linear or rotary impact driven motor can be configured to provide large displacements which are not limited by the characteristic dimensions of the prime mover.
Quantum coherence due to Bose-Einstein condensation of parametrically driven magnons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demokritov, S O; Demidov, V E; Dzyapko, O; Melkov, G A; Slavin, A N
2008-01-01
The room-temperature kinetics and thermodynamics of the magnon gas driven by microwave pumping has been investigated by means of the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) technique. We show that for high enough pumping powers the quantum relaxation of the driven gas results in a quasi-equilibrium state described by the Bose-Einstein statistics with a nonzero chemical potential. Further increase of the pumping power causes a Bose-Einstein condensation in the magnon gas documented by an observation of the magnon accumulation at the lowest energy level. Using the sensitivity of the BLS to the coherence degree of the scattering magnons, we confirm the spontaneous emergence of coherence of the magnons accumulated at the bottom of the spectrum, if their density exceeds a critical value
Beam-driven currents in the 1/ν regime in a helical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.
1990-04-01
Beam currents driven by a neutral particle injection in a helical system (stellarator, heliotron/torsatron) are studied in the 1/ν collisionality regime. The general expression for the beam-driven current is obtained for arbitrary magnetic field configurations by solving the drift kinetic equation for electrons. It is found that F = J(net)/J(b) (J(net) is the net current and J(b) is the fast ion beam current) increases as f(t) and Zeff where f(t) is the fraction of trapped electrons and Zeff is the effective ionic charge number. Especially, for Zeff ≅ 1 the effect of trapped electrons is large and F is roughly proportional to f(t). On the other hand, if Zeff > or approx 3 the effect of trapped electrons becomes small. (author)
Boundary effects in a quasi-two-dimensional driven granular fluid.
Smith, N D; Smith, M I
2017-12-01
The effect of a confining boundary on the spatial variations in granular temperature of a driven quasi-two-dimensional layer of particles is investigated experimentally. The radial drop in the relative granular temperature ΔT/T exhibits a maximum at intermediate particle numbers which coincides with a crossover from kinetic to collisional transport of energy. It is also found that at low particle numbers, the distributions of radial velocities are increasingly asymmetric as one approaches the boundary. The radial and tangential granular temperatures split, and in the tails of the radial velocity distribution there is a higher population of fast moving particles traveling away rather than towards the boundary.
Non-inductively driven currents in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Challis, C.D.; Cordey, J.G.; Hamnen, H.; Stubberfield, P.M.; Christiansen, J.P.; Lazzaro, E.; Muir, D.G.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.
1989-01-01
Neutral beam heating data from JET have been analysed in detail to determine what proportion of the current is driven non-inductively. It is found that in low density limiter discharges, currents of the order of 0.5 MA are driven, while in H-mode plasmas currents of the order of 0.7 MA are measured. These measured currents are found to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on neoclassical models. In low density plasmas the beam driven current is large while the neoclassical bootstrap current dominates H-mode plasmas. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs
Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric
2015-01-01
In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded...
On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))
2008-10-15
This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented
On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.
2008-10-01
This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented
Shock propagation in locally driven granular systems
Joy, Jilmy P.; Pathak, Sudhir N.; Das, Dibyendu; Rajesh, R.
2017-09-01
We study shock propagation in a system of initially stationary hard spheres that is driven by a continuous injection of particles at the origin. The disturbance created by the injection of energy spreads radially outward through collisions between particles. Using scaling arguments, we determine the exponent characterizing the power-law growth of this disturbance in all dimensions. The scaling functions describing the various physical quantities are determined using large-scale event-driven simulations in two and three dimensions for both elastic and inelastic systems. The results are shown to describe well the data from two different experiments on granular systems that are similarly driven.
Pulsed radiobiology with laser-driven plasma accelerators
Giulietti, Antonio; Grazia Andreassi, Maria; Greco, Carlo
2011-05-01
Recently, a high efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. In view of an R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, a radiobiological validation is needed. At the present time, the biological effects of electron bunches from the laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from a IORT-dedicated medical Radio-frequency based linac's on human cells by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the "laser-linac" operating at ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating for IORT at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation.
Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
heating or cooling rate can also exert a crucial influence on the kinetic outcome is stressed. The kinetic ... A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of ... state is of interest on both basic and applied grounds.
Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development Approach of Community and Social ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... that CSDP in Oyo state be scaled up and the CDD approach be adopted for rural development.
Examples of Entropy-driven Ordering
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
driven Ordering. Orientational ordering of long objects. Entropy of sliding increases. Freezing in hard-sphere systems. Vibrational entropy increases. Phase separation in hard-sphere binary mixtures with disparate sizes. More room for smaller ...
Test-driven development with Django
Harvey, Kevin
2015-01-01
This book is for Django developers with little or no knowledge of test-driven development or testing in general. Familiarity with the command line, setting up a Python virtual environment, and starting a Django project are assumed.
Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach
Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent
2016-01-01
Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.
Automated Testing of Event-Driven Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Casper Svenning
may be tested by selecting an interesting input (i.e. a sequence of events), and deciding if a failure occurs when the selected input is applied to the event-driven application under test. Automated testing promises to reduce the workload for developers by automatically selecting interesting inputs...... and detect failures. However, it is non-trivial to conduct automated testing of event-driven applications because of, for example, infinite input spaces and the absence of specifications of correct application behavior. In this PhD dissertation, we identify a number of specific challenges when conducting...... automated testing of event-driven applications, and we present novel techniques for solving these challenges. First, we present an algorithm for stateless model-checking of event-driven applications with partial-order reduction, and we show how this algorithm may be used to systematically test web...
Data-Driven Problems in Elasticity
Conti, S.; Müller, S.; Ortiz, M.
2018-01-01
We consider a new class of problems in elasticity, referred to as Data-Driven problems, defined on the space of strain-stress field pairs, or phase space. The problem consists of minimizing the distance between a given material data set and the subspace of compatible strain fields and stress fields in equilibrium. We find that the classical solutions are recovered in the case of linear elasticity. We identify conditions for convergence of Data-Driven solutions corresponding to sequences of approximating material data sets. Specialization to constant material data set sequences in turn establishes an appropriate notion of relaxation. We find that relaxation within this Data-Driven framework is fundamentally different from the classical relaxation of energy functions. For instance, we show that in the Data-Driven framework the relaxation of a bistable material leads to material data sets that are not graphs.
Applications of laser-driven particle acceleration
Parodi, Katia; Schreiber, Jorg
2018-01-01
The first book of its kind to highlight the unique capabilities of laser-driven acceleration and its diverse potential, Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration presents the basic understanding of acceleration concepts and envisioned prospects for selected applications. As the main focus, this new book explores exciting and diverse application possibilities, with emphasis on those uniquely enabled by the laser driver that can also be meaningful and realistic for potential users. A key aim of the book is to inform multiple, interdisciplinary research communities of the new possibilities available and to inspire them to engage with laser-driven acceleration, further motivating and advancing this developing field. Material is presented in a thorough yet accessible manner, making it a valuable reference text for general scientific and engineering researchers who are not necessarily subject matter experts. Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration is edited by Professors Paul R. Bolton, Katia ...
Current-driven turbulence in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kluiver, H. de.
1977-10-01
Research on plasma heating in linear and toroidal systems using current-driven turbulence is reviewed. The motivation for this research is presented. Relations between parameters describing the turbulent plasma state and macroscopic observables are given. Several linear and toroidal devices used in current-driven turbulence studies are described, followed by a discussion of special diagnostic methods used. Experimental results on the measurement of electron and ion heating, anomalous plasma conductivity and associated turbulent fluctuation spectra are reviewed. Theories on current-driven turbulence are discussed and compared with experiments. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that current-driven turbulence occurs not only for extreme values of the electric field but also for an experimentally much more accessible and wide range of parameters. This forms a basis for a discussion on possible future applications in fusion-oriented plasma research
Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...
Consistent data-driven computational mechanics
González, D.; Chinesta, F.; Cueto, E.
2018-05-01
We present a novel method, within the realm of data-driven computational mechanics, to obtain reliable and thermodynamically sound simulation from experimental data. We thus avoid the need to fit any phenomenological model in the construction of the simulation model. This kind of techniques opens unprecedented possibilities in the framework of data-driven application systems and, particularly, in the paradigm of industry 4.0.
Comments to accelerator-driven system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taka aki, Matsumoto
2003-01-01
Accelerator-driven system (ADS) that was a subcritical nuclear reactor driven by a high power proton accelerator was recently studied by several large organisations over the world. This paper described two comments for ADS: philosophical and technological ones. The latter was made from a view point of micro ball lightning (BL) that was newly discovered by the author. Negative and positive aspects of micro BL for ADS were discussed. (author)
Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.
Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan
2014-06-24
Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.
Kinetics of vein graft hyperplasia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwolak, R.M.; Adams, M.C.; Clowes, A.W.
1986-01-01
Human aortocoronary vein grafts fail due to accelerated occlusive disease. The possibility that this is related to cellular hyperplasia was investigated in a rabbit model where kinetics of vein graft thickening, endothelial (EC) repair, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were measured from 2 days to 24 weeks after implanting jugular vein segments in the carotid artery. Immediately after graft placement focal EC denudation was observed. These defects were repaired within 1 week and did not recur. By 4 weeks intimal area had increased 30 fold from 0.028 +/- 0.004 to 0.705 +/- 0.021 mm 2 , and a 24 weeks was 0.93 +/- 0.21 mm 2 . This response did not produce a reduction in graft lumen area. EC and SMC thymidine-labeling index were measured by en face and cross-section autoradiography after injection of 3 H-thymidine and perfusion fixation. Despite rapid EC surface repair EC labeling index remained elevated and only returned to normal levels at 12 weeks; SMC labeling was 10 fold greater than baseline even at 24 weeks (0.22% vs 0.02%). SMC mass demonstrated morphometrically increased between 2 and 12 weeks. Intimal thickening in vein grafts is due to SMC proliferation and develops after the EC layer has been restored. In contrast, intimal SMC proliferate in damaged arteries when the EC layer is absent and cease when the EC layer is regenerated
Variational methods in the kinetic modeling of nuclear reactors: Recent advances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dulla, S.; Picca, P.; Ravetto, P.
2009-01-01
The variational approach can be very useful in the study of approximate methods, giving a sound mathematical background to numerical algorithms and computational techniques. The variational approach has been applied to nuclear reactor kinetic equations, to obtain a formulation of standard methods such as point kinetics and quasi-statics. more recently, the multipoint method has also been proposed for the efficient simulation of space-energy transients in nuclear reactors and in source-driven subcritical systems. The method is now founded on a variational basis that allows a consistent definition of integral parameters. The mathematical structure of multipoint and modal methods is also investigated, evidencing merits and shortcomings of both techniques. Some numerical results for simple systems are presented and the errors with respect to reference calculations are reported and discussed. (authors)
Azo compound degradation kinetics and halonitromethane formation kinetics during chlorination.
Fu, Jing; Wang, Xiaomao; Bai, Weiliang; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F
2017-05-01
The chlorination of azo compounds can produce halonitromethanes (HNMs), which have attracted increasing concern due to their high genotoxicity. By impacting the speciation of chlorine and azo compounds, pH impacts apparent second-order rate constants of Methyl Orange (MO, 27.5-1.4 × 10 3 M -1 s -1 ), Acid Orange II (AO, 16.7-99.3 M -1 s -1 ), and Acid Red 1 (AR 1, 3.7-72.5 M -1 s -1 ) (pH range 6.3-9.0). The two-compartment first-order model successfully described the chloropicrin (TCNM) formation kinetics, suggesting that both fast- and slow-reacting precursors of TCNM are generated from the chlorination of azo compounds. The ratios between fast and slow formation rate constants for MO and AO were 15.6-5.4 × 10 2 , while that of AR 1 was 9.8-19.4 (pH range 6.5-9.0). The fraction of the fast-reacting TCNM precursors decreased with increasing pH for MO and AO; while that for AR 1 decreased when pH increased from 6.5 to 8.0, and then increased when pH increased from 8.0 to 9.0. The impact of pH on TCNM formation was also precursor-specific. The highest molar yields of TCNM predicted from the model in this study were 2.4%, 2.5%, and 1.5% for MO, AO, and AR 1, respectively. The study demonstrates that azo compounds are important HNM precursors, and pose a potential threat to drinking water safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiangrong; Wang, Kaiwei; Peng, Yanru
2018-04-25
The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is a topic of high relevance for the medical application of nanomaterials. In the study, a comprehensive investigation was performed for the binding properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to pepsin. The results indicate that the binding of AgNPs to pepsin may be a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that AgNPs binds to pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy shows that AgNPs may induce microenvironmental changes of pepsin. The hydrophobicity of Trp is increased while the hydrophility of Tyr is increased. The adsorption of pepsin on AgNPs was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, suggesting that the equilibrium adsorption data fit well with Freundlich model. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. The results indicate that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation better describes the adsorption kinetics. The study provides an accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanism, adsorption isotherms and kinetic behaviors of AgNPs with pepsin. These fundamental works will provide some new insights into the safe and effective application of AgNPs in biological and medical areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Balance of liquid-phase turbulence kinetic energy equation for bubble-train flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilic, Milica; Woerner, Martin; Cacuci, Dan Gabriel
2004-01-01
In this paper the investigation of bubble-induced turbulence using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of bubbly two-phase flow is reported. DNS computations are performed for a bubble-driven liquid motion induced by a regular train of ellipsoidal bubbles rising through an initially stagnant liquid within a plane vertical channel. DNS data are used to evaluate balance terms in the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy. The evaluation comprises single-phase-like terms (diffusion, dissipation and production) as well as the interfacial term. Special emphasis is placed on the procedure for evaluation of interfacial quantities. Quantitative analysis of the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy shows the importance of the interfacial term which is the only source term. The DNS results are further used to validate closure assumptions employed in modelling of the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy transport in gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this context, the performance of respective closure relations in the transport equation for liquid turbulence kinetic energy within the two-phase k-ε and the two-phase k-l model is evaluated. (author)
Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion
Mohamed, Samah Y.
2015-03-30
Accurate chemical kinetic combustion models of lightly branched alkanes (e.g., 2-methylalkanes) are important for investigating the combustion behavior of diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuels. Improving the fidelity of existing kinetic models is a necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values and rate rules. These update provides a better agreement with rapid compression machine measurements of ignition delay time, while also strengthening the fundamental basis of the model.
Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control
Oka, Yoshiaki
2013-01-01
Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit
Research in chemical kinetics, v.2
1994-01-01
This is the second volume in a new series, which aims to publish authoritative review articles on a wide range of exciting and contemporary topics in gas and condensed phase kinetics. Research in Chemical Kinetics complements the acclaimed series Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, and is edited by the same team of professionals. The reviews contained in this volume are concise, topical accounts of specific research written by acknowledged experts. The authors summarize their latest work and place it in a general context. Particular strengths of the volume are the quality of the c
Isoconversional kinetics of thermally stimulated processes
Vyazovkin, Sergey
2015-01-01
The use of isoconversional kinetic methods for analysis of thermogravimetric and calorimetric data on thermally stimulated processes is quickly growing in popularity. The purpose of this book is to create the first comprehensive resource on the theory and applications of isoconversional methodology. The book introduces the reader to the kinetics of physical and chemical condensed phase processes that occur as a result of changing temperature and discusses how isoconversional analysis can provide important kinetic insights into them. The book will help the readers to develop a better understanding of the methodology, and promote its efficient usage and successful development.
Research in Chemical Kinetics, v.3
2012-01-01
This series of volumes aims to publish authoritative review articles on a wide range of exciting and contemporary topics in gas and condensed phase kinetics. Research in Chemical Kinetics complements the acclaimed series Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, and is edited by the same team of professionals. The reviews contained in this volume are concise, topical accounts of specific research written by acknowledged experts. The authors summarize their latest work and place it in a general context. Particular strengths of the volume are the quality of the contributions and their top
Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others
1995-12-31
The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.
Kinetic studies of anomalous transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.
1990-11-01
Progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems has come in large part from investigations based on the proposition that low frequency electrostatic microinstabilities are dominant in the bulk (''confinement'') region of these plasmas. Although the presence here of drift-type modes dependent on trapped particle and ion temperature gradient driven effects appears to be consistent with a number of important observed confinement trends, conventional estimates for these instabilities cannot account for the strong current (I p ) and /or q-scaling frequently found in empirically deduced global energy confinement times for auxiliary-heated discharges. The present paper deals with both linear and nonlinear physics features, ignored in simpler estimates, which could introduce an appreciable local dependence on current. It is also pointed out that while the thermal flux characteristics of drift modes have justifiably been the focus of experimental studies assessing their relevance, other transport properties associated with these microinstabilities should additionally be examined. Accordingly, the present paper provides estimates and discusses the significance of anomalous energy exchange between ions and electrons when fluctuations are present. 19 refs., 3 figs
Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics.
Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K
2014-08-07
Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions.
Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K
2014-01-01
Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH 3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions. (paper)
Coupling the photon kinetics of soft photons with high energy photons
Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.
2017-10-01
The description of electromagnetic fields based on the generalized photon kinetic theory, which takes advantage of the Wigner-Moyal description for the corresponding classical field theory, is capable of capturing collective plasma dynamics in the relativistic regime driven by broadband incoherent or partially coherent sources. We explore the possibility to extend this description to include the dynamics of hard photons in the plasma, whose interaction is dominated by single scattering processes. Examples of the modification of classical plasma instabilities due to the presence of hard photons is discussed. Work supported by the European Research Council (ERC-AdG-2015 InPairs Grant No. 695088).
Construction of a kinetics model for liquid-solid transitions built from atomistic simulations
Benedict, Lorin; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis; Haxhimali, Tomorr; Hamel, Sebastien; Sadigh, Babak; Chernov, Alexander; Belof, Jonathan
We discuss work in progress towards a kinetics model for dynamically-driven liquid-solid transitions built from MD simulations. The growth of solid particles within a liquid is studied for a range of conditions, and careful attention is paid to the construction of an accurate multi-phase (equilibrium) equation of state for the system under consideration, in order to provide a framework upon which the non-equilibrium physics is based. His work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.
252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.
1985-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily detemined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments oriented toward particular applications including dynamic experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables
Neutron Generation by Laser-Driven Spherically Convergent Plasma Fusion
Ren, G.; Yan, J.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Chen, Y. H.; Huo, W. Y.; Fan, Z.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, J.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, W.; Chen, L.; Tang, Q.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, F.; Jiang, S.; Ding, Y.; Zhang, W.; He, X. T.
2017-04-01
We investigate a new laser-driven spherically convergent plasma fusion scheme (SCPF) that can produce thermonuclear neutrons stably and efficiently. In the SCPF scheme, laser beams of nanosecond pulse duration and 1 014- 1 015 W /cm2 intensity uniformly irradiate the fuel layer lined inside a spherical hohlraum. The fuel layer is ablated and heated to expand inwards. Eventually, the hot fuel plasmas converge, collide, merge, and stagnate at the central region, converting most of their kinetic energy to internal energy, forming a thermonuclear fusion fireball. With the assumptions of steady ablation and adiabatic expansion, we theoretically predict the neutron yield Yn to be related to the laser energy EL, the hohlraum radius Rh, and the pulse duration τ through a scaling law of Yn∝(EL/Rh1.2τ0.2 )2.5. We have done experiments at the ShengGuangIII-prototype facility to demonstrate the principle of the SCPF scheme. Some important implications are discussed.
High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2017-01-01
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.
Progress in antenna coupled kinetic inductance detectors
Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Freni, A.; Gerini, G.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Iacono, A.; Neto, A.
2011-01-01
This paper describes the combined Dutch efforts toward the development of large wideband focal plane array receivers based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). Taking into account strict electromagnetic and detector sensitivity requirements for future ground and space based observatories, this
A mathematical model for iodine kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, E.A.T. da.
1976-01-01
A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt
Kinetic Study of Curcumin on Modal Fabric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abu Naser Md. Ahsanul Haque
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A kinetic study of curcumin on modal fabric was carried out using an initial dye concentration of 1 g/L at three different temperatures, 70 °C, 85 °C and 100 °C, at pH 7 and an material to liquor ratio of 1:20. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics were applied, and it was found that the adsorption kinetics of curcumin on modal fabric matched the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The activation energy was found to be equal to 71.14 kJ/mol, while the enthalpy and entropy of activation were 68.16 kJ/mol and –66.02 J/molK respectively.
Kinetic Model of Growth of Arthropoda Populations
Ershov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, M. A.
2018-05-01
Kinetic equations were derived for calculating the growth of crustacean populations ( Crustacea) based on the biological growth model suggested earlier using shrimp ( Caridea) populations as an example. The development cycle of successive stages for populations can be represented in the form of quasi-chemical equations. The kinetic equations that describe the development cycle of crustaceans allow quantitative prediction of the development of populations depending on conditions. In contrast to extrapolation-simulation models, in the developed kinetic model of biological growth the kinetic parameters are the experimental characteristics of population growth. Verification and parametric identification of the developed model on the basis of the experimental data showed agreement with experiment within the error of the measurement technique.
Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of epichlorohydrin by crude epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver. X Ling, D Lu, J Wang, J Chen, L Ding, J Chen, H Chai, P Ouyang ...
Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion
Mohamed, Samah Y.; Sarathy, Mani
2015-01-01
necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values
Kinetics of oxidic phase dissolution in acids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorichev, I.G.; Kipriyanov, N.A.
1981-01-01
The critical analysis of the experimental data on dissolution kinetics of metal oxides (BeO, V 2 O 5 , UO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 etc.) in acid media is carried out. Kinetic peculiarities of oxide dissolution are explained on the basis of the notions of electron- proton theory. It is established that the surface nonstoichiometric ccomposition of oxide phase and potential jump, appearing on the interface of the oxide-electrolyte phase are the important factors, determining the dissolution rate of a solid phase. The dissolution rate of metal oxides is limited by the transition of protons into the solid oxide phase. Morphological models of heterogeneous kinetics are used when explaining kinetic regularities of oxide dissolution process [ru
Thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
with respect to the rate determining step and the thermodynamic quantities with respect to the equilibrium steps were evaluated and ... are, (1) to establish a rate law through kinetic measure- ments, (2) to ..... second and third equilibrium steps.
Kinetic Theory of the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma
Khazanov, George V
2011-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction to the kinetic theory of space plasma physics with the major focus on the inner magnetospheric plasma. It is designed to provide a comprehensive description of the different kinds of transport equations for both plasma particles and waves with an emphasis on the applicability and limitations of each set of equations. The major topics are: Kinetic Theory of Superthermal Electrons, Kinetic Foundation of the Hydrodynamic Description of Space Plasmas (including wave-particle interaction processes), and Kinetic Theory of the Terrestrial Ring Current. Distinguishable features of this book are the analytical solutions of simplified transport equations. Approximate analytic solutions of transport phenomena are very useful because they help us gain physical insight into how the system responds to varying sources of mass, momentum and energy and also to various external boundary conditions. They also provide us a convenient method to test the validity of complicated numerical mod...
Plasma heating by kinetic Alfven wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assis, A.S. de.
1982-01-01
The heating of a nonuniform plasma (electron-ion) due to the resonant excitation of the shear Alfven wave in the low β regime is studied using initially the ideal MHD model and posteriorly using the kinetic model. The Vlasov equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons have been used. Through the ideal MHD model, it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to the continuous spectrum (phase mixing) which the shear Alfven wave has in a nonuniform plasma. An explicit expression for the energy absorption is derived. Through the kinetic model it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to a resonant mode convertion of the incident wave into the kinetic Alfven wave which propagates away from the resonant region. Its electron Landau damping has been observed. There has been a concordance with the MHD calculations. (Author) [pt
Kinetics from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Stelzl, Lukas S; Hummer, Gerhard
2017-08-08
Transitions between metastable states govern many fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology, from nucleation events in phase transitions to the folding of proteins. The free energy surfaces underlying these processes can be obtained from simulations using enhanced sampling methods. However, their altered dynamics makes kinetic and mechanistic information difficult or impossible to extract. Here, we show that, with replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), one can not only sample equilibrium properties but also extract kinetic information. For systems that strictly obey first-order kinetics, the procedure to extract rates is rigorous. For actual molecular systems whose long-time dynamics are captured by kinetic rate models, accurate rate coefficients can be determined from the statistics of the transitions between the metastable states at each replica temperature. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the procedure by constructing master equation (Markov state) models of peptide and RNA folding from REMD simulations.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics
Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino
2016-01-01
Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...
Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.
Lorsch, Jon R
2014-01-01
Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelman, S.A.
1986-01-01
Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics which have emerged from a recent rigorous statistical mechanical treatment of condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics (S.A. Adelman, Adv. Chem. Phys.53:61 (1983)) are discussed in simple physical terms
MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2009-01-01
The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.......g. changing external climate factors, in order to improve the indoor climate performance of the building. The derivation of equations of motion for such spatial mechanical systems is a challenging issue in scientific community. However, with new symbolic tools one can automatically derive equations in so......-called multibody system (MBS) formalism. The present paper considers MBS modeling of kinetic architectural structures using the software packages ADAMS. As a result, it is found that symbolic MBS simulation tools facilitate a useful evaluation environment for MBS users during a design phase of responsive kinetic...
High fidelity kinetic modeling of magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasma
Stanier, A.; Daughton, W. S.
2017-12-01
Over the past decade, a great deal of progress has been made towards understanding the physics of magnetic reconnection in weakly collisional regimes of relevance to both fusion devices, and to space and astrophysical plasmas. However, there remain some outstanding unsolved problems in reconnection physics, such as the generation and influence of plasmoids (flux ropes) within reconnection layers, the development of magnetic turbulence, the role of current driven and streaming instabilities, and the influence of electron pressure anisotropy on the layer structure. Due to the importance of these questions, new laboratory reconnection experiments are being built to allow controlled and reproducible study of such questions with the simultaneous acquisition of high time resolution measurements at a large number of spatial points. These experiments include the FLARE facility at Princeton University and the T-REX experiment at the University of Wisconsin. To guide and interpret these new experiments, and to extrapolate the results to space applications, new investments in kinetic modeling tools are required. We have recently developed a cylindrical version of the VPIC Particle-In-Cell code with the capability to perform first-principles kinetic simulations that approach experimental device size with more realistic geometry and drive coils. This cylindrical version inherits much of the optimization work that has been done recently for the next generation many-cores architectures with wider vector registers, and achieves comparable conservation properties as the Cartesian code. Namely it features exact discrete charge conservation, and a so-called "energy-conserving" scheme where the energy is conserved in the limit of continuous time, i.e. without contribution from spatial discretization (Lewis, 1970). We will present initial results of modeling magnetic reconnection in the experiments mentioned above. Since the VPIC code is open source (https
Thermal physics kinetic theory and thermodynamics
Singh, Devraj; Yadav, Raja Ram
2016-01-01
THERMAL PHYSICS: Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics is designed for undergraduate course in Thermal Physics and Thermodynamics. The book provides thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of the concepts in Thermal Physics. The book begins with kinetic theory, then moves on liquefaction, transport phenomena, the zeroth, first, second and third laws, thermodynamics relations and thermal conduction. The book concluded with radiation phenomenon. KEY FEATURES: * Include exercises * Short Answer Type Questions * Long Answer Type Questions * Numerical Problems * Multiple Choice Questions
NLTE4 Plasma Population Kinetics Database
SRD 159 NLTE4 Plasma Population Kinetics Database (Web database for purchase) This database contains benchmark results for simulation of plasma population kinetics and emission spectra. The data were contributed by the participants of the 4th Non-LTE Code Comparison Workshop who have unrestricted access to the database. The only limitation for other users is in hidden labeling of the output results. Guest users can proceed to the database entry page without entering userid and password.
Hamiltonian kinetic theory of plasma ponderomotive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.
1982-01-01
The nonlinear nonresonant interaction of plasma waves and particles is formulated in Hamiltonian kinetic theory which treats the wave-action and particle distributions on an equal footing, thereby displaying reciprocity relations. In the quasistatic limit, a nonlinear wave-kinetic equation is obtained. The generality of the formalism allows for applications to arbitrary geometry, with the nonlinear effects expressed in terms of the linear susceptibility
Thermal decomposition kinetics of ammonium uranyl carbonate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, E.H.; Park, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, I.S.; Choi, C.S.; Kim, S.D.
1994-01-01
The thermal decomposition kinetics of AUC [ammonium uranyl carbonate; (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 [ in an isothermal thermogravimetric (TG) reactor under N 2 atmosphere has been determined. The kinetic data can be represented by the two-dimensional nucleation and growth model. The reaction rate increases and activation energy decreases with increasing particle size and precipitation time which appears in the particle size larger than 30 μm in the mechano-chemical phenomena. (orig.)
Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics
2016-03-25
3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/23/15 - 04/22/16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction...Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith
Hamiltonian kinetic theory of plasma ponderomotive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.
1981-12-01
The nonlinear nonresonant interaction of plasma waves and particles is formulated in a Hamiltonian kinetic theory which treats the wave-action and particle distributions on an equal footing, thereby displaying reciprocity relations. In the quasistatic limit, a nonlinear wave-kinetic equation is obtained. The generality of the formalism allows for applications to arbitrary geometry, with the nonlinear effects expressed in terms of the linear susceptibility
Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.
1981-12-01
Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction
Spatial neutron kinetic module of ROSA code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherezov, A.L.; Shchukin, N.V.
2009-01-01
A spatial neutron kinetic module was developed for computer code ROSA. The paper describes a numerical scheme used in the module for resolving neutron kinetic equations. Analytical integration for delayed neutrons emitters method and direct numerical integration method (Gear's method) were analyzed. The two methods were compared on their efficiency and accuracy. Both methods were verified with test problems. The results obtained in the verification studies were presented [ru
Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dienes, K.R.; Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.
1997-01-01
The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)
Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: wbzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)
2014-01-14
RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.
Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J Hankins
Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.
Variational estimates of point-kinetics parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.
1995-01-01
Variational estimates of the effect of flux shifts on the integral reactivity parameter of the point-kinetics equations and on regional power fractions were calculated for a variety of localized perturbations in two light water reactor (LWR) model problems representing a small, tightly coupled core and a large, loosely coupled core. For the small core, the flux shifts resulting from even relatively large localized reactivity changes (∼600 pcm) were small, and the standard point-kinetics approximation estimates of reactivity were in error by only ∼10% or less, while the variational estimates were accurate to within ∼1%. For the larger core, significant (>50%) flux shifts occurred in response to local perturbations, leading to errors of the same magnitude in the standard point-kinetics approximation of the reactivity worth. For positive reactivity, the error in the variational estimate of reactivity was only a few percent in the larger core, and the resulting transient power prediction was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more accurate than with the standard point-kinetics approximation. For a large, local negative reactivity insertion resulting in a large flux shift, the accuracy of the variational estimate broke down. The variational estimate of the effect of flux shifts on reactivity in point-kinetics calculations of transients in LWR cores was found to generally result in greatly improved accuracy, relative to the standard point-kinetics approximation, the exception being for large negative reactivity insertions with large flux shifts in large, loosely coupled cores
Fission-induced recrystallization effect on intergranular bubble-driven swelling in U-Mo fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, Linyun; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Yacout, Abdellatif M.
2017-10-01
We have developed a mesoscale phase-field model for studying the effect of recrystallization on the gas-bubble-driven swelling in irradiated U-Mo alloy fuel. The model can simulate the microstructural evolution of the intergranular gas bubbles on the grain boundaries as well as the recrystallization process. Our simulation results show that the intergranular gas-bubble-induced fuel swelling exhibits two stages: slow swelling kinetics before recrystallization and rapid swelling kinetics with recrystallization. We observe that the recrystallization can significantly expedite the formation and growth of gas bubbles at high fission densities. The reason is that the recrystallization process increases the nucleation probability of gas bubbles and reduces the diffusion time of fission gases from grain interior to grain boundaries by increasing the grain boundary area and decreasing the diffusion distance. The simulated gas bubble shape, size distribution, and density on the grain boundaries are consistent with experimental measurements. We investigate the effect of the recrystallization on the gas-bubble-driven fuel swelling in UMo through varying the initial grain size and grain aspect ratio. We conclude that the initial microstructure of fuel, such as grain size and grain aspect ratio, can be used to effectively control the recrystallization and therefore reduce the swelling in U-Mo fuel.
Current Driven Instabilities and Anomalous Mobility in Hall-effect Thrusters
Tran, Jonathan; Eckhardt, Daniel; Martin, Robert
2017-10-01
Due to the extreme cost of fully resolving the Debye length and plasma frequency, hybrid plasma simulations utilizing kinetic ions and quasi-steady state fluid electrons have long been the principle workhorse methodology for Hall-effect thruster (HET) modeling. Plasma turbulence and the resulting anomalous electron transport in HETs is a promising candidate for developing predictive models for the observed anomalous transport. In this work, we investigate the implementation of an anomalous electron cross field transport model for hybrid HET simulations such a HPHall. A theory for anomalous transport in HETs and current driven instabilities has been recently studied by Lafleur et al. This work has shown collective electron-wave scattering due to large amplitude azimuthal fluctuations of the electric field. We will further adapt the previous results for related current driven instabilities to electric propulsion relevant mass ratios and conduct a preliminary study of resolving this instability with a modified hybrid (fluid electron and kinetic ion) simulation with the hope of integration with established hybrid HET simulations. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research award FA9950-17RQCOR465.
The interaction between stimulus-driven and goal-driven orienting as revealed by eye movements
Schreij, D.B.B.; Los, S.A.; Theeuwes, J.; Enns, J.T.; Olivers, C.N.L.
2014-01-01
It is generally agreed that attention can be captured in a stimulus-driven or in a goal-driven fashion. In studies that investigated both types of capture, the effects on mean manual response time (reaction time [RT]) are generally additive, suggesting two independent underlying processes. However,
Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts
Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang
2017-05-01
Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.
Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.
1979-01-01
Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.
Thermal dehydration kinetics of phosphogypsum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
López, F. A.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Phsophogypsum is a by-product from the processing phosphate rock. Before the use of it in cement industry such as setting regulator is necessary a study of dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum to avoid the false setting during the milling. The aim is to study the thermal behavior of two different phosphogypsum sources (Spain and Tunisia under non-isothermal conditions in argon atmosphere by using Thermo-Gravimetriy, Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. DSC experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from ambient to 350 °C at different heating rates. The temperatures of conversion from gypsum to hemihydrate and anhydrite states and heat of dehydration were determined. Various methods were used to analyze the DSC data for reaction kinetics determination. The activation energy and frequency factor were calculated for dehydration of phosphogypsum. Activation energy values of the main dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum were calculated to be approximately 61–118 kJ/mol.El fosfoyeso es un subproducto procedente del procesado de la roca fosfato. Una de las posibles vías de reutilización y revalorización es su uso como regulador del fraguado en la industria cementera. Debido a los posibles problemas de falso fraguado asociado a los procesos de deshidratación que tienen lugar durante la molienda del cemento, esta investigación estudió el comportamiento térmico, bajo condiciones no-isotérmicas en atmósfera de argón, de dos fosfoyesos, mediante TG-DTA y DSC. Los ensayos de DSC se realizaron hasta los 350 °C a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento. La temperatura de conversión del yeso a las formas de hemihidrato y anhidrita y el calor de hidratación fueron determinados. Las cinéticas de reacción fueron obtenidas analizando los datos de DSC mediante varios métodos. Se calculó la energía de activación y el factor de frecuencia para las reacciones de deshidratación del
Molecular dynamics for irradiation driven chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2016-01-01
A new molecular dynamics (MD) approach for computer simulations of irradiation driven chemical transformations of complex molecular systems is suggested. The approach is based on the fact that irradiation induced quantum transformations can often be treated as random, fast and local processes...... that describe the classical MD of complex molecular systems under irradiation. The proposed irradiation driven molecular dynamics (IDMD) methodology is designed for the molecular level description of the irradiation driven chemistry. The IDMD approach is implemented into the MBN Explorer software package...... involving small molecules or molecular fragments. We advocate that the quantum transformations, such as molecular bond breaks, creation and annihilation of dangling bonds, electronic charge redistributions, changes in molecular topologies, etc., could be incorporated locally into the molecular force fields...
Equilibrium of current driven rotating liquid metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Zakharov, S.V.; Zakharov, V.S.; Livadny, A.O.; Serebrennikov, K.S.
2006-01-01
In view of great importance of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) as a fundamental mechanism for angular momentum transfer in magnetized stellar accretion disks, several research centers are involved in experimental study of MRI under laboratory conditions. The idea of the experiment is to investigate the rotation dynamics of well conducting liquid (liquid metal) between two cylinders in axial magnetic field. In this Letter, an experimental scheme with immovable cylinders and fluid rotation driven by radial current is considered. The analytical solution of a stationary flow was found taking into account the external current. Results of axially symmetric numerical simulations of current driven fluid dynamics in experimental setup geometry are presented. The analytical solution and numerical simulations show that the current driven fluid rotation in axial magnetic field provides the axially homogeneous velocity profile suitable for MRI study in classical statement
Taylor dispersion in wind-driven current
Li, Gang; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Li; Li, Zhi; Chen, G. Q.
2017-12-01
Taylor dispersion associated with wind-driven currents in channels, shallow lakes and estuaries is essential to hydrological environmental management. For solute dispersion in a wind-driven current, presented in this paper is an analytical study of the evolution of concentration distribution. The concentration moments are intensively derived for an accurate presentation of the mean concentration distribution, up to the effect of kurtosis. The vertical divergence of concentration is then deduced by Gill's method of series expansion up to the fourth order. Based on the temporal evolution of the vertical concentration distribution, the dispersion process in the wind-driven current is concretely characterized. The uniform shear leads to a special symmetrical distribution of mean concentration free of skewness. The non-uniformity of vertical concentration is caused by convection and smeared out gradually by the effect of diffusion, but fails to disappear even at large times.
Test-driven modeling of embedded systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan
2015-01-01
To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases...... suggest that our method provides a sound foundation for rapid development of high quality system models....
Proposal of laser-driven automobile
Yabe, Takashi; Oozono, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kazumoto; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Miyazaki, Sho; Uchida, Shigeaki; Baasandash, Choijil
2004-09-01
We propose an automobile driven by piston motion, which is driven by water-laser coupling. The automobile can load a solar-pumped fiber laser or can be driven by ground-based lasers. The vehicle is much useful for the use in other planet in which usual combustion engine cannot be used. The piston is in a closed system and then the water will not be exhausted into vacuum. In the preliminary experiment, we succeeded to drive the cylindrical piston of 0.2g (6mm in diameter) on top of water placed inside the acrylic pipe of 8 mm in inner diameter and the laser is incident from the bottom and focused onto the upper part of water by the lens (f=8mm) attached to the bottom edge.
Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering
Parreiras, Fernando S
2012-01-01
The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se
Measurement of beam driven hydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norem, J.; Black, E.; Bandura, L.; Errede, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.
2003-01-01
Cooling intense muon beams in liquid hydrogen absorbers introduces kW of heating to the cold fluid, which will drive turbulent flow. The amount of turbulence may be sufficient to help cool the liquid, but calculations are difficult. We have used a 20 MeV electron beam in a water tank to look at the scale of the beam driven convection and turbulence. The density and flow measurements are made with schlieren and Ronchi systems. We describe the optical systems and the turbulence measured. These data are being used to calibrate hydrodynamic calculations of convection driven and forced flow cooling in muon cooling absorbers
User-driven innovation in tourism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Nordin, Sara
2011-01-01
This literature study reviews user-driven innovation and establishes a typology of its forms in a tourism context. Sixteen methods are distinguishable. They comprise situations where users are actively involved and methods where information is collected without direct user involvement. The nature...... and intensity of the dialogue between companies and their customers are addressed. Drawing on this existing research, the article concludes that there is still little comprehensive follow-up on user-driven innovation in tourism and its impact on quality improvements and assurance. Key areas for future studies...
Test and Behaviour Driven Development with Python
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Experience has taught us that bugs are impossible to avoid when programming. Specially on continuous delivery processes where there are new versions that refactor or incorporate new modules to the project. Although, there are different tools which help us to ensure code quality by enabling developers to catch bugs while still in the development stage. In this talk, I will talk about Test-driven development(TDD) and Behaviour-Driven development (BDD) methodologies focused on web development. Also, I will present an overview of unit testing tools as Selenium or Behave, which help us to produce working software, with fewer bugs, quickly and consistently.
Patient safety and technology-driven medication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Orbæk, Janne; Gaard, Mette; Keinicke Fabricius, Pia
2015-01-01
ways of educating nursing students in today's medication administration. AIM: To explore nursing students' experiences and competences with the technology-driven medication administration process. METHODS: 16 pre-graduate nursing students were included in two focus group interviews which were recorded...... for the technology-driven medication process, nursing students face difficulties in identifying and adopting best practices. The impact of using technology on the frequency, type and severity of medication errors; the technologies implications on nursing professionalism and the nurses ability to secure patient...
Test-driven development with Mockito
Acharya, Sujoy
2013-01-01
This book is a hands-on guide, full of practical examples to illustrate the concepts of Test Driven Development.If you are a developer who wants to develop software following Test Driven Development using Mockito and leveraging various Mockito features, this book is ideal for you. You don't need prior knowledge of TDD, Mockito, or JUnit.It is ideal for developers, who have some experience in Java application development as well as a basic knowledge of unit testing, but it covers the basic fundamentals of TDD and JUnit testing to get you acquainted with these concepts before delving into them.
Investigation toward laser driven IFE power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakai, S.; Kozaki, Y.; Izawa, Y.
2001-01-01
Inertial fusion energy (IFE) is becoming feasible due to the increasing understanding of implosion physics. Reactor technology issues have begun to be developed. Based on the conceptual design of Laser Driven IFE Power Plant, the technical and physical issues have been examined. R and D on key issues that affect the feasibility of power plant have been proceeded taking into account the collaboration in the field of laser driver, fuel pellet, reaction chamber and system design. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of IFE power plant seems to be reasonably high. Coordination and collaboration scheme of reactor technology experts in Japan on Laser Driven IFE Power Plant is being proceeded. (author)
Thermodynamics of Micro- and Nano-Systems Driven by Periodic Temperature Variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kay Brandner
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce a general framework for analyzing the thermodynamics of small systems that are driven by both a periodic temperature variation and some external parameter modulating their energy. This setup covers, in particular, periodic micro- and nano-heat engines. In a first step, we show how to express total entropy production by properly identified time-independent affinities and currents without making a linear response assumption. In linear response, kinetic coefficients akin to Onsager coefficients can be identified. Specializing to a Fokker-Planck-type dynamics, we show that these coefficients can be expressed as a sum of an adiabatic contribution and one reminiscent of a Green-Kubo expression that contains deviations from adiabaticity. Furthermore, we show that the generalized kinetic coefficients fulfill an Onsager-Casimir-type symmetry tracing back to microscopic reversibility. This symmetry allows for nonidentical off-diagonal coefficients if the driving protocols are not symmetric under time reversal. We then derive a novel constraint on the kinetic coefficients that is sharper than the second law and provides an efficiency-dependent bound on power. As one consequence, we can prove that the power vanishes at least linearly when approaching Carnot efficiency. We illustrate our general framework by explicitly working out the paradigmatic case of a Brownian heat engine realized by a colloidal particle in a time-dependent harmonic trap subject to a periodic temperature profile. This case study reveals inter alia that our new general bound on power is asymptotically tight.
Sheared electric field-induced suppression of edge turbulence using externally driven R.F. waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craddock, G.G.; Diamond, P.H.
1991-01-01
Here the authors propose a novel method for active control and suppression of edge turbulence by sheared ExB flows driven by externally launched RF waves. The theory developed addresses the problem of open-quotes flow driveclose quotes, which is somewhat analogous to the problem of plasma current drive. As originally demonstrated for the case of spontaneously driven flows, a net difference in the gradient of the fluid and magnetic Reynolds' stresses produced by radially propagating waves can drive the plasma flow. For the prototypical case of the Alfven wave flow drive considered here, ρ 0 r v θ > - r B θ > is proportional to k perpendicular 2 ρ s 2 in the case of the kinetic Alfven wave, and [(ηk perpendicular 2 -vk perpendicular 2 )/ω] 2 in the case of resistive MHD. Both results reflect the dependence of flow drive on the net stress imbalance. The shear layer width is determined by the waves evanescence length (determined by dissipation) that sets the stress gradient scale length, while the direction of the flow is determined by the poloidal orientation of the launched waves. In particular, it should be noted that both positive and negative E r may be driven, so that enhanced confinement need not be accompanied by impurity accumulation, as commonly encountered in spontaneous H-modes. The efficiency is determined by the criterion that the radial electric field shear be large enough to suppress turbulence. For typical TEXT parameters, and unity efficiency, 300 kW of absorbed power is needed to suppress turbulence over 3 cm radially. For DIII-D, 300 kW over 4 cm is needed. Also, direct transport losses induced by RF have been shown to be small. Extensions of the theory to ICRF are underway and are discussed. They also discuss the analogous problem of current drive using kinetic Alfven waves. 2 refs
Stochastic theory of interfacial enzyme kinetics: A kinetic Monte Carlo study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: Stochastic theory of interfacial enzyme kinetics is formulated. Numerical results of macroscopic phenomenon of lag-burst kinetics is obtained by using a kinetic Monte Carlo approach to single enzyme activity. Highlights: ► An enzyme is attached with the fluid state phospholipid molecules on the Langmuir monolayer. ► Through the diffusion, the enzyme molecule reaches the gel–fluid interface. ► After hydrolysing a phospholipid molecule it predominantly leaves the surface in the lag phase. ► The enzyme is strictly attached to the surface with scooting mode of motion and the burst phase appears. - Abstract: In the spirit of Gillespie’s stochastic approach we have formulated a theory to explore the advancement of the interfacial enzyme kinetics at the single enzyme level which is ultimately utilized to obtain the ensemble average macroscopic feature, lag-burst kinetics. We have provided a theory of the transition from the lag phase to the burst phase kinetics by considering the gradual development of electrostatic interaction among the positively charged enzyme and negatively charged product molecules deposited on the phospholipid surface. It is shown that the different diffusion time scales of the enzyme over the fluid and product regions are responsible for the memory effect in the correlation of successive turnover events of the hopping mode in the single trajectory analysis which again is reflected on the non-Gaussian distribution of turnover times on the macroscopic kinetics in the lag phase unlike the burst phase kinetics.
ENERGY DISSIPATION IN MAGNETIC NULL POINTS AT KINETIC SCALES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Divin, Andrey; Eriksson, Elin; Markidis, Stefano
2015-01-01
We use kinetic particle-in-cell and MHD simulations supported by an observational data set to investigate magnetic reconnection in clusters of null points in space plasma. The magnetic configuration under investigation is driven by fast adiabatic flux rope compression that dissipates almost half of the initial magnetic field energy. In this phase powerful currents are excited producing secondary instabilities, and the system is brought into a state of “intermittent turbulence” within a few ion gyro-periods. Reconnection events are distributed all over the simulation domain and energy dissipation is rather volume-filling. Numerous spiral null points interconnected via their spines form null lines embedded into magnetic flux ropes; null point pairs demonstrate the signatures of torsional spine reconnection. However, energy dissipation mainly happens in the shear layers formed by adjacent flux ropes with oppositely directed currents. In these regions radial null pairs are spontaneously emerging and vanishing, associated with electron streams and small-scale current sheets. The number of spiral nulls in the simulation outweighs the number of radial nulls by a factor of 5–10, in accordance with Cluster observations in the Earth's magnetosheath. Twisted magnetic fields with embedded spiral null points might indicate the regions of major energy dissipation for future space missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission
The Application of Biomimicry in Kinetic Facades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wijdan Deyaa Abdul Jalil
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Biomimicry, as a way of thinking to go back to nature for inspiration, has its impact on many contemporary technological achievements. Some of them are used to design and construct kinetic facades in architecture, because of the importance role of facades in reducing sun radiation, that enter the building through using shading systems and components. In light of this, research problem is determined: "Do technologies which are inspired by biomimicry effect shading in kinetic facades through its characteristics in materials and the mechanics. So the research identifies its goal as: "To identify the types of kinetic facades in buildings and their characteristics as materials and shading mechanism associated with the biomimicry. The research explains the basic types of kinetic facades depending on the technology and materials used to provide the possibility of reducing solar radiation that enters the building. It also compares the case studies which have been chosen in their inspiration concept from biological world, which reflect on the system used of protecting against sun and reducing energy consumption as the designer teams suggest. The research concluded that kinetic façade which is depending on smart materials is self-responding and don't need energy to operate, so it is better in reducing consumption of energy.
Modeling the degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid.
Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D; Dixon, William R; Goulette, Timothy R
2018-06-13
Most published reports on ascorbic acid (AA) degradation during food storage and heat preservation suggest that it follows first-order kinetics. Deviations from this pattern include Weibullian decay, and exponential drop approaching finite nonzero retention. Almost invariably, the degradation rate constant's temperature-dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, and hence the simpler exponential model too. A formula and freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration to convert the Arrhenius model's energy of activation, E a , to the exponential model's c parameter, or vice versa, are provided. The AA's isothermal and non-isothermal degradation can be simulated with freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstrations in which the model's parameters can be entered and modified by moving sliders on the screen. Where the degradation is known a priori to follow first or other fixed order kinetics, one can use the endpoints method, and in principle the successive points method too, to estimate the reaction's kinetic parameters from considerably fewer AA concentration determinations than in the traditional manner. Freeware to do the calculations by either method has been recently made available on the Internet. Once obtained in this way, the kinetic parameters can be used to reconstruct the entire degradation curves and predict those at different temperature profiles, isothermal or dynamic. Comparison of the predicted concentration ratios with experimental ones offers a way to validate or refute the kinetic model and the assumptions on which it is based.
Kinetics that govern the release of tritium from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertone, P.C.
1986-01-01
The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory requires that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g, bred in both LBM lithium oxide pellets and gram-size lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +/-6%. This thesis reports two satisfactory methods of assaying LBM pellets and one satisfactory method of assaying lithium samples. Results of a fundamental kinetic investigation are also reported. The thermally driven release of tritium from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide pellets is studied between the temperatures of 300 and 400 0 C. The observed release clearly obeys first-order kinetics, and the governing activation energy appears to be 28.4 kcal/mole. Finally, a model is presented that may explain the thermally driven release of tritium from a lithium oxide crystal and assemblies thereof. It predicts that under most circumstances the release is controlled by either the diffusion of a tritiated species through the crystal, or by the desorption of tritiated water from it
Numerical simulation of ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.
1990-08-01
Ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions in a toroidal geometry with trapped ions have been studied by using a 1 2/2 d linearized gyro-kinetic particle simulation code in the electrostatic limit. The purpose of the investigation is to try to understand the physics of flat density discharges, in order to test the marginal stability hypothesis. Results giving threshold conditions of L Ti /R 0 , an upper bound on k χ , and linear growth rates and mode frequencies over all wavelengths for the collisionless ion temperature gradient driven modes are obtained. The behavior of ion temperature gradient driven instabilities in the transition from slab to toroidal geometry, with trapped ions, is shown. A Monte Carlo scheme for the inclusion of ion-ion collisions, in which ions can undergo Coulomb collisional dynamical friction, velocity space diffusion and random walk of guiding centers, has been constructed. The effects of ion-ion collisions on the long wave length limit of the ion modes is discussed. 44 refs., 12 figs
Physics study of D-D/D-T neutron driven experimental subcritical assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Amar
2015-01-01
An experimental program to design and study external source driven subcritical assembly has been initiated at BARC. This program is aimed at understanding neutronic characteristics of accelerator driven system at low power level. In this series, a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a D-D/D-T neutron generator has been developed. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor k s and external neutron source efficiency φ* in great details. Some experiments with D-D and D-T neutrons have been presented. (author)
The User-Driven Creative Academy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Louise Møller; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
2016-01-01
Users have always been a point of focus in design, but in the beginning of the new millennium userdriven approaches and user-oriented projects were taken to a new level of recognition. As part of this development, the User Driven Creative Academy (U-CrAc) was created at Aalborg University...
Direct Numerical Simulation of Driven Cavity Flows
Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Veldman, A.E.P.
Direct numerical simulations of 2D driven cavity flows have been performed. The simulations exhibit that the flow converges to a periodically oscillating state at Re=11,000, and reveal that the dynamics is chaotic at Re=22,000. The dimension of the attractor and the Kolmogorov entropy have been
Mastering Technologies in Design-Driven Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dell'era, Claudio; Marchesi, Alessio; Verganti, Roberto
2010-01-01
Only a few companies have mastered the design-driven approach to innovation. This paper examines what it means to make design a central part of the business process, able to add value to products and create new markets. More specifically, it focuses on the interplay between the functional and sem...
Data-driven regionalization of housing markets
Helbich, M.; Brunauer, W.; Hagenauer, J.; Leitner, M.
2013-01-01
This article presents a data-driven framework for housing market segmentation. Local marginal house price surfaces are investigated by means of mixed geographically weighted regression and are reduced to a set of principal component maps, which in turn serve as input for spatial regionalization. The
Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds
Berghout, J.A.M.
2015-01-01
Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds
The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich
Quantitative system validation in model driven design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois
2010-01-01
The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made, focus...
Failure-probability driven dose painting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K
2013-01-01
To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...
High-explosive driven crowbar switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.
1976-01-01
The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor
Data Driven Constraints for the SVM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
2012-01-01
We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time. Assum...
Light-driven robotics for nanoscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
2013-01-01
The science fiction inspired shrinking of macro-scale robotic manipulation and handling down to the micro- and nanoscale regime opens new doors for exploiting the forces and torques of light for micro- and nanoscopic probing, actuation and control. Advancing light-driven micro-robotics requires...... and matter for robotically probing at the smallest biological length scales....
A refinement driven component-based design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Zhenbang; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders Peter
2007-01-01
the work on the Common Component Modelling Example (CoCoME). This gives evidence that the formal techniques developed in rCOS can be integrated into a model-driven development process and shows where it may be integrated in computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools for adding formally supported...
Scripted Bodies and Spline Driven Animation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erleben, Kenny; Henriksen, Knud
2002-01-01
In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain...
An evaporation driven pump for microfluidics applications
Nie, C.; Mandamparambil, R.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Tadrist, L.; Graur, I.
2014-01-01
We present an evaporation driven micro-pump for micro fluidic applications on a foil. In such a device, the evaporation rate is controlled by the geometry of the channel outlet and its temperature. The evaporation is also influenced by environmental parameters such as air humidity and temperature.
Topology optimization of inertia driven dosing units
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe
2017-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for optimizing inertia driven dosing units, sometimes referred to as eductors, for use in small scale flow applications. The unit is assumed to operate at low to moderate Reynolds numbers and under steady state conditions. By applying topology optimization...
Model Driven Architecture: Foundations and Applications
Rensink, Arend
The OMG's Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative has been the focus of much attention in both academia and industry, due to its promise of more rapid and consistent software development through the increased use of models. In order for MDA to reach its full potential, the ability to manipulate
Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.
1987-01-01
A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt
Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture
Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.
2010-01-01
Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that
Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture
Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven
2013-01-01
Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…
Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens
2001-01-01
at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassanzadeh, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H., E-mail: a_feghhi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-09-15
Highlights: • All reactor kinetic parameters are importance weighted quantities. • MCNIC method has been developed for calculating neutron importance in ADSRs. • Mean generation time has been calculated in spallation driven systems. -- Abstract: The difference between non-weighted neutron generation time (Λ) and the weighted one (Λ{sup †}) can be quite significant depending on the type of the system. In the present work, we will focus on developing MCNIC method for calculation of the neutron importance (Φ{sup †}) and importance weighted neutron generation time (Λ{sup †}) in accelerator driven systems (ADS). Two hypothetic bare and graphite reflected spallation source driven system have been considered as illustrative examples for this means. The results of this method have been compared with those obtained by MCNPX code. According to the results, the relative difference between Λ and Λ{sup †} is within 36% and 24,840% in bare and reflected illustrative examples respectively. The difference is quite significant in reflected systems and increases with reflector thickness. In Conclusion, this method may be used for better estimation of kinetic parameters rather than the MCNPX code because of using neutron importance function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanzadeh, M.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Khalafi, H.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • All reactor kinetic parameters are importance weighted quantities. • MCNIC method has been developed for calculating neutron importance in ADSRs. • Mean generation time has been calculated in spallation driven systems. -- Abstract: The difference between non-weighted neutron generation time (Λ) and the weighted one (Λ † ) can be quite significant depending on the type of the system. In the present work, we will focus on developing MCNIC method for calculation of the neutron importance (Φ † ) and importance weighted neutron generation time (Λ † ) in accelerator driven systems (ADS). Two hypothetic bare and graphite reflected spallation source driven system have been considered as illustrative examples for this means. The results of this method have been compared with those obtained by MCNPX code. According to the results, the relative difference between Λ and Λ † is within 36% and 24,840% in bare and reflected illustrative examples respectively. The difference is quite significant in reflected systems and increases with reflector thickness. In Conclusion, this method may be used for better estimation of kinetic parameters rather than the MCNPX code because of using neutron importance function
Nonlocal kinetic-energy-density functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.
1996-01-01
In this paper we present nonlocal kinetic-energy functionals T[n] within the average density approximation (ADA) framework, which do not require any extra input when applied to any electron system and recover the exact kinetic energy and the linear response function of a homogeneous system. In contrast with previous ADA functionals, these present good behavior of the long-range tail of the exact weight function. The averaging procedure for the kinetic functional (averaging the Fermi momentum of the electron gas, instead of averaging the electron density) leads to a functional without numerical difficulties in the calculation of extended systems, and it gives excellent results when applied to atoms and jellium surfaces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Kinetics model of bainitic transformation with stress
Zhou, Mingxing; Xu, Guang; Hu, Haijiang; Yuan, Qing; Tian, Junyu
2018-01-01
Thermal simulations were conducted on a Gleeble 3800 simulator. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of stress on the kinetics of bainitic transformation in a Fe-C-Mn-Si advanced high strength bainitic steel. Previous studies on modeling the kinetics of stress affected bainitic transformation only considered the stress below the yield strength of prior austenite. In the present study, the stress above the yield strength of prior austenite is taken into account. A new kinetics model of bainitic transformation dependent on the stress (including the stresses below and above the yield strength of prior austenite) and the transformation temperature is proposed. The new model presents a good agreement with experimental results. In addition, it is found that the acceleration degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the stress whether its magnitude is below or above the yield strength of austenite, but the increasing rate gradually slows down when the stress is above the yield strength of austenite.
Kinetic mechanism for modeling of electrochemical reactions.
Cervenka, Petr; Hrdlička, Jiří; Přibyl, Michal; Snita, Dalimil
2012-04-01
We propose a kinetic mechanism of electrochemical interactions. We assume fast formation and recombination of electron donors D- and acceptors A+ on electrode surfaces. These mediators are continuously formed in the electrode matter by thermal fluctuations. The mediators D- and A+, chemically equivalent to the electrode metal, enter electrochemical interactions on the electrode surfaces. Electrochemical dynamics and current-voltage characteristics of a selected electrochemical system are studied. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with those given by the classical Butler-Volmer kinetics. The proposed model can be used to study fast electrochemical processes in microsystems and nanosystems that are often out of the thermal equilibrium. Moreover, the kinetic mechanism operates only with the surface concentrations of chemical reactants and local electric potentials, which facilitates the study of electrochemical systems with indefinable bulk.
Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. Paula Jr.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.
Kinetic study of solid-state processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi
2003-01-01
A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)
Kinetic chain abnormalities in the athletic shoulder.
Sciascia, Aaron; Thigpen, Charles; Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith
2012-03-01
Overhead activities require the shoulder to be exposed to and sustain repetitive loads. The segmental activation of the body's links, known as the kinetic chain, allows this to occur effectively. Proper muscle activation is achieved through generation of energy from the central segment or core, which then transfers the energy to the terminal links of the shoulder, elbow, and hand. The kinetic chain is best characterized by 3 components: optimized anatomy, reproducible efficient motor patterns, and the sequential generation of forces. However, tissue injury and anatomic deficits such as weakness and/or tightness in the leg, pelvic core, or scapular musculature can lead to overuse shoulder injuries. These injuries can be prevented and maladaptations can be detected with a thorough understanding of biomechanics of the kinetic chain as it relates to overhead activity.
Kinetics and spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas
Loureiro, Jorge
2016-01-01
This is a comprehensive textbook designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Both authors rely on more than 20 years of teaching experience in renowned Physics Engineering courses to write this book addressing the students’ needs. Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasmas derives in a full self-consistent way the electron kinetic theory used to describe low temperature plasmas created in the laboratory with an electrical discharge, and presents the main optical spectroscopic diagnostics used to characterize such plasmas. The chapters with the theoretical contents make use of a deductive approach in which the electron kinetic theory applied to plasmas with basis on the electron Boltzmann equation is derived from the basic concepts of Statistical and Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the main optical spectroscopy diagnostics used to characterize experimentally such plasmas are presented and justified from the point of view of the Atomic and Molecular Physics. Low temperature plasmas...
Transient processes in cell proliferation kinetics
Yakovlev, Andrej Yu
1989-01-01
A mathematician who has taken the romantic decision to devote himself to biology will doubtlessly look upon cell kinetics as the most simple and natural field of application for his knowledge and skills. Indeed, the thesaurus he is to master is not so complicated as, say, in molecular biology, the structural elements of the system, i. e. ceils, have been segregated by Nature itself, simple considerations of balance may be used for deducing basic equations, and numerous analogies in other areas of science also superficial add to one"s confidence. Generally speaking, this number of impression is correct, as evidenced by the very great theoretical studies on population kinetics, unmatched in other branches of mathematical biology. This, however, does not mean that mathematical theory of cell systems has traversed in its development a pathway free of difficulties or errors. The seeming ease of formalizing the phenomena of cell kinetics not infrequently led to the appearance of mathematical models lacking in adequ...
Kinetics and thermodynamics of living copolymerization processes.
Gaspard, Pierre
2016-11-13
Theoretical advances are reported on the kinetics and thermodynamics of free and template-directed living copolymerizations. Until recently, the kinetic theory of these processes had only been established in the fully irreversible regime, in which the attachment rates are only considered. However, the entropy production is infinite in this regime and the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be investigated. For this purpose, the detachment rates should also be included. Inspite of this complication, the kinetics can be exactly solved in the regimes of steady growth and depolymerization. In this way, analytical expressions are obtained for the mean growth velocity, the statistical properties of the copolymer sequences, as well as the thermodynamic entropy production. The results apply to DNA replication, transcription and translation, allowing us to understand important aspects of molecular evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochain, B.
2009-12-01
This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)
Relaxation and kinetics in scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Lawrie, I.D.; Lee, D.
1996-01-01
A new approach to the dynamics of relaxation and kinetics of thermalization in a scalar field theory is presented that incorporates the relevant time scales through the resummation of hard thermal loops. An alternative derivation of the kinetic equations for the open-quote open-quote quasiparticle close-quote close-quote distribution functions is obtained that allows a clear understanding of the different open-quote open-quote coarse-graining close-quote close-quote approximations usually involved in a kinetic description. This method leads to a systematic perturbative expansion to obtain the kinetic equations including hard thermal loop resummation and to an improvement including renormalization, off-shell effects, and contributions that change chemical equilibrium on short time scales. As a by-product of these methods we establish the equivalence between the relaxation time scale in the linearized equation of motion of the quasiparticles and the thermalization time scale of the quasiparticle distribution function in the open-quote open-quote relaxation time approximation close-quote close-quote including hard thermal loop effects. Hard thermal loop resummation dramatically modifies the scattering rate for long wavelength modes as compared to the usual (semi)classical estimate. Relaxation and kinetics are studied both in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of the theory. The broken symmetry phase also provides the setting to obtain the contribution to the kinetic equations from processes that involve decay of a heavy scalar into light scalar particles in the medium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Exercise: Kinetic considerations for gas exchange.
Rossiter, Harry B
2011-01-01
The activities of daily living typically occur at metabolic rates below the maximum rate of aerobic energy production. Such activity is characteristic of the nonsteady state, where energy demands, and consequential physiological responses, are in constant flux. The dynamics of the integrated physiological processes during these activities determine the degree to which exercise can be supported through rates of O₂ utilization and CO₂ clearance appropriate for their demands and, as such, provide a physiological framework for the notion of exercise intensity. The rate at which O₂ exchange responds to meet the changing energy demands of exercise--its kinetics--is dependent on the ability of the pulmonary, circulatory, and muscle bioenergetic systems to respond appropriately. Slow response kinetics in pulmonary O₂ uptake predispose toward a greater necessity for substrate-level energy supply, processes that are limited in their capacity, challenge system homeostasis and hence contribute to exercise intolerance. This review provides a physiological systems perspective of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics: from an integrative view on the control of muscle oxygen consumption kinetics to the dissociation of cellular respiration from its pulmonary expression by the circulatory dynamics and the gas capacitance of the lungs, blood, and tissues. The intensity dependence of gas exchange kinetics is discussed in relation to constant, intermittent, and ramped work rate changes. The influence of heterogeneity in the kinetic matching of O₂ delivery to utilization is presented in reference to exercise tolerance in endurance-trained athletes, the elderly, and patients with chronic heart or lung disease. © 2011 American Physiological Society.
The coke drum thermal kinetic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)
Kinetic Parameters of Thermal Degradation of Polymers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱新生; 程嘉祺
2003-01-01
The derivative expressions between activation energy (E) and the temperature at the maximum mass loss rate(Tmax) and between activation energy (E) and exponent (N) were deduced in the light of Arrhenius theory. It was found that the increase of activation energy results in the decrease of exponent and the increase of Tmax. The kinetic parameters were involved in the analysis of the thermal degradation of several polymers. The degradation kinetics of these polymers well complied with the prediction of the derivative expressions for the polymer degradation with single mechanism dominated.
Calmodulin-lanthanide ion exchange kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buccigross, J.; O'Donnell, C.; Nelson, D.
1985-01-01
A flow dialysis apparatus suitable for the study of high affinity metal binding proteins has been utilized to study calmodulin-metal exchange kinetics. Calmodulin labeled with Eu-155 and Gd-153 was dialyzed against buffer containing various competing metal ions. The rate of metal exchange was monitored by a gamma-ray scintillation detector. The kinetics of exchange are first order, and the rates fall into two categories: Ca (II) and CD (II) in one, and the lanthanides Eu (III), Gd (III), and La (III) in the other
Unified kinetic theory in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hitchcock, D.A.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1980-12-01
The kinetic theory of toroidal systems has been characterized by two approaches: neoclassical theory which ignores instabilities and quasilinear theory which ignores collisions. In this paper we construct a kinetic theory for toroidal systems which includes both effects. This yields a pair of evolution equations; one for the spectrum and one for the distribution function. In addition, this theory yields a toroidal generalization of the usual collision operator which is shown to have many similar properties - conservation laws, H theorem - to the usual collision operator
Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.
Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P
2015-08-10
Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Alternative kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangian systems
Sarlet, W.; Prince, G.
2010-11-01
We examine Lagrangian systems on \\ {R}^n with standard kinetic energy terms for the possibility of additional, alternative Lagrangians with kinetic energy metrics different to the Euclidean one. Using the techniques of the inverse problem in the calculus of variations we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such Lagrangians. We illustrate the problem in two and three dimensions with quadratic and cubic potentials. As an aside we show that the well-known anomalous Lagrangians for the Coulomb problem can be removed by switching on a magnetic field, providing an appealing resolution of the ambiguous quantizations of the hydrogen atom.
Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.; Fox, Ronald F.
2005-01-01
A methodology to calculate generalized coherent states for a periodically driven system is presented. We study wave packets constructed as a linear combination of suitable Floquet states of the three-dimensional Rydberg atom in a microwave field. The driven coherent states show classical space localization, spreading, and revivals and remain localized along the classical trajectory. The microwave strength and frequency have a great effect in the localization of Floquet states, since quasienergy avoided crossings produce delocalization of the Floquet states, showing that tuning of the parameters is very important. Using wavelet-based time-frequency analysis, the classical phase-space structure is determined, which allows us to show that the driven coherent state is located in a large regular region in which the z coordinate is in resonance with the external field. The expectation values of the wave packet show that the driven coherent state evolves along the classical trajectory
Kinetic of the Oxygen Control System (OCS) for stagnant lead-bismuth systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefhalm, C.H.; Knebel, J.U.; Mack, K.J.
2001-09-01
Within the framework of the HGF strategy fund project 99/16 ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' at the institute for nuclear and energy technology (IKET) investigations on the cooling of thermally high-loaded surfaces with liquid lead bismuth (Pb-Bi) are carried out. To operate a Pb-Bi loop safety, for example in order to cool a spallation target or a blanket of an accelerator driven system (ADS), the control of the oxygen concentration within the liquid metal is an inalienable prerequisite to prevent or minimize corrosion at the structure material. In this report the kinetic behaviour of the oxygen control system (OCS), which was developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, is examined. The OCS controls the chemical potential of oxygen in the liquid metal by regulating the oxygen content in the gas phase which flows over the free surface of the liquid metal. In this work the experimental facility KOCOS (kinetics of oxygen control system) in the karlsruhe lead laboratory (KALLA) was built. A physical diffusion model was utilised and extended to describe the exchange of oxygen between the gas and the liquid metal. The theoretical calculations are in very good agreement to the experimental findings. The OCS allows to control reversibly the oxygen concentration in the liquid metal. According to the observed kinetics of the process one can extrapolate that the control of large volumes, as they are necessary to operate an ADS demonstrator, is possible. Therefore, further experiments in liquid metal loop systems are suggested. (orig.)
Supercritical kinetic analysis in simplified system of fuel debris using integral kinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuya, Delgersaikhan; Obara, Toru
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Kinetic analysis in simplified weakly coupled fuel debris system was performed. • The integral kinetic model was used to simulate criticality accidents. • The fission power and released energy during simulated accident were obtained. • Coupling between debris regions and its effect on the fission power was obtained. - Abstract: Preliminary prompt supercritical kinetic analyses in a simplified coupled system of fuel debris designed to roughly resemble a melted core of a nuclear reactor were performed using an integral kinetic model. The integral kinetic model, which can describe region- and time-dependent fission rate in a coupled system of arbitrary geometry, was used because the fuel debris system is weakly coupled in terms of neutronics. The results revealed some important characteristics of coupled systems, such as the coupling between debris regions and the effect of the coupling on the fission rate and released energy in each debris region during the simulated criticality accident. In brief, this study showed that the integral kinetic model can be applied to supercritical kinetic analysis in fuel debris systems and also that it can be a useful tool for investigating the effect of the coupling on consequences of a supercritical accident.
Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G
2016-11-15
Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, J; Park, W S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1999-12-31
A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)
A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Milanovich, Steven M. Nesbit
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings.
Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, J.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)
Profit-driven and demand-driven investment growth and fluctuations in different accumulation regimes
Giovanni Dosi; Mauro Sodini; Maria Enrica Virgillito
2013-01-01
The main task of this work is to develope a model able to encompass, at the same time, Keynesian, demand-driven, and Marxian, profit-driven determinants of fluctuations. Our starting point is the Goodwin's model (1967), rephrased in discrete time and extended by means of a coupled dynamics structure. The model entails the combined interaction of a demand effect, which resembles a rudimentary first approximation to an accelerator, and of a hysteresis effect in wage formation in turn affecting ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.
Data-Driven and Expectation-Driven Discovery of Empirical Laws.
1982-10-10
occurred in small integer proportions to each other. In 1809, Joseph Gay- Lussac found evidence for his law of combining volumes, which stated that a...of Empirical Laws Patrick W. Langley Gary L. Bradshaw Herbert A. Simon T1he Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Data-Driven and Expectation-Driven Discovery Interim Report 2/82-10/82 of Empirical Laws S. PERFORMING ORG
Impact of kinetic mass transfer on free convection in a porous medium
Lu, Chunhui; Shi, Liangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Xie, Yueqing; Simmons, Craig T.
2016-05-01
We investigate kinetic mass transfer effects on unstable density-driven flow and transport processes by numerical simulations of a modified Elder problem. The first-order dual-domain mass transfer model coupled with a variable-density-flow model is employed to describe transport behavior in porous media. Results show that in comparison to the no-mass-transfer case, a higher degree of instability and more unstable system is developed in the mass transfer case due to the reduced effective porosity and correspondingly a larger Rayleigh number (assuming permeability is independent on the mobile porosity). Given a constant total porosity, the magnitude of capacity ratio (i.e., immobile porosity/mobile porosity) controls the macroscopic plume profile in the mobile domain, while the magnitude of mass transfer timescale (i.e., the reciprocal of the mass transfer rate coefficient) dominates its evolution rate. The magnitude of capacity ratio plays an important role on the mechanism driving the mass flux into the aquifer system. Specifically, for a small capacity ratio, solute loading is dominated by the density-driven transport, while with increasing capacity ratio local mass transfer dominated solute loading may occur at later times. At significantly large times, however, both mechanisms contribute comparably to solute loading. Sherwood Number could be a nonmonotonic function of mass transfer timescale due to complicated interactions of solute between source zone, mobile zone and immobile zone in the top boundary layer, resulting in accordingly a similar behavior of the total mass. The initial assessment provides important insights into unstable density-driven flow and transport in the presence of kinetic mass transfer.
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence
Kumar, Abhishek
2014-08-25
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Light-field-driven currents in graphene
Higuchi, Takuya; Heide, Christian; Ullmann, Konrad; Weber, Heiko B.; Hommelhoff, Peter
2017-10-01
The ability to steer electrons using the strong electromagnetic field of light has opened up the possibility of controlling electron dynamics on the sub-femtosecond (less than 10-15 seconds) timescale. In dielectrics and semiconductors, various light-field-driven effects have been explored, including high-harmonic generation, sub-optical-cycle interband population transfer and the non-perturbative change of the transient polarizability. In contrast, much less is known about light-field-driven electron dynamics in narrow-bandgap systems or in conductors, in which screening due to free carriers or light absorption hinders the application of strong optical fields. Graphene is a promising platform with which to achieve light-field-driven control of electrons in a conducting material, because of its broadband and ultrafast optical response, weak screening and high damage threshold. Here we show that a current induced in monolayer graphene by two-cycle laser pulses is sensitive to the electric-field waveform, that is, to the exact shape of the optical carrier field of the pulse, which is controlled by the carrier-envelope phase, with a precision on the attosecond (10-18 seconds) timescale. Such a current, dependent on the carrier-envelope phase, shows a striking reversal of the direction of the current as a function of the driving field amplitude at about two volts per nanometre. This reversal indicates a transition of light-matter interaction from the weak-field (photon-driven) regime to the strong-field (light-field-driven) regime, where the intraband dynamics influence interband transitions. We show that in this strong-field regime the electron dynamics are governed by sub-optical-cycle Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference, composed of coherent repeated Landau-Zener transitions on the femtosecond timescale. Furthermore, the influence of this sub-optical-cycle interference can be controlled with the laser polarization state. These coherent electron dynamics in
Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas
Klimontovich, Yu L
2013-01-01
Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor
Laser-driven hydrothermal process studied with excimer laser pulses
Mariella, Raymond; Rubenchik, Alexander; Fong, Erika; Norton, Mary; Hollingsworth, William; Clarkson, James; Johnsen, Howard; Osborn, David L.
2017-08-01
Previously, we discovered [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)] that modest-fluence/modest-intensity 351-nm laser pulses, with insufficient fluence/intensity to ablate rock, mineral, or concrete samples via surface vaporization, still removed the surface material from water-submerged target samples with confinement of the removed material, and then dispersed at least some of the removed material into the water as a long-lived suspension of nanoparticles. We called this new process, which appears to include the generation of larger colorless particles, "laser-driven hydrothermal processing" (LDHP) [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)]. We, now, report that we have studied this process using 248-nm and 193-nm laser light on submerged concrete, quartzite, and obsidian, and, even though light at these wavelengths is more strongly absorbed than at 351 nm, we found that the overall efficiency of LDHP, in terms of the mass of the target removed per Joule of laser-pulse energy, is lower with 248-nm and 193-nm laser pulses than with 351-nm laser pulses. Given that stronger absorption creates higher peak surface temperatures for comparable laser fluence and intensity, it was surprising to observe reduced efficiencies for material removal. We also measured the nascent particle-size distributions that LDHP creates in the submerging water and found that they do not display the long tail towards larger particle sizes that we had observed when there had been a multi-week delay between experiments and the date of measuring the size distributions. This is consistent with transient dissolution of the solid surface, followed by diffusion-limited kinetics of nucleation and growth of particles from the resulting thin layer of supersaturated solution at the sample surface.
Entropy-driven crystal formation on highly strained substrates
Savage, John R.
2013-05-20
In heteroepitaxy, lattice mismatch between the deposited material and the underlying surface strongly affects nucleation and growth processes. The effect of mismatch is well studied in atoms with growth kinetics typically dominated by bond formation with interaction lengths on the order of one lattice spacing. In contrast, less is understood about how mismatch affects crystallization of larger particles, such as globular proteins and nanoparticles, where interparticle interaction energies are often comparable to thermal fluctuations and are short ranged, extending only a fraction of the particle size. Here, using colloidal experiments and simulations, we find particles with short-range attractive interactions form crystals on isotropically strained lattices with spacings significantly larger than the interaction length scale. By measuring the free-energy cost of dimer formation on monolayers of increasing uniaxial strain, we show the underlying mismatched substrate mediates an entropy-driven attractive interaction extending well beyond the interaction length scale. Remarkably, because this interaction arises from thermal fluctuations, lowering temperature causes such substrate-mediated attractive crystals to dissolve. Such counterintuitive results underscore the crucial role of entropy in heteroepitaxy in this technologically important regime. Ultimately, this entropic component of lattice mismatched crystal growth could be used to develop unique methods for heterogeneous nucleation and growth of single crystals for applications ranging from protein crystallization to controlling the assembly of nanoparticles into ordered, functional superstructures. In particular, the construction of substrates with spatially modulated strain profiles would exploit this effect to direct self-assembly, whereby nucleation sites and resulting crystal morphology can be controlled directly through modifications of the substrate.