WorldWideScience

Sample records for driven granular gas

  1. Symmetry-breaking instability in a prototypical driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Meerson, Baruch

    2002-08-01

    Symmetry-breaking instability of a laterally uniform granular cluster (strip state) in a prototypical driven granular gas is investigated. The system consists of smooth hard disks in a two-dimensional box, colliding inelastically with each other and driven, at zero gravity, by a "thermal" wall. The limit of nearly elastic particle collisions is considered, and granular hydrodynamics with the Jenkins-Richman constitutive relations is employed. The hydrodynamic problem is completely described by two scaled parameters and the aspect ratio of the box. Marginal stability analysis predicts a spontaneous symmetry-breaking instability of the strip state, similar to that predicted recently for a different set of constitutive relations. If the system is big enough, the marginal stability curve becomes independent of the details of the boundary condition at the driving wall. In this regime, the density perturbation is exponentially localized at the elastic wall opposite the thermal wall. The short- and long-wavelength asymptotics of the marginal stability curves are obtained analytically in the dilute limit. The physics of the symmetry-breaking instability is discussed.

  2. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2002-11-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard disks driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Supercritical and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the stripe state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Well above the bifurcation point the final steady state, selected by coarsening, represents a single strongly localized densely packed "droplet."

  3. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas

    OpenAIRE

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2002-01-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional (2D) ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard spheres driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Super- and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the simple clustered state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Far above the bifurcation point the final steady state, s...

  4. Highly localized clustering states in a granular gas driven by a vibrating wall

    OpenAIRE

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2000-01-01

    An ensemble of inelastically colliding grains driven by a vibrating wall in 2D exhibits density clustering. Working in the limit of nearly elastic collisions and employing granular hydrodynamics, we predict, by a marginal stability analysis, a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the extended clustering state (ECS). 2D steady-state solutions found numerically describe localized clustering state (LCSs). Time-dependent granular hydrodynamic simulations show that LCSs can develop from natural initia...

  5. Gas-driven subharmonic waves in a vibrated two-phase granular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, J-P; Uehara, J; Behringer, R P

    2008-04-01

    Vibrated powders exhibit striking phenomena: subharmonic waves, oscillons, convection, heaping, and even bubbling. We demonstrate novel rectangular profile subharmonic waves for vibrated granular material, that occur uniquely in the two-phase case of grains, and a fluid, such as air. These waves differ substantially from those for the gas-free case, exhibit different dispersion relations, and occur for specific shaking parameters and air pressure, understandable with gas-particle flow models. These waves occur when the gas diffusively penetrates the granular layer in a time comparable to the shaker period. As the pressure is lowered towards P =0, the granular-gas system exhibits a Knudsen regime. This instability provides an opportunity to quantitatively test models of two-phase flow.

  6. An experimental study of wave propagation and velocity distributions in a vertically driven time-dependent granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, John Anthony

    Averaged over appropriate space and time scales the dynamics of highly fluidized granular systems are often reminiscent of molecular fluid flows. As a result, theoretical efforts to describe these systems have borrowed heavily from continuum mechanics, particularly hydrodynamics. This has led to various proposed granular hydrodynamic theories which have been used to simulate granular materials in various states of confinement and excitation. These studies suggest that a continuum model for granular gasses can accurately reproduce the mean density, velocity and temperature profiles for an experimental granular gas. This thesis contributes to this body of work by presenting an experimental study of the hydrodynamic fields and velocity distributions within a vertically driven quasi-2D granular gas. We have taken pictures as fast as possible of a time-dependent granular gas using a high-speed CCD camera. We have extracted the positions and velocities of 57-564 particles per frame over 400 GB of raw images collected at 3700 fps. We used this data to compute the density, velocity and temperature fields as functions of time and space to a very high resolution. This approach led to the discovery of novel substructures within the hydrodynamic fields which would have been overlooked had we chosen to average over a drive cycle as earlier studies have done. In particular, the high spatial resolution available from our measurements reveals a serrated substructure in the shock waves which has not been reported before. This substructure is the result of collisional momentum transport . One of the current issues in formulating a granular continuum model is how to incorporate local and non-local dependencies between stress and strain correctly. In this thesis we demonstrate that the collisional transfer of momentum produces a non-local effect in the stress tensor which plays a major role in determining the mean flow. Current models have incorporated only the collisional or

  7. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  8. Velocity Fluctuations in Electrostatically Driven Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Aranson, I. S.; Olafsen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    We study experimentally the particle velocity fluctuations in an electrostatically driven dilute granular gas. The experimentally obtained velocity distribution functions have strong deviations from Maxwellian form in a wide range of parameters. We have found that the tails of the distribution functions are consistent with a stretched exponential law with typical exponents of the order 3/2. Molecular dynamic simulations shows qualitative agreement with experimental data. Our results suggest t...

  9. Formation of martian araneiforms by gas-driven erosion of granular material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Villiers, S.; Nermoen, A.; Jamtveit, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sublimation at the lower surface of a seasonal sheet of translucent CO2 ice at high southern latitudes during the Martian spring, and rapid outflow of the CO2 gas generated in this manner through holes in the ice, has been proposed as the origin of dendritic 100 m–1 km scale branched channels known...

  10. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  11. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartín, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  12. Energy decay in a granular gas collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Lidia; Serero, Dan; Salueña, Clara; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    An inelastic hard ball bouncing repeatedly off the ground comes to rest in finite time by performing an infinite number of collisions. Similarly, a granular gas under the influence of external gravity, condenses at the bottom of the confinement due to inelastic collisions. By means of hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the condensation process of a granular gas reveals a similar dynamics as the bouncing ball. Our result is in agreement with both experiments and particle simulations, but disagrees with earlier simplified hydrodynamical description. Analyzing the result in detail, we find that the adequate modeling of pressure plays a key role in continuum modeling of granular matter.

  13. Collision Statistics of Driven Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Duan-Ming; LI Zhong-Ming; YANG Feng-Xia; GUO Xin-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamicai model of two-dimensional polydisperse granular gases with fractal size distribution, in which the disks are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and driven by standard white noise. The inhomogeneity of the disk size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension df. By Monte Carlo simulations, we have mainly investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity on the statistical properties of the system in the same inelasticity case. Some novel results are found that the average energy of the system decays exponentiaUy with a tendency to achieve a stable asymptotic value, and the system finally reaches a nonequilibrium steady state after a long evolution time. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity has great influence on the steady-state statisticai properties. With the increase of the fractal dimension df, the distributions of path lengths and free times between collisions deviate more obviously from expected theoretical forms for elastic spheres and have an overpopulation of short distances and time bins. The collision rate increases with df, but it is independent of time. Meanwhile, the velocity distribution deviates more strongly from the Gaussian one, but does not demonstrate any apparent universal behavior.

  14. Fluctuations of Power Injection in Randomly Driven Granular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Paolo; Puglisi, Andrea; Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the large deviation function π∞( w) for the fluctuations of the power W( t) = wt, integrated over a time t, injected by a homogeneous random driving into a granular gas, in the infinite time limit. Our analytical study starts from a generalized Liouville equation and exploits a Molecular Chaos-like assumption. We obtain an equation for the generating function of the cumulants μ(λ) which appears as a generalization of the inelastic Boltzmann equation and has a clear physical interpretation. Reasonable assumptions are used to obtain μ(λ) in a closed analytical form. A Legendre transform is sufficient to get the large deviation function π∞( w). Our main result, apart from an estimate of all the cumulants of W( t) at large times t, is that π∞ has no negative branch. This immediately results in the inapplicability of the Gallavotti-Cohen Fluctuation Relation (GCFR), that in previous studies had been suggested to be valid for injected power in driven granular gases. We also present numerical results, in order to discuss the finite time behavior of the fluctuations of W ( t) . We discover that their probability density function converges extremely slowly to its asymptotic scaling form: the third cumulant saturates after a characteristic time τ larger than ˜50 mean free times and the higher order cumulants evolve even slower. The asymptotic value is in good agreement with our theory. Remarkably, a numerical check of the GCFR is feasible only at small times (at most τ/10), since negative events disappear at larger times. At such small times this check leads to the misleading conclusion that GCFR is satisfied for π∞( w). We offer an explanation for this remarkable apparent verification. In the inelastic Maxwell model, where a better statistics can be achieved, we are able to numerically observe the "failure" of GCFR.

  15. Avalanche Statistics of Driven Granular Slides in a Miniature Mound

    CERN Document Server

    Juanico, D E; Batac, R; Monterola, C

    2008-01-01

    We examine avalanche statistics of rain- and vibration-driven granular slides in miniature soil mounds using experimental and numerical approaches. A crossover from power-law to non power-law avalanche-size statistics is demonstrated as a generic driving rate $\

  16. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  17. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  18. Fluctuation-dissipation relations for motions of center of mass in driven granular fluids under gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakou, Jun'ichi; Isobe, Masaharu

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the validity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in the nonequilibrium stationary state of fluidized granular media under gravity by two independent approaches, based on theory and numerical simulations. A phenomenological Langevin-type theory describing the fluctuation of center of mass height, which was originally constructed for a one-dimensional granular gas on a vibrating bottom plate, was generalized to any dimensionality, even for the case in which the vibrating bottom plate is replaced by a thermal wall. The theory predicts a fluctuation-dissipation relation known to be satisfied at equilibrium, with a modification that replaces the equilibrium temperature by an effective temperature defined by the center of mass kinetic energy. To test the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, we performed extensive and accurate event-driven molecular dynamics simulations for the model system with a thermal wall at the bottom. The power spectrum and response function of the center of mass height were measured and closely compared with theoretical predictions. It is shown that the fluctuation-dissipation relation for the granular system is satisfied, especially in the high-frequency (short time) region, for a wide range of system parameters. Finally, we describe the relationship between systematic deviations in the low-frequency (long time) region and the time scales of the driven granular system.

  19. Granular gas in a periodic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-11-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration Γ of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low accelerations, the grains remain in their compartment, and the system is frozen. For very large accelerations, the grains bounce out of the compartments and behave as a 'binomial gas': the system is homogeneous. For intermediate accelerations, grains form clusters, i.e. grains gather in some particular compartments. In that regime, the probability for a bead to escape from a site depends on the number of beads contained in the concerned compartment. The escape probability has been measured with respect to the number of beads in a compartment. Above a given number of beads, the beads remain trapped in the compartment. A basic numerical model reproduces some of the results and allows us to explore the dependence on the initial conditions.

  20. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghelle, Daniel; Slungaard, Torbjørn; Sønju, Otto K

    2007-06-18

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration is comparable to those of bag filters. The granular filter can operate with high filtration velocities compared to bag filters and maintain high efficiency and a low residual pressure. This work is a part of the BioSOFC-up project that has a goal of utilizing the producer gas from the gasification plant in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The BioSOFC-up project will continue to the end of 2007.

  1. Injected power and entropy flow in a heated granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, P.; Puglisi, A.; Barrat, A.; Trizac, E.; van Wijland, F.

    2005-10-01

    Our interest goes to the power injected in a heated granular gas and to the possibility to interpret it in terms of entropy flow. We numerically determine the distribution of the injected power by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Then, we provide a kinetic-theory approach to the computation of such a distribution function. Finally, after showing why the injected power does not satisfy a fluctuation relation à la Gallavotti-Cohen, we put forward a new quantity which does fulfill such a relation, and is not only applicable in a variety of frameworks outside the granular world, but also experimentally accessible.

  2. Fenton- and Persulfate-driven Regeneration of Contaminant-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton- or persulfate-driven chemical oxidation regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto GAC and chemical oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC. Environmental...

  3. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  4. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  5. Gas flow within Martian soil: experiments on granular Knudsen compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Marc; Kelling, Thorben; Teiser, Jens; Wurm, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Thermal creep efficiently transports gas through Martian soil. To quantify the Martian soil pump we carried out laboratory analog experiments with illuminated granular media at low ambient pressure. We used samples of 1 μm to 5 μm SiO2 (quartz), basalt with a broad size distribution between 63 μm and 125 μm, and JSC-Mars 1A with a size fraction from 125 μm to 250 μm. The mean ambient pressure was varied between 50 Pa and 9000 Pa. Illumination was varied between 100 W/m2 and 6700 W/m2. The experiments confirm strong directed gas flows within granular and dusty soil and local sub-soil pressure variations. We find that Martian soil pumps can be described with existing models of thermal creep for capillaries, using the average grain size and light flux related temperatures.

  6. Free cooling of the one-dimensional wet granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaburdaev, V Yu; Brinkmann, M; Herminghaus, S

    2006-07-07

    The free cooling behavior of a wet granular gas is studied in one dimension. We employ a particularly simple model system in which the interaction of wet grains is characterized by a fixed energy loss assigned to each collision. Macroscopic laws of energy dissipation and cluster formation are studied on the basis of numerical simulations and mean-field analytical calculations. We find a number of remarkable scaling properties which may shed light on earlier unexplained results for related systems.

  7. Plane shock wave structure in a dilute granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the early time evolution of the Riemann problem of planar shock wave structures for a dilute granular gas by solving Navier-Stokes equations numerically. The one-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations for plane shock wave problem are solved numerically using a relaxation-type numerical scheme. The results on the shock structures in granular gases are presented for different Mach numbers and restitution coefficients. Based on our analysis on early time shock dynamics we conclude that the density and temperature profiles are "asymmetric"; the density maximum and the temperature maximum occur within the shock layer; the absolute magnitudes of longitudinal stress and heat flux which are initially zero at both end states attain maxima in a very short time and thereafter decrease with time.

  8. Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yin; Li Yin-Chang; Liu Rui; Cui Fei-Fei; Pierre Evesque; Hou Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup.Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value,the directed clustering is observed,which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results.The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

  9. Field Driven Charging Dynamics of a Fluidized Granular Bed

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimatsu, R; Shinbrot, T; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    A simplified model has previously described the inductive charging of colliding identical grains in the presence of an external electric field. Here we extend that model by including heterogeneous surface charge distributions, grain rotations and electrostatic interactions between grains. We find from this more realistic model that strong heterogeneities in charging can occur in agitated granular beds, and we predict that shielding due to these heterogeneities can dramatically alter the charging rate in such beds.

  10. Onset of silo collapse under gravity-driven granular discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Reyes, Leonardo; Brau, Fabian; Clément, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Thin walled silos exhibit a critical filling height, Lc, above which the lateral wall buckles as a consequence of the frictional forces exerted by the grains during the granular discharge, producing a catastrophic failure of the structure. We use laboratory scale silos made of paper to study this process experimentally. Based on the observation of the deformation pattern that develops on the silo wall during the discharge, we have proposed a criterion for determining the time of onset of collapse, allowing us to study the conditions under which the collapse is triggered. In particular, we study the behavior of the grains in contact with the wall during the time interval before failure occurs and find that, according to this criterion, the collapse is triggered before a maximal mobilization of the grain-to-wall effective friction force is reached. This can be related to a theoretical model which treats the silo as a thin cylindrical shell subjected to an axial stress with the profile predicted by Janssen's model for the stresses in a silo filled with a granular material. This model predicts correctly the experimental scaling of Lc with various parameters of the system.

  11. Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of thermal collapse in a freely cooling granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvin, Itamar; Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch

    2010-08-01

    We show that, in dimension higher than one, heat diffusion and viscosity cannot arrest thermal collapse in a freely evolving dilute granular gas, even in the absence of gravity. Thermal collapse involves a finite-time blowup of the gas density. It was predicted earlier in ideal, Euler hydrodynamics of dilute granular gases in the absence of gravity, and in nonideal, Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics in the presence of gravity. We determine, analytically and numerically, the dynamic scaling laws that characterize the gas flow close to collapse. We also investigate bifurcations of a freely evolving dilute granular gas in circular and wedge-shaped containers. Our results imply that, in general, thermal collapse can only be arrested when the gas density becomes comparable with the close-packing density of grains. This provides a natural explanation to the formation of densely packed clusters of particles in a variety of initially dilute granular flows.

  12. Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne

    2016-04-01

    One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental

  13. Incorporation of Interstitial Gas Effects on Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrenya, Christine; Garzo, Vicente; Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Numerous examples of granular flows exist in which the role of the interstitial gas cannot be ignored. A range of approaches have been taken to incorporate these effects into continuum descriptions. Early efforts simply added a mean drag law to the momentum balance. This ad hoc approach was followed by more rigorous treatments in which an instantaneous drag was incorporated directly into the kinetic equation. Analytical expressions for the resulting continuum description were obtained in the Stokes limit, but not possible higher Reynolds numbers. In the current effort, DNS-based simulations are used to develop a model for the instantaneous drag force that is applicable to a wide range of Reynolds number. This model, based on the Langevin equation, is incorporated into the Enskog equation in order to derive a continuum description for the gas-solid flow. In the limit of Stokes flow, the additional terms arising in the conservation equation are found to match those of previous analytical treatments. Furthermore, the impact of gas on the solid-phase constitutive relations, which was ignored in analytical treatments, is determined. The parameter space examined is consistent with that found in circulating fluidized beds. For such systems, the results indicate a non-negligible impact of the gas phase on the shear viscosity and the Dufour coefficient.

  14. OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Ji Haisheng [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size {approx} 4'' Multiplication-Sign 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 A) He I 10830 A and broadband (10 A) TiO 7057 A. Since He I 10830 A triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 A filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.

  15. Explosive injection of gas-particle dispersions into a non-fluidized granular host: volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Discrete explosive bursts, or explosions, are known from many volcanic eruptions. In maar-diatreme eruptions, they have occurred in debris-filled volcanic vents when magma interacted with groundwater, implying that material mobilized by such explosions passed through the overlying and enclosing debris to reach the surface. Although other studies have addressed the form and characteristics of craters formed by discrete explosions in unconsolidated material, no details are available regarding the structure of the disturbed debris between the explosion site and the crater floor. Field studies of diatreme deposits reveal cross-cutting, steep- sided zones of non-bedded volcaniclastic material that have been inferred to result from "debris jets" driven by explosions. In order to determine the general processes and deposit geometry resulting from discrete, explosive injections of entrained particles through a particulate host, we ran a series of analog experiments in which specific volumes of compressed (5-20 MPa) air were released in bursts that drove gas-particle dispersions through a particulate host. The air expanded into and entrained red particles in a small crucible before moving upward into the white beads used for the host. Injected particles and the overlying host material were glass beads of identical size, shape and density. The experiments revealed that each burst drove into the host an expanding cavity containing air and colored particles, which rapidly collapsed as the driving gas escaped through the permeable roof. Total duration of each run, recorded with high-speed video, was approximately 0.5-1 second. As gas slowed and escaped the cavity the colored beads sedimented into the transient cavity, which was also closing laterally because of inward-directed granular flow of the host. This same behavior was observed even in runs where there was no explosive breaching of the surface, and no colored beads ejected. A columnar body of colored beads was left that

  16. Air-Driven Segregation in Binary Granular Mixtures with Same Size but Different Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chang-Hong; SHI Qing-Fan; YANG Lei; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the segregation effect of binary granular mixtures with the same size but different densities under vibration at different air pressures. Our experiments show that the segregation state is seriously dependent on the air pressure and there is a new type of partially segregated state at high air pressure, which has the characteristic that the lighter grains tend to stay at the bottom and form a pure layer, while heavier grains and remained lighter ones tend to rise and to form a mixed layer on the top of the system. We redefine the order parameter to study the variation of the segregation effect with the air pressure and vibration parameter in detail. Finally, the mechanism of the air-driven segregation is illustrated by the faster acceleration due to the airflow through the granular bed for lighter particles.

  17. Modeling gas formation and mineral precipitation in a granular iron column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Amos, Richard T; Blowes, David W

    2012-06-19

    In granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), hydrogen gas formation, entrapment and release of gas bubbles, and secondary mineral precipitation have been known to affect the permeability and reactivity. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P was enhanced to couple gas formation and release, secondary mineral precipitation, and the effects of these processes on hydraulic properties and iron reactivity. The enhanced model was applied to a granular iron column, which was studied for the treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of dissolved CaCO(3). The simulation reasonably reproduced trends in gas formation, secondary mineral precipitation, permeability changes, and reactivity changes observed over time. The simulation showed that the accumulation of secondary minerals reduced the reactivity of the granular iron over time, which in turn decreased the rate of mineral accumulation, and also resulted in a gradual decrease in gas formation over time. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the evolving nature of geochemistry and permeability, resulting from coupled processes of gas formation and mineral precipitation, which leads to a better understanding of the processes controlling the granular iron reactivity, and represents an improved method for incorporating these factors into the design of granular iron PRBs.

  18. Granular Media under Vibration in Zero Gravity: Transition from Rattling to Granular Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Evesque, P; Zhai, G; Hou, M

    2011-01-01

    We report on different experimental behaviours of granular dissipative matter excited by vibration as studied during the 43rd ESA campaign of Airbus A300-0g from CNES. The effect of g-jitter is quantified through the generation of a rattle effect. The French-European team's electromagnetic set-up is used, with 20Hz cam recording and high speed camera for a short duration (1s) during each parabola.

  19. Continuum modelling of piston driven shock waves through granular gases and ensuing pattern formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were previously completed to investigate the stability of piston driven shock waves through dilute granular gases. By considering viscoelastic collisions, allowing for finite dissipation within the shock wave, instabilities were found in the form of distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. This work is now extended to the continuum level. Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for granular gases are modelled with a modified cooling rate to include an impact threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. The shock structure predicted by the continuum formulation is found in good agreement with the structure obtained by MD. Non-linear stability analyses of the travelling wave solution are performed, showing a neutrally stable structure and responding only to fluctuations in the upstream state. Introducing strong perturbations to the incoming density field, in accordance with the spacial fluctuations in upstream state seen in MD, yields similar instabilities as those previously observed. While the inviscid model predicts a highly turbulent structure from these perturbations, the inclusion of viscosity yields comparable wavelengths of pattern formations to those seen in MD.

  20. Inelastic gas: An experimental study of vibro-fluidized dilute granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Klebert Bezerra

    We conduct an experimental study of a two dimensional vibro-fluidized dilute granular medium. The system is composed of spherical beads confined to move in a vertical plane and excited by intense vertical vibrations. We perform full-field tracking of positions and orientations of the spheres by high speed photography. In steady-state, the motion of the grains resembles that of a molecular gas, thus the name granular gas. We study the distribution of linear velocities in the granular gas. The investigation shows that the distributions are non-gaussian, best fitted by the function P(v) ˜ exp(-beta| v|/sigma)1.5), and insensitive to number density, driving parameters and particle inelasticity. The distribution is a one parameter distribution, parameterized by the mean square velocity; which defines a granular temperature. T = ½ . We study binary mixtures of the granular media. We find that, in general, the granular temperature is not equal for the two types of spheres. However, the temperature ratio is constant in the bulk. The ratio depends strongly on the mass ratio of the spheres, but not on their inelasticity. The ratio is also insensitive to compositional parameters of the mixture such as number fraction and number density. We also investigate the statistics of the power flux into a subsystem of the granular gas. The power shows large fluctuations, including frequent large negative fluctuations. The relative probabilities of positive and negative fluctuations in the power flux are in close accord with the Fluctuation Theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen (Gallavotti & Cohen, 1995b). We also compare the effective temperature that emerges from this analysis to the kinetic granular temperature. Finally, we study the rotational dynamics of the granular gas. We find that the granular temperature is not equipartitioned between translational and rotational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate that the ratio of rotational to translational energy is independent of the

  1. An experimental, theoretical and event-driven computational study of narrow vibrofluidised granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Anthony; Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David; Luding, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    We review simulations, experiments and a theoretical treatment of vertically vibrated granular media. The systems considered are confined in narrow quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional (column) geometries, where the vertical extension of the container is much larger than one or both horizontal lengths. The additional geometric constraint present in the column setup frustrates the convection state that is normally observed in wider geometries. We start by showing that the Event Driven (ED) simulation method is able to accurately reproduce the previously experimentally determined phase-diagram for vibrofludised granular materials. We then review two papers that used ED simulations to study narrow quasi-one-dimensional systems revealing a new phenomenon: collective oscillations of the grains with a characteristic frequency that is much lower than the frequency of energy injection. Theoretical work was then undertaken that is able to accurately predict the frequency of such an oscillation and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) experiments were undertaken to provide the first experimental evidence of this new phenomenon. Finally, we briefly discuss ongoing work to create an open-source version of this ED via its integration in the existing open-source package MercuryDPM (http://MercuryDPM.org); which has many advanced features that are not found in other codes.

  2. Thermal properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas of rough hard spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Reyes Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study in this work the dynamics of a granular impurity immersed in a low-density granular gas of identical particles. For description of the kinetics of the granular gas and the impurity particles we use the rough hard sphere collisional model. We take into account the effects of non-conservation of energy upon particle collision. We find an (approximate analytical solution of the pertinent kinetic equations for the single-particle velocity distribution functions that reproduces reasonably well the properties of translational/rotational energy non-equipartition. We assess the accuracy of the theoretical solution by comparing with computer simulations. For this, we use two independent computer data sets, from molecular dynamics (MD and from Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC. Both approach well, with different degrees, the kinetic theory within a reasonable range of parameter values.

  3. Thermal properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas of rough hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco; Lasanta, Antonio; Santos, Andrés; Garzó, Vicente

    2017-06-01

    We study in this work the dynamics of a granular impurity immersed in a low-density granular gas of identical particles. For description of the kinetics of the granular gas and the impurity particles we use the rough hard sphere collisional model. We take into account the effects of non-conservation of energy upon particle collision. We find an (approximate) analytical solution of the pertinent kinetic equations for the single-particle velocity distribution functions that reproduces reasonably well the properties of translational/rotational energy non-equipartition. We assess the accuracy of the theoretical solution by comparing with computer simulations. For this, we use two independent computer data sets, from molecular dynamics (MD) and from Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). Both approach well, with different degrees, the kinetic theory within a reasonable range of parameter values.

  4. The anisotropy of free path in a vibro-fluidized granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yifeng; Chen, Yanpei; Wang, Wei; Hou, Meiying

    2016-08-01

    The free path of a vibro-fluidized two-dimensional (2D) inelastic granular gas confined in a rectangular box is investigated by 2D event-driven molecular simulation. By tracking particles in the simulation, we analyze the local free path. The probability distribution of the free path shows a high tail deviating from the exponential prediction. The anisotropy of the free path is found when we separate the free path to x and y components. The probability distribution of y component is exponential, while x component has a high tail. The probability distribution of angle between the relative velocity and the unit vector joined two particle centers deviates from the distribution of two random vectors, indicating the existence of the dynamic heterogeneities in our system. We explain these results by resorting to the kinetic theory with two-peak velocity distribution. The kinetic theory agrees well with the simulation result. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB215003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91334204), the Fund from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA07080100), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561071).

  5. Global Pressure of One-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases Driven by Gaussian White Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study the global pressure of a one-dimensional polydisperse granular gases system for the first time,in which the size distribution of particles has the fractal characteristic and the inhomogeneity is described by a fractal dimension D. The particles are driven by Gaussian white noise and subject to inelastic mutual collisions. We define the global pressure P of the system as the impulse transferred across a surface in a unit of time, which has two contributions,one from the translational motion of particles and the other from the collisions. Explicit expression for the global pressure in the steady state is derived. By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how the inelasticity of collisions and the inhomogeneity of the particles influence the global pressure. The simulation results indicate that the restitution coefficient e and the fractal dimension D have significant effect on the pressure.

  6. Regularized Moment Equations and Shock Waves for Rarefied Granular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob

    2016-11-01

    It is well-known that the shock structures predicted by extended hydrodynamic models are more accurate than the standard Navier-Stokes model in the rarefied regime, but they fail to predict continuous shock structures when the Mach number exceeds a critical value. Regularization or parabolization is one method to obtain smooth shock profiles at all Mach numbers. Following a Chapman-Enskog-like method, we have derived the "regularized" version 10-moment equations ("R10" moment equations) for inelastic hard-spheres. In order to show the advantage of R10 moment equations over standard 10-moment equations, the R10 moment equations have been employed to solve the Riemann problem of plane shock waves for both molecular and granular gases. The numerical results are compared between the 10-moment and R10-moment models and it is found that the 10-moment model fails to produce continuous shock structures beyond an upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 , while the R10-moment model predicts smooth shock profiles beyond the upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 . The density and granular temperature profiles are found to be asymmetric, with their maxima occurring within the shock-layer.

  7. Effective potentials in a bidimensional vibrated granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, Stephanie; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of the spatial correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional granular fluid kept in a nonstatic steady state via vertical shaking. The simulations explore a wide range of vertical accelerations, restitution coefficients, and packing fractions, always staying below the crystallization limit. From the simulations we obtain the relevant pair distribution functions (PDFs), and effective potentials for the interparticle interaction are extracted from these PDFs via the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Percus-Yevick closure. The correlations in the granular structures originating from these effective potentials are checked against the originating PDF using standard Monte Carlo simulations, and we find in general an excellent agreement. The resulting effective potentials show an increase of the spatial correlation at contact with the decreasing values of the restitution coefficient, and a tendency of the potentials to display deeper wells for more dissipative dynamics. A general exception to this trend appears for a range of values of the forcing, which depends on the restitution coefficient, but not on the density, where resonant bouncing increases correlations, resulting in deeper potential wells. The nature of these resonances is explored and shown to be the result of synchronization in the parabolic flights of the particles.

  8. Fluctuations of Internal Energy Flow in a Vibrated Granular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Andrea; Visco, Paolo; Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2005-09-01

    The nonequilibrium fluctuations of power flux in a fluidized granular media have been recently measured in an experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 164301 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.164301], which was announced to be a verification of the fluctuation relation (FR) by Gallavotti and Cohen. An effective temperature was also identified and proposed to be a useful probe for such nonequilibrium systems. We explain these results in terms of a two-temperature Poisson process. Within this model, supported by independent molecular dynamics simulations, power flux fluctuations do not satisfy the FR and the nature of the effective temperature is clarified. In the pursuit of a hypothetical global quantity fulfilling the FR, this points to the need of considering candidates other than the power flux.

  9. Dynamic Structure Factor and Transport Coefficients of a Homogeneously Driven Granular Fluid in Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Zippelius, Annette; Aspelmeier, Timo

    2011-03-01

    We study the dynamic structure factor of a granular fluid of hard spheres, driven into a stationary nonequilibrium state by balancing the energy loss due to inelastic collisions with the energy input due to driving. The driving is chosen to conserve momentum, so that fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts the existence of sound modes. We present results of computer simulations which are based on an event driven algorithm. The dynamic structure factor F (q , ω) is determined for volume fractions 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 and coefficients of normal restitution 0.8 and 0.9. We observe sound waves, and compare our results for F (q , ω) with the predictions of generalized fluctuating hydrodynamics which takes into account that temperature fluctuations decay either diffusively or with a finite relaxation rate, depending on wave number and inelasticity. We determine the speed of sound and the transport coefficients and compare them to the results of kinetic theory. K.V.L. thanks the Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Goettingen, for financial support and hospitality.

  10. Homogeneous states in driven granular mixtures: Enskog kinetic theory versus molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi; Garzó, Vicente

    2014-04-28

    The homogeneous state of a binary mixture of smooth inelastic hard disks or spheres is analyzed. The mixture is driven by a thermostat composed by two terms: a stochastic force and a drag force proportional to the particle velocity. The combined action of both forces attempts to model the interaction of the mixture with a bath or surrounding fluid. The problem is studied by means of two independent and complementary routes. First, the Enskog kinetic equation with a Fokker-Planck term describing interactions of particles with thermostat is derived. Then, a scaling solution to the Enskog kinetic equation is proposed where the dependence of the scaled distributions φi of each species on the granular temperature occurs not only through the dimensionless velocity c = v/v0 (v0 being the thermal velocity) but also through the dimensionless driving force parameters. Approximate forms for φi are constructed by considering the leading order in a Sonine polynomial expansion. The ratio of kinetic temperatures T1/T2 and the fourth-degree velocity moments λ1 and λ2 (which measure non-Gaussian properties of φ1 and φ2, respectively) are explicitly determined as a function of the mass ratio, size ratio, composition, density, and coefficients of restitution. Second, to assess the reliability of the theoretical results, molecular dynamics simulations of a binary granular mixture of spheres are performed for two values of the coefficient of restitution (α = 0.9 and 0.8) and three different solid volume fractions (ϕ = 0.00785, 0.1, and 0.2). Comparison between kinetic theory and computer simulations for the temperature ratio shows excellent agreement, even for moderate densities and strong dissipation. In the case of the cumulants λ1 and λ2, good agreement is found for the lower densities although significant discrepancies between theory and simulation are observed with increasing density.

  11. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a new numerical algorithm (called PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the equation for intra-granular fission gas release in nuclear fuel. The work was carried out in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano and Institute for Transuranium Elements. The PolyPole-1 algorithms is being implemented in INL's fuels code BISON code as part of BISON's fission gas release model. The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this work, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, with the addition of polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of the PolyPole-1 solution is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  12. Onset of sediment transport is a continuous transition driven by fluid shear and granular creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, Morgane; Ortiz, Carlos P; Durian, Douglas J; Jerolmack, Douglas J

    2015-03-09

    Fluid-sheared granular transport sculpts landscapes and undermines infrastructure, yet predicting the onset of sediment transport remains notoriously unreliable. For almost a century, this onset has been treated as a discontinuous transition at which hydrodynamic forces overcome gravity-loaded grain-grain friction. Using a custom laminar-shear flume to image slow granular dynamics deep into the bed, here we find that the onset is instead a continuous transition from creeping to granular flow. This transition occurs inside the dense granular bed at a critical viscous number, similar to granular flows and colloidal suspensions and inconsistent with hydrodynamic frameworks. We propose a new phase diagram for sediment transport, where 'bed load' is a dense granular flow bounded by creep below and suspension above. Creep is characteristic of disordered solids and reminiscent of soil diffusion on hillslopes. Results provide new predictions for the onset and dynamics of sediment transport that challenge existing models.

  13. Characterizing local forces and rearrangements inside a gravity-driven granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Emma; Nordstrom, Kerstin

    While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not well-understood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening and by adding external forcing to the top of the flowing pile. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. We are therefore able to correlate local forces with rearrangements within the system, and characterize the evolution of this interplay on the approach to the clogging transition.

  14. Types of gas fluidization of cohesive granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Castellanos, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Some years ago it was shown that gas-fluidized powders may transit from solid-like to fluid-like fluidization prior to bubbling, shedding light on a long-standing controversy on the nature of "homogeneous" fluidization. In this paper it is shown that some gas-fluidized powders may also transit from the fluid-like regime to elutriation, with full suppression of the bubbling regime. We provide a diagram that can be used to predict these types of fluidization exhibited by cohesive powders based on simple phenomenological equations in which particle aggregation due to attractive forces is a key ingredient.

  15. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  16. Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2017-06-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)

  17. A He-gas Cooled, Stationary Granular Target

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P

    2003-01-01

    In the CERN approach to the design of a neutrino factory, the repetition frequency of the proton beam is high enough to consider stationary solid targets as a viable solution for multi-MW beams. The target consists of high density tantalum spheres of 2 mm diameter which can efficiently be cooled by passing a high mass flow He-gas stream through the voids between the Ta-granules. Very small thermal shocks and stresses will arise in this fine grained structure due to the relatively long burst of 3.3 ms from the SPL-proton linac. In a quadruple target system where each target receives only one quarter of the total beam power of 4 MW, conservative temperature levels and adequate lifetimes of the target are estimated in its very high radiation environment. A conceptual design of the integration of the target into the magnetic horn-pion-collector is presented.

  18. Diffusivity and weak clustering in a quasi-two-dimensional granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera-Burgos, J A; Pérez-Ángel, G; Nahmad-Molinari, Y

    2010-11-01

    We present results from a detailed simulation of a quasi-two-dimensional dissipative granular gas, kept in a noncondensed steady state via vertical shaking over a rough substrate. This gas shows a weak power-law decay in the tails of its pair distribution functions, indicating clustering. This clustering depends monotonically on the dissipation coefficient and disappears when the sphere-sphere collisions are conservative. Clustering is also sensitive to the packing fraction. This gas also displays the standard nonequilibrium characteristics of similar systems, including non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. The diffusion coefficients are calculated over all the conditions of the simulations, and it is found that diluted gases are more diffusive for smaller restitution coefficients.

  19. Irregular Oscillation of Bi-disperse Granular Gas in Cyclic Three Compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Hussain Shah; LI Yin-Chang; CUI Fei-Fei; ZHANG Qi; Pierre Evesque; HOU Mei-Ying

    2012-01-01

    A 3-D molecular dynamics simulation of a bi-disperse vibro-fluidized granular gas in a cyclic three-compartment cell is performed.A cluster of particles is randomly found in one of the compartments.Lohse's flux model is modified to incorporate inelastic particle-boundary colBsions.This model predicts that periodically there is clustering in each compartment.It is then found that if the model is further modified to incorporate Gaussian white noise,it correctly predicts the non-sequential clustering behavior confirming that there is no chaotic behavior.

  20. Self assembly, mobilization, and flotation of crude oil contaminated sand particles as granular shells on gas bubbles in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Boglaienko, Daria

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport studies and models include transport mechanisms for colloidal particles and dissolved ions which can be easily moved with water currents. However, mobilization of much larger contaminated granular particles (i.e., sand) in sediments have not been considered as a possible mechanism due to the relatively larger size of sand particles and their high bulk density. We conducted experiments to demonstrate that oil contaminated granular particles (which exhibit hydrophobic characteristics) can attach on gas bubbles to form granular shells and transfer from the sediment phase to the water column. The interactions and conditions necessary for the oil contaminated granular particles to self assemble as tightly packed granular shells on the gas bubbles which transfer from sediment phase to the water column were evaluated both experimentally and theoretically for South Louisiana crude oil and quartz sand particles. Analyses showed that buoyancy forces can be adequate to move the granular shell forming around the air bubbles if the bubble radius is above 0.001mm for the sand particles with 0.28mm diameter. Relatively high magnitude of the Hamaker constant for the oil film between sand and air (5.81×10(-20)J for air-oil-sand) indicates that air bubbles have high affinity to attach on the oil film that is on the sand particles in comparison to attaching to the sand particles without the oil film in water (1.60×10(-20)J for air-water-sand). The mobilization mechanism of the contaminated granular particles with gas bubbles can occur in natural environments resulting in transfer of granular particles from sediments to the water column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. System of elastic hard spheres which mimics the transport properties of a granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrés; Astillero, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The prototype model of a fluidized granular system is a gas of inelastic hard spheres (IHS) with a constant coefficient of normal restitution alpha. Using a kinetic theory description we investigate the two basic ingredients that a model of elastic hard spheres (EHS) must have in order to mimic the most relevant transport properties of the underlying IHS gas. First, the EHS gas is assumed to be subject to the action of an effective drag force with a friction constant equal to half the cooling rate of the IHS gas, the latter being evaluated in the local equilibrium approximation for simplicity. Second, the collision rate of the EHS gas is reduced by a factor (1/2)(1+alpha), relative to that of the IHS gas. Comparison between the respective Navier-Stokes transport coefficients shows that the EHS model reproduces almost perfectly the self-diffusion coefficient and reasonably well the two transport coefficients defining the heat flux, the shear viscosity being reproduced within a deviation less than 14% (for alpha > or = 0.5). Moreover, the EHS model is seen to agree with the fundamental collision integrals of inelastic mixtures and dense gases. The approximate equivalence between IHS and EHS is used to propose kinetic models for inelastic collisions as simple extensions of known kinetic models for elastic collisions.

  2. Fenton-Driven Chemical Regeneration of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon -- A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) underwent 3 adsorption/oxidation cycles. Pilot-scale columns were intermittently placed on-line at a ground water pump and treat facility, saturated with MTBE, and regenerated with H2O2 under different chemical, physical, and operational...

  3. Bouncing, rolling, energy flows, and cluster formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of crystalline clusters for a two-dimensional (2D) sinusoidally vibrated granular gas, with maximum vertical acceleration smaller than gravity, using fully 3D simulations. It is found that this phenomenon arises from the spontaneous segregation of the granulate into two dynamical modes: one of grains that bounce in synchrony with the motion of the sustaining plate (“bouncers”) and another of grains that cease to bounce and simply rolls on the plate, without ever loosing contact with it (“rollers”). These two dynamical categories are quite robust with respect to perturbations. The populations for bouncers and rollers depend on the preparation of the granulate and can be made to take arbitrary values in all the range of accelerations where both dynamical modes are present. It is found that the dynamical mode with the largest population coalesces in clusters under the influence of the other mode, whose grains act as a higher pressure gas that compresses the clusters. In this way it is possible to produce clusters of rollers or clusters of bouncers. A gas made of grains from only one dynamical class shows only weak density fluctuations. When the occupation fractions for both modes are similar, one observes segregation and clusters of both types. The clustering of the gas is monitored using both the average coordination number and the local hexatic order parameter ψ6. Energy flows in the plane are monitored, and it is shown that roller-bouncer collisions increase horizontal kinetic energy, while all other types of collisions reduce this energy. We find that friction with the substrate is the main sink of horizontal energy for these granular gases.

  4. Hydrodynamic description of a vibrofluidized granular bed driven at high frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Manzoor, Shehryar; Mahabat Khan, Muhammad; Ali, Muzaffar

    2016-08-01

    Results are reported for a dry granular bed vertically excited at high and low frequencies with constant peak base velocity. Previous experimental data sets using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are used for comparison at low (~38 Hz) and high (~11 kHz) vibration frequencies. Packing fractions and granular temperatures are compared against hydrodynamic and molecular dynamics simulation models. At low frequency hydrodynamic and MD simulations results show the presence of a heat wave. Whilst at high frequencies soft sphere potential based MD simulations highlight the role of finite duration collisions between particles and the vibrating wall. In this region the timescales of vibration and collision duration are not well separated, as observed in experimental results.

  5. Experimental validation of granular dynamics simulations of gas-fluidised beds with homogeneous inflow conditions using Positron Emission Particle Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Mohd Salleh, M.; Seville, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    A hard-sphere granular dynamics model of a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed was experimentally validated using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT). In the model the Newtonian equations of motion are solved for each solid particle while taking into account the particle¿particle and particle¿w

  6. UK Natural Gas: Gas-Specific or Oil Driven Pricing?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the time-varying relationship between oil and natural gas in the UK. We develop a model where relative prices can move between pricing-regimes; markets switch between being decoupled and integrated. Our model endogenously accounts for periods where oil and natural gas temporarily decouple due to gas specific pricing. We show that gas-specific pricing is primarily related to fall/winter peak-load gas pricing and that mean reversion in relative prices is dependent o...

  7. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater

  8. Numerical investigations of the force experienced by a wall subject to granular lid-driven flows: regimes and scaling of the mean force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneib, François; Faug, Thierry; Dufour, Frédéric; Naaim, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Discrete element simulations are used to model a two-dimensional gravity-free granular sample, which is trapped between two smooth sidewalls and one bottom rough wall while being subject to a constant shearing velocity at the top under a given confinement pressure. This system, inspired by conventional fluid mechanics, is called a granular lid-driven cavity. Attention is firstly paid to the time-averaged dynamics of the grains once a steady-state is reached. Strong spatial heterogeneities associated with a large-scale vortex formed within the whole volume of the lid-driven cavity are observed. The mean steady force on the sidewall facing the shearing velocity is then investigated in detail for different cavity lengths, shearing velocities and confinement pressures at the top. The ratio of the force on the latter wall to the top confinement pressure force is not constant but depends on both the shearing velocity and the confinement pressure. Above a critical value of the cavity length relative to the wall height and over a wide range of both shearing velocity and top confinement pressure, all data merge into a one-to-one relation between the mean force scaled by the top pressure force and the macroscopic inertial number of the lid-driven cavity. This result reveals the key role played by the inertial rheology of the granular material in the granular force transmission.

  9. Non-Gaussian and Clustering Behavior in One-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gas System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Duan-Ming; ZHONG Zhi-Cheng; LI Rui

    2007-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional dynamic model of polydisperse granular mixture with the fractal characteristic of the particle size distribution, in which the particles are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and are driven by Gaussian white noise. The inhomogeneity of the particle size distribution is described by a fractal dimension D. The stationary state that the mixture reaches is the result of the balance between energy dissipation and energy injection. By molecular dynamics simulations, we have mainly studied how the inhomogeneity of the particle size distribution and the inelasticity of collisions influence the velocity distribution and distribution of interparticle spacing in the steady-state.The simulation results indicate that, in the inelasticity case, the velocity distribution strongly deviates from the Gaussian one and the system has a strong spatial clustering. Thus the inhomogeneity and the inelasticity have great effects on the velocity distribution and distribution of interparticle spacing. The quantitative information of the non-Gaussian velocity distribution and that of clustering are respectively represented.

  10. Gas-solute dispersivity ratio in granular porous media as related to particle size distribution and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    data. This paper evaluates the possibility for estimating solute dispersion based on gas dispersion measurements. Breakthrough measurements were carried out at different fluid velocities (covering the same range in Reynolds number), using O2 and NaCl as gas and solute tracers, respectively. Three...... different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined...

  11. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in

  12. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  13. Nonergodic dynamics of force-free granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Bodrova, Anna; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We study analytically and by event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the nonergodic and aging properties of force-free cooling granular gases with both constant and velocity-dependent (viscoelastic) restitution coefficient $\\varepsilon$ for particle pair collisions. We compare the granular gas dynamics with an effective single particle stochastic model based on an underdamped Langevin equation with time dependent diffusivity. We find that both models share the same behavior of the ensembl...

  14. Hydrodynamic modeling of dense gas-fluidised beds using the kinetic theory of granular flow: effect of coefficient of restitution on bed dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised

  15. Hydrodynamic modeling of dense gas-fluidised beds using the kinetic theory of granular flow: effect of coefficient of restitution on bed dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised

  16. Hydrodynamic modeling of dense gas-fluidised beds using the kinetic theory of granular flow: effect of coefficient of restitution on bed dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised

  17. Hydrodynamic modelling of dense gas-fluidised beds using the kinetic theory of granular flow: effect of coefficient of restitution on bed dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-fluid Eulerian CFD model with closure laws according to the kinetic theory of granular flow has been applied to study the influence of the coefficient of restitution on the hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised beds. It is demonstrated that hydrodynamics of dense gas-fluidised

  18. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  19. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, C.H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  20. Modeling CO2 air dispersion from gas driven lake eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Tassi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The most tragic event of gas driven lake eruption occurred at Lake Nyos (Cameroon) on 21 August 1986, when a dense cloud of CO2 suffocated more than 1700 people and an uncounted number of animals in just one night. The event stimulated a series of researches aimed to understand gas origins, gas release mechanisms and strategies for gas hazard mitigation. Very few studies have been carried out for describing the transport of dense CO2 clouds in the atmosphere. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, different simplified models able to describe only specific phases or aspects have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard we used a model based on a shallow layer approach (TWODEE2). This technique which uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of computational fluid dynamic models and the simpler integral models. Recently the model has been applied for simulating CO2 dispersion from natural gas emissions in Central Italy. The results have shown how the dispersion pattern is strongly affected by the intensity of gas release, the topography and the ambient wind speed. Here for the first time we applied TWODEE2 code to simulate the dispersion of the large CO2 clouds released by limnic eruptions. An application concerns the case of the 1986 event at lake Nyos. Some difficulties for the simulations were related to the lack of quantitative information: gas flux estimations are not well constrained, meteorological conditions are only qualitatively known, the digital model of the terrain is of poor quality. Different scenarios were taken into account in order to reproduce the qualitative observations available for such episode. The observations regard mainly the effects of gas on

  1. Advanced Gas-Cooled Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Experiment. AGATE; Advanced Gas-Cooled Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Experiment. AGATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettler, John; Biss, Klaus [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Nuklearen Brennstoffkreislauf (INBK); Bongardt, Klaus [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Kernphysik (IKP)] (and others)

    2011-07-01

    In Germany the question of final radioactive waste disposal is not yet decided. For intermediate-level radioactive waste the final repository Konrad is licensed, for the high-level radioactive waste not certified repository exists. Transmutation by neutron reaction can reduce the long-term heat output and the amount of long-living radionuclides (minor actinides MA). Several accelerator-driven transmutation concepts have been discussed in the past. The authors describe preliminary results of a feasibility study of the concept AGATE (advanced gas-cooled accelerator-driven transmutation experiment). An accelerated 600 MeV proton beam on the spallation target that is the neutron source in the subcritical reactor. In the starting phase the concept assumes MOX fuel with 20% Pu. In a later phase an optimized fuel for the MA transmutation has to be elaborated.

  2. Effect of Coulomb friction on orientational correlation and velocity distribution functions in a sheared dilute granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Alam, Meheboob

    2011-08-01

    From particle simulations of a sheared frictional granular gas, we show that the Coulomb friction can have dramatic effects on orientational correlation as well as on both the translational and angular velocity distribution functions even in the Boltzmann (dilute) limit. The dependence of orientational correlation on friction coefficient (μ) is found to be nonmonotonic, and the Coulomb friction plays a dual role of enhancing or diminishing the orientational correlation, depending on the value of the tangential restitution coefficient (which characterizes the roughness of particles). From the sticking limit (i.e., with no sliding contact) of rough particles, decreasing the Coulomb friction is found to reduce the density and spatial velocity correlations which, together with diminished orientational correlation for small enough μ, are responsible for the transition from non-gaussian to gaussian distribution functions in the double limit of small friction (μ→0) and nearly elastic particles (e→1). This double limit in fact corresponds to perfectly smooth particles, and hence the maxwellian (gaussian) is indeed a solution of the Boltzmann equation for a frictional granular gas in the limit of elastic collisions and zero Coulomb friction at any roughness. The high-velocity tails of both distribution functions seem to follow stretched exponentials even in the presence of Coulomb friction, and the related velocity exponents deviate strongly from a gaussian with increasing friction.

  3. Decompaction and fluidization of a saturated and confined granular medium by injection of a viscous liquid or gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Ø; Chevalier, C; Lindner, A; Toussaint, R; Clément, E; Måløy, K J; Flekkøy, E G; Schmittbuhl, J

    2008-11-01

    We compare quantitatively two experimental situations concerning injection of a miscible fluid into an initially jammed granular medium saturated with the same fluid, confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. The two experiments are identical, apart from the interstitial and injected fluid, which is in one case air injected into a dry granular packing, and in the other case silicone oil injected into a dense suspension. In spite of the strong differences regarding the nature of the two fluids, strikingly similar dynamical and geometrical features are identified as functions of the control parameters: cell thickness and applied fluid injection pressure. In both cases an initial hydrodynamically driven decompaction process controls the unjamming and prepares the final displacement process characterized by fingerlike patterns empty of grains. The pattern shapes are comparable. In addition, the mobilities of the coupled fluid-grain flow, rescaled by the interstitial fluid viscosity and grain diameter squared, are of the same range and behave comparably. The mobility proves to depend on the initial solid fraction of the medium. Subtle differences are observed in geometrical aspects like the finger width with respect to the control parameters.

  4. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112... Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the operation of the transfer means under § 112.20-5, the diesel engine or gas turbine driving the...

  5. Granular superconductivity and magnetic-field-driven recovery of macroscopic coherence in a cuprate/manganite multilayer

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, B. P. P.; Khmaladze, J.; Marsik, P.; Perret, E.; Cerreta, A.; Orlita, M.; Biškup, N.; Varela, M.; Bernhard, C.

    2015-01-01

    We show that in Pr$ _{0.5} $La$ _{0.2} $Ca$ _{0.3} $MnO$ _{3} $/YBa$ _{2} $Cu$ _{3} $O$ _{7} $ (PLCMO/YBCO) multilayers the low temperature state of YBCO is very resistive and resembles the one of a granular superconductor or a frustrated Josephson-junction network. Notably, a coherent superconducting response can be restored with a large magnetic field which also suppresses the charge-orbital order in PLCMO. This coincidence suggests that the granular superconducting state of YBCO is induced...

  6. Granular superconductivity and magnetic-field-driven recovery of macroscopic coherence in a cuprate/manganite multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, B. P. P.; Khmaladze, J.; Marsik, P.; Perret, E.; Cerreta, A.; Orlita, M.; Biškup, N.; Varela, M.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-11-01

    We show that in Pr0.5La0.2Ca0.3MnO3 /YBa2Cu3O7 (PLCMO/YBCO) multilayers the low temperature state of YBCO is very resistive and resembles that of a granular superconductor or a frustrated Josephson-junction network. Notably, a coherent superconducting response can be restored with a large magnetic field which also suppresses the charge-orbital order in PLCMO. This coincidence suggests that the granular superconducting state of YBCO is induced by the charge-orbital order of PLCMO. The coupling mechanism and the nature of the induced inhomogeneous state in YBCO remain to be understood.

  7. Wind-driven gas networks and star formation in galaxies: reaction-advection hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, David; Scalo, John

    2001-07-01

    increases with density, but dependences on gas velocity dispersion and average shell column density suggest that the dependence is multivariate. The distribution of gas velocities exhibits exponential tails over a broad range of parameter values and the velocity distribution for gas in filaments is nearly exponential. Decay simulations with no star formation suggest that the exponential tails are caused by multiple shell interactions, not individual stellar winds. The cloud mass spectra, estimated using a simplified version of the structure tree method, tend to be power laws at the higher-mass end, with an index that is nearly independent of the star formation activity or model parameters. Kinetic energy decay in simulations without star formation yields a t-1 dependence. We discuss how the simulations can be viewed in the context of various incomplete conceptual models, including collisional cloud coalescence, wind-driven turbulence, propagating star formation, forced mass-conserving Burgers turbulence, and granular fluids.

  8. Damage spreading in a driven lattice gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Saracco, Gustavo P.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2013-06-01

    We studied damage spreading in a Driven Lattice Gas (DLG) model as a function of the temperature T, the magnitude of the external driving field E, and the lattice size. The DLG model undergoes an order-disorder second-order phase transition at the critical temperature Tc(E), such that the ordered phase is characterized by high-density strips running along the direction of the applied field; while in the disordered phase one has a lattice-gas-like behavior. It is found that the damage always spreads for all the investigated temperatures and reaches a saturation value D that depends only on T. D increases for TTc(E=∞) and is free of finite-size effects. This behavior can be explained as due to the existence of interfaces between the high-density strips and the lattice-gas-like phase whose roughness depends on T. Also, we investigated damage spreading for a range of finite fields as a function of T, finding a behavior similar to that of the case with E=∞.

  9. Development of a gas engine-driven chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panora, R.; Koplow, M.; Gehret, J.; Morgan, J.

    1990-05-01

    A development of a natural gas engine-driven chiller with a nominal capacity of 150 tons and an optional engine and exhaust waste-heat recovery system totaling approximately 700,000 Btu/hr is described. The design is based on a conventional vapor-compression cycle, which uses an oil-flooded twin-screw compressor. Three program phases are presented: (1) initial development of the product and assessment of its market viability; (2) final laboratory development and field experiment of an early prototype; and (3) a nationwide field test of 7 production prototypes. The reliability and serviceability of the chiller have met expectations and have proven to be within the bounds of acceptability for this type of equipment.

  10. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump with Desiccant Dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    About 40% of total U.S. energy consumption was consumed in residential and commercial buildings. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. This paper describes the development of an innovative natural gas, propane, LNG or bio-gas IC engine-driven heat pump (GHP) with desiccant dehumidification (GHP/DD). This integrated system has higher overall efficiencies than conventional equipment for space cooling, addresses both new and existing commercial buildings, and more effectively controls humidity in humid areas. Waste heat is recovered from the GHP to provide energy for regenerating the desiccant wheel and to augment heating capacity and efficiency. By combining the two technologies, an overall source COP of greater that 1.5 (hot, humid case) can be achieved by utilizing waste heat from the engine to reduce the overall energy required to regenerate the desiccant. Moreover, system modeling results show that the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to less 60% in a dedicated outdoor air system application with hot, humid cases.

  11. Numerical simulations of compressively driven interstellar turbulence: I. Isothermal gas

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfram; Hupp, Markus; Kern, Sebastian; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2008-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of supersonic isothermal turbulence driven by mostly compressive large-scale forcing, using both a static grid and adaptive mesh refinement with an effective resolution N=768^3. After a transient phase dominated by shocks, turbulence evolves into a steady state with an RMS Mach number about 2.5, in which cloud-like structures of over-dense gas are surrounded by highly rarefied gas. The index of the turbulence energy spectrum function beta = 2.0 in the shock-dominated phase. As the flow approaches statistical equilibrium, the spectrum flattens, with beta = 1.9. For the scaling exponent of the root mean square velocity fluctuation, we obtain gamma = 0.43 from the velocity structure functions of second order. These results are well within the range of observed scaling properties for the velocity dispersion in molecular clouds. Calculating structure functions of order p=1,...,5, we find for all scaling exponents significant deviations from the Kolmogorov-Burgers model proposed b...

  12. Test of an improved gas engine-driven heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new generation of natural gas engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) was introduced to the marketplace recently. While the units installed have performed exceptionally well and earned rave reviews for comfort and savings on utility bills, the higher initial cost and relatively long payback time have affected the wide commercialization of this advanced technology. According to a study done for the southeastern US in the Atlanta metropolitan area, the annual operating cost of the GEHP is less than that of a baseline system consisting of a 92% efficiency gas furnace and a SEER 12 air conditioner. The estimated payback time is around 10 years to cover the difference in initial equipment price between the new and the baseline system. It has been projected that a liquid overfeed (LOF) recuperative cycle concept can simplify the hardware design of a GEHP, resulting in reduced cost and improved performance. Laboratory tests have shown that LOF would improve the energy efficiency of a vapor compression unit by 10%. In addition, LOF will reduce the compressor pressure ratio and thereby improve equipment reliability. Based on the assumed performance improvements and cost reduction, a simple payback calculation indicates LOF can reduce the payback time for an improved GEHP considerably in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Laboratory testing of an improved GEHP has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper reports on the equipment design modifications required to implement LOF and the results of performance tests at steady-state conditions. The preliminary cooling test results have indicated that the LOF in conjunction with orifice-type expander can be applied to GEHP for cost and performance enhancements. The improvements in energy efficiency will be dependent upon several controlling parameters including the proper refrigeration charge, the selected ambient temperature, and the system operating condition.

  13. Granular dynamics simulation of segregation phenomena in bubbling gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    A hard-sphere discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed was used in order to simulate segregation phenomena in systems consisting of particles of different sizes. In the model, the gas-phase hydrodynamics is described by the spatially averaged Navier¿Stokes equations for two-phase flow. For eac

  14. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...

  15. Study on the Performance Improvement of Ship Propulsion Equipment Directly Driven by High-Pressure Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutahara, Michihisa; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Matsui, Takahiro; Tajiri, Shinsuke; Tajima, Masakazu; Yokoyama, Hiroki

    The flow inside the two-dimensional semi-open-type nozzle for ship propulsion equipment, directly driven by high-pressure gas was investigated experimentally. The flow was unsteady and the gas and water phases clearly separated. We found that these waves appear on the interface for continuous gas ejection. It was clarified that waves play an important role in the pressure distribution. Intermittent gas ejection was also tried. The thrust itself decreases compared with continuous gas ejection, but propulsion efficiency, considering the gas ejection duration is increased. The flow patterns for intermittent gas ejection were also clarified.

  16. Modeling CO2 air dispersion from gas driven lake eruptions (Invited)

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, G.(INFN Sezione di Lecce, Lecce, Italy); COSTA, A.; Rouwet, D; F. Tassi

    2010-01-01

    The most tragic event of gas driven lake eruption occurred at Lake Nyos (Cameroon) on 21 August 1986, when a dense cloud of CO2 suffocated more than 1700 people and an uncounted number of animals in just one night. The event stimulated a series of researches aimed to understand gas origins, gas release mechanisms and strategies for gas hazard mitigation. Very few studies have been carried out for describing the transport of dense CO2 clouds in the atmosphere. Although from a...

  17. Permanent deformation estimates of dynamic equipment foundations: Application to a gas turbine in granular soils

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Aires, Rubén Ángel; Illueca Jové, Manuel; Jimenez Rodriguez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Permanent displacements of a gas turbine founded on a fine, poorly graded, and medium density sand are studied. The amplitudes and modes of vibration are computed using Barkan´s formulation, and the “High-Cycle Accumulation” (HCA) model is employed to account for accumulated deformations due to the high number of cycles. The methodology is simple: it can be easily incorporated into standard mathematical software, and HCA model parameters can be estimated based on granulometry and index proper...

  18. Energy of one-dimensional diatomic elastic granular gas: Theory and molecular dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Widayani,; Waris, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional ideal diatomic gas is simulated through possible types of motion of a molecule. Energy of each type of its motion is calculated from theory and numerical method. Calculation of kinetic energy of an atom in translational-vibrational motion is not analytically simple, but it can be solved by numerical method of molecular dynamic simulation. This paper justifies that kinetic energy of a diatomic molecule can be determined by two different approaches. The first is the sum of kinetic energy of each atom and second is the sum of kinetic energy of translational motion and vibrational motion.

  19. Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.

  20. Hydrodynamics for a model of a confined quasi-two-dimensional granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J Javier; Buzón, V; Maynar, P; García de Soria, M I

    2015-05-01

    The hydrodynamic equations for a model of a confined quasi-two-dimensional gas of smooth inelastic hard spheres are derived from the Boltzmann equation for the model, using a generalization of the Chapman-Enskog method. The heat and momentum fluxes are calculated to Navier-Stokes order, and the associated transport coefficients are explicitly determined as functions of the coefficient of normal restitution and the velocity parameter involved in the definition of the model. Also an Euler transport term contributing to the energy transport equation is considered. This term arises from the gradient expansion of the rate of change of the temperature due to the inelasticity of collisions, and it vanishes for elastic systems. The hydrodynamic equations are particularized for the relevant case of a system in the homogeneous steady state. The relationship with previous works is analyzed.

  1. High-Fidelity Gas and Granular Flow Physics Models for Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current modeling of Lunar and Martian soil erosion and debris transport caused by rocket plume impingement lacks essential physics from the peculiar granular...

  2. Phase Diagram of Vertically Shaken Granular Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Eshuis, P; Lohse, D; Van der Meer, D; Van der Weele, K; Bos, Robert; Eshuis, Peter; Lohse, Detlef; Meer, Devaraj van der; Weele, Ko van der

    2006-01-01

    A shallow, vertically shaken granular bed in a quasi 2-D container is studied experimentally yielding a wider variety of phenomena than in any previous study: (1) bouncing bed, (2) undulations, (3) granular Leidenfrost effect, (4) convection rolls, and (5) granular gas. These phenomena and the transitions between them are characterized by dimensionless control parameters and combined in a full experimental phase diagram.

  3. Fountain-driven gas accretion by the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Accretion of fresh gas at a rate of ∼ 1M☉yr−1 is necessary in star-forming disc galaxies, such as the Milky Way, in order to sustain their star-formation rates. In this work we present the results of a new hydrodynamic simulation supporting the scenario in which the gas required for star formation is drawn from the hot corona that surrounds the star-forming disc. In particular, the cooling of this hot gas and its accretion on to the disc are caused by the passage of cold galactic fountain clouds through the corona.

  4. Shaken Granular Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

  5. Shaken granular lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Viola; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2012-06-15

    Granular materials have been studied for decades, driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed of agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) to the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored. Here we provide experimental evidence that laser emission can be affected and controlled by the status of the motion of the granular material; we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity-affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

  6. Vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics utilizing the gas solubility or permeability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linfeng; Lee, Hun; Jetta, Deekshitha; Oh, Kwang W

    2015-10-21

    Suitable pumping methods for flow control remain a major technical hurdle in the path of biomedical microfluidic systems for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. A vacuum-driven power-free micropumping method provides a promising solution to such a challenge. In this review, we focus on vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics based on the gas solubility or permeability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); degassed PDMS can restore air inside itself due to its high gas solubility or gas permeable nature. PDMS allows the transfer of air into a vacuum through it due to its high gas permeability. Therefore, it is possible to store or transfer air into or through the gas soluble or permeable PDMS in order to withdraw liquids into the embedded dead-end microfluidic channels. This article provides a comprehensive look at the physics of the gas solubility and permeability of PDMS, a systematic review of different types of vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics, and guidelines for designing solubility-based or permeability-based PDMS devices, alongside existing applications. Advanced topics and the outlook in using micropumping that utilizes the gas solubility or permeability of PDMS will be also discussed. We strongly recommend that microfluidics and lab-on-chip (LOC) communities harness vacuum energy to develop smart vacuum-driven microfluidic systems.

  7. Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Tonks, Michael; Biner, Bullent; Millet, Paul; Tikare, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Andersson , David

    2012-04-11

    A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of different numerical methods used to represent microstructure behavior at the mesoscale for irradiated material using an idealized benchmark problem. The purpose of the mesoscale benchmark problem was to provide a common basis to assess several mesoscale methods with the objective of identifying the strengths and areas of improvement in the predictive modeling of microstructure evolution. In this work, mesoscale models (phase-field, Potts, and kinetic Monte Carlo) developed by PNNL, INL, SNL, and ORNL were used to calculate the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuel under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. The benchmark problem was constructed to include important microstructural evolution mechanisms on the kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubble behavior such as the atomic diffusion of Xe atoms, U vacancies, and O vacancies, the effect of vacancy capture and emission from defects, and the elastic interaction of non-equilibrium gas bubbles. An idealized set of assumptions was imposed on the benchmark problem to simplify the mechanisms considered. The capability and numerical efficiency of different models are compared against selected experimental and simulation results. These comparisons find that the phase-field methods, by the nature of the free energy formulation, are able to represent a larger subset of the mechanisms influencing the intra-granular bubble growth and coarsening mechanisms in the idealized benchmark problem as compared to the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. It is recognized that the mesoscale benchmark problem as formulated does not specifically highlight the strengths of the discrete particle modeling used in the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Future efforts are recommended to construct increasingly more complex mesoscale benchmark problems to further verify and validate the predictive capabilities of the mesoscale modeling

  8. Driven-dissipative dynamics of a strongly interacting Rydberg gas

    CERN Document Server

    Glaetzle, A W; Zhao, B; Pupillo, G; Zoller, P

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-equilibrium many-body dynamics of a cold gas of ground state alkali atoms weakly admixed by Rydberg states with laser light. On a timescale shorter than the lifetime of the dressed states, effective dipole-dipole or van der Waals interactions between atoms can lead to the formation of strongly correlated phases, such as atomic crystals. Using a semiclassical approach, we study the long-time dynamics where decoherence and dissipative processes due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation dominate, leading to heating and melting of atomic crystals as well as particle losses. These effects can be substantially mitigated by performing active laser cooling in the presence of atomic dressing.

  9. Efimov-driven phase transitions of the unitary Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatecki, Swann; Krauth, Werner

    2014-03-20

    Initially predicted in nuclear physics, Efimov trimers are bound configurations of three quantum particles that fall apart when any one of them is removed. They open a window into a rich quantum world that has become the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research, as the region of 'unitary' interactions, where Efimov trimers form, is now accessible in cold-atom experiments. Here we use a path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm backed up by theoretical arguments to show that unitary bosons undergo a first-order phase transition from a normal gas to a superfluid Efimov liquid, bound by the same effects as Efimov trimers. A triple point separates these two phases and another superfluid phase, the conventional Bose-Einstein condensate, whose coexistence line with the Efimov liquid ends in a critical point. We discuss the prospects of observing the proposed phase transitions in cold-atom systems.

  10. A High Reliability Gas-driven Helium Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneton, M; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M; Turcat, F; Viennot, P

    1998-01-01

    A helium cryogenic compressor was developed and tested in real conditions in 1996. The achieved objective was to compress 0.018 kg/s Helium at 4 K @ 1000 Pa (10 mbar) up to 3000 Pa (30 mbar). This project was an opportunity to develop and test an interesting new concept in view of future needs. The main features of this new specific technology are described. Particular attention is paid to the gas bearing supported rotor and to the pneumatic driver. Trade off between existing technologies and the present work are presented with special stress on the bearing system and the driver. The advantages are discussed, essentially focused on life time and high reliability without maintenance as well as non pollution characteristic. Practical operational modes are also described together with the experimental performances of the compressor. The article concludes with a brief outlook of future work.

  11. Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S

    2004-06-18

    A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.

  12. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence the nu......-of-the-art machine learning methods and the Bayesian learning paradigm....

  13. Data–driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence the nu......-of-the-art machine learning methods and the Bayesian learning paradigm....

  14. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence...

  15. Anisotropic relaxation dynamics in a dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic $^{167}$Er fermions, spin-polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic...

  16. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  17. ENERGY SUPPLY OF COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSE WITH THE GAS DRIVEN HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the work is to develop energy efficient schemes of industrial greenhouse designed for year-round production of plants that requires year-round maintenance of strongly prescribed temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse. The complex "gas driven “water-air” heat pump – electric generator" (for use during the heating season as well as the "gas driven heat pump “water-air” – electric generator – desiccant - evaporative chiller" which work in the off-season. The developed system produces heat and electricity (during the heating season as well as cold and electricity (the rest of the year. Comparative analyses of greenhouse cooling by water and air cooling systems have been performed. Proposed structures have a high efficiency as compared with conventional circuits (boiler - chiller.

  18. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  19. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  20. Rarefaction effects in dilute granular Poiseuille flow: Knudsen minimum and temperature bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Achal; Alam, Meheboob

    2015-11-01

    The gravity-driven flow of smooth inelastic hard-disks through a channel, analog of granular Poiseuille flow, is analysed using event-driven simulations. We find that the variation of the mass-flow rate (Q) with Knudsen number (Kn) can be non-monotonic in the elastic limit (i.e. the restitution coefficient en --> 1) in channels with very smooth walls. The Knudsen minimum effect (i.e. the minimum flow rate occurring at Kn ~ O (1) for the Poiseuille flow of a molecular gas) is found to be absent in a granular gas with en competition between dissipation and rarefaction seems to be responsible for the observed dependence of both mass-flow rate and temperature bimodality on Kn and en . [Alam etal. 2015, JFM (revised)].

  1. Unified rheology of vibro-fluidized dry granular media: From slow dense flows to fast gas-like regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoli, Andrea; Lasanta, Antonio; Sarracino, Alessandro; Puglisi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Granular media take on great importance in industry and geophysics, posing a severe challenge to materials science. Their response properties elude known soft rheological models, even when the yield-stress discontinuity is blurred by vibro-fluidization. Here we propose a broad rheological scenario where average stress sums up a frictional contribution, generalizing conventional μ(I)-rheology, and a kinetic collisional term dominating at fast fluidization. Our conjecture fairly describes a wide series of experiments in a vibrofluidized vane setup, whose phenomenology includes velocity weakening, shear thinning, a discontinuous thinning transition, and gaseous shear thickening. The employed setup gives access to dynamic fluctuations, which exhibit a broad range of timescales. In the slow dense regime the frequency of cage-opening increases with stress and enhances, with respect to μ(I)-rheology, the decrease of viscosity. Diffusivity is exponential in the shear stress in both thinning and thickening regimes, with a huge growth near the transition. PMID:27924928

  2. Continuous crafting of uniform colloidal nanocrystals using an inert-gas-driven microflow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; He, Yanjie; Li, Bo; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Chuchu; Liu, Xiaobo; Lin, Zhiqun

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in synthesis of nanocrystals, which has led to the development of a large variety of approaches for producing nanocrystals with controlled dimensions. However, most of these techniques lack the high-throughput production. Herein, we report on a viable and robust strategy based on an inert-gas-driven microflow reactor for continuous crafting of high-quality colloidal nanocrystals. With the judicious introduction of the inert-gas driven capability, the microflow reactor provides an attractive platform for continuous production of colloidal nanocrystals in large quantities, including easily-oxidized nanocrystals. The as-synthesized nanocrystals possessed a uniform size and shape. Intriguingly, the size of nanocrystals can be effectively tailored by varying the flow rate and the precursor concentration. We envision that the microflow reactor strategy is general and offers easy access to a wide range of scalable nanocrystals for potential applications in sensors, optics, optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, batteries, photocatalysis, and electronic devices.Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in synthesis of nanocrystals, which has led to the development of a large variety of approaches for producing nanocrystals with controlled dimensions. However, most of these techniques lack the high-throughput production. Herein, we report on a viable and robust strategy based on an inert-gas-driven microflow reactor for continuous crafting of high-quality colloidal nanocrystals. With the judicious introduction of the inert-gas driven capability, the microflow reactor provides an attractive platform for continuous production of colloidal nanocrystals in large quantities, including easily-oxidized nanocrystals. The as-synthesized nanocrystals possessed a uniform size and shape. Intriguingly, the size of nanocrystals can be effectively tailored by varying the flow rate and the precursor concentration. We envision that the

  3. An electrically driven gas-liquid-liquid contactor for bioreactor and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, C.; Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.; DePaoli, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1999-05-01

    An electrically driven gas-liquid-liquid bioreactor is described here, in which an aqueous medium containing a biocatalyst is introduced as a discontinuous phase into an organic-continuous liquid phase containing a substrate to be converted by the biocatalyst. A gas discontinuous phase, which may be needed to provide oxygen or a gaseous substrate to the biocatalyst, is also introduced into the bioreactor. In contrast to previous work on electrically driven contactors, it was found that the electroconvection generated by the electric field between parallel-plate electrodes may be employed to increase the volume fraction of the discontinuous gas phase in the bioreactor, providing the means for enhanced mass transfer. The electrically driven bioreactor was utilized for oil desulfurization experiments with Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 bacteria as the biocatalyst. The organic phase used in the experiments was hexadecane containing dibenzothiophene, a model sulfur compound, that is oxidatively desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by the bacteria in the presence of air or oxygen. The gas volume fraction was increased by 60% by the application of a pulsed electric field, thus providing a means for increased transport of oxygen needed for oxidative desulfurization. The velocity of droplets and bubbles was measured by a phase Doppler velocimeter. The average rising velocity of bubbles was decreased from 13 to less than 3 cm/s and the average horizontal velocity was increased from 0 to 5 cm/s as the field strength was increased from 0 to 4 kV/cm. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 to 5.50 mg of 2-HBP/g of dry cells/h. The desulfurization rate with aeration was doubled under the electric field as compared to the zero-field desulfurization under the same conditions.

  4. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  5. Cerebellar cortex granular layer interneurons in the macaque monkey are functionally driven by mossy fiber pathways through net excitation or inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Laurens

    Full Text Available The granular layer is the input layer of the cerebellar cortex. It receives information through mossy fibers, which contact local granular layer interneurons (GLIs and granular layer output neurons (granule cells. GLIs provide one of the first signal processing stages in the cerebellar cortex by exciting or inhibiting granule cells. Despite the importance of this early processing stage for later cerebellar computations, the responses of GLIs and the functional connections of mossy fibers with GLIs in awake animals are poorly understood. Here, we recorded GLIs and mossy fibers in the macaque ventral-paraflocculus (VPFL during oculomotor tasks, providing the first full inventory of GLI responses in the VPFL of awake primates. We found that while mossy fiber responses are characterized by a linear monotonic relationship between firing rate and eye position, GLIs show complex response profiles characterized by "eye position fields" and single or double directional tunings. For the majority of GLIs, prominent features of their responses can be explained by assuming that a single GLI receives inputs from mossy fibers with similar or opposite directional preferences, and that these mossy fiber inputs influence GLI discharge through net excitatory or inhibitory pathways. Importantly, GLIs receiving mossy fiber inputs through these putative excitatory and inhibitory pathways show different firing properties, suggesting that they indeed correspond to two distinct classes of interneurons. We propose a new interpretation of the information flow through the cerebellar cortex granular layer, in which mossy fiber input patterns drive the responses of GLIs not only through excitatory but also through net inhibitory pathways, and that excited and inhibited GLIs can be identified based on their responses and their intrinsic properties.

  6. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  7. Gas-driven permeation of deuterium through tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A., E-mail: dabuche@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fang, Zhigang Zak; Ren, Chai [University of Utah, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, Graduate School of Science, Shizuoka (Japan); Otsuka, Teppei [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Third Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Whaley, Josh A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have designed and performed initial studies on a high temperature gas-driven permeation cell capable of operating at temperatures up to 1150 °C and at pressures between 0.1–1 atm. • Permeation measurements on ITER grade tungsten compare well with past studies by Frauenfelder and Zahkarov in the temperature range from 500 to 1000 °C. • First permeation measurements on Ti dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grained tungsten show higher permeation at 500 °C, but very similar permeation with ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. Diffusion along grain boundaries may be playing a role for this type of material. - Abstract: To address the transport and trapping of hydrogen isotopes, several permeation experiments are being pursued at both Sandia National Laboratories (deuterium gas-driven permeation) and Idaho National Laboratories (tritium gas- and plasma-driven tritium permeation). These experiments are in part a collaboration between the US and Japan to study the performance of tungsten at divertor relevant temperatures (PHENIX). Here we report on the development of a high temperature (≤1150 °C) gas-driven permeation cell and initial measurements of deuterium permeation in several types of tungsten: high purity tungsten foil, ITER-grade tungsten (grains oriented through the membrane), and dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grain (UFG) tungsten being developed in the US. Experiments were performed at 500–1000 °C and 0.1–1.0 atm D{sub 2} pressure. Permeation through ITER-grade tungsten was similar to earlier W experiments by Frauenfelder (1968–69) and Zaharakov (1973). Data from the UFG alloy indicates marginally higher permeability (< 10×) at lower temperatures, but the permeability converges to that of the ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. The permeation cell uses only ceramic and graphite materials in the hot zone to reduce the possibility for oxidation of the sample membrane. Sealing pressure is applied externally, thereby allowing for elevation

  8. Magnetic-field-driven localization of light in a cold-atom gas

    CERN Document Server

    Skipetrov, S E

    2014-01-01

    We discover a transition from extended to localized quasi-modes for light in a gas of immobile two-level atoms in a magnetic field. The transition takes place either upon increasing the number density of atoms in a strong field or upon increasing the field at a high enough density. It has many characteristic features of a disorder-driven (Anderson) transition but is strongly influenced by near-field interactions between atoms and the anisotropy of the atomic medium induced by the magnetic field.

  9. Variable area nozzle for gas turbine engines driven by shape memory alloy actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Nancy M. (Inventor); Miller, Robin M. (Inventor); Tillman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Rukus, Robert M. (Inventor); Kettle, John L. (Inventor); Dunphy, James R. (Inventor); Chaudhry, Zaffir A. (Inventor); Pearson, David D. (Inventor); Dreitlein, Kenneth C. (Inventor); Loffredo, Constantino V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a variable area nozzle having a plurality of flaps. The flaps are actuated by a plurality of actuating mechanisms driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators to vary fan exist nozzle area. The SMA actuator has a deformed shape in its martensitic state and a parent shape in its austenitic state. The SMA actuator is heated to transform from martensitic state to austenitic state generating a force output to actuate the flaps. The variable area nozzle also includes a plurality of return mechanisms deforming the SMA actuator when the SMA actuator is in its martensitic state.

  10. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  11. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  12. Duality Symmetries in Driven One-Dimensional Hopping Models(Frontiers in Nonequilibrium Physics-Fundamental Theory, Glassy & Granular Materials, and Computational Physics-)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, SOLLICH; Robert L., JACK; Department of Mathematics, King's College London; Department of Physics, University of Bath

    2010-01-01

    We consider some duality relations for models of non-interacting particles hopping on disordered one-dimensional chains. In particular, we discuss symmetries of bulk-driven barrier and trap models, and relations between boundary-driven and equilibrium models with related energy landscapes. We discuss the relationships between these duality relations and similar results for interacting many-body systems.

  13. Effect of Schmidt number on mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface in a wind-driven turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Naohisa; Kurose, Ryoichi; Kimura, Atsushi; Komori, Satoru

    2016-11-14

    The mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface strongly depends on the Schmidt number. Here we investigate the relationship between mass transfer coefficient on the liquid side, kL, and Schmidt number, Sc, in the wide range of 0.7 ≤ Sc ≤ 1000. We apply a three-dimensional semi direct numerical simulation (SEMI-DNS), in which the mass transfer is solved based on an approximated deconvolution model (ADM) scheme, to wind-driven turbulence with mass transfer across a sheared wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface. In order to capture the deforming gas-liquid interface, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is employed. Our results show that similar to the case for flat gas-liquid interfaces, kL for the wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface is generally proportional to Sc(-0.5), and can be roughly estimated by the surface divergence model. This trend is endorsed by the fact that the mass transfer across the gas-liquid interface is controlled mainly by streamwise vortices on the liquid side even for the wind-driven turbulence under the conditions of low wind velocities without wave breaking.

  14. Effect of Schmidt number on mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface in a wind-driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Naohisa; Kurose, Ryoichi; Kimura, Atsushi; Komori, Satoru

    2016-11-01

    The mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface strongly depends on the Schmidt number. Here we investigate the relationship between mass transfer coefficient on the liquid side, kL, and Schmidt number, Sc, in the wide range of 0.7 ≤ Sc ≤ 1000. We apply a three-dimensional semi direct numerical simulation (SEMI-DNS), in which the mass transfer is solved based on an approximated deconvolution model (ADM) scheme, to wind-driven turbulence with mass transfer across a sheared wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface. In order to capture the deforming gas-liquid interface, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is employed. Our results show that similar to the case for flat gas-liquid interfaces, kL for the wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface is generally proportional to Sc‑0.5, and can be roughly estimated by the surface divergence model. This trend is endorsed by the fact that the mass transfer across the gas-liquid interface is controlled mainly by streamwise vortices on the liquid side even for the wind-driven turbulence under the conditions of low wind velocities without wave breaking.

  15. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A M; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  16. Effects of cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performance of integral crank driven stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Ko, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An integral crank driven Stirling cryocooler is solidly based on concepts of direct IR detector mounting on the cryocooler's cold finger, and the integral construction of the cryocooler and Dewar envelope. Performance factors of the cryocooler depend on operating conditions of the cryocooler such as a cyclic mean pressure of the working fluid, a rotational speed of driving mechanism, a thermal environment, a targeted operation temperature and etc.. At given charging condition of helium gas, the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas in the cryocooler changes with temperatures of the cold end and the environment. In this study, effects of the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performances of the Stirling cryocooler were investigated by numerical analyses using the Sage software. The simulation model takes into account thermodynamic losses due to an inefficiency of regenerator, a pressure drop, a shuttle heat transfer and solid conductions. Simulations are performed for the performance variation according to the cyclic mean pressure induced by the temperature of the cold end and the environment. This paper presents P-V works in the compression and expansion space, cooling capacity, contribution of losses in the expansion space.

  17. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A. M., E-mail: nasr@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He, Fei; Cheng, Ya [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  18. The dynamics and stability of radiatively driven gas clouds. I - Plane-parallel slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of numerical and analytical techniques has been used to investigate the dynamics and stability of optically thin plane-parallel radiatively driven slabs of gas confined by the thermal gas pressure of a high-temperature low-density medium. Scaling laws allow the individual model 'clouds' to be characterized by a single free parameter, chi, a normalized column density which measures the strength of the acceleration due to radiation pressure relative to that due to thermal gas pressure. It is found that these clouds are stable and coherently accelerated only when chi is small. In this regime a simple slab model is constructed which accurately reproduces the more complex gasdynamic results. The low-chi clouds are marginally able to reach the high velocities seen in the atmospheres of quasi-stellar objects, but only if their motion is subsonic with respect to the external confining medium. This implies either that the medium is extremely hot and tenuous or that it is moving outward with the clouds.

  19. Bulldozing of granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

  20. Far-field resonance fluorescence from a dipole-interacting laser-driven cold atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan; Saint, Reece; Olmos, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the temporal response of the fluorescence light that is emitted from a dense gas of cold atoms driven by a laser. When the average interatomic distance is comparable to the wavelength of the photons scattered by the atoms, the system exhibits strong dipolar interactions and collective dissipation. We solve the exact dynamics of small systems with different geometries and show how these collective features are manifest in the scattered light properties such as the photon emission rate, the power spectrum and the second-order correlation function. By calculating these quantities beyond the weak (linear) driving limit, we make progress in understanding the signatures of collective behavior in these many-body systems. Furthermore, we shed light on the role of disorder and averaging on the resonance fluorescence, of direct relevance for recent experimental efforts that aim at the exploration of many-body effects in dipole-dipole interacting gases of atoms.

  1. Crossover in the power spectrum of a driven diffusive lattice-gas model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1991-01-01

    A driven diffusive lattice-gas model with stochastic dynamics is used to study, via a Monte Carlo simulation, the fluctuations in the particle density and the lifetime of the particles in the system. The scaling properties of the power spectrum S(f) and the lifetime distribution function D......(t) exhibit a crossover from (1/f3)- to (1/f2)-noise behavior, with β≃1.5, when the drive is sufficiently strong to induce a characteristic time scale. We argue that the scaling behavior with β≃1.5 is governed by the stochastic nature of the dynamics whereas deterministic dynamics leads to β≃1....

  2. Electrostatic plasma instabilities driven by neutral gas flows in the solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoberidze, G; Poedts, S; De Keyser, J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate electrostatic plasma instabilities of Farley-Buneman (FB) type driven by quasi-stationary neutral gas flows in the solar chromosphere. The role of these instabilities in the chromosphere is clarified. We find that the destabilizing ion thermal effect is highly reduced by the Coulomb collisions and can be ignored for the chromospheric FB-type instabilities. On the contrary, the destabilizing electron thermal effect is important and causes a significant reduction of the neutral drag velocity triggering the instability. The resulting threshold velocity is found as function of chromospheric height. Our results indicate that the FB type instabilities are still less efficient in the global chromospheric heating than the Joule dissipation of the currents driving these instabilities. This conclusion does not exclude the possibility that the FB type instabilities develop in the places where the cross-field currents overcome the threshold value and contribute to the heating locally. Typical length-scales...

  3. Competition of coarsening and shredding of clusters in a driven diffusive lattice gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kunwar, A; Schadschneider, A; Nishinari, K; Kunwar, Ambarish; Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a driven diffusive lattice gas model with two oppositely moving species of particles. The model is motivated by bi-directional traffic of ants on a pre-existing trail. A third species, corresponding to pheromones used by the ants for communication, is not conserved and mediates interactions between the particles. Here we study the spatio-temporal organization of the particles. In the uni-directional variant of this model it is known to be determined by the formation and coarsening of ``loose clusters''. For our bi-directional model, we show that the interaction of oppositely moving clusters is essential. In the late stages of evolution the cluster size oscillates because of a competition between their `shredding' during encounters with oppositely moving counterparts and subsequent "coarsening" during collision-free evolution. We also establish a nontrivial dependence of the spatio-temporal organization on the system size.

  4. Study of the critical behavior of the driven lattice gas model with limited nonequilibrium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Gustavo P.; Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Bab, Marisa A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the nonequilibrium critical behavior is investigated using a variant of the well-known two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model, called modified driven lattice gas (MDLG). In this model, the application of the external field is regulated by a parameter p ɛ [ 0 , 1 ] in such a way that if p = 0, the field is not applied, and it becomes the Ising model, while if p = 1, the DLG model is recovered. The behavior of the model is investigated for several values of p by studying the dynamic evolution of the system within the short-time regime in the neighborhood of a phase transition. It is found that the system experiences second-order phase transitions in all the interval of p for the density of particles ρ = 0.5. The determined critical temperatures Tc(p) are greater than the critical temperature of the Ising model TcI, and increase with p up to the critical temperature of the DLG model in the limit of infinite driving fields. The dependence of Tc(p) on p is compatible with a power-law behavior whose exponent is ψ = 0.27(3) . Furthermore, the complete set of the critical and the anisotropic exponents is estimated. For the smallest value of p, the ​dynamics and β exponents are close to that calculated for the Ising model, and the anisotropic exponent Δ is near zero. As p is increased, the exponents and Δ change, meaning that the anisotropy effects increase. For the largest value investigated, the set of exponents approaches to that reported by the most recent theoretical framework developed for the DLG model.

  5. Old Faithful Model for Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism at Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    A new model is presented on how chemically driven cryovolcanism might contribute to episodic outgassing at the icy moon Enceladus and potentially elsewhere including Europa and Kuiper Belt Objects. Exposed water ices can become oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. In contact with primordially abundant reductants such as NH3, CH4, and other hydrocarbons, the product oxidants can react exothermically to produce volatile gases driving cryovolcanism via gas-piston forces on any subsurface liquid reservoirs. Radiolytic oxidants such as H2O2 and O2 can continuously accumulate deep in icy regoliths and be conveyed by rheological flows to subsurface chemical reaction zones over million-year time scales indicated by cratering ages for active regions of Enceladus and Europa. Surface blanketing with cryovolcanic plume ejecta would further accelerate regolith burial of radiolytic oxidants. Episodic heating from transient gravitational tides, radioisotope decay, impacts, or other geologic events might occasionally accelerate chemical reaction rates and ignite the exothermic release of cumulative radiolytic oxidant energy. The time history for the suggested "Old Faithful" model of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism at Enceladus and elsewhere therefore consists of long periods of chemical energy accumulation punctuated by much briefer episodes of cryovolcanic activity. The most probable sequence for detection of activity in the current epoch is a long evolutionary phase of slow but continuous oxidant accumulation over billions of years followed by continuous but variable high activity over the past 10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) years. Detectable cryovolcanic activity could then later decline due to near-total oxidation of the rheologically accessible ice crust and depletion the accessible reductant abundances, as may have already occurred for Europa in the more intense radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere

  6. Gas-driven ultrafast reversible switching of super-hydrophobic adhesion on palladium-coated silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Soonil; Han, Heetak; Jung, Hwae Bong; Hong, Juree; Song, Giyoung; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Wooyoung; Lee, Taeyoon

    2013-08-14

    A gas-driven ultrafast adhesion switching of water droplets on palladium-coated Si nanowire arrays is demonstrated. By regulating the gas-ambient between the atmosphere and H2 , the super-hydrophobic adhesion is repeatedly switched between water-repellent and water-adhesive. The capability of modulating the super-hydrophobic adhesion on a super-hydrophobic surface with a non-contact mode could be applicable to novel functional lab-on-a-chip platforms.

  7. Noise induces rare events in granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M

    2016-09-01

    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pumps: Two Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac [Intellichoice Energy, Boulder City, Nevada; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Gas engine driven heat pumps (GHP) currently hold a small market share. This share is considerably smaller than what the full potential of GHP technology can realize. Of the main benefits of the GHP technology is their better primary energy utilization mainly due to the ability to recover the engine heat. However, development and market penetration of GHP technology have been challenged by various market and technical barriers. The main barriers are the high initial cost, low awareness of the technology, and poor perception. On the other hand, several opportunities arise that the GHP technology can take advantage of to increase its market share. The most direct opportunity is the abundance of cheap natural gas. This translates directly into monetary savings and higher ROI. GHPs offer the advantage of reducing the peak demand by 80% compared to electric counterpart. From the point of view of utilities, this eliminates the need for lower-efficiency peaking power plants and over-expansion only to cover maximum peak times. From the point of view of renewable customers, GHPs eliminate the need to buy power from the grid at a high price. This is especially important in hot climates with high cooling loads. When built and operated as distributed generation, GHPs can improve the reliability of power delivery to consumers. The paper discusses the challenges and opportunities as seen during the development and commercialization of two different GHP products; a 10-ton packaged unit and 5-ton split unit.

  9. A Low Mass for Mars from Jupiter's Early Gas-Driven Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; O'Brien, David P.; Mandell, Avi M.

    2011-01-01

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only approximately 100,000 years. Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 AU, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 AU; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 AU and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought.

  10. Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas: insights into in-situ melt segregation from crystal mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Arzilli, F.; Dobson, K. J.; Cordonnier, B.; Reusser, E.; Ulmer, P.; Marone, F.; Whittington, A. G.; Mancini, L.; Fife, J.; Blundy, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gas-driven filter pressing is the process of melt expulsion from a volatile-saturated crystal mush, induced by the buildup and subsequent release of gas pressure. Filter pressing is inferred to play a major role in magma fractionation at shallow depths (bubbles and crystals (~74 vol%). Above this threshold, the mush tends to fracture and gas escapes via fractures. Therefore, the efficiency of gas-driven filter pressing is promoted close to the percolation threshold and in situations where a mush inflates slowly relative to build-up of pressure and expulsion of melt. Such observations offer a likely explanation for the production of eruptible, crystal-poor magmas within Earth's crust. Figure = Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy 3D renderings of representative haplogranite (A-D) and dacite (E-H) samples, with different crystal (Φ) and bubble fractions (β) at representative temperatures and experimental times (t, in minutes). Black objects are bubbles and fractures; dark gray field is silicic glass/melt; light gray objects are corundum crystals in haplogranite sample, and quartz in dacite sample. White and black arrows indicate representative fractures and directions of melt expulsion during vesiculation, respectively. In H, white contours highlight quartz cluster boundaries and melt channels where melt is driven by gas bubbles. During experiments, gas exsolution mainly consists of (1) bubble nucleation and growth (white circles) and (2) crystal clustering and/or compaction (white rectangles).

  11. The Low Mass of Mars: First Evidence of Early Gas-Driven Migration by Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K. J.; Morbidelli, A.; Raymond, S. N.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mandell, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical simulations of planetary accretion have succeeded in matching most of the physical and orbital properties of the terrestrial planets with one glaring exception: they categorically form Mars analogs that are roughly an order of magnitude too massive (Raymond et al. 2009). The initial conditions that best reproduce the mass of Mars require that the inner planetesimal disk had an outer edge at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) (Hansen 2009). To date, no mechanism has been shown to create this edge and remain compatible with the current-day solar system, in particular the existence of the asteroid belt. Here we show that a substantial gas-driven radial migration of the giant planets is the needed mechanism. Hydrodynamical simulations show that the evolution of Jupiter and Saturn in a gas-disk generically leads to a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration where the extent of each stage of migration depends on a priori unconstrained disk parameters (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli et al. 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). We demonstrate with numerical simulations that, if Jupiter migrated inwards to 1.5 AU before migrating out towards its current location, its gravitational influence would truncate the inner planetesimal disk at 1 AU. The resulting disk naturally reproduces all the terrestrial planets including Mars. During the giant planets' migration, the asteroid belt is emptied and later re-populated from two distinct parent populations. This provides the first dynamical explanation for the current dichotomy of physical properties of the main asteroid belt, with anhydrous asteroids (S-type) in the inner part and primitive asteroids (C-type) in the outer part (Gradie & Tedesco 1982). Our model links the origin of the inner solar system -- explaining the mass of Mars and the properties of the asteroid belt -- to a realistic evolution of the giant planets. Thus Mars and the asteroid belt provide the first evidence for an early solar system evolution characterized by

  12. Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid-power gas engine-driven heat pump (HPGHP combines hybrid power technology with a gas engine heat pump. The engine in the power system is capable of operating constantly with high thermal efficiency and low emissions during different operating modes. In this paper, the mathematical models of various components is established, including the engine thermal efficiency map and the motor efficiency map. The comprehensive charging/discharging efficiency model and energy management optimization strategy model which is proposed to maximize the efficiency of instantaneous HPGHP system are established. Then, different charging/discharging torque limits are obtained. Finally, a novel gas engine economical zone control strategy which combined with the SOC of battery in real time is put forward. The main operating parameters of HPGHP system under energy management are simulated by Matlab/Simulink and validated by experimental data, such as engine and motor operating torque, fuel consumption rate and comprehensive efficiency, etc. The results show that during 3600 s’ run-time, the SOC value of battery packs varies between 0.58 and 0.705, the fuel consumption rate reaches minimum values of approximately 291.3 g/(kW h when the compressor speed is nearly 1550 rpm in mode D, the engine thermal efficiency and comprehensive efficiency reach maximum values of approximately 0.2727 and 0.2648 when the compressor speed is 1575 rpm and 1475 rpm, respectively, in mode D. In general, the motor efficiency can be maintained above 0.85 in either mode.

  13. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  14. Experimental velocity distributions in a granular submonolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadillo-Martínez, Alejandra T.; Sánchez, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Experimental speed distributions are obtained for driven granular submonolayers of binary mixtures of single spheres and dimers of spheres. The results are well-described by a distribution originally developed for a single-species one-dimensional system. This suggests that such a distribution may be extended to other mixtures such as systems exhibiting aggregation and dissociation.

  15. Laterally driven interfaces in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas H R; Vasilyev, Oleg; Maciołek, Anna; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    We study the steady state of a phase-separated driven Ising lattice gas in three dimensions using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics. An external force field F(z) acts in the x direction parallel to the interface, creating a lateral order parameter current j^{x}(z) which varies with distance z from the interface. Above the roughening temperature, our data for "shearlike" linear variation of F(z) are in agreement with the picture wherein shear acts as effective confinement in this system, thus suppressing the interfacial capillary-wave fluctuations. We find sharper magnetization profiles and reduced interfacial width as compared to equilibrium. Pair correlations are more suppressed in the vorticity direction y than in the driving direction; the opposite holds for the structure factor. Lateral transport of capillary waves occurs for those forms of F(z) for which the current j^{x}(z) is an odd function of z , for example the shearlike drive, and a "steplike" driving field. For a V-shaped driving force no such motion occurs, but capillary waves are suppressed more strongly than for the shearlike drive. These findings are in agreement with our previous simulation studies in two dimensions. Near and below the (equilibrium) roughening temperature the effective-confinement picture ceases to work, but the lateral motion of the interface persists.

  16. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  17. Quantifying non-ergodic dynamics of force-free granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Anna; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-09-14

    Brownian motion is ergodic in the Boltzmann-Khinchin sense that long time averages of physical observables such as the mean squared displacement provide the same information as the corresponding ensemble average, even at out-of-equilibrium conditions. This property is the fundamental prerequisite for single particle tracking and its analysis in simple liquids. We study analytically and by event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the dynamics of force-free cooling granular gases and reveal a violation of ergodicity in this Boltzmann-Khinchin sense as well as distinct ageing of the system. Such granular gases comprise materials such as dilute gases of stones, sand, various types of powders, or large molecules, and their mixtures are ubiquitous in Nature and technology, in particular in Space. We treat-depending on the physical-chemical properties of the inter-particle interaction upon their pair collisions-both a constant and a velocity-dependent (viscoelastic) restitution coefficient ε. Moreover we compare the granular gas dynamics with an effective single particle stochastic model based on an underdamped Langevin equation with time dependent diffusivity. We find that both models share the same behaviour of the ensemble mean squared displacement (MSD) and the velocity correlations in the limit of weak dissipation. Qualitatively, the reported non-ergodic behaviour is generic for granular gases with any realistic dependence of ε on the impact velocity of particles.

  18. Dynamic and spatial behavior of a corrugated interface in the driven lattice gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Gustavo P.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2010-09-01

    The spatiotemporal behavior of an initially corrugated interface in the two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model with attractive nearest-neighbors interactions is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations. By setting the system in the ordered phase, with periodic boundary conditions along the external field axis. i.e. horizontal, and open along the vertical directions respectively, an initial interface was imposed, that consists in a series of sinusoidal profiles with amplitude A0 and wavelength λ set parallel to the applied driving field axis. We studied the dynamic behavior of its statistical width or roughness W(t), defined as the root mean square of the interface position. We found that W(t) decays exponentially for all λ and lattice longitudinal sizes Lx, i.e., the lattice side that runs along the axis of the external field. We determined its relaxation time τ, and found that depends on λ as a power law τ∝λp, where p depends on the temperature and Lx. At low T’s ( T≪Tc(E)) and large Lx, p approaches to p=3/2. At intermediate T’s ( Tgas (E=0) where p=3. At higher T’s p increases for T≲Tc(E), and the finite size dependence is recovered. Also, if T is fixed, p increases with Lx until it saturates at large values of it, while this regime is vanishing at T≲Tc(E). In this way, the dynamic relaxation process of a sinusoidal interface is improved by the external driving field with respect to its equilibrium counterpart, if the system is set in an intermediate temperature stage far from Tc(E) and in a lattice with a sufficiently large longitudinal side. The behavior of τ was also investigated as a function of E and in the intermediate stage T

  19. Gas-driven eruptions at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand: towards a coherent model of eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, G. N.; Mader, H. M.; Mangan, M.; Blundy, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mt. Ruapehu is an andesitic cone volcano situated at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The summit plateau at Ruapehu consists of three craters (South, Central and North). Historical activity has consisted of frequent small phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions from South Crater. The active vents of South Crater are submerged beneath Crater Lake - a warm, acidic lake. The most recent eruption at Ruapehu occurred on 25th September, 2007 that generated a moderate steam column to about 4.5 km above Crater Lake, and a directed ballistic and surge deposit of coarse blocks and ash to the north of Crater Lake. It also initiated lahars in two catchments. The eruption occurred during the ski season and it resulted in the temporary closure of the three ski fields. Seismicity for the main eruption lasted for about 4 minutes and included an explosive phase which lasted for less than 1 minute and a post-explosion phase which probably indicated resonance in the conduit together with signals generated from lahars and vent stabilisation. Preceding seismicity occurred ~ 10 min before the eruption. The 2007 eruption appears strikingly similar to phreatic/phreatomagmatic eruptions of 1969 and 1975. In those eruptions, limited precursory seismicity was recorded, the bulk of the erupted deposits were accidental lithics, including lake sediments and older lavas, and only a small amount of juvenile material was erupted (~ 5%). It is likely that all three eruptions were driven by magmatic gases, either stored and pressurised beneath a hydrothermal seal, or rapidly exsolved during a gas release event. This poster outlines the plan that we will use to model this common type of eruption at Ruapehu. We will analyse the volatile content of phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions to determine the degassing depth of historic eruptions. This will allow us to identify where the magmas have been or are degassing beneath Crater Lake. Analogue modelling of gas and fluid flow through a visco

  20. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Yu; Yongdong Liang; Shujun Sun; Kai Zhang; Jue Zhang; Jing Fang

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on t...

  1. Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Feng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lu, Manqi; Yang, Ke [Engineering Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhou, Yimin [Research Center, Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province 317200 (China)

    2007-10-15

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi{sub 4.61}Mn{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.13}/La{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 4.8}Mn{sub 0.2} was developed working at 120-200 C/20-50 C/-10-0 C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Van't-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat plateau slopes, fast reaction dynamics and small hystereses; the reaction enthalpy of the refrigeration hydride is -27.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2} and system theoretical COP is 0.711. Mean particle sizes during cycles were verified to be an intrinsic property affected by constitution, heat treatment and cycle numbers rather than initial grain sizes. Based on this work pair, cylindrical reactors were designed and a function proving metal hydride intermittent refrigeration system was constructed with heat conducting oil as heat source and water as heat sink. The reactor equivalent thermal conductivity is merely 1.3 W/(m K), which still has not meet practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power is 84.6 W at 150 C/30 C/0 C with COP being 0.26. The regulations of cycling performance and minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) were determined by altering heat source temperature. Results showed that cooling power and system COP increase while MRT decreases with the growth of heat source temperature. This study develops a new hydride pair and confirms its application in automobile refrigeration systems, while their heat transfer properties still need to be improved for better performance. (author)

  2. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  3. Development of a data-driven forecasting tool for hydraulically fractured, horizontal wells in tight-gas sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulga, B.; Artun, E.; Ertekin, T.

    2017-06-01

    Tight-gas sand reservoirs are considered to be one of the major unconventional resources. Due to the strong heterogeneity and very low permeability of the formation, and the complexity of well trajectories with multiple hydraulic fractures; there are challenges associated with performance forecasting and optimum exploitation of these resources using conventional modeling approaches. In this study, it is aimed to develop a data-driven forecasting tool for tight-gas sands, which are based on artificial neural networks that can complement the physics-driven modeling approach, namely numerical-simulation models. The tool is designed to predict the horizontal-well performance as a proxy to the numerical model, once the initial conditions, operational parameters, reservoir/hydraulic-fracture characteristics are provided. The data-driven model, that the forecasting tool is based on, is validated with blind cases by estimating the cumulative gas production after 10 years with an average error of 3.2%. A graphical-user-interface application is developed that allows the practicing engineer to use the developed tool in a practical manner by visualizing estimated performance for a given reservoir within a fraction of a second. Practicality of the tool is demonstrated with a case study for the Williams Fork Formation by assessing the performance of various well designs and by incorporating known uncertainties through Monte Carlo simulation. P10, P50 and P90 estimates of the horizontal-well performance are quickly obtained within acceptable accuracy levels.

  4. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  5. A kinetic approach to granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Puglisi, A.; Loreto, V.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo; Vulpiani, A.

    1998-01-01

    We address the problem of the so-called ``granular gases'', i.e. gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e. at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the num...

  6. ALMA reveals optically thin, highly excited CO gas in the jet-driven winds of the galaxy IC5063

    CERN Document Server

    Dasyra, K M; Oosterloo, T; Oonk, J B R; Morganti, R; Salome, P; Vlahakis, N

    2016-01-01

    Using CO (4-3) and (2-1) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) data, we prove that the molecular gas in the jet-driven winds of the galaxy IC5063 is more highly excited than the rest of the molecular gas in the disk of the same galaxy. On average, the CO (4-3) / CO (2-1) flux ratio is 1 for the disk and 5 for the jet accelerated or impacted gas. Spatially-resolved maps reveal that in regions associated with winds, the CO (4-3) / CO (2-1) flux ratio significantly exceeds the upper limit of 4 for optically thick gas. It frequently takes values between 5 and 11, and it occasionally further approaches the upper limit of 16 for optically thin gas. Excitation temperatures of 30-100 K are common for the molecules in these regions. If all of the outflowing molecular gas is optically thin, at 30-50 K, then its mass is 2*10^6 M_sun. This lower mass limit is an order of magnitude below the mass derived from the CO (2-1) flux in case of optically thick gas. Our result suggests that molecular wind masses may be overestima...

  7. Evidence of suppression of star formation by quasar-driven winds in gas-rich host galaxies at z < 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-10-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies through heating or driving gas out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been scarce. We have assembled a sample of 132 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1 < z < 1. We measure the kinematics of the AGN-ionized gas, the host galaxies' stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) and investigate the relationships between AGN luminosities, specific star formation rates (sSFRs) and outflow strengths W90 - the 90 per cent velocity width of the [O III]λ5007Å line power and a proxy for the AGN-driven outflow speed. Outflow strength is independent of sSFR for AGN selected on their mid-IR luminosity, in agreement with previous work demonstrating that star formation is not sufficient to produce the observed ionized gas outflows which have to be powered by AGN activity. More importantly, we find a negative correlation between W90 and sSFR in the AGN hosts with the highest SFRs, i.e. with the highest gas content, where presumably the coupling of the AGN-driven wind to the gas is strongest. This implies that AGN with strong outflow signatures are hosted in galaxies that are more `quenched' than galaxies with weaker outflow signatures. Despite the galaxies' high SFRs, we demonstrate that the outflows are not star formation driven but indeed due to AGN powering. This observation is consistent with the AGN having a net suppression, `negative' impact, through feedback on the galaxies' star formation history.

  8. Discrete particle modeling of granular temperature distribution in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong He; Tianyu Wang; Niels Deen; Martin van Sint Annaland; Hans Kuipers; Dongsheng Wen

    2012-01-01

    The discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM) is applied in this work to study numerically the distributions of particle and bubble granular temperatures in a bubbling fluidized bed.The dimensions of the bed and other parameters are set to correspond to those of Müller et al.(2008).Various drag models and operational parameters are investigated to find their influence on particle and bubble granular temperatures.Various inlet superficial gas velocities are used in this work to obtain their effect on flow characteristics.It is found that the superficial gas velocity has the most important effect on granular temperatures including bubble granular temperature,particle translational granular temperature and particle rotational granular temperature.The drag force model affects more seriously the large scale variables such as the bubble granular temperature.Restitution coefficient influences all granular temperatures to some degree.Simulation results are compared with experimental results by Müller et al.(2008) showing reasonable agreement.

  9. Stability-driven Structure Evolution: Exploring the Intrinsic Similarity Between Gas-Solid and Gas-Liquid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 杨宁; 葛蔚; 李静海

    2012-01-01

    As the core of the Energy-Minimization Multi-Scale (EMMS) approach, the so-called stability condition has been proposed to reflect the compromise between different dominant mechanisms and believed to be indispensable for understanding the complex nature of gas-solid fluidization systems. This approach was recently extended to the study of gas-liquid bubble columns. In this article, we try to analyze the intrinsic similarity between gas-solid and gas-liquid systems by using the EMMS approach. First, the model solution spaces for the two systems are depicted through a unified numerical solution strategy, so that we are able to find three structural hierarchies in the EMMS model for gas-solid systems. This may help to understand the roles of cluster diameter correlation and stability condition. Second, a common characteristic of gas-solid and gas-liquid systems can be found by comparing the model solutions for the two systems, albeit structural parameters and stability criteria are specific in each system:two local minima of the micro-scale energy dissipation emerges simultaneously in the solution space of structure parameters, reflecting the compromise of two different dominant mechanisms. They may share an equal value at a critical condition of operating conditions, and the global minimum may shift from one to the other when the operating condition changes. As a result, structure parameters such as voidage or gas hold-up exhibit a jump change dueto this shift, leading to dramatic structure variation and hence regime transition of these systems. This demonstrates that it is the stability condition that drives the structure variation and system evolution, which may be the intrinsic similarity of gas-solid and gas-liquid systems.

  10. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  11. Electric field measurements in a kHz-driven He jet—the influence of the gas flow speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Sretenović, G. B.; Krstić, I. B.; Kovačević, V. V.; Obrusník, A.; Nguyen, Y. N.; Zajíčková, L.; Obradović, B. M.; Kuraica, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    This report focuses on the dependence of electric field strength in the effluent of a vertically downwards-operated plasma jet freely expanding into room air as a function of the gas flow speed. A 30 kHz AC-driven He jet was used in a coaxial geometry, with an amplitude of 2 kV and gas flow between 700 sccm and 2000 SCCM. The electric field was measured by means of Stark polarization spectroscopy of the He line at 492.19 nm. While the minimum and the maximum measured electric fields remained unchanged, the effect of the gas flow speed is to cause stretching of the measured profile in space—the higher the flow, the longer and less steep the electric field profile. The portion of the effluent in which the electric field was measured showed an increase of electric field with increasing distance from the capillary, for which the probable cause is the contraction of the plasma bullet as it travels through space away from the capillary. There are strong indications that the stretching of the electric field profile with increase in the flow speed is caused by differences in gas mixing as a function of the gas flow speed. The simulated gas composition shows that the amount of air entrained into the gas flow behaves in a similar way to the observed behaviour of the electric field. In addition we have shown that the visible length of the plasma plume is associated with a 0.027 molar fraction of air in the He flow in this configuration, while the maximum electric field measured was associated with a 0.014 molar fraction of air at gas flow rates up to 1500 SCCM (4.9 m s-1). At higher flows vortices occur in the effluent of the jet, as seen in Schlieren visualization of the gas flow with and without the discharge.

  12. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  13. Evolution of shock instability in granular gases with viscoelastic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2014-12-01

    Shocks in granular media have been shown to develop instabilities. We address the role that early stages of shock development have on this type of instability. We look at the evolution of shock waves driven by a piston in a dilute system of smooth inelastic disks, using both discrete particle and continuum modelling. To mimic a realistic granular gas, viscoelastic collisions are approximated with an impact velocity threshold u* needed for inelastic collisions to occur. We show that behaviour of the shock evolution is dependent on the ratio of piston velocity to impact velocity threshold up/u*, and the coefficient of restitution ɛ. For up/u* = 2.0, we recover shock evolution behaving similar to that observed in purely inelastic media. This is characterized by a short period where the shock front pulls towards the piston before attaining a developed structure. No pullback is seen for up/u* = 1.0. Results show the onset of instability for these stronger shocks during this evolving stage. These results suggest that the early stages of shock evolution play an important role in the shock instability.

  14. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  15. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  16. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  17. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  18. Pulsed Magnetic Field Driven Gas Core Reactors for Space Power & Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Knight, Travis; Butler, Carey

    2003-01-01

    The present results indicated that: 1. A pulsed magnetic driven fission power concept, PMD-GCR is developed for closed (NER) and semi-open (NTR) operations. 2. In power mode, power is generated at alpha less than 1 for power levels of hundreds of KW or higher 3. IN semi open NTR mode, PMD-GCR generates thrust at I(sub sp) approx. 5,000 s and jet power approx. 5KW/Kg. 4. PMD-GCR is highly subcritical and is actively driven to critically. 5. Parallel path with fusion R&D needs in many areas including magnet and plasma.

  19. Self-Structuring of Granular material under Capillary Bulldozing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik

    2017-06-01

    An experimental observation of the structuring of a granular suspension under the progress of a gas/liquid meniscus in a narrow tube is reported here. The granular material is moved and compactifies as a growing accumulation front. The frictional interaction with the confining walls increases until the pore capillary entry pressure is reached. The gas then penetrates the clogged granular packing and a further accumulation front is formed at the far side of the plug. This cyclic process continues until the gas/liquid interface reaches the tube's outlet, leaving a trail of plugs in the tube. Such 1D pattern formation belongs to a larger family of patterning dynamics observed in 2D Hele-Shaw geometry. The cylindrical geometry considered here provides an ideal case for a theoretical modelling for forced granular matter oscillating between a long frictional phase and a sudden viscous fluidization.

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Sphere in a Sheared Granular Fluid: A Granular Stokes Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Khakhar, D. V.

    2011-09-01

    We study, computationally, the sedimentation of a sphere of higher mass in a steady, gravity-driven granular flow of otherwise identical spheres, on a rough inclined plane. Taking a hydrodynamic approach at the scale of the particle, we find the drag force to be given by a modified Stokes law and the buoyancy force by the Archimedes principle, with excluded volume effects taken into account. We also find significant differences between the hydrodynamic case and the granular case, which are highlighted.

  1. Dynamical large deviations for a boundary driven stochastic lattice gas model with many conserved quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Jonathan; Valentim, Fabio J

    2009-01-01

    We prove the dynamical large deviations for a particle system in which particles may have different velocities. We assume that we have two infinite reservoirs of particles at the boundary: this is the so-called boundary driven process. The dynamics we considered consists of a weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with collision among particles having different velocities.

  2. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-11-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors—who were among the pioneers in the domain— the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ɛ —a central quantity governing the

  4. Partially saturated granular column collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Barbara; Johnson, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are gravity-driven sub-aerial mass movements containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements lead to characteristics common to dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) and viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The importance of pore fluid in these flows is widely recognised, but there is significant debate over the mechanisms of build up and dissipation of pore fluid pressure within debris flows, and the resultant effect this has on dilation and mobility of the grains. Here we specifically consider the effects of the liquid surface in the flow. We start with a simple experiment constituting a classical axisymmetric granular column collapse, but with fluid filling the column up to a depth comparable to the depth of grains. Thus, as the column collapses, capillary forces may be generated between the grains that prevent dilation. We explore a parameter space to uncover the effects of fluid viscosity, particle size, column size, aspect ratio, grain shape, saturation level, initial packing fraction and significantly, the effects of fine sediments in suspension which can alter the capillary interaction between wetted macroscopic grains. This work presents an initial scaling analysis and attempts to relate the findings to current debris flow modelling approaches.

  5. Scaling of a driven atomic gas from the weakly-dressed to the quantum critical regime

    CERN Document Server

    Helmrich, S; Whitlock, S

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of correlations in complex many-body systems can be accompanied by unexpectedly simple scaling laws which signal new physical regimes or universal relations between otherwise very different physical systems. We demonstrate that non-equilibrium scaling laws can reveal the different regimes of strongly-interacting quantum systems driven to highly excited states. For weak or far off-resonant driving we find that the dependence of the excitation rate on coupling strength is well described by power laws characteristic of the dissipative or weakly-dressed regimes, while for strong near-resonant driving we observe a crossover to the quantum critical regime. For intermediate detunings we discover superlinear intensity scaling in a new regime, indicative of cooperative excitation processes, which extends the domain where scale-invariant behavior can be found in driven quantum systems.

  6. Comment on 'Transverse fluctuations in the driven lattice gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Ezequiel V [INIFTA, Sucursal 4, CC 16 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2004-08-20

    Extensive simulation results of the transverse fluctuations in two driven lattice gases, the classical one with current and a modified version without current, are in agreement with the field theory proposed by Garrido et al (GSM). Based on the facts that results from both models are indistinguishable and they obey excellent scaling only by using GSM exponents, I concluded that the conclusions of the recent letter by Caracciolo et al are flawed. (comment)

  7. Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy-driven associated gas flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, James D N; Johnson, Matthew R

    2012-03-01

    Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however, flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emissionfactors for flares were reviewed and found to be questionably accurate, or based on measurements not directly relevant to open-atmosphere flares. In addition, most previous studies of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames considered alkene or alkyne based gaseous fuels, and few considered mixed fuels in detail and/or lower sooting propensity fuels such as methane, which is the predominant constituent of gas flared in the upstream oil and gas industry. Quantitative emission measurements were performed on laboratory-scale flares for a range of burner diameters, exit velocities, and fuel compositions. Drawing from established standards, a sampling protocol was developed that employed both gravimetric analysis of filter samples and real-time measurements of soot volume fraction using a laser-induced incandescence (LII) system. For the full range of conditions tested (burner inner diameter [ID] of 12.7-76.2 mm, exit velocity 0.1-2.2 m/sec, 4- and 6-component methane-based fuel mixtures representative of associated gas in the upstream oil industry), measured soot emission factors were less than 0.84 kg soot/10(3) m3 fuel. A simple empirical relationship is presented to estimate the PM emission factor as a function of the fuel heating value for a range of conditions, which, although still limited, is an improvement over currently available emission factors.

  8. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-12-01

    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  9. Evidence of suppression of star formation by quasar-driven winds in gas-rich host galaxies at z<1?

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies through heating or driving gas out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been scarce. We have assembled a sample of 132 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1gas, the host galaxies' stellar masses and star formation rates and investigate the relationships between AGN luminosities, specific star formation rates (sSFR) and outflow strengths W90 -- the 90\\% velocity width of the [OIII]5007 line power and a proxy for the AGN-driven outflow speed. Outflow strength is independent of sSFR for AGN selected on their mid-IR luminosity, in agreement with previous work demonstrating that star formation is not sufficient to produce the observed ionized gas outflows which have to be powered by AGN activity. More importantly, we find a negative correlation between W90...

  10. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  11. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  12. An $\\epsilon$-pseudoclassical Model for Quantum Resonances in a Periodically Laser-Driven Dilute Atomic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, Benjamin T; Gardiner, Simon A; Hughes, Ifan G; Andersen, Mikkel F; Daszuta, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometers are a useful tool for precision measurements of fundamental physical phenomena, ranging from local gravitational field strength to the atomic fine structure constant. In such experiments, it is desirable to implement a high momentum transfer "beam-splitter," which may be achieved by inducing quantum resonance in a finite-temperature laser-driven atomic gas. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate these quantum resonances in the regime where the gas receives laser pulses of finite duration, and demonstrate that an $\\epsilon$-classical model for the dynamics of the gas atoms is capable of reproducing quantum resonant behavior for both zero-temperature and finite-temperature non-interacting gases. We show that this model agrees well with the fully quantum treatment of the system over a time-scale set by the choice of experimental parameters. We also show that this model is capable of correctly treating the time-reversal mechanism necessary for implementing an interferometer with this p...

  13. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  14. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie

  15. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  16. Gas-driven lava lake fluctuations at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) revealed by MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Bouche, Emmanuella

    2016-09-01

    The long-lived lava lake of Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) is remotely monitored by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) installed on satellites. The Normalised Thermal Index (NTI) (Wright et al. Remote Sens Environ 82:135-155 2002) is shown to be proportional to the volume of the lava lake based on visual observations. The lava lake's variable level can be plausibly related to a stable foam, i.e. a mixture composed of densely packed non-coalescing bubbles in suspension within a liquid. This foam is trapped at the top of the magma reservoir, and its thickness changes in response to the gas flux feeding the foam being successively turned on and off. The temporal evolution of the foam thickness, and the resulting variation of the volume of the lava lake, is calculated numerically by assuming that the gas flux feeding the foam, initially constant and homogeneous since December 9, 2002, is suddenly stopped on December 13, 2002 and not restarted before May 2003. The best fit between the theoretical foam thickness and the level of the lava lake deduced from the NTI provides an estimate of both the reservoir radius, 155-170 m, and the gas flux feeding the foam, 5.5×10-3-7.2×10-3 m 3 s -1 when existing. This is in agreement with previous estimates from acoustic measurements (Bouche et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 295:37-48 2010). The very good agreement between the theoretical foam thickness and that deduced from MODIS data shows for the first time the existence of a regime based on the behaviour of a stable foam, whose spreading towards the conduit ("wide" conduit condition), can explain the long-lived activity. Our predictive model, which links the gas flux at the vent to the foam spreading, could potentially be used on any volcano with a long-lived activity. The underlying gas flux and the horizontal surface area of the magma reservoir can then be deduced by combining modelling to continuous measurements of gas flux. The lava lake, when high, often shows

  17. Modeling and simulation of plasma gas flow driven by a single nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S. Y.; Cai, J. S.; Li, J.

    2016-10-01

    A simplified (7 species and 9 processes) plasma kinetic model is proposed to investigate the mechanism of the plasma aerodynamic actuation driven by nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD). The governing equations include conservation equations for each species, the Poisson equation for the electric potential, and Navier-Stokes equations for the gas dynamic flow. Numerical simulations of plasma discharge and flow actuation on NS-DBD plasma actuators have been carried out. Key discharge characteristics and the responses of the quiescent air were reproduced and compared to those obtained in experiments and numerical simulations. Results demonstrate that the reduced plasma kinetic model is able to capture the dominant species and reactions to predict the actuation in complicated hydrodynamics. For the one-dimensional planar and two-dimensional symmetric NS-DBD, the forming of the sheath collapse is mainly due to the charge accumulation and secondary emission from the grounded electrode. Rapid species number density rise and electric field drop occur at the edge of the plasma sheath, where the space charge density gradient peaks. For the aerodynamic actuation with typical asymmetry electrodes, discharge characteristics have a core area on the right edge of the upper electrode, where the value can be much higher. The formation and propagation of the compression waves generated through rapid heating have also been performed and compared to those measured in a recent experiment. Energy release leads to gas expansion and forms a cylindrical shock wave, centering at the upper electrode tip with low gas acceleration. For the present single pulsed 12 kV case, the mean temperature of gas heating reaches about 575 K at 1 μs and decreases to about 460 K at 10 μs.

  18. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  19. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  20. The effect of bar-driven gas inflow on the AGN triggering in SDSS disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minbae; Choi, Youn-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the role of bars in AGN activities using a volume-limited face-on disc galaxy sample with M_rprobability defined as the ratio of the probability of AGN triggering in barred galaxies to the probability of the AGN triggering in a comparison, non-barred galaxies, for fixed central SFR (central gas fuel) and velocity dispersion of galaxies (black hole mass). We find that bars are one of the mechanisms that trigger AGN, and the effect is pronounced in less massive and lasts even in galaxies with little central gas. We also suggest a concentrated bulge as a morphology that contributes to the AGN triggering although the effect is not as great as bars.

  1. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  2. Failure of granular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates granular assemblies subjected to increasing external forces in the quasi-static limit. In this limit, the system’s evolution depends on static properties of the system, but is independent of the particles’ inertia. At the failure, which occurs at a certain value of the external forces, the particles’ motions increase quickly. In this thesis, the properties of granular systems during the weakening process and at the failure are investigated with the Discrete Element Meth...

  3. Rough-Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Skowron

    2006-01-01

    Solving complex problems by multi-agent systems in distributed environments requires new approximate reasoning methods based on new computing paradigms. One such recently emerging computing paradigm is Granular Computing(GC). We discuss the Rough-Granular Computing(RGC) approach to modeling of computations in complex adaptive systems and multiagent systems as well as for approximate reasoning about the behavior of such systems. The RGC methods have been successfully applied for solving complex problems in areas such as identification of objects or behavioral patterns by autonomous systems, web mining, and sensor fusion.

  4. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  5. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  6. Scales and kinetics of granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsch, I.

    1999-09-01

    When a granular material experiences strong forcing, as may be the case, e.g., for coal or gravel flowing down a chute or snow (or rocks) avalanching down a mountain slope, the individual grains interact by nearly instantaneous collisions, much like in the classical model of a gas. The dissipative nature of the particle collisions renders this analogy incomplete and is the source of a number of phenomena which are peculiar to "granular gases," such as clustering and collapse. In addition, the inelasticity of the collisions is the reason that granular gases, unlike atomic ones, lack temporal and spatial scale separation, a fact manifested by macroscopic mean free paths, scale dependent stresses, "macroscopic measurability" of "microscopic fluctuations" and observability of the effects of the Burnett and super-Burnett "corrections." The latter features may also exist in atomic fluids but they are observable there only under extreme conditions. Clustering, collapse and a kinetic theory for rapid flows of dilute granular systems, including a derivation of boundary conditions, are described alongside the mesoscopic properties of these systems with emphasis on the effects, theoretical conclusions and restrictions imposed by the lack of scale separation. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Numerical modeling of geophysical granular flows: 1. A comprehensive approach to granular rheologies and geophysical multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartevelle, SéBastien

    2004-08-01

    Geophysical granular materials display a wide variety of behaviors and features. Typically, granular flows (1) are multiphase flows, (2) are very dissipative over many different scales, (3) display a wide range of grain concentrations, and (4), as a final result of these previous features, display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies. Therefore the objectives of this manuscript are twofold: (1) setting up a hydrodynamic model which acknowledges the multiphase nature of granular flows and (2) defining a comprehensive rheological model which accounts for all the different forms of viscous dissipations within granular flows at any concentration. Hence three important regimes within granular flows must be acknowledged: kinetic (pure free flights of grain), kinetic-collisional, and frictional. The momentum and energy transfer will be different according to the granular regimes, i.e., strain rate dependent in the kinetic and kinetic-collisional cases and strain rate independent in the frictional case. A "universal" granular rheological model requires a comprehensive unified stress tensor able to adequately describe viscous stress within the flow for any of these regimes, and without imposing a priori what regime will dominate over the others. The kinetic-collisional viscous regime is defined from a modified Boltzmann's kinetic theory of dense gas. The frictional viscous regime is defined from the plastic potential and the critical state theories which account for compressibility of granular matter (e.g., dilatancy, consolidation, and critical state). In the companion paper [, 2004] we will introduce a multiphase computer code, (G)MFIX, which accounts for all the granular regimes and rheology and present typical simulations of diluted (e.g., plinian clouds) and concentrated geophysical granular flows (i.e., pyroclastic flows and surges).

  8. Hydrodynamic modelling of dense gas-fluidised beds: comparison of the kinetic theory of granular flow with 3D hard-sphere discrete particle simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Beetstra, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel technique to sample particle velocity distributions and collision characteristics from dynamic discrete particle simulations of intrinsically unsteady, non-homogeneous systems, such as those encountered in dense gas-fluidised beds, is presented. The results are compared to the isotropic Maxw

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Driven by the Transportation of Goods Associated with French Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Troy R; Dente, Sebastien M R

    2010-11-15

    The transportation of goods plays a significant role in the overall greenhouse gas emissions from consumption. This study investigates the connections between French household consumption and production and transportation-related emissions throughout product supply chains. Here a two-region, environmentally extended input-output model is combined with a novel detailed, physical-unit transportation model to examine the connection between product, location of production, choice of transport mode, and greenhouse gas emissions. Total emissions associated with French household consumption are estimated to be 627 MtCO2e, or 11 tCO2e per capita. Of these, 3% are associated with the transportation of goods within France and 10% with transport of goods outside or into France. We find that most transport originating in northern Europe is by road, whereas most transport from other regions is conducted by sea and ocean transport. Rail, inland water, and air transportation play only a minor role in terms of mass, tonne-kilometers, and greenhouse gas emissions. By product, transport of coal and coke and intermediate goods make the largest contribution to overall freight transport emissions associated with French household consumption. In terms of mass, most goods are transported by road while in terms of tonne-kilometers, sea and ocean transport plays the largest role. Road transport contributes the highest share to the transport of all goods with the exceptions of coal and coke and petroleum. We examine the potential for emissions reductions associated with shifting 10% of direct imports by air freight to sea and ocean or road transport and find that the potential reductions are less than 0.03% of total emissions associated with French consumption. We also consider shifting 10% of direct imports by road transport to rail or inland water and find potential reductions on the order of 0.4−0.5% of the total or 3−4% of the freight transport emissions associated with French

  10. Kinetic approach to granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, A; Loreto, V; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U; Vulpiani, A

    1999-05-01

    We address the problem of the so-called "granular gases," i.e., gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e., at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the number N of particles, for large values of N. One has two regimes: when the typical relaxation time tau of the driving Brownian process is small compared with the mean collision time tau(c) the spatial density is nearly homogeneous and the velocity probability distribution is Gaussian. In the opposite limit tau>tau(c) one has strong spatial clustering, with a fractal distribution of particles, and the velocity probability distribution strongly deviates from the Gaussian one. Simulations performed in one and two dimensions under the Stosszahlansatz Boltzmann approximation confirm the scenario. Furthermore, we analyze the instabilities bringing to the spatial and the velocity clusterization. Firstly, in the framework of a mean-field model, we explain how the existence of the inelasticity can lead to a spatial clusterization; on the other hand, we discuss, in the framework of a Langevin dynamics treating the collisions in a mean-field way, how a non-Gaussian distribution of velocity can arise. The comparison between the numerical and the analytical results exhibits an excellent agreement.

  11. Phase diagram of a driven interacting three-state lattice gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, E.; Schmittmann, B. [Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering, and Physics Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-04-26

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of a three-state lattice gas, half-filled with two types of particles which attract one another, irrespective of their identities. A bias drives the two particle species in opposite directions, establishing and maintaining a non-equilibrium steady state. We map out the phase diagram at fixed bias, as a function of temperature and fraction of the second species. As the temperature is lowered, a continuous transition occurs, from a disordered homogeneous phase into two distinct strip-like ordered phases. Which of the latter is selected depends on the admixture of the second species. A first-order line separates the two ordered states at lower temperatures, emerging from the continuous line at a non-equilibrium bicritical point. For intermediate fraction of the second species, all three phases can be observed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  12. Preliminary study on gas-driven vehicles; Foerstudie om teknik foer gasdrivna fordon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission KE E Consultant AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Ryden, C. [Stockholm MFO AB (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles has been a subject of interest for a long time and alternative fuels have also been subject to extensive investigations. Studies and investigations of the alternatives have resulted in many positive and useful results in that both advantages and disadvantages of different fuels have been evaluated. An important prerequisite for an introduction of new fuels for motor vehicles is that engines and vehicles have been developed and adapted to the new fuel. In most of the cases there are specific differences in composition and physical function between alternative fuels and the commercial fuels, petrol and diesel oil. There is therefore a need for both engines and the exhaust control systems to be developed in order to take the full advantages of the positive property of the new fuel. The aim of the project was to study the technical development of natural gas and biogas fuelled engines and vehicles which had taken place during the last few years, from both a national and an international perspective. The method used has been to visit, among others, various car manufacturers in order to ascertain the state of the art concerning the development of gaseous-fuelled vehicles. In addition an extensive literature study has been carried out aiming at a widening of the knowledge about the development of natural gas fuelled vehicles in especially in USA, Europe and Japan. The results are presented in this report, which hopefully gives a broad picture of the state of the art of current gaseous-fuelled vehicles and information concerning the technology used for the development.

  13. Implication of the Steady State Equilibrium Condition for Electron-Positron Gas in the Neutrino-driven Wind from Proto-Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Men-Quan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the steady state equilibrium condition for neutron-proton-electron-positron gas in the neutrino-driven wind from protoneutron star, we estimate the initial electron fraction in the wind in a simple and effective way. We find that the condition in the wind might be propriate for the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  14. Fast Acting Eddy Current Driven Valve for Massive Gas Injection on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyttle, Mark S [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Ezell, N Dianne Bull [ORNL; Meitner, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Warmack, Robert J Bruce [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2015-01-01

    Tokamak plasma disruptions present a significant challenge to ITER as they can result in intense heat flux, large forces from halo and eddy currents, and potential first-wall damage from the generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons. Massive gas injection (MGI) of high Z material using fast acting valves is being explored on existing tokamaks and is planned for ITER as a method to evenly distribute the thermal load of the plasma to prevent melting, control the rate of the current decay to minimize mechanical loads, and to suppress the generation of runaway electrons. A fast acting valve and accompanying power supply have been designed and first test articles produced to meet the requirements for a disruption mitigation system on ITER. The test valve incorporates a flyer plate actuator similar to designs deployed on TEXTOR, ASDEX upgrade, and JET [1 3] of a size useful for ITER with special considerations to mitigate the high mechanical forces developed during actuation due to high background magnetic fields. The valve includes a tip design and all-metal valve stem sealing for compatibility with tritium and high neutron and gamma fluxes.

  15. Resonance effects on the dynamics of dense granular beds: achieving optimal energy transfer in vibrated granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, C.R.K.; Rosato, A.D.; Thornton, A.R.; Parker, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of experimental techniques and discrete particle method simulations, we investigate the resonant behaviour of a dense, vibrated granular system. We demonstrate that a bed of particles driven by a vibrating plate may exhibit marked differences in its internal energy dependent on t

  16. Similitude study of a moving bed granular filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Huawei Shi; Gerald Colver; Saw-Choon Soo [Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2003-12-10

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving bed granular filter designed for hot gas clean up. This study used similitude theory to devise experiments that were conducted at near-ambient conditions while simulating the performance of filters operated at elevated temperatures and pressures (850{sup o}C and 1000 kPa). These experiments revealed that the proposed moving bed granular filter can operate at high collection efficiencies, typically exceeding 99%, and low pressure drops without the need for periodic regeneration through the use of a continuous flow of fresh granular filter media in the filter. In addition, important design constraints were discovered for the successful operation of the proposed moving bed granular filter.

  17. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luyi

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This thesis presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly suppressed

  18. Granular dampers: does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtavakoli, Hamzeh; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    By means of particle-based numerical simulations using the discrete element method, we address the question of how the performance of granular dampers is affected by the shape of the granular particles. In consistence with previous experiments performed with nearly spherical particles we find that independently of the particles’ shape, the granular system is characterized by a gas-like regime for small amplitudes of the container’s oscillation and by a collect-and-collide regime for large amplitude forcing. Both regimes are separated by an optimal operation mode—the critical amplitude of the damping oscillation for which the energy dissipation is maximal—which is independent of the particle shape for given conditions of particle mass, material properties and number of particles. However, in the gas-like regime, we find that spherical particles lead to more efficient energy dissipation compared to complex shaped particles of the same mass. In this regime, a dependence on the damper’s efficiency on the particle shape is found.

  19. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  20. Experimental approach to shape field relevant blast wave profiles in compressed gas-driven shock tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind eSundaramurthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Detonation of a high explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects even at farther distances, which is termed as primary blast injury, which is the theme of this work. The shock-blast profile is characterized with blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs. These parameters in turn are a function of field factors, such as the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (Chandra et al., 2011;Sundaramurthy et al., 2012;Skotak et al., 2013, the profile not only determines the survival of the animal but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, exact replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. 40 experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68 to 1209.68 mm, measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium. The relationships between SAPs and the resulting shock-blast profiles are characterized. Finally, shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained

  1. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  2. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  3. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  4. Velocity distributions in dilute granular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, J S; MacKintosh, F C

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the idea that velocity distributions in granular gases are determined mainly by eta, the coefficient of restitution and q, which measures the relative importance of heating (or energy input) to collisions. To this end, we study by numerical simulation the properties of inelastic gases as functions of eta, concentration phi, and particle number N with various heating mechanisms. For a wide range of parameters, we find Gaussian velocity distributions for uniform heating and non-Gaussian velocity distributions for boundary heating. Comparison between these results and velocity distributions obtained by other heating mechanisms and for a simple model of a granular gas without spatial degrees of freedom, shows that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q>1 and q < or approximately 1 respectively. We review the literature for evidence of the role of q in the recent experiments.

  5. Accretion Dynamics on Wet Granular Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingier, Guillaume; Sauret, Alban; Jop, Pierre

    2017-05-19

    Wet granular aggregates are common precursors of construction materials, food, and health care products. The physical mechanisms involved in the mixing of dry grains with a wet substrate are not well understood and difficult to control. Here, we study experimentally the accretion of dry grains on a wet granular substrate by measuring the growth dynamics of the wet aggregate. We show that this aggregate is fully saturated and its cohesion is ensured by the capillary depression at the air-liquid interface. The growth dynamics is controlled by the liquid fraction at the surface of the aggregate and exhibits two regimes. In the viscous regime, the growth dynamics is limited by the capillary-driven flow of liquid through the granular packing to the surface of the aggregate. In the capture regime, the capture probability depends on the availability of the liquid at the saturated interface, which is controlled by the hydrostatic depression in the material. We propose a model that rationalizes our observations and captures both dynamics based on the evolution of the capture probability with the hydrostatic depression.

  6. Proton-driven amide bond-cleavage pathways of gas-phase peptide ions lacking mobile protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Suhai, Sándor; Somogyi, Arpád; Paizs, Béla

    2009-10-07

    The mobile proton model (Dongre, A. R., Jones, J. L., Somogyi, A. and Wysocki, V. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118 , 8365-8374) of peptide fragmentation states that the ionizing protons play a critical role in the gas-phase fragmentation of protonated peptides upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). The model distinguishes two classes of peptide ions, those with or without easily mobilizable protons. For the former class mild excitation leads to proton transfer reactions which populate amide nitrogen protonation sites. This enables facile amide bond cleavage and thus the formation of b and y sequence ions. In contrast, the latter class of peptide ions contains strongly basic functionalities which sequester the ionizing protons, thereby often hindering formation of sequence ions. Here we describe the proton-driven amide bond cleavages necessary to produce b and y ions from peptide ions lacking easily mobilizable protons. We show that this important class of peptide ions fragments by different means from those with easily mobilizable protons. We present three new amide bond cleavage mechanisms which involve salt-bridge, anhydride, and imine enol intermediates, respectively. All three new mechanisms are less energetically demanding than the classical oxazolone b(n)-y(m) pathway. These mechanisms offer an explanation for the formation of b and y ions from peptide ions with sequestered ionizing protons which are routinely fragmented in large-scale proteomics experiments.

  7. Tunable Rare Earth fcu-MOF Platform: Access to Adsorption Kinetics Driven Gas/Vapor Separations via Pore Size Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dong-Xu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-22

    Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e., Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Y(3+)) fcu metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cutoff, ideal for selective adsorption kinetics based separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the first RE-fcu-MOF platform, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded notable gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol, and butanol/water pair systems.

  8. Tunable Rare Earth fcu-MOF Platform: Access to Adsorption Kinetics Driven Gas/Vapor Separations via Pore Size Contraction

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2015-03-31

    Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e. Eu3+, Tb3+ and Y3+) fcu metal‒organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cut-off ideal for selective adsorption kinetics separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in-situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the RE-fcu-MOF plat-form, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded nota-ble gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol and butanol/water pair systems.

  9. The rise of granular computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yi-yu

    2008-01-01

    This paper has two purposes. One is to present a critical examination of the rise of granular computing and the other is to suggest a triarchic theory of granular computing. By examining the reasons, justifications, and motivations for the rise of granular computing, we may be able to fully appreciate its scope, goal and potential values. The results enable us to formulate a triarchic theory in the light of research results from many disciplines. The three components of the theory are labeled as the philosophy, the methodology, and the computation. The integration of the three offers a unified view of gran-ular computing as a way of structured thinking, a method of structured problem solving, and a paradigm of structured infor-mation processing, focusing on hierarchical granular structures. The triarchic theory is an important effort in synthesizing the various theories and models of granular computing.

  10. Three Perspectives of Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyu(Y.Y.) Yao

    2006-01-01

    As an emerging field of study, granular computing has received much attention. Many models, frameorks, methods and techniques have been proposed and studied. It is perhaps the time to seek for a general and unified view so that fundamental issues can be examined and clarified. This paper examines granular computing from three perspectives. By viewing granular computing as a way of structured thinking,we focus on its philosophical foundations in modeling human perception of the reality. By viewing granular computing as a method of structured problem solving, we examine its theoretical and methodological foundations in solving a wide range of real-world problems. By viewing granular computing as a paradigm of information processing,we turn our attention to its more concrete techniques. The three perspectives together offer a holistic view of granular computing.

  11. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  12. Stress distribution and surface instability of an inclined granular layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng He-Peng; Jiang Yi-Min; Peng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Static granular materials may avalanche suddenly under continuous quasi-static drives.This phenomenon,which is important in many engineering applications,can be explained by analyzing the stability of the elastic solutions.We show this for a granular layer driven by its inclination angle in gravity,where the elastic problem can be solved generally and analytically.It is found that a loss of stability may occur only at the free surface of the layer.This result is considered to be relevant for understanding surface avalanches and the flows observed experimentally.

  13. Mathematical models of granular matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  14. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  15. Prediction of the bed-load transport by gas-liquid stratified flows in horizontal ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Erick de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Solid particles can be transported as a mobile granular bed, known as bed-load, by pressure-driven flows. A common case in industry is the presence of bed-load in stratified gas-liquid flows in horizontal ducts. In this case, an initially flat granular bed may be unstable, generating ripples and dunes. This three-phase flow, although complex, can be modeled under some simplifying assumptions. This paper presents a model for the estimation of some bed-load characteristics. Based on parameters easily measurable in industry, the model can predict the local bed-load flow rates and the celerity and the wavelength of instabilities appearing on the granular bed.

  16. Granular flows : fluidization and anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Gerrit Herman

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the flow of granular materials (e.g. sand). Even though a single particle is a simple object, the collective behavior of billions of particles can be very complex. In a surprisingly large amount of cases, it is not exactly known how a granular material behaves, and this while the

  17. EFFECTS OF REACTOR CONDITIONS ON ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING GRANULAR-GRAPHITE ELECTRODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was electrochemically dechlorinated in aqueous environments using granular graphite cathode in a mixed reactor. Effects of pH, current, electrolyte type, and flow rate on TCE dechlorination rate were evaluated. TCE dechlorination rate constant and gas pr...

  18. Blow up Analysis for Anomalous Granular Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate in this article the long-time behaviour of the solutions to the energy-dependent, spatially-homogeneous, inelastic Boltzmann equation for hard spheres. This model describes a diluted gas composed of hard spheres under statistical description, that dissipates energy during collisions. We assume that the gas is "anomalous", in the sense that the energy dissipation increases when the temperature decreases. This allows the gas to cool down in finite time. We study the existence, uniqueness and attractiveness of blow up profiles for this model and the cooling law associated, generalizing the classical Haff's Law for granular gases. To this end, we give some new estimates about the third order moment of the inelastic Boltzmann equation with drift term and we introduce new strongly "non-linear" self-similar variables

  19. Jamming in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Granular materials are one of a class of materials which undergo a transition from mechanically unstable to mechanically stable states as key system parameters change. Pioneering work by Liu and Nagel and O'Hern et al. focused on models consisting of frictionless grains. In this case, density, commonly expressed in terms of the packing fraction, ϕ, is of particular importance. For instance, O'Hern et al. found that there is a minimum ϕ =ϕJ, such that below this value there are no jammed states, and that above this value, all stress-isotropic states are jammed. Recently, simulations and experiments have explored the case of grains with friction. This case is more subtle, and ϕ does not play such a simple role. Recently, several experiments have shown that there exists a range of relatively low ϕ's such that at the same ϕ it is possible to have jammed, unjammed, and fragile states in the sense of Cates et al. This review discusses some of this recent work, and contrasts the cases of jamming for frictionless and frictional granular systems.

  20. Fracturing in granular media: the role of capillarity, wetting, and disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, R.; Trojer, M.; de Anna, P.; Szulczewski, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of shale oil and shale gas into the energy landscape has relied on achieving vigorous stimulation of the rock by means of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Traditionally, hydraulic fracturing is understood as a single-fluid-phase, pressure-driven process, in which the fluid (typically water with additives) is injected at a high-enough rate that the pressure builds up faster than it can dissipate by permeating into the rock, thereby fracturing it. However, the prevalent conditions for shale (ultra fine pore size, moderate overburden stress, and poor cementation) suggest that capillary forces could play an important role in the fracturing process. Here, we show the results of our recent experimental and theoretical studies on fracturing of granular media by means of injection of an immiscible fluid. We conduct carefully controlled injection experiments in a quasi-2D granular medium (a circular Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads), in an experimental set-up that allows us to systematically study the impact of capillarity (by varying injection rate, bead size, and fluid-fluid surface tension), wetting properties (by treating the beads and the cell plates by chemical vapor deposition of silane-based substances) and confinement (by varying the load on the cell). Our choice of defending and invading liquids and granular medium allows us to investigate a wide range of contact angles, from drainage to imbibition. We demonstrate that wettability exerts a powerful influence on the invasion/fracturing morphology of unfavorable mobility displacements. High time resolution imaging techniques and particle image velocimetry (PIV) allow us to quantify matrix displacement and fracture opening dynamics. Our results provide insights on fracture propagation, fracture length distribution and the fracture drainage area, parameters which are critically important to better understand long-term hydrocarbon production from shale.

  1. Dynamics of a tracer granular particle as a nonequilibrium Markov process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Andrea; Visco, Paolo; Trizac, Emmanuel; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2006-02-01

    The dynamics of a tracer particle in a stationary driven granular gas is investigated. We show how to transform the linear Boltzmann equation, describing the dynamics of the tracer into a master equation for a continuous Markov process. The transition rates depend on the stationary velocity distribution of the gas. When the gas has a Gaussian velocity probability distribution function (PDF), the stationary velocity PDF of the tracer is Gaussian with a lower temperature and satisfies detailed balance for any value of the restitution coefficient α . As soon as the velocity PDF of the gas departs from the Gaussian form, detailed balance is violated. This nonequilibrium state can be characterized in terms of a Lebowitz-Spohn action functional W(τ) defined over trajectories of time duration τ . We discuss the properties of this functional and of a similar functional Wmacr (τ) , which differs from the first for a term that is nonextensive in time. On the one hand, we show that in numerical experiments (i.e., at finite times τ ), the two functionals have different fluctuations and Wmacr always satisfies an Evans-Searles-like symmetry. On the other hand, we cannot observe the verification of the Lebowitz-Spohn-Gallavotti-Cohen (LS-GC) relation, which is expected for W(τ) at very large times τ . We give an argument for the possible failure of the LS-GC relation in this situation. We also suggest practical recipes for measuring W(τ) and Wmacr (τ) in experiments.

  2. Three-dimensional Simulation of Gas/Solid Flow in Spout-fluid Beds with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow%基于颗粒流运动论的喷动流化床气固流动行为三维模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文琪; 章名耀; 金保升; 袁竹林

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional Eulerian multiphase model, with closure law according to the kinetic theory of granular flow, was used to study the gas/solid flow behaviors in spout-fluid beds. The influences of the coefficient of restitution due to non-ideal particle collisions on the simulated results were tested. It is demonstrated that the simulated result is strongly affected by the coefficient of restitution. Comparison of simulations with experiments in a small spout-fluid bed showed that an appropriate coefficient of restitution of 0.93 was necessary to simulate the flow characteristics in an underdesigned large size of spout-fluid bed coal gasifier with diameter of 1m and height of 6m. The internal jet and gas/solid flow patterns at different operating conditions were obtained. The simulations show that an optimal gas/solid flow pattern for coal gasification is found when the spouting gas flow rate is equal to the fluidizing gas flow rate and the total of them is two and a half times the minimum fluidizing gas flow rate. Besides, the radial distributions of particle velocity and gas velocity show similar tendencies; the radial distributions of particle phase pressure due to particle collisions and the particle pseudo-temperature corresponding to the macroscopic kinetic energy of the random particle motion also show similar tendencies. These indicate that both gas drag force and particle collisions dominate the movement of particles.

  3. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  4. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  5. Flow Behaviors of Gas-Solid Injector by 3D Simulation with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow%基于颗粒动理学的气固喷射器流动特性三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小芳; 金保升; 熊源泉; 钟文琪

    2008-01-01

    A computational study on the flow behavior of a gas-solid injector by Eulerian approach was carried out. The gas phase was modeled with k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled with kinetic theory of granular flow. The simulations by Eulerian two-fluid model (TFM) were compared with the corresponding results by discrete element method (DEM) and experiments. It was showed that TFM simulated results were in reasonable agreement with the experimental and DEM simulated results. Based on TFM simulations, gas-solid flow pattern, gas velocity, particle velocity and the static pressure under different driving jet velocity, backpressure and convergent section angle were obtained. The results showed that the time average axial gas velocity sharply decreased and then slightly increased to a constant value in the horizontal conveying pipe. The time average axial particle velocity increased initially and then decreased, but in the outlet region of the convergent section the particle velocity remarkably increased once more to the maximal value. As a whole, the static pressure distribution change trends were found to be independent on driving gas velocity, backpressure and convergent section angle. However, the static pressure increased with increase of convergent section angle and gas jet velocities. The difference of static pressure to backpressure increased with increasing backpressure.

  6. Velocity Statistics in the Two-Dimensional Granular Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2003-01-01

    We studied the macroscopic statistical properties on the freely evolving quasi-elastic hard disk (granular) system by performing a large-scale (up to a few million particles) event-driven molecular dynamics systematically and found that remarkably analogous to an enstrophy cascade process in the decaying two-dimensional fluid turbulence. There are four typical stages in the freely evolving inelastic hard disk system, which are homogeneous, shearing (vortex), clustering and final state. In the...

  7. A new Jeans resolution criterion for (M)HD simulations of self-gravitating gas: Application to magnetic field amplification by gravity-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic structure formation is characterized by the complex interplay between gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. The processes by which gravitational energy is converted into turbulent and magnetic energies, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we show with high-resolution, adaptive-mesh simulations that MHD turbulence is efficiently driven by extracting energy from the gravitational potential during the collapse of a dense gas cloud. Compressible motions generated during the contraction are converted into solenoidal, turbulent motions, leading to a natural energy ratio of E_sol/E_tot of approximately 2/3. We find that the energy injection scale of gravity-driven turbulence is close to the local Jeans scale. If small seeds of the magnetic field are present, they are amplified exponentially fast via the small-scale dynamo process. The magnetic field grows most efficiently on the smallest scales, for which the stretching, twisting, and folding of field lines, and the turbulent vortices are sufficientl...

  8. Advanced Granular System Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  9. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon

    2016-11-01

    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  10. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

    2015-01-07

    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  11. Localizing energy in granular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Przedborski, Michelle A; Sen, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    A device for absorbing and storing short duration impulses in an initially uncompressed one-dimensional granular chain is presented. Simply stated, short regions of sufficiently soft grains are embedded in a hard granular chain. These grains exhibit long-lived standing waves of predictable frequencies regardless of the timing of the arrival of solitary waves from the larger matrix. We explore the origins, symmetry, and energy content of the soft region and its intrinsic modes.

  12. A Low-Dissipation Technique for Computing Dense Granular Compressible Flows with Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Houim, Ryan W

    2013-01-01

    A low-dissipation numerical method was developed for solving kinetic theory-based granular multiphase models with volume fractions ranging from very dilute to very dense in highly compressible flows containing shock waves. The proposed numerical method takes advantage of particle incompressibility and allows computation of gas-phase and granular-phase hyperbolic fluxes to be decoupled while treating non-conservative terms consistent with their physical meaning. The technique converges under grid refinement even with very high volume fraction granular interfaces and is compatible with high-order numerical algorithms. The method can advect sharp granular interfaces that coincide with multi-species gaseous contacts without violating the pressure non-disturbing conditions. The method also reproduces features from multiphase shock tube problems, granular shocks, transmission angles of compaction waves, and shock wave and dust layer interactions. The proposed scheme is relatively straight-forward to implement and c...

  13. Improving Efficiency of a Counter-Current Flow Moving Bed Granular Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colver, G.M.; Brown, R.C.; Shi, H.; Soo, D.S-C.

    2002-09-18

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second goal of the research is to optimize the performances of both solids and gas filtering processes through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, feed rates etc. in a factorial study. These goals are directed toward applications of advanced coal-fired power cycles under development by the U.S. Department of Energy including pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification/combined cycles based on gas turbines and fuel cells. Only results for particulate gas cleaning are reported here.

  14. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  15. Geometrical families of mechanically stable granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Jie; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2009-12-01

    We enumerate and classify nearly all of the possible mechanically stable (MS) packings of bidipserse mixtures of frictionless disks in small sheared systems. We find that MS packings form continuous geometrical families, where each family is defined by its particular network of particle contacts. We also monitor the dynamics of MS packings along geometrical families by applying quasistatic simple shear strain at zero pressure. For small numbers of particles (N16 , we observe an increase in the period and random splittings of the trajectories caused by bifurcations in configuration space. We argue that the ratio of the splitting and contraction rates in large systems will determine the distribution of MS-packing geometrical families visited in steady state. This work is part of our long-term research program to develop a master-equation formalism to describe macroscopic slowly driven granular systems in terms of collections of small subsystems.

  16. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA : I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Aalto, S.; Krips, M.; Viti, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Casasola, V.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Labiano, A.; Martín, S.; Márquez, I.; Muller, S.; Planesas, P.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Spaans, M.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate. Methods

  17. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA. I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Aalto, S.; Krips, M.; Viti, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Casasola, V.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Labiano, A.; Martín, S.; Márquez, I.; Muller, S.; Planesas, P.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Spaans, M.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate. Methods

  18. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  19. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  20. Simulations of Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Müller, M.

    For the last ten years there has been an enormous progress in the simulation of granular media like sand or powders. These simulations consist in simulating trajectories of each particle individually. Essentially one has to solve the Newton's equations including the effects of Coulomb friction and the physics occuring at a collision. But the details of the trajectories are not important for the collective behaviour. Therefore simplifications are introduced on the smallest scales. I will introduce various methods like molecular dynamics that are used to simulate large amounts of particles (over 109). Some of these medhods are based on the exploitation of parallelisation and metacomputing. Other approaches are more stochastic (DSMC Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) which simplify the calculation of collisions, positions and collision times. Very successful has been also the use of cellular automata which have been able to predict details such as the logarithmic tale of sand heaps. I will also discuss numerical techniques used for the surrounding fluid. This can be water in the case of sedimentation or air when one studies the formation of dunes in the desert. The calculation of velocity and pressure field of the fluid are done using multigrid techniques on parallel computers. We will compare the performance of the various techniques and show some benchmarks on the dependence on the size of the system, the density of particles and the number of processors used.

  1. Influence of pressure-driven gas permeation on the quasi-steady burning of porous energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, S.B.

    1997-09-01

    A theoretical two-phase-flow analysis is developed to describe the quasi-steady propagation, across a pressure jump, of a multi-phase deflagration in confined porous energetic materials. The difference, or overpressure, between the upstream (unburned) and downstream (burned) gas pressure leads to a more complex structure than that which is obtained for an unconfined deflagration in which the pressure across the multi-phase flame region is approximately constant. In particular, the structure of such a wave is shown by asymptotic methods to consist of a thin boundary layer characterized by gas permeation into the unburned solid, followed by a liquid/gas flame region, common to both types of problems, in which the melted material is preheated further and ultimately converted to gaseous products. The effect of gas flow relative to the condensed material is shown to be significant, both in the porous unburned solid as well as in the exothermic liquid/gas melt layer, and is, in turn, strongly affected by the overpressure. Indeed, all quantities of interest, including the burned temperature, gas velocity and the propagation speed, depend on this pressure difference, leading to a significant enhancement of the burning rate with increasing overpressure. In the limit that the overpressure becomes small, the pressure gradient is insufficient to drive gas produced in the reaction zone in the upstream direction, and all gas flow relative to the condensed material is directed in the downstream direction, as in the case of an unconfined deflagration. The present analysis is particularly applicable to those types of porous energetic solids, such as degraded nitramine propellants, that can experience significant gas flow in the solid preheat region and which are characterized by the presence of exothermic reactions in a bubbling melt layer at their surfaces. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  2. A non-equilibrium Monte Carlo renormalization-group approach based upon the microscopic master equation applied to the three-state driven lattice gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.

    2005-12-01

    We present a general position-space renormalization-group approach for systems in steady states far from equilibrium and illustrate its application to the three-state driven lattice gas. The method is based upon the possibility of a closed form representation of the parameters controlling transition rates of the system in terms of the steady state probability distribution of small clusters, arising from the application of the master equations to small clusters. This probability distribution on various length scales is obtained through a Monte Carlo algorithm on small lattices, which then yields a mapping between parameters on different length scales. The renormalization-group flows indicate the phase diagram, analogous to equilibrium treatments. For the three-state driven lattice gas, we have implemented this procedure and compared the resulting phase diagrams with those obtained directly from simulations. Results in general show the expected topology with one exception. For high densities, an unexpected additional fixed point emerges, which can be understood qualitatively by comparing it with the fixed point of the fully asymmetric exclusion process.

  3. Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.

  4. Liquefaction of a Horizontally Vibrated Granular Bed Friction, Dilation and Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Tennakoon, S G K; Tennakoon, Sarath G.

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental observations of the onset of flow (liquefaction) for horizontally vibrated granular materials. As the acceleration increases above certain value, the top layer of granular material liquefies, while the remainder of the layer moves with the shaker in solid body motion. With increasing acceleration, more of the layer becomes fluidized. The initial bifurcation is backward, and the amount of hysteresis depends mainly on frictional properties of the granular media. A small amount of fluidization by gas flow lifts the hysteresis. Modest differences in the frictional properties of otherwise identical particles leads to rapid segregation.

  5. Influence of granularity on coal pyrolysis in Ar/H{sub 2} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wang, D.; Xie, K.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of C1 Chemistry and Technology, Shanxi key Lab of Coal Science and Technology

    2002-06-01

    Coal pyrolysis in arc plasma is very complex. These are many factors affecting this process, such as coal particle size, type of coal, proportion of working gases (Ar/H{sub 2}) and input powders. Coal pyrolysis in H{sub 2}-rich Ar plasma jet reactor was performed. The effect of granularity on coal conversion, acetylene yield, acetylene molar ratio in product gas and coke formation at the wall of reactor was studied. According to the coke formation mechanism in which the granularity is the key factor, the new way of coal feeding with double apex distribution granularity was put forward to eliminate the coke formation. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  7. Inherent Segregation in Granular Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Guzmán J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of the inherent segregation within granular media due to the relative size of the different particles is presented. A numerical model is used to simulate granular structures. For both simulation and granular structures evaluations, probability theory is widely used. Particles are idealized by disks (2D model and spheres (3D model. Strictly uniform grain size materials, bimodal (two particle sizes and continuous are simulated. Two variables representing segregation and allowing appreciating the grain-size parameters effects are considered. In uniform materials, the presence of spontaneous structuring is observed. In bimodal and continuous materials, inherent segregation mainly depends on the ratio between maximum and minimum diameters of particle. Some practical implications of inherent segregation in geotechnical problems and other disciplines are remarked.

  8. Instability in Shocked Granular Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2013-01-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  9. Instability in shocked granular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  10. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-12

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.

  11. Granular cell ameloblastoma of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Trupti R; Samanta, Satarupa T; Trivedi, Priti P; Shah, Manoj J

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a neoplasm of odontogenic epithelium, especially of enamel organ-type tissue that has not undergone differentiation to the point of hard tissue formation. Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare condition, accounting for 3-5% of all ameloblastoma cases. A 30-year-old female patient presented with the chief complaint of swelling at the right lower jaw region since 1 year. Orthopantomogram and computed tomography scan was suggestive of primary bone tumor. Histopathologically, diagnosis of granular cell ameloblastoma of right mandible was made.

  12. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  13. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  14. ɛ -pseudoclassical model for quantum resonances in a cold dilute atomic gas periodically driven by finite-duration standing-wave laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Astier, Hippolyte P. A. G.; Andersen, Mikkel F.; Daszuta, Boris

    2016-12-01

    Atom interferometers are a useful tool for precision measurements of fundamental physical phenomena, ranging from the local gravitational-field strength to the atomic fine-structure constant. In such experiments, it is desirable to implement a high-momentum-transfer "beam splitter," which may be achieved by inducing quantum resonance in a finite-temperature laser-driven atomic gas. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate these quantum resonances in the regime where the gas receives laser pulses of finite duration and derive an ɛ -classical model for the dynamics of the gas atoms which is capable of reproducing quantum resonant behavior for both zero-temperature and finite-temperature noninteracting gases. We show that this model agrees well with the fully quantum treatment of the system over a time scale set by the choice of experimental parameters. We also show that this model is capable of correctly treating the time-reversal mechanism necessary for implementing an interferometer with this physical configuration and that it explains an unexpected universality in the dynamics.

  15. HiRISE observations of gas sublimation-driven activity in Mars' southern polar regions: III. Models of processes involving translucent ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, G.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Thomas, N.; Hansen, C.J.; Milazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Enigmatic surface features, known as 'spiders', found at high southern martian latitudes, are probably caused by sublimation-driven erosion under the seasonal carbon dioxide ice cap. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has imaged this terrain in unprecedented details throughout southern spring. It has been postulated [Kieffer, H.H., Titus, T.N., Mullins, K.F., Christensen, P.R., 2000. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9653-9700] that translucent CO2 slab ice traps gas sublimating at the ice surface boundary. Wherever the pressure is released the escaping gas jet entrains loose surface material and carries it to the top of the ice where it is carried downslope and/or downwind and deposited in a fan shape. Here we model two stages of this scenario: first, the cleaning of CO2 slab ice from dust, and then, the breaking of the slab ice plate under the pressure built below it by subliming ice. Our modeling results and analysis of HiRISE images support the gas jet hypothesis and show that outbursts happen very early in spring. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. District Heating using a gas-motor-driven heat pump - result checking; Erfolgskontrolle. Heizzentrale mit indirekter Gasmotor-Waermepumpe. Berufsschulen Bern-Lorraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, B.; Lanz, S.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project that evaluated the operation of a district heating scheme that supplies various school and college buildings, residential buildings and Berne's Botanical Gardens with heat. This pilot and demonstration system comprises an indirect gas motor heat pump with co-generation unit and an electrically-driven heat pump. In order to achieve a high performance ratio the co-generation unit was additionally equipped with a heat-recovery heat pump which condenses the waste gas and recovers radiation heat losses. The implementation of the district heating project was done in stages to meet annual heat demands of around 6'500 MWh. About 50% of these demands are met by the indirect gas motor heat pump. Figures are presented on the optimisation of heat utilisation from ground water which permitted an improvement in the total efficiency of the plant of around 30% compared with a conventional installation. The authors state that, with this installation, it could be demonstrated in an exemplary fashion that heat pumps can also be installed in existing, non-renovated buildings. In the planning of such heat pump systems they recommend that special attention be paid to the overall performance ratio, and that the rate of flow of the heat source and system temperatures be taken into account.

  17. Gaussian kinetic model for granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James W; Baskaran, Aparna; Zogaib, Lorena

    2004-05-01

    A kinetic model for the Boltzmann equation is proposed and explored as a practical means to investigate the properties of a dilute granular gas. It is shown that all spatially homogeneous initial distributions approach a universal "homogeneous cooling solution" after a few collisions. The homogeneous cooling solution (HCS) is studied in some detail and the exact solution is compared with known results for the hard sphere Boltzmann equation. It is shown that all qualitative features of the HCS, including the nature of overpopulation at large velocities, are reproduced by the kinetic model. It is also shown that all the transport coefficients are in excellent agreement with those from the Boltzmann equation. Also, the model is specialized to one having a velocity independent collision frequency and the resulting HCS and transport coefficients are compared to known results for the Maxwell model. The potential of the model for the study of more complex spatially inhomogeneous states is discussed.

  18. Modeling density segregation in granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Lueptow, Richard; Umbanhowar, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A recently developed continuum-based model accurately predicts segregation in flows of granular mixtures varying in particle size by considering the interplay of advection, diffusion and segregation. In this research, we extend the domain of the model to include density driven segregation. Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-2D bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density driven segregation velocity on local shear rate, particle concentration, and a segregation length which scales with the particle size and the logarithm of the density ratio. With these inputs, the model yields theoretical predictions of density segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios (1.11-3.33) and flow rates (19.2-113.6 cm3/s). Matching experiments with various combinations of glass, steel and ceramic particles were also performed which reproduced the segregation patterns obtained in both the simulations and the theory.

  19. Theoretical modeling of a gas clearance phase regulation mechanism for a pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cun-quan; Zhong, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    The concept of a new type of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor is proposed. In this implementation, the gap between the phase-adjusting part and the cylinder of the spring chamber is used, instead of dry friction acting on the pneumatically-driven rod to control motion damping of the displacer and to adjust the phase difference between the compression piston and displacer. It has the advantages of easy damping adjustment, low cost, and simplified manufacturing and assembly. A theoretical model has been established to simulate its dynamic performance. The linear compressor is modeled under adiabatic conditions, and the displacement of the compression piston is experimentally rectified. The working characteristics of the compressor motor and the principal losses of cooling, including regenerator inefficiency loss, solid conduction loss, shuttle loss, pump loss and radiation loss, are taken into account. The displacer motion was modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) forced system. A set of governing equations can be solved numerically to simulate the cooler's performance. The simulation is useful for understanding the physical processes occurring in the cooler and for predicting the cooler's performance.

  20. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  1. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  2. Milestone report: The simulation of radiation driven gas diffusion in UO2 at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Michael William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Burr, Patrick A [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Rushton, Michael J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Grimes, Robin W [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Turbull, James Anthony [Independent Consultant (United Kingdom); Stanek, Christopher Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Below 1000 K it is thought that fission gas diffusion in nuclear fuel during irradiation occurs through atomic mixing due to radiation damage. This is an important process for nuclear reactor performance as it affects fission gas release, particularly from the periphery of the pellet where such temperatures are normal. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of Xe and Kr diffusion due to irradiation. Thermal spikes and cascades have been used to study the electronic stopping and ballistic phases of damage respectively. Our results predict that O and Kr exhibit the greatest diffusivity and U the least, while Xe lies in between. It is concluded that the ballistic phase does not sufficiently account for the experimentally observed diffusion. Preliminary thermal spike calculations indicate that the electronic stopping phase generates greater fission gas displacement than the ballistic phase, although further calculation must be carried out to confirm this. A good description of the system by the empirical potentials is important over the very wide temperatures induced during thermal spike and damage cascade simulations. This has motivated the development of a parameter set for gas-actinide and gas-oxygen interactions that is complementary for use with a recent many-body potential set. A comprehensive set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study Xe and Kr incorporation at a number of sites in CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2. These structures were used to fit a potential, which was used to generate molecular dynamics (MD) configurations incorporating Xe and Kr at 300 K, 1500 K, 3000 K and 5000 K. Subsequent matching to the forces predicted by DFT for these MD configurations was used to refine the potential set. This fitting approach ensured weighted fitting to configurations that are thermodynamically significant over a broad temperature range, while avoiding computationally expensive DFT-MD calculations

  3. Milestone report: The simulation of radiation driven gas diffusion in UO2 at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Michael William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Burr, Patrick A [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Rushton, Michael J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Grimes, Robin W [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Turbull, James Anthony [Independent Consultant (United Kingdom); Stanek, Christopher Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Below 1000 K it is thought that fission gas diffusion in nuclear fuel during irradiation occurs through atomic mixing due to radiation damage. This is an important process for nuclear reactor performance as it affects fission gas release, particularly from the periphery of the pellet where such temperatures are normal. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of Xe and Kr diffusion due to irradiation. Thermal spikes and cascades have been used to study the electronic stopping and ballistic phases of damage, respectively. Our results predict that O and Kr exhibit the greatest diffusivity and U the least, while Xe lies in between. It is concluded that the ballistic phase does not sufficiently account for the experimentally observed diffusion. Preliminary thermal spike calculations indicate that the electronic stopping phase generates greater fission gas displacement than the ballistic phase, although further calculation must be carried out to confirm this. A good description of the system by the empirical potentials is important over the very wide temperatures induced during thermal spike and damage cascade simulations. This has motivated the development of a parameter set for gas-actinide and gas-oxygen interactions that is complementary for use with a recent many-body potential set. A comprehensive set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study Xe and Kr incorporation at a number of sites in CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2. These structures were used to fit a potential, which was used to generate molecular dynamics (MD) configurations incorporating Xe and Kr at 300 K, 1500 K, 3000 K and 5000 K. Subsequent matching to the forces predicted by DFT for these MD configurations was used to refine the potential set. This fitting approach ensured weighted fitting to configurations that are thermodynamically significant over a broad temperature range, while avoiding computationally expensive DFT-MD calculations

  4. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from a few-terawatt laser driven plasma acceleration using a nitrogen gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. S.; Moorti, A.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    An experimental investigation on the laser plasma acceleration of electrons has been carried out using 3 TW, 45 fs duration titanium sapphire laser pulse interaction with a nitrogen gas jet at an intensity of 2 × 1018 W cm-2. We have observed the stable generation of a well collimated electron beam with divergence and pointing variation ˜10 mrad from nitrogen gas jet plasma at an optimum plasma density around 3 × 1019 cm-3. The energy spectrum of the electron beam was quasi-monoenergetic with an average peak energy and a charge around 25 MeV and 30 pC respectively. The results will be useful for better understanding and control of ionization injection and the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of electrons in high-Z gases and also towards the development of practical LWFA for various applications including injectors for high energy accelerators.

  5. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of Temperature Gradient Driven Molecular Transport in Gas Flows through Nano/Micro-Scale Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yen-Lin; Alexeenko, Alina A.; Young, Marcus; Muntz, Eric Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Studies at the University of Southern California have shown that an unconventional solid-state device, the Knudsen Compressor, can be operated as a micro-scale pump or compressor. The critical components of Knudsen Compressors are gas transport membranes, which can be formed from porous materials or densely packed parallel arrays of channels. An applied temperature gradient across a transport membrane creates a thermal creep pumping action. Experimental and computational techniques that have ...

  7. Experimental and Computational Studies of Temperature Gradient Driven Molecular Transport in Gas Flows through Nano/Micro-Scale Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yen-Lin; Alexeenko, Alina A; Young, Marcus; Muntz, Eric Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Studies at the University of Southern California have shown that an unconventional solid-state device, the Knudsen Compressor, can be operated as a micro-scale pump or compressor. The critical components of Knudsen Compressors are gas transport membranes, which can be formed from porous materials or densely packed parallel arrays of channels. An applied temperature gradient across a transport membrane creates a thermal creep pumping action. Experimental and computational techniques that have ...

  8. Molecular line emission in NGC1068 imaged with ALMA. I An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Aalto, S; Krips, M; Viti, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hunt, L K; Schinnerer, E; Baker, A J; Casasola, F Boone V; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Labiano, A; Martin, S; Marquez, I; Muller, S; Planesas, P; Almeida, C Ramos; Spaans, M; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC1068, a nearby (D=14Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We have used ALMA to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ~ 2kpc of NGC1068 with spatial resolutions ~ 0.3"-0.5" (~ 20-35pc). Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ~ 200pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ~ 1.3kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the AGN, betraying ongoing feedback. The gas kinematics from r ~ 50pc out to r ~ 400pc reveal a massive (M_mol ~ 2.7 (+0.9, -1.2) x 10^7 Msun) outflow in all molec...

  9. The nature and energetics of AGN-driven perturbations in the hot gas in the Perseus Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravleva, I; Arevalo, P; Schekochihin, A A; Forman, W R; Allen, S W; Simionescu, A; Sunyaev, R; Vikhlinin, A; Werner, N

    2016-01-01

    Cores of relaxed galaxy clusters are often disturbed by AGN. Their Chandra observations revealed a wealth of structures induced by shocks, subsonic gas motions, bubbles of relativistic plasma, etc. In this paper, we determine the nature and energy content of gas fluctuations in the Perseus core by probing statistical properties of emissivity fluctuations imprinted in the soft- and hard-band X-ray images. About 80 per cent of the total variance of perturbations on ~ 8-70 kpc scales in the inner region have an isobaric nature, i.e., are consistent with slow displacements of the gas in pressure equilibrium with ambient medium. Observed variance translates to the ratio of non-thermal to thermal energy of ~13 per cent. In the region dominated by weak "ripples", about half of the total variance is also associated with isobaric perturbations on scales ~ a few tens of kpc. If these isobaric perturbations are induced by buoyantly rising bubbles, then these results suggest that most of the AGN-injected energy should fi...

  10. The nature and energetics of AGN-driven perturbations in the hot gas in the Perseus Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arévalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Forman, W. R.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2016-05-01

    Cores of relaxed galaxy clusters are often disturbed by AGN. Their Chandra observations revealed a wealth of structures induced by shocks, subsonic gas motions, bubbles of relativistic plasma, etc. In this paper, we determine the nature and energy content of gas fluctuations in the Perseus core by probing statistical properties of emissivity fluctuations imprinted in the soft- and hard-band X-ray images. About 80 per cent of the total variance of perturbations on ˜8-70 kpc scales in the core have an isobaric nature, i.e. are consistent with subsonic displacements of the gas in pressure equilibrium with the ambient medium. The observed variance translates to the ratio of energy in perturbations to thermal energy of ˜13 per cent. In the region dominated by weak `ripples', about half of the total variance is associated with isobaric perturbations on scales of a few tens of kpc. If these isobaric perturbations are induced by buoyantly rising bubbles, then these results suggest that most of the AGN-injected energy should first go into bubbles rather than into shocks. Using simulations of a shock propagating through the Perseus atmosphere, we found that models reproducing the observed features of a central shock have more than 50 per cent of the AGN-injected energy associated with the bubble enthalpy and only about 20 per cent is carried away with the shock. Such energy partition is consistent with the AGN-feedback model, mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma, and supports the importance of turbulence in the cooling-heating balance.

  11. A New Position-Space Renormalization-Group Approach for Non-Equilibrium Systems and its Application to the Three-State Driven Lattice Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.

    2004-03-01

    We have introduced a general position-space renormalization-group approach for non-equilibrium systems developed from the microscopic master equation. The method is based upon a closed form representation of the parameters of the system in terms of the steady state probability distribution of small clusters. From the master equation in terms of these small clusters, we build recursion relations linking parameters affecting transition rates on various length scales and determine the flow topology. Results for the three-state driven lattice gas show many of the expected features associated with the phase diagrams previously reported for this system, (G. Korniss, B. Schmittmann, and R.K.P. Zia, Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions in a Simple Three-State Lattice Gas, J. Stat. Phys. 86, 721 (1997).)in excellent agreement with simulations. The flow diagrams also exhibit added complexities, suggesting multiple regions within the ordered phase for some values of parameters and the presence of an extra "source" fixed point. (I.T. Georgiev, U. of Maine Ph.D. Thesis (2003); I.T. Georgiev and S.R. McKay, in preparation.)

  12. Modelling density segregation in flowing bidisperse granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    Preventing segregation in flowing granular mixtures is an ongoing challenge for industrial processes that involve the handling of bulk solids. A recent continuum-based modelling approach accurately predicts spatial concentration fields in a variety of flow geometries for mixtures varying in particle size. This approach captures the interplay between advection, diffusion and segregation using kinematic information obtained from experiments and/or discrete element method (DEM) simulations combined with an empirically determined relation for the segregation velocity. Here, we extend the model to include density-driven segregation, thereby validating the approach for the two important cases of practical interest. DEM simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-two-dimensional-bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density-driven segregation velocity on local shear rate and particle concentration. The model yields theoretical predictions of segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios and flow rates. Matching experiments reproduce the segregation patterns and quantitative segregation profiles obtained in both the simulations and the model, thereby demonstrating that the modelling approach captures the essential physics of density-driven segregation in granular heap flow.

  13. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  14. 电驱动和燃气驱动空气源热泵运行设备的分析%Exergy Analysis of the Operating Equipment of Electricity Engine-driven and Gas Engine-driven Air Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽娜; 刘学来; 李永安

    2016-01-01

    对燃气驱动以及电驱动空气源热泵的制热过程进行了分析,得出各个运行设备的损、效率以及热力完善度。研究结果表明:空气源热泵的四大部件:蒸发器、压缩机、冷凝器、节流阀的损分别为0.372、2.722、1.219、0.322。燃气空气源热泵与电驱动空气源热泵均等效为一次能源时,系统的效率分别为22.52%、17.4%,可以看出燃气空气源热泵效率较电驱动空气源热泵高,燃气机热泵更经济节能。%The exergy analysis of the gas engine-driven and electricity engine-driven air source heat pump are made. , and the exergy loss, exergy efficiency and thermodynamic perfection degree of each equipment were obtained. The results show that the exergy losses of air source heat pump in the evaporator, compressor, condenser and throttle valve are 0. 372, 2. 722, 1. 219, 0. 322, respectively. When gas engine-driven and electricity engine-driven air source heat pump are all equivalent to primary en-ergy source,the exergy efficiency of the whole system were 22. 52%, 17. 4%,it can be seen that the exergy efficiency of the gas engine-driven air source heat pump is higher than that of the electricity engine-driven air source heat pump , and the gas engine-driven air source heat pump is more economical and energy saving.

  15. Velocity Distributions in Inelastic Granular Gases with Continuous Size Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; ZHANG Duan-Ming; LI Zhi-Hao

    2011-01-01

    We study by numerical simulation the property of velocity distributions of granular gases with a power-law size distribution, driven by uniform heating and boundary heating. It is found that the form of velocity distribution is primarily controlled by the restitution coefficient -q and q, the ratio between the average number of heatings and the average number of collisions in the system. Furthermore, we show that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q ? 1 and q >1 and q≤1,respectively.

  16. Performance evaluation of Maxwell and Cercignani-Lampis gas-wall interaction models in the modeling of thermally driven rarefied gas transport

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Tengfei

    2013-07-16

    A systematic study on the performance of two empirical gas-wall interaction models, the Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis (CL) model, in the entire Knudsen range is conducted. The models are evaluated by examining the accuracy of key macroscopic quantities such as temperature, density, and pressure, in three benchmark thermal problems, namely the Fourier thermal problem, the Knudsen force problem, and the thermal transpiration problem. The reference solutions are obtained from a validated hybrid DSMC-MD algorithm developed in-house. It has been found that while both models predict temperature and density reasonably well in the Fourier thermal problem, the pressure profile obtained from Maxwell model exhibits a trend that opposes that from the reference solution. As a consequence, the Maxwell model is unable to predict the orientation change of the Knudsen force acting on a cold cylinder embedded in a hot cylindrical enclosure at a certain Knudsen number. In the simulation of the thermal transpiration coefficient, although all three models overestimate the coefficient, the coefficient obtained from CL model is the closest to the reference solution. The Maxwell model performs the worst. The cause of the overestimated coefficient is investigated and its link to the overly constrained correlation between the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient and the tangential energy accommodation coefficient inherent in the models is pointed out. Directions for further improvement of models are suggested.

  17. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-10-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  18. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-08-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  19. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: shankar@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  20. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2015-04-01

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff's law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  1. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  2. Bipedal locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  3. Instabilities in granular gas–solid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez González, Rubén; Garzó, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    A linear stability analysis of the hydrodynamic equations with respect to the homogeneous cooling state is performed to study the conditions for stability of a suspension of solid particles immersed in a viscous gas. The dissipation in such systems arises from two different sources: inelasticity in particle collisions and viscous friction dissipation due to the influence of the gas phase on the solid particles. The starting point is a suspension model based on the (inelastic) Enskog kinetic equation. The effect of the interstitial gas phase on the dynamics of grains is modeled though a viscous drag force. The study is carried out in two different steps. First, the transport coefficients of the system are obtained by solving the Enskog equation by means of the Chapman–Enskog method up to first order in spatial gradients. Explicit expressions for the Navier–Stokes transport coefficients are obtained in terms of the volume fraction, the coefficient of restitution and the friction coefficient characterizing the amplitude of the external force. Once the transport properties are known, then the corresponding linearized hydrodynamic equations are solved to get the dispersion relations. In contrast to previous studies (Garzó et al 2016 Phys. Rev. E 93 012905), the hydrodynamic modes are analytically obtained as functions of the parameter space of the system. For a d-dimensional system, as expected linear stability shows d  ‑  1 transversal (shear) modes and a longitudinal ‘heat’ mode to be unstable with respect to long enough wavelength excitations. The results also show that the main effect of the gas phase is to decrease the value of the critical length L c (beyond which the system becomes unstable) with respect to its value for a dry granular fluid. Comparison with direct numerical simulations for L c shows a qualitative good agreement for conditions of practical interest.

  4. A parametric approach to shape field-relevant blast wave profiles in compressed-gas-driven shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1-3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68-1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared

  5. Performance of cooling capacity adjustment in gas engine-driven heat pump%燃气机热泵容量调节制冷性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明涛; 刘焕卫; 张百浩

    2015-01-01

    Gas engine driven heat pump (GEHP), which mainly consists of a gas engine, an evaporator, a condenser and an expansion valve, can make full use of the waste heat from cylinder jacket and exhaust gas and achieve a higher primary energy ratio (PER) than other forms of heating/cooling systems, and therefore has been considered as a preferable choice in the air-conditioning scheme. Compared with the electric-driven heat pump (EHP), the GEHP has two distinguished advantages: 1) the ability to recover the gas engine waste heat from cylinder jacket and exhaust gas; 2) easy modulation of gas engine speed to meet the cooling loads. In the present article, a novel GEHP which could independently provide heating, cooling and hot water for the buildings was presented. The capacity adjustment and stable operation of GEHP could be achieved by controlling engine rotary speed. The goals of engine rotary speed control were to match the rotary speed and cooling/heating capacity, and keep robust to disturbance. In order to control engine rotary speed effectively, the engine rotary speed expert proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller was designed according to the engine rotary speed control knowledge base and the controlling rules in this study. Meanwhile, the energy analysis of GEHP was presented as well as the GEHP operating parameters (such as ambient air temperature, evaporator water flow and engine rotary speed). The engine rotary expert PID controller was applied to the engine rotary speed control in a GEHP system experimentally under different conditions (modulation on cooling loads and anti-disturbance), and the cooling performance characteristics of GEHP were investigated experimentally over a wide range of engine rotary speed (1 400-2 200 r/min). The performance of GEHP was characterized by cooling capacity, waste heat amount recovered, coefficient of performance (COP) and PER. The relationships between engine rotary speed and cooling capacity, waste heat

  6. A novel resonantly-driven piezoelectric gas pump%一种新型共振式气体压电泵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 杨志刚; 刘勇; 王龙; 谢海峰

    2012-01-01

    The pumps driven directly by piezoelectric membrane not only have a poor performance when pumping gas, but also they may be damaged with a high temperature generated by the piezoelectric membrane when the flow of gas is blocked. Even though the pumps driven by piezoelectric stack have an excellent performance, they are quite costing. To solve the problems above, a novel piezoelectric pump was presented. The pump was driven by an annular bimorph and the displacement of the diaphragm was amplified at the resonance frequency. Firstly, the working principle of the pump was described, and a mechanic model of vibration was built to clarify displacement amplification principle. The analysis shows that the amplification factor is related to the stiffness of spring lamination and piezoelectric vibrator, viscous damping coefficient of system and driving frequency. The experimental prototypes were manufactured and the experiments indicate that the amplification factor of displacement amplifier is more than 4.2 at a 70 V sinusoidal AC driving voltage, the maximum flow rate could be up to 1 685 mL/min; when the gas flow is blocked, the pump can operate continuously as long as 2 000 h without a noted temperature rise in bimorph.%针对膜片式压电泵气体驱动能力不足,被输送气体流动受阻时压电振子易发热受损,以及叠堆式共振压电泵造价高昂等问题,提出了一种以圆环状压电双晶片为动力源,通过位移放大机构驱动的新型共振式气体压电泵.对新型共振式气体压电泵的工作原理及其位移放大原理进行了分析,建立了该泵的振动力学模型.分析结果表明,该泵位移放大效果与压电双晶片提供的驱动位移有关,系统放大倍数与弹簧片和压电振子的刚度、系统的黏性阻尼因子及激励频率有关,设计并制作了新型共振式气体压电泵的试验样机,使用阻抗分析及激光测量方法测试了其位移放大效果,并验证了气体输出

  7. Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models , there is no consensus yet within the research community on...Classification) (U) Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular MOWo I... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Emmanuel Petrakis and Ricardo Dobry 13a. TYPE OF...Institute (RPI) on the behavior and modelling of granular media is summarized. The final objective is to develol a constitutive law for granular soil

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of vibrated granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2002-11-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of monodisperse or bidisperse inelastic granular gases driven by vibrating walls, in two dimensions (without gravity). Because of the energy injection at the boundaries, a situation often met experimentally, density and temperature fields display heterogeneous profiles in the direction perpendicular to the walls. A general equation of state for an arbitrary mixture of fluidized inelastic hard spheres is derived and successfully tested against numerical data. Single-particle velocity distribution functions with non-Gaussian features are also obtained, and the influence of various parameters (inelasticity coefficients, density, etc.) are analyzed. The validity of a recently proposed random restitution coefficient model is assessed through the study of projected collisions onto the direction perpendicular to that of energy injection. For the binary mixture, the nonequipartition of translational kinetic energy is studied and compared both to experimental data and to the case of homogeneous energy injection ("stochastic thermostat"). The rescaled velocity distribution functions are found to be very similar for both species.

  9. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  10. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  11. Near-wall measurements of the bubble- and Lorentz-force-driven convection at gas-evolving electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Weier, Tom; Kähler, Christian J.; Cierpka, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Chemical energy storage systems, e.g., in the form of hydrogen or methanol, have a great potential for the establishment of volatile renewable energy sources due to the large energy density. The efficiency of hydrogen production through water electrolysis is, however, limited by gas bubbles evolving at the electrode's surface and can be enhanced by an accelerated bubble detachment. In order to characterize the complex multi-phase flow near the electrode, simultaneous measurements of the fluid velocities and the size and trajectories of hydrogen bubbles were performed in a water electrolyzer. The liquid phase velocity was measured by PIV/PTV, while shadowgraphy was used to determine the bubble trajectories. Special measurement and evaluation techniques had to be applied as the measurement uncertainty is strongly affected by the high void fraction close to the wall. In particular, the application of an advanced PTV scheme allowed for more precise fluid velocity measurements closer to electrode. Based on these data, stability characteristics of the near-wall flow were evaluated and compared to that of a wall jet. PTV was used as well to investigate the effect of Lorentz forces on the near-wall fluid velocities. The results show a significantly increased wall parallel liquid phase velocity with increasing Lorentz forces. It is presumed that this enhances the detachment of hydrogen bubbles from the electrode surface and, consequently, decreases the fractional bubble coverage and improves the efficiency. In addition, the effect of large rising bubbles with path oscillations on the near-wall flow was investigated. These bubbles can have a strong impact on the mass transfer near the electrode and thus affect the performance of the process.

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  13. Predictive simulation of granular flows applied to compressible multiphase flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Ryan J.; Regele, Jonathan D.

    2014-11-01

    Multiphase flows have been an active area of research for decades due to their complex nature and occurrence in many engineering applications. However, little information exists about the dense compressible flow regime. Recent experimental work [Wagner et al., Exp. Fluids 52, 1507 (2012)] using a multiphase shock tube has studied gas-solid flows with high solid volume fractions (α = 0 . 2) by measuring shock wave-particle cloud interactions. It is still unclear what occurs at the particle scale inside and behind the particle cloud during this interaction. The objective of this work is to perform direct numerical simulations to understand this phenomena. With this goal in mind, a discrete element method (DEM) solver was developed to predict the properties of a particle cloud formed by gravity driven granular flow through a slit opening. For validation purposes, the results are compared with experimental channel flow data. It is found that the mean velocity profile and mass flow rates correlate well with the experiment, however the fluctuation velocities are significantly under-predicted for both smooth and rough wall cases.

  14. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  15. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  16. Perspicuity and Granularity in Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Boiten, Eerke

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconsiders refinements which introduce actions on the concrete level which were not present at the abstract level. It draws a distinction between concrete actions which are "perspicuous" at the abstract level, and changes of granularity of actions between different levels of abstraction. The main contribution of this paper is in exploring the relation between these different methods of "action refinement", and the basic refinement relation that is used. In particular, it shows how the "refining skip" method is incompatible with failures-based refinement relations, and consequently some decisions in designing Event-B refinement are entangled.

  17. Quantum percolation in granular metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigel'man, M V; Ioselevich, A S; Skvortsov, M A

    2004-09-24

    Theory of quantum corrections to conductivity of granular metal films is developed for the realistic case of large randomly distributed tunnel conductances. Quantum fluctuations of intergrain voltages (at energies E much below the bare charging energy scale E(C)) suppress the mean conductance g (E) much more strongly than its standard deviation sigma(E). At sufficiently low energies E(*) any distribution becomes broad, with sigma(E(*)) approximately g (E(*)), leading to strong local fluctuations of the tunneling density of states. The percolative nature of the metal-insulator transition is established by a combination of analytic and numerical analysis of the matrix renormalization group equations.

  18. Theoretical model of granular compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Knight, J.B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nowak, E.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.; Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {rho}/(1 {minus} {rho}). The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially e{sup {minus}N}, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found {rho} {infinity} {minus}{rho}(t) {approx_equal} 1/lnt.

  19. Two Classes of Models of Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daowu Pei

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews a class of important models of granular computing which are induced by equivalence relations, or by general binary relations, or by neighborhood systems, and propose a class of models of granular computing which are induced by coverings of the given universe.

  20. Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maten, van der J; Blaauwgeers, JL; Sutedja, G.; Kwa, HB; Postmus, P.E.; Wagenaar, SS

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the population-based incidence and clinical characteristics of granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree. METHODS: All newly registered tracheobronchial granular cell tumors in the Dutch Network and National Database for Pathology for 10 consecutive years (1990-1999) w

  1. Some open problems in granular matter mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qicheng Sun; Guangqian Wang; Kaiheng Hu

    2009-01-01

    Granular matter is a large assemblage of solid particles,which is fundamentally different from any other type of matters,such as solid and liquid.Most models presented for granular matter are phenomenological and are only suitable for solving engineering problems.Many fundamental mechanical problems remain open.By analyzing characteristics of internal state structure,we propose that granularmatter is intrinsically multiscale,i.e.microscale of particle size,mesoscale of force chain,and macroscale of the bulk of granular matter.The correlations among difference scales would be crucial.The mesoscale force chain network is determined by both particle properties and macroscopic boundary conditions.The evolution of the force the chain network contributes to macroscopic mechanical properties of granular matter.In addition,we discuss the drawbacks in simplifying contact forces in the current models,and the difficulties in analyzing the interaction of interstitial fluid in wet granular matter.As an appropriate application of granular matter,debris flow can be studied with granular matter mechanics;meanwhile,debris flow brings more challenges which certainly motivate future studies on granular matter.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their applica

  3. Effects of cohesion on the flow patterns of granular materials in spouted beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Runru; Li, Shuiqing; Yao, Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Two-dimensional spouted bed, capable to provide both dilute granular gas and dense granular solid flow patterns in one system, was selected as a prototypical system for studying granular materials. Effects of liquid cohesion on such kind of complex granular patterns were studied using particle image velocimetry. It is seen that the addition of liquid oils by a small fraction of 10-3-10-2 causes a remarkable narrowing (about 15%) of the spout area. In the dense annulus, as the liquid fraction increases, the downward particle velocity gradually decreases and approaches a minimum where, at a microscopic grain scale, the liquid bridge reaches spherical regimes with a maximum capillarity. Viscous lubrication effect is observed at a much higher fraction but is really weak with respect to the capillary effect. In the dilute spout, in contrast to the dry grains, the wet grains have a lightly smaller acceleration in the initial 1/3 of the spout, but have a dramatically higher acceleration in the rest of the spout. We attribute the former to the additional work needed to overcome interparticle cohesion during particle entrainment at the spout-annulus interface. Then, using mass and momentum balances, the latter is explained by the relative higher drag force resulting from both higher gas velocities and higher voidages due to spout narrowing in the wet system. The experimental findings will provide useful data for the validation of discrete element simulation of cohesive granular-fluid flows.

  4. Discharge flow of granular media from silos with a lateral orifice and injection of air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aussillous Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies concern the prediction of the mass flow rate of a granular media discharged from a silo with a lateral orifice. However, this situation can have pratical interest considering a tank of granular material with a leak on its side. We studied experimentally the discharge of a vertical silo filled by spherical glass beads. We consider rectangular silos with a rectangular orifice. The impact of size, aspect ratio and position of the orifice and the effect of an additional air flow were studied. The measured parameters are the mass flow rate and the pressure along the silo, whereas the controlled parameters are the size of particles, and the flow rate of air. We identified two regimes of discharge according to the aspect ratio (of width to height of the rectangular orifice. Increasing the air flow rate induces an increase of the granular media flow rate. Using a simple physical model to describe the grains and gas flow, we put in evidence the role played by the air pressure gradient at the outlet. Then we compared the experimental results with continuum Navier-Stokes simulations with the granular μ(I-rheology. We showed that the continuum μ(I-rheology describes well our discharge flow of granular media from silos, taking into account the effect of the position of the orifice as well as the coupling with the gas flow.

  5. A depth integrated model for dry geophysical granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne

    2017-04-01

    Granular flows are rapid to very rapid flows, made up of dry sediment (rock and snow avalanches) or mixture of water and sediment (debris flows). They are among the most dangerous and destructive natural phenomena and the definition of run-out scenarios for risk assessment has received wide interest in the last decades. Nowadays there are many urbanized mountain areas affected by these phenomena, which cause several properties damages and loss of lives. The numerical simulation is a fundamental step to analyze these phenomena and define the runout scenarios. For this reason, a depth-integrated model is developed to analyze the case of dry granular flows, representative of snow avalanches or rock avalanches. The model consists of a two-phase mathematical description of the flow motion: it is similar to the solid transport equations but substantially different since there is no water in this case. A set of partial differential equations is obtained and written in the form of a hyperbolic system. The numerical solution is computed through a path-conservative SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics) scheme, in the two dimensional case. Appropriate closure relations are necessary, with respect to the concentration C and the shear stress at the bed τ0. In first approximation, it is possible to derive a formulation for the two closure relations from appropriate rheological models (Bagnold theory and dense gas analogy). The model parameters are determined by means of laboratory tests on dry granular material and the effectiveness of the closure relation verified through a comparison with the experimental results. In particular, the experimental investigation aims to reproduce two case of study for dry granular material: the dam-break test problem and the stationary motion with changes in planimetry. The experiments are carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Trento, by means of channels with variable slope and variable shape. The mathematical model will

  6. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  7. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  8. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  9. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  10. Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2014-11-01

    Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  11. Motion of a granular particle on a rough line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.; Conti, M.; Vulpiani, A.

    2000-09-01

    We discuss a new model of ideal granular gas consisting of a particle bouncing inelastically along a rough inclined plane. Assuming a velocity-dependent inelastic interaction between the surface and the falling object we study the dynamical phase diagram which consists of three different phases: an accelerated motion, a stopping phase and a phase where the velocity fluctuates about a constant value. We analyze the statistical properties of the steady velocity regime and find that the velocity distribution is characterized by power law tails with a nonuniversal exponent β which depends on the nature of the surface. An explanation for this phenomenon is presented and its relation with random multiplicative processes expounded.

  12. Gas gun driven dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures between 150 K and 750 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures ranging from approximately 150 K to 750 K. Cylinders with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a wall thickness of 4 mm were driven into uniform axially-symmetric expansion at radial strain rates of 104 s-1 using the ogive-insert gas gun method. Diagnostics consisted of simultaneous high speed imaging and multiple points of laser velocimetry (PDV) along the length of the sample. The imaging and PDV provided a record of the expansion process, giving expansion velocity and the failure strain. Recovered fragments were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine the fracture mechanisms for each initial temperature. The failure strain (radial strain at first fracture) was observed to increase with temperature over the range tested, from 7.4 ± 5.2 percent at 158 K to 24.1 ± 2.4 percent at 724 K. In experiments from 158 K up to 609 K the fracture mechanism was found to be ductile tearing under mode II loading along the planes of maximum shear at 45° to the radius. At an initial cylinder temperature of 724 K the fracture mechanism transitioned to void nucleation and coalescence along adiabatic shear bands, again forming at 45° to the radial direction. The fragmentation toughness Kf was observed to also increase with temperature until the 724 K shot where there was a marked reduction, suggesting the formation of shear bands at high temperatures reduced the energy required to form fragments. The average value of Kf was 101 ± 13 MPa m1/2.

  13. Time-Dependent Neutronic Analysis of a Power-Flattened Gas Cooled Accelerator Driven System Fuelled with Thorium, Uranium, Plutonium, and Curium Dioxides TRISO Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the power flattening and time-dependent neutronic analysis of a conceptual helium gas cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS loaded with TRISO (tristructural-isotropic fuel particles. Target material is lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE. ThO2, UO2, PuO2, and CmO2 TRISO particles are used as fuel. PuO2 and CmO2 fuels are extracted from PWR-MOX spent fuel. Subcritical core is radially divided into 10 equidistant subzones in order to flatten the power produced in the core. Tens of thousands of these TRISO fuel particles are embedded in the carbon matrix fuel pebbles as five different cases. The high-energy Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.7 with the LA150 library is used for the neutronic calculations. Time-dependent burnup calculations are carried out for thermal fission power (Pth of 1000 MW using the BURN card. The energy gain of the ADS is in the range of 99.98–148.64 at the beginning of a cycle. Furthermore, the peak-to-average fission power density ratio is obtained between 1.021 and 1.029 at the beginning of the cycle. These ratios show a good quasi-uniform power density for each case. Furthermore, up to 155.1 g 233U and 103.6 g 239Pu per day can be produced. The considered system has a high neutronic capability in terms of energy multiplication, fissile breeding, and spent fuel transmutation with thorium utilization.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  15. Probing density waves in fluidized granular media with diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Philip; Reinhold, Steffen; Sperl, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Density waves are characteristic for fluidized beds and affect measurements on liquidlike dynamics in fluidized granular media. Here the intensity autocorrelation function as obtainable with diffusing-wave spectroscopy is derived in the presence of density waves. The predictions by the derived form of the intensity autocorrelation function match experimental observations from a gas-fluidized bed. The model suggests separability of the contribution from density waves from the contribution by microscopic scatterer displacement to the decay of correlation and thus paves the way for characterizing microscopic particle motions using diffusing-wave spectroscopy as well as heterogeneities in fluidized granular media.

  16. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1,...

  17. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by § 133.144...

  18. Radiative Interaction Between Driver and Driven Gases in an Arc-Driven Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul

    2001-01-01

    An electric-arc driven shock tube was operated with hydrogen as the driven gas and either hydrogen or helium as the driver gas. Electron density was measured behind the primary shock wave spectroscopically from the width of the Beta line of hydrogen. The measured electron density values were many times greater than the values calculated by the Rankine - Hugoniot relations. By accounting for the radiative transfer from the driver gas to the driven gas, the measured electron density values were numerically recreated.

  19. Shear failure of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  20. Wet granular walkers and climbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Z S; Steinberger, A; Seemann, R; Herminghaus, S, E-mail: audrey.steinberger@ens-lyon.fr [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Mechanisms of locomotion in microscopic systems are of great interest not only for technological applications but also for the sake of understanding, and potentially harnessing, processes far from thermal equilibrium. Downscaling is a particular challenge and has led to a number of interesting concepts, including thermal ratchet systems and asymmetric swimmers. Here we present a granular ratchet system employing a particularly robust mechanism that can be implemented in various settings. The system consists of wetted spheres of different sizes that adhere to each other, and are subject to a symmetric oscillating, zero average external force field. An inherent asymmetry in the mutual force network leads to force rectification and hence to locomotion. We present a simple model that accounts for the observed behaviour, underscores its robustness and suggests a potential scalability of the concept.

  1. Linguistic granular model: design and realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Shihong; LI Ping; SONG Zhihuan

    2005-01-01

    A new linguistic granular model is proposed and the effect of its parameters on the output is analyzed. The design of the model consists of two stages: using conditional fuzzy clustering for information granular, and integrating all information granules to final output. The integrating tool is fuzzy integral based on fuzzy measure, and the generalization of fuzzy integral increases flexibility of the linguistic granular model greatly. A heuristic algorithm to determine the parameters in the fuzzy integral is used to realize the linguistic model. Two experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed model.

  2. Granular flows down inclined and vibrated planes: influence of basal friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudel Naïma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study about granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. The results of the flow properties highlight the existence of two distinct regimes: (i a gravity-driven regime at large angles where scaling laws are in agreement with those reported in the literature for non-vibrating granular flows and (ii a vibration-driven regime at small angles where no flow occurs without applied vibrations. The flow in this regime is well described by a vibrationinduced activated process. We also propose an empirical law to capture the evolution of the thickness of the deposits as a function of the vibration intensity and the inclination angle.

  3. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  4. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Hońko, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  5. Electrical transport properties in Fe-Cr nanocluster-assembled granular films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Zhi; Wang, Lai-Sen; Zhang, Qin-Fu; Liu, Xiang; Xie, Jia; Su, A.-Mei; Zheng, Hong-Fei; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-09-01

    The Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films with Cr atomic fraction (x) ranging from 0 to 100 were fabricated by using a plasma-gas-condensation cluster deposition system. The TEM characterization revealed that the uniform Fe clusters were coated with a Cr layer to form a Fe-Cr core-shell structure. Then, the as-prepared Fe100-xCrx nanoclusters were randomly assembled into a granular film in vacuum environments with increasing the deposition time. Because of the competition between interfacial resistance and shunting effect of Cr layer, the room temperature resistivity of the Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films first increased and then decreased with increasing the Cr atomic fraction (x), and revealed a maximum of 2 × 104 μΩ cm at x = 26 at.%. The temperature-dependent longitudinal resistivity (ρxx), magnetoresistance (MR) effect and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of these Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films were also studied systematically. As the x increased from 0 to 100, the ρxx of all samples firstly decreased and then increased with increasing the measuring temperature. The dependence of ρxx on temperature could be well addressed by a mechanism incorporated for the fluctuation-induced-tunneling (FIT) conduction process and temperature-dependent scattering effect. It was found that the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) had no legible scaling relation in Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films. However, after deducting the contribution of tunneling effect, the scaling relation was unambiguous. Additionally, the Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films revealed a small negative magnetoresistance (MR), which decreased with the increase of x. The detailed physical mechanism of the electrical transport properties in these Fe100-xCrx nanocluster-assembled granular films was also studied.

  6. [N2O production in nitrogen removal by micro-expansion of granular sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-li; Gao, Da-wen

    2013-09-01

    Controlled low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to study the realization of micro-expansion of aerobic granular sludge, and the removal efficiency of COD and NH4+ -N as well as the production of the greenhouse gas N2O by the micro-expansion of granular sludge was investigated. The results showed that under the condition of low dissolved oxygen micro-expansion of sludge could be achieved, and the sludge volume index (SVI) was mostly in the range of 150-250 mL x g(-1). The micro-expansion of granular sludge did not have significant influence on the removal of COD and NH4+ -N. The COD removal rate increased from 89.45% to 90.99%, the NH4+ -N removal rate decreased from 77.29% to 68.29%, and the nitrification rate dropped from 38.95 x 10(-3) mg (g x min)(-1) to 33.46 x 10(-3) mg x (g x min)(-1). The micro-expansion of granular sludge had a big influence on the production of N2O, and the N2O production by the micro-expanded granular sludge was 2.42 mg x m(-3), which was 1.26 times of the N2O production of the granular sludge without micro-expansion. The N2O release rate in the micro-expanded granular sludge increased from 3.63 x 10(-3) mg x (L x min)(-1) to 4.72 x 10(-3) mg x (L x min)(-1).

  7. Dielectric and magnetic losses of microwave electromagnetic radiation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsev, L V; Tchmutin, I A; Ryvkina, N G; Kalinin, Y E; Sitnikoff, A V

    2003-01-01

    We have studied dielectric and magnetic losses in granular structures constituted by ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Co, Fe, B) in an insulating amorphous a-SiO sub 2 matrix at microwave frequencies, in relation to metal concentration, substrate temperatures and gas content, in the plasma atmosphere in sputtering and annealing. The magnetic losses are due to fast spin relaxation of nanoparticles, which becomes more pronounced with decreasing metal content and occur via simultaneous changes in the granule spin direction and spin polarization of electrons on exchange-split localized states in the matrix (spin-polarized relaxation mechanism). The difference between the experimental values of the imaginary parts of magnetic permeability for granular structures prepared in Ar and Ar + O sub 2 atmospheres is determined by different electron structures of argon and oxygen impurities in the matrix. To account for large dielectric losses in granular structures, we have developed a model of cluster electron states (CESs)....

  8. Archimedes' law and its corrections for an active particle in a granular sea

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study the origin of buoyancy forces acting on a larger particle moving in a granular medium subject to horizontal shaking and its corrections before fluidization. In the fluid limit Archimedes' law is verified; before the limit memory effects counteract buoyancy, as also found experimentally. The origin of the friction is an excluded volume effect between active particles, which we study more exactly for a random walker in a random environment. The same excluded volume effect is also responsible for the mutual attraction between bodies moving in the granular medium. Our theoretical modeling proceeds via an asymmetric exclusion process, i.e., via a dissipative lattice gas dynamics simulating the position degrees of freedom of a low density granular sea.

  9. Quantifying non-ergodic dynamics of force-free granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Bodrova, Anna; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Brownianmotion is ergodic in the Boltzmann–Khinchin sense that long time averages of physical observables such as the mean squared displacement provide the same information as the corresponding ensemble average, even at out-of-equilibrium conditions. This property is the fundamental prerequisite for single particle tracking and its analysis in simple liquids. We study analytically and by event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the dynamics of force-free cooling granular gases and reveal a...

  10. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  11. Helical Locomotion in a Granular Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    The physical mechanisms that bring about the propulsion of a rotating helix in a granular medium are considered. A propulsive motion along the axis of the rotating helix is induced by both symmetry breaking due to the helical shape, and the anisotropic frictional forces undergone by all segments of the helix in the medium. Helix dynamics is studied as a function of helix rotation speed and its geometrical parameters. The effect of the granular pressure and the applied external load were also investigated. A theoretical model is developed based on the anisotropic frictional force experienced by a slender body moving in a granular material, to account for the translation speed of the helix. A good agreement with experimental data is obtained, which allows for predicting the helix design to propel optimally within granular media. These results pave the way for the development of an efficient sand robot operating according to this mode of locomotion.

  12. Sliding through a superlight granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2009-12-01

    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  13. Low Mach number theory of freely cooling granular gases

    CERN Document Server

    Meerson, Baruch; Vilenkin, Arkady

    2007-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to investigate the dynamics of a freely cooling dilute granular gas with nearly elastic particle collisions. We assume a narrow channel geometry and focus on the regime where the sound travel time through the system is much shorter than the typical cooling time of the gas. As a result, the pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the Mach number is small. Eliminating the sound waves and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the full hydrodynamics to a single nonlinear/nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of flows and, in particular, can follow the development of strongly nonlinear states during clustering instability. Without heat diffusion, the reduced equation is exactly soluble and develops a finite-time density blowup with the same local features as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations (Fouxon et al. 2007). The heat diffusion, however, ar...

  14. Granular gases of rod-shaped grains in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, K; Kornek, U; Trittel, T; Strachauer, U; Höme, S; Will, K; Stannarius, R

    2013-04-05

    Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

  15. Continuum modelling of shock waves through granular gases and the role of statistical fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2016-11-01

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. Two-dimensional event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were previously completed to investigate the stability of piston driven shock waves through dilute granular gases. By considering viscoelastic collisions, allowing for finite dissipation within the shock wave, instabilities were found in the form of distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. This work is now extended to the continuum level. Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for granular gases are modelled with a modified cooling rate to include an impact threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. The shock structure predicted by the continuum formulation is found in good agreement with the structure obtained by MD. Introducing strong perturbations to the incoming density field, in accordance with the spacial fluctuations in the upstream state seen in MD, yields similar instabilities as those previously observed. While the inviscid model predicts a highly turbulent structure from these perturbations, the inclusion of viscosity and heat conductivity yields comparable wavelengths of pattern formations to those seen in MD.

  16. Rheology of binary granular mixtures in the dense flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Khakhar, D. V.

    2011-11-01

    We study the rheology of granular mixtures in a steady, fully developed, gravity-driven flow on an inclined plane, by means of discrete element method (DEM) simulations. Results are presented for a single component system and binary mixtures with particles of different size and density. Inclination angles, composition, size ratios and density ratios are varied to obtain different segregated configurations at equilibrium. Steady state profiles of the mean velocity, volume fractions, shear stress, shear rate, inertial number and apparent viscosity across the depth of the flowing layer are reported for the different cases. The viscosity varies with height and is found to depend on the local bulk density and composition, which, in turn, depend on the size ratio, the mass ratio and the degree of segregation. For a single component system, a viscoplastic rheological model [P. Jop et al., Nature 441, 727 (2006)] describes the data quite well. We propose a modification of the model for the case of mixtures. The mixture model predicts the viscosity for both well-mixed and segregated granular mixtures differing in size, density or both, using the same model parameters as obtained for the single component system. The predictions of a model for the volume fraction of the mixtures also agree well with simulation results.

  17. [Granular cell tumor of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, M; Wróbel, B; Zawisza, E; Drozd, K

    1999-09-01

    Granular cell tumor is an unusual growth of probably neuroectodermal histogenesis, first reported by Abrikossoff in 1926 with the name of myoblastenmyoma. Authors described a case of a 54 year man with laryngeal seat of granular-cell myoblastoma. In this case Abrikossoff tumor was located in the right vocal chord. The tumor was treated successfully surgically by microlaryngoscopy. The etiology, clinical features and diagnostic difficulties are discussed.

  18. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  19. DISCRETE AND CONTINUUM MODELLING OF GRANULAR FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.

  20. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ita, Stacey Leigh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  1. Intermittent Flow of Granular Matter in an Annular Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzinski, Ted; Daniels, Karen E.

    Granular solids can be subjected to a finite stress below which the response is elastic. Above this yield stress, however, the material fails catastrophically, undergoing a rapid plastic deformation. In the case of a monotonically increasing stress the material exhibits a characteristic stick-slip response. We investigate the statistics of this intermittent failure in an annular shear geometry, driven with a linear-ramp torque in order to generate the stick-slip behavior. The apparatus is designed to allow visual access to particle trajectories and inter-particle forces (through the use of photoelastic materials). Additionally, twelve piezoelectric sensors at the outer wall measure acoustic emissions due to the plastic deformation of the material. We vary volume fraction, and use both fixed and deformable boundaries. We measure how the distribution of slip size and duration are related to the bulk properties of the packing, and compare to systems with similar governing statistics.

  2. Hysteresis, memory and creep in a wealy vibrated granular column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbanhowar, Paul; van Hecke, Martin

    2003-03-01

    We report experimental measurements of the apparent weight W of a column of granular material that is weakly and sinusoidally oscillated with peak acceleration Γ less than g, the acceleration due to gravity. Experiments are conducted in a rigid container with a piezo-electric force sensing element as the base and employ a time varying vertical acceleration to measure W. As in previous work, W increases monotonically and then saturates as the height of the grain column is increased. However, a "freshly" poured column previously driven at Γ < Γ1 exhibits bursts of rearrangements when Γ is slowly increased to a value larger than Γ_1. Above a minimum value of Γ, the apparent weight displays hysteretic behavior when Γ is ramped up and down. Finally, W appears to slowly decrease with time when Γ is kept constant. These results point to a highly non-trivial collective rearrangement of the force network which occurs in the absence of macroscopic grain motion.

  3. Velocity statistics in two-dimensional granular turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2003-10-01

    We studied the macroscopic statistical properties on the freely evolving quasielastic hard disk (granular) system by performing a large-scale (up to a few million particles) event-driven molecular dynamics systematically and found it to be remarkably analogous to an enstrophy cascade process in the decaying two-dimensional fluid turbulence. There are four typical stages in the freely evolving inelastic hard disk system, which are homogeneous, shearing (vortex), clustering, and final state. In the shearing stage, the self-organized macroscopic coherent vortices become dominant. In the clustering stage, the energy spectra are close to the expectation of Kraichnan-Batchelor theory and the squared two-particle separation strictly obeys Richardson law.

  4. Self-assembled granular towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  5. Recent Developments in Understanding Wind Driven Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.; Rasmussen, K. R.

    2011-10-01

    The wind driven transport of granular material is an important environmental/climatic factor on Earth and even more so on Mars. Several related aspects of Aeolian activity are presently being studied in the laboratory. These include simulating wind driven erosion in the laboratory and the study of mineral change due to mechanical activation as well as quantifying erosion rates. The generation of electric fields and the effects of these electric fields on grain transport is also being investigated using environmental wind tunnel simulators.

  6. Granular convection and its application to asteroidal resurfacing timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ando, Kosuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    A model for the asteroid resurfacing resulting from regolith convection is built to estimate its timescale. The regolith convection by impact-induced global seismic shaking could be a possible reason for regolith migration and resultant segregated terrain which were found on the asteroids Itokawa [1]. Some recent studies [2, 3] experimentally investigated the convective velocity of the vibrated granular bed to discuss the feasibility of regolith convection under the microgravity condition such as small asteroids. These studies found that the granular convective velocity is almost proportional to the gravitational acceleration [2, 3]. Namely, the granular (regolith) convective velocity would be very low under the microgravity condition. Therefore, the timescale of resurfacing by regolith convection would become very long. In order to examine the feasibility of the resurfacing by regolith convection on asteroids, its timescale have to be compared with the surface age or the lifetime of asteroids. In this study, we aim at developing a model of asteroid resurfacing process induced by regolith convection. The model allows us to estimate the resurfacing timescale for various-sized asteroids covered with regolith. In the model, regolith convection is driven by the impact-induced global seismic shaking. The model consists of three phases, (i) Impact phase: An impactor intermittently collides with a target asteroid [4], (ii) Vibration phase: The collision results in a global seismic shaking [5], (iii) Convection phase: The global seismic shaking induces the regolith convection on the asteroid [3]. For the feasibility assessment of the resurfacing process driven by regolith convection, we estimate the regolith-convection-based resurfacing timescale T as a function of the size of a target asteroid Da. According to the estimated result, the resurfacing time scale is 40 Myr for the Itokawa-sized asteroid, and this value is shorter than the mean collisional lifetime of Itokawa

  7. Mechanics of granular environments; Mecanique des milieux granulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, J. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    This book aims at presenting different aspects of the behaviour of granular materials as encountered in natural environments (mainly soils), in industries involving the handling of granular products (cereals..) or powders (chemistry, metal industry..). It brings together the contributions of various specialists of physics and mechanics: mechanics of collisions between solids; gravity flows; grain flows; solid transport as example of two-phase granular flow; wave propagation inside a model of granular environment; propagation of waves in soils; enrockments and stability of rocky slopes; soils behaviour; coupled heat and mass transfers in granular environments; thermo-mechanical properties of granular environments. (J.S.)

  8. Self-organized magnetic particles to tune the mechanical behavior of a granular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Meredith; Wang, Dong; Barés, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert P.

    2016-09-01

    Above a certain density a granular material jams. This property can be controlled by either tuning a global property, such as the packing fraction or by applying shear strain, or at the micro-scale by tuning grain shape, inter-particle friction or externally controlled organization. Here, we introduce a novel way to change a local granular property by adding a weak anisotropic magnetic interaction between particles. We measure the evolution of the pressure, P, and coordination number, Z, for a packing of 2D photo-elastic disks, subject to uniaxial compression. A fraction R m of the particles have embedded cuboidal magnets. The strength of the magnetic interactions between particles is too weak to have a strong direct effect on P or Z when the system is jammed. However, the magnetic interactions play an important role in the evolution of latent force networks when systems containing a large enough fraction of the particles with magnets are driven through unjammed to jammed states. In this case, a statistically stable network of magnetic chains self-organizes before jamming and overlaps with force chains once jamming occurs, strengthening the granular medium. This property opens a novel way to control mechanical properties of granular materials.

  9. Pulling rigid bodies through granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Ryan; Dressaire, Emilie

    2016-11-01

    The need for anchoring systems in granular materials such as sand is present in the marine transportation industry, e.g. to layout moorings, keep vessels and docks fixed in bodies of water, build oil rigs, etc. The holding power of an anchor is associated with the force exerted by the granular media. Empirical evidence indicates that the holding power depends on the size and shape of the anchoring structure. In this model study, we use a two-dimensional geometry in which a rigid body is pulled through a granular media at constant velocity to determine the drag and lift forces exerted by a granular medium on a moving object. The method allows measuring the drag force and recording the trajectory of the rigid object through the sand. We systematically vary the size and geometry of the rigid body, the properties of the granular medium and the extraction speed. For different initial positions of a cylindrical object pulled horizontally through the medium, we record large variations in magnitude of the drag and a significant lift force that pulls the object out of the sand.

  10. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  11. Microstructure evolution during impact on granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondic, L; Fang, X; Losert, W; O'Hern, C S; Behringer, R P

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of an intruder on a dense granular material. The process of impact and interaction between the intruder and the granular particles is modeled using discrete element simulations in two spatial dimensions. In the first part of the paper we discuss how the intruder's dynamics depends on (1) the intruder's properties, including its size, shape and composition, (2) the properties of the grains, including friction, polydispersity, structural order, and elasticity, and (3) the properties of the system, including its size and gravitational field. It is found that polydispersity and related structural order, and frictional properties of the granular particles, play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics. In the second part of the paper we consider the response of the granular system itself. We discuss the force networks that develop, including their topological evolution. The influence of friction and structural order on force propagation, including the transition from hyperbolic-like to elastic-like behavior is discussed, as well as the affine and nonaffine components of the grain dynamics. Several broad observations include the following: tangential forces between granular particles are found to play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics; both force networks and particle dynamics are correlated with the dynamics of the intruder itself. © 2012 American Physical Society

  12. Dynamic of Air Invasion in an Immersed Granular Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, G.; Ramos, G.; Géminard, J. C.; Vidal, V.

    2014-12-01

    Displacement processes (typically, grains displaced by a fluid) are the driving mechanism which control the dynamics of many geological processes (e.g. oil extraction, air sparging, piercement structures). They also play an important role in a wide range of industrial applications, from ground water hydrology and soil mechanics to agricultural engineering. The interaction between one or more moving fluids (e.g. rising gas immersed in a granular medium) and grains control the dynamics of these phenomena. Due to their economic and ecological importance, it is essential to understand the variety and potentiality of these phenomena. When an ascending air passes trough an immersed granular bed its fluidized producing the grains to start to move. When this process is repeated, its created a fluidized zone that evolves over time. Here, we investigate the morphology and dynamics of the region invaded by air as a function of a dimensionless parameter χ which accounts for the relative effects of the gravity and the capillarity. We propose new experimental observations on the air invasion regimes and on the morphology of the fluidized zone, in particular its growth dynamics.

  13. Granular computing with multiple granular layers for brain big data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoyin; Xu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    Big data is the term for a collection of datasets so huge and complex that it becomes difficult to be processed using on-hand theoretical models and technique tools. Brain big data is one of the most typical, important big data collected using powerful equipments of functional magnetic resonance imaging, multichannel electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, Positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopic imaging, as well as other various devices. Granular computing with multiple granular layers, referred to as multi-granular computing (MGrC) for short hereafter, is an emerging computing paradigm of information processing, which simulates the multi-granular intelligent thinking model of human brain. It concerns the processing of complex information entities called information granules, which arise in the process of data abstraction and derivation of information and even knowledge from data. This paper analyzes three basic mechanisms of MGrC, namely granularity optimization, granularity conversion, and multi-granularity joint computation, and discusses the potential of introducing MGrC into intelligent processing of brain big data.

  14. Perfect fluid flow from granular jet impact

    CERN Document Server

    Ellowitz, Jake; Zhang, Wendy W

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the impact of a densely-packed jet of non-cohesive grains onto a fixed target show that the impact produces an ejecta sheet comprised of particles in collimated motion. The ejecta sheet leaves the target at a well-defined angle whose value agrees quantitatively with the sheet angle produced by water jet impact. Motivated by these experiments, we examine the idealized problem of dense granular jet impact onto a frictionless target in two dimensions. Numerical results for the velocity and pressure fields within the granular jet agree quantitatively with predictions from an exact solution for 2D perfect-fluid impact. This correspondence demonstrates that the continuum limit controlling the coherent collective motion in dense granular impact is Euler flow.

  15. Computational Granular Dynamics Models and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    Computer simulations not only belong to the most important methods for the theoretical investigation of granular materials, but also provide the tools that have enabled much of the expanding research by physicists and engineers. The present book is intended to serve as an introduction to the application of numerical methods to systems of granular particles. Accordingly, emphasis is placed on a general understanding of the subject rather than on the presentation of the latest advances in numerical algorithms. Although a basic knowledge of C++ is needed for the understanding of the numerical methods and algorithms in the book, it avoids usage of elegant but complicated algorithms to remain accessible for those who prefer to use a different programming language. While the book focuses more on models than on the physics of granular material, many applications to real systems are presented.

  16. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  17. Vibration-induced liquefaction of granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotin, C; Kiesgen de Richter, S; Marchal, P; Michot, L J; Baravian, C

    2012-05-11

    We investigate the mechanical behavior of granular suspensions subjected to coupled vibrations and shear. At high shear stress, whatever the mechanical vibration energy and bead size, the system behaves like a homogeneous suspension of hard spheres. At low shear stress, in addition to a dependence on bead size, vibration energy drastically influences the viscosity of the material that can decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. All experiments can be rationalized by introducing a hydrodynamical Peclet number defined as the ratio between the lubrication stress induced by vibrations and granular pressure. The behavior of vibrated wet and dry granular materials can then be unified by assimilating the hookean stress in dry media to the lubrication stress in suspensions.

  18. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Zhiwei; Elfring, Gwynn J

    2015-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swi...

  19. Compaction dynamics of wet granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Ludewig, Francois; Fiscina, Jorge E.; Lumay, Geoffroy

    2013-03-01

    The extremely slow compaction dynamics of wet granular assemblies has been studied experimentally. The cohesion, due to capillary bridges between neighboring grains, has been tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The characteristic relaxation time for compaction τ grows strongly with cohesion. A kinetic model, based on a free volume kinetic equations and the presence of a capillary energy barrier (due to liquid bridges), is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimental curves. This model allows one to describe the cohesion in wet granular packing. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has also been investigated in the range 20 % - 80 % . Triboelectric and capillary condensation effects have been introduced in the kinetic model. Results confirm the existence of an optimal condition at RH ~ 45 % for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads.

  20. Ultrasound features of orbital granular cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Bernadete; Miller, Neil R; Eberhart, Charles G; Dibernardo, Cathy W

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the echographic characteristics of a rare orbital granular cell tumor and correlate these findings with histopathology. A 56-year-old woman presented with proptosis. Complete ophthalmic and ultrasound examinations were performed. Ultrasound revealed an oval, well-outlined orbital mass in the intraconal space with low-medium reflectivity and regular internal structure. An orbitotomy with complete excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic evaluation showed sheets and nests of cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm in a uniform distribution throughout the lesion. The echographic characteristics correlated well with the morphologic surgical findings and the histologic architecture. This is the first report describing the echographic characteristics of orbital granular cell tumor.

  1. Dropping the Ball: The effect of anisotropic granular materials on ejecta and impact crater shape

    CERN Document Server

    Drexler, Philip; Arratia, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present an experimental investigation of the shape of impact craters in granular materials. Complex crater shapes, including polygons, have been observed in many terrestrial planets as well as moons and asteroids. We release spherical projectiles from different heights above a granular bed (sand). The experiments demonstrate two different techniques to create non-circular impact craters, which we measure by digitizing the final crater topography. In the first method, we create trenches in the sand to mimic fault lines or valleys on a planetary target. During impact, ejecta move faster in the direction of the trenches, creating nearly elliptical craters with the major axis running parallel to the trench. Larger trenches lead to more oblong craters. In the second method, a hose beneath the surface of the sand injects nitrogen gas. The pressure of the gas counters the hydrostatic pressure of the sand, greatly reducing static friction between grains above the injection point, with...

  2. Multiscale modelling of fluid-immersed granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Christian Paul André René

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we present numerical simulation studies of fluid-immersed granular systems using models of varying scales and complexities. These techniques are used to examine the effects of an interstitial fluid on the dynamics of dense granular beds within a number of vibrated systems. After an introduction to the field of granular materials, we present the techniques used to model both the granular dynamics and the fluid flow. We introduce various multiscale techniques to couple the mo...

  3. Performance of Anammox granular sludge bed reactor started up with nitrifying granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) granular sludge bed reactor was started up successfully withnitrifying granular sludge. During the operation, the nitrifying granular sludge was gradually converted into Anammoxgranular sludge with good settling property and high conversion activity. The Anammox reactor worked well with theshortest HRT of 2.43 h. Under the condition that HRT was 6.39 h and influent concentration of ammonia and nitritewas 10 mmol/L, the removal of ammonia and nitrite was 97.17% and 100.00%, respectively. Corresponding

  4. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Leng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ∼ 95% (88% ∼ 98% of the incident peak force (energy under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ∼ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  5. Granular Impact Dynamics: Acoustics and Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Abram H

    2012-01-01

    In the corresponding fluid dynamics video, created for the APS DFD 2012 Gallery of Fluid Motion, we show high-speed videos of 2D granular impact experiments, where an intruder strikes a collection of bidisperse photoelastic disks from above. We discuss the force beneath the intruder, which is strongly fluctuating in space and time. These fluctuations correspond to acoustic pulses which propagate into the medium. Analysis shows that this process, in our experiments, is dominated by collisions with grain clusters. The energy from these collisions is carried into the granular medium along networks of grains, where is it dissipated.

  6. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  7. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  8. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS IN FIXED BED OF COMPOSITE GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Petrescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the experimental determination of pressure drop and friction factor at gas flow through fixed beds of granular silica gel, alumina and activated carbon, and establishment of an equation containing a modified friction factor Fm to calculate pressure drop. In order to calculate the modified friction factor, an equation was suggested.The experimental values for pressure drop and friction factor were determined using spherical grains of silica gel, cylindrical grains of alumina and silica gel, alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride. By means of the suggested equation, the values of pressure drop in fixed bed were calculated and compared with the experimental values. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental data is noticed.

  9. The impact of the weather conditions on the cooling performance of the heat pump driven by an internal natural gas combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janovcová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market with sources of heat and cold offers unlimited choice of different power these devices, design technology, efficiency and price categories. New progressive technologies are constantly discovering, about which is still little information, which include heat pumps powered by a combustion engine running on natural gas. A few pieces of these installations are in Slovakia, but no studies about their work and effectiveness under real conditions. This article deals with experimental measurements of gas heat pump efficiency in cooling mode. Since the gas heat pump works only in system air – water, air is the primary low – energy source, it is necessary to monitor the impact of the climate conditions for the gas heat pump performance.

  10. First Results from Laser-Driven MagLIF Experiments on OMEGA: Time Evolution of Laser Gas Heating Using Soft X-Ray Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; Chang, P.-Y.; Davies, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is a promising inertial confinement fusion scheme comprised of three stages: axial magnetization, laser heating of the deuterium -tritium gas fill, and compression of the gas by the liner. To study the physics of MagLIF, a scaled-down version has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA-60 laser. This talk will focus primarily on the heating process of a MagLIF target using a 351-nm laser. A neon-doped deuterium gas capsule was heated using a 2.5-ns square pulse delivering 200 J of laser energy. Spectral analysis of the x-ray emission from the side and the laser entrance hole of the capsule is used to infer the time evolution of the gas temperature. The x-ray spectra for a grid of possible gas temperatures and densities are simulated using Spect3D atomic modeling software. The simulation results are then used to deconvolve the raw signals and obtain density and temperature estimations. A gas temperature lower bound of 100 eV at 1.3 ns after the start of the laser pulse can be inferred from these estimations. The estimations are then compared to 2-D hydrocode modeling. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and by DE-FG02-04ER54786 and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center).

  11. Convection and fluidization in oscillatory granular flows: The role of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Convection and fluidization phenomena in vibrated granular beds have attracted a strong interest from the physics community since the last decade of the past century. As early reported by Faraday, the convective flow of large inertia particles in vibrated beds exhibits enigmatic features such as frictional weakening and the unexpected influence of the interstitial gas. At sufficiently intense vibration intensities surface patterns appear bearing a stunning resemblance with the surface ripples (Faraday waves) observed for low-viscosity liquids, which suggests that the granular bed transits into a liquid-like fluidization regime despite the large inertia of the particles. In his 1831 seminal paper, Faraday described also the development of circulation air currents in the vicinity of vibrating plates. This phenomenon (acoustic streaming) is well known in acoustics and hydrodynamics and occurs whenever energy is dissipated by viscous losses at any oscillating boundary. The main argument of the present paper is that acoustic streaming might develop on the surface of the large inertia particles in the vibrated granular bed. As a consequence, the drag force on the particles subjected to an oscillatory viscous flow is notably enhanced. Thus, acoustic streaming could play an important role in enhancing convection and fluidization of vibrated granular beds, which has been overlooked in previous studies. The same mechanism might be relevant to geological events such as fluidization of landslides and soil liquefaction by earthquakes and sound waves.

  12. A trans-phase granular continuum relation and its use in simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Dunatunga, Sachith; Askari, Hesam

    The ability to model a large granular system as a continuum would offer tremendous benefits in computation time compared to discrete particle methods. However, two infamous problems arise in the pursuit of this vision: (i) the constitutive relation for granular materials is still unclear and hotly debated, and (ii) a model and corresponding numerical method must wear ``many hats'' as, in general circumstances, it must be able to capture and accurately represent the material as it crosses through its collisional, dense-flowing, and solid-like states. Here we present a minimal trans-phase model, merging an elastic response beneath a fictional yield criterion, a mu(I) rheology for liquid-like flow above the static yield criterion, and a disconnection rule to model separation of the grains into a low-temperature gas. We simulate our model with a meshless method (in high strain/mixing cases) and the finite-element method. It is able to match experimental data in many geometries, including collapsing columns, impact on granular beds, draining silos, and granular drag problems.

  13. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.

    2012-01-01

    A class of variational formulations for discrete element analysis of granular media is presented. These formulations lead naturally to convex mathematical programs that can be solved using standard and readily available tools. In contrast to traditional discrete element analysis, the present...

  14. Discrete element modelling of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw

  15. Micromechanical study of plasticity of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic deformation of granular materials is investigated from the micromechanical viewpoint, in which the assembly of particles and interparticle contacts is considered as a mechanical structure. This is done in three ways. Firstly, by investigating the degree of redundancy of the system by compari

  16. Localized fluidization in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, P; Badiane, M

    2013-04-01

    We present here experimental results on the progressive development of a fluidized zone in a bed of grains, immersed in a liquid, under the effect of a localized upward flow injected through a small orifice at the bottom of the bed. Visualization inside the model granular medium consisting of glass beads is made possible by the combined use of two optical techniques: refractive index matching between the liquid and the beads and planar laser-induced fluorescence. Gradually increasing the injection rate, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not open to the upper surface of the granular bed, and finally fluidization over the entire height of the granular bed inside a fluidized chimney. The phase diagram is plotted and partially interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh and Merlen [F. Zoueshtiagh and A. Merlen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 053613 (2007)]. A typical sequence, where the flow rate is first increased and then decreased back to zero, reveals a strong hysteretic behavior since the stability of the fluidized cavity is considerably strengthened during the defluidization phase. This effect can be explained by the formation of force arches within the granular packing when the chimney closes up at the top of the bed. A study of the expansion rate of the fluidized cavity was also conducted as well as the analysis of the interaction between two injection orifices with respect to their spacing.

  17. Anomalous intruder response in diverse granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    The definition of granular matter is extremely broad; any collection of conglomeration of particles larger than 100 micrometers can be considered as part of this group, and virtually the entire universe is composed of them. Examples are found in many fields, e.g. in nature (dunes, avalanches,

  18. On the granular stress-geometry equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiuli, Eric; Schoof, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using discrete calculus, we derive the missing stress-geometry equation for rigid granular materials in two dimensions, in the mean-field approximation. We show that i) the equation imposes that the voids cannot carry stress, ii) stress transmission is generically elliptic and has a quantitative relation to anisotropic elasticity, and iii) the packing fabric plays an essential role.

  19. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  20. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials sh

  1. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Z; Geromichalos, D; Herminghaus, S; Kohonen, M M; Mugele, F; Scheel, M; Schulz, M; Schulz, B; Schier, Ch; Seemann, R; Skudelny, A

    2005-03-09

    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring grains due to capillary forces.

  2. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  3. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  4. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  5. Wettability Control on Hydro-capillary Fracturing in Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojer, M.; de Anna, P.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of two or more immiscible phases within geologic porous media is important in natural and industrial processes like geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and hydraulic fracturing. The latter one, however, is a well-known reservoir stimulation technique, by which the permeability of the near-wellbore region is enhanced through the creation of tensile fractures within the rock, formed in the direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. While it is well known that fracturing of granular media strongly depends on the type of media and on the variability of its wetting properties, the effect of wettability on capillary-driven fracturing continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here we study this problem experimentally, starting with the classic experiment of two-phase flow in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell filled with a granular medium. We inject a low-viscosity fluid into a thin bed of glass beads initially saturated with a fluid 350 times more viscous. We investigate three control parameters: the injection rate of the less-viscous invading phase, the confining stress, and the contact angle, which we control by carefully chosen fluid pairs covering the entire range from drainage to imbibition. Our results demonstrate that wettability exerts a powerful influence on the invasion/fracturing morphology of unfavorable mobility displacements. High time resolution imaging techniques and particle image velocimetry (PIV) allow us to quantify matrix displacement and fracture opening dynamics. Our findings provide insights on fracture propagation, fracture length distribution and the fracture drainage area, parameters which are critically important to better understand long-term hydrocarbon production from shale.

  6. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun

    2009-01-01

    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  7. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  8. Change of Magnetic Field$-$Gas Alignment at Gravity-Driven Alfv\\'enic Transition in Molecular Clouds: Implications for Dust Polarization Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Che-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse striations in molecular clouds are preferentially aligned with local magnetic fields whereas dense filaments tend to be perpendicular to them. When and why this transition occurs remain uncertain. To explore the physics behind this transition, we compute the histogram of relative orientation (HRO) between the density gradient and the magnetic field in 3D MHD simulations of prestellar core formation in shock-compressed regions within GMCs. We find that, in the magnetically-dominated (sub-Alfv\\'enic) post-shock region, the gas structure is preferentially aligned with the local magnetic field. For overdense sub-regions with super-Alfv\\'enic gas, their elongation becomes preferentially perpendicular to the local magnetic field instead. The transition occurs when self-gravitating gas gains enough kinetic energy from the gravitational acceleration to overcome the magnetic support against the cross-field contraction, which results in a power-law increase of the field strength with density. Similar results ca...

  9. 西气东输二线电驱压缩机组驱动方式比选%Comparison and selection of drive mode of electric-driven compressor unit for the Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林森; 董昭旸; 康焯; 陈俊; 彭晶

    2012-01-01

    There will be three types of compressor configuration available for electricity-driven compressor stations of in the eastern section pipeline of Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline, that is, 27 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor scheme (2+1 configuration), 27 MW low- speed motor+gear box scheme (2+lconfiguration) and 18 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor scheme (3+1 configuration). For the purpose of determining the drive mode of compressor units, the paper carries out a comparison on the special features of 3 configurations in combination with the characteristics of the Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline and running of compressor stations. Comparison and analysis are made on the compressor property, design capacity and manufacturing period and other comprehensive abilities of suppliers for large power inverters and explosion-proof motors. In view of technological and economical aspects, this paper conducts comparison and selection on drive mode of electric-driven compressor units, and the 18 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor drive mode is the finally determined unit for electric-driven compressor stations in the eastern section pipeline of Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline.%西气东输二线东段电驱站可采用的机组配置方式有3种:27 MW高速直连变频电机方案(2+1配置)、27 MW低速电机+齿轮箱方案(2+1配置)和18 MW高速直连变频电机方案(3+1配置).为了确定采用何种方式驱动压缩机组,结合西气东输二线管道特点和站场的实际运行情况,对3种配置方式的特性进行分析.通过对大功率变频器、防爆电机供货厂家的产品状况、设计水平、制造周期等综合能力分析对比,从技术和经济两个方面对电驱机组的几种驱动方式进行比选,最终确定在西气东输二线东段电驱站采用18 MW高速直连变频的驱动方式.

  10. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  11. Influence of loading pulse duration on dynamic load transfer in a simulated granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Sadd, M. H.; Xu, Y.; Tai, Q. M.

    1993-11-01

    AN EXPERIMENTAL and numerical investigation was conducted to study the dynamic response of granular media when subjected to impact loadings with different periods or wavelengths. The granular medium was simulated by a one-dimensional assembly of circular disks arranged in a straight single chain. In the experimental study, the dynamic loading was produced using projectile impact from a gas gun onto one end of the granular assembly, and the measured wave signal was collected using strain gages. The numerical simulations were conducted using the distinct element method. It was found from the experiments and numerical simulations that input waves with a short period (τ ≈ 90 μs) will propagate in this granular medium with little waveform change under steady amplitude attenuation ; whereas longer waves (τ $̆200 μs) will propagate with significant waveform dispersion. For these longer wavelength signals, the smooth waveform will undergo separation into a series of short oscillatory signals, and this rearrangement of energy allows a portion of the transmitted signal to increase in amplitude during the initial phases of propagation. Thus the granular medium acts as a nonlinear wave guide, and local microstructure and contact nonlinearity will allow input signals of sufficiently long wavelength to excite resonant sub-units of the medium to produce this observed ringing separation. Following a modeling scheme originally proposed by NESTERENKO[J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 5,733 (1983)], a nonlinear wave equation model was developed which is related to soliton dynamics and leads to travelling wave solutions of specific wavelength found in our experimental and numerical studies.

  12. Compaction of granular HMX: P-α porosity model in CTH hydrocode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, K. S.; Lee, T.-W.

    2015-12-01

    Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solid material due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elastic sound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD) HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.

  13. Compaction of granular HMX: P-α porosity model in CTH hydrocode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solid material due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elastic sound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.

  14. Au@ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon for photocatalysis and gas-sensing: the effect of plasmonic hot-electrons driven by visible-light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured heterojunctions play key role for transfer and separation of interfacial photo-carriers. At visible light illumination, the effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the photocatalysis and gas-sensing performance of Au@ZnO nanstructures on porous silicon layer are reported. At optimized loading amount of Au NPs, the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Au NPs is studied. Generated by visible light irradiation, the LSPR effect of Au NPs promotes desorption and activation of surface adsorption oxygen species -{{{{O}}}2}-, which is initiated by hot electrons transfer through Au-ZnO nanojunctions. This mechanism is responsible for the enhanced photocatalysis of methyl orange molecular, as well as enhancing the detecting performance for ammonia (NH3) gas at room temperature.

  15. Investigations on femtosecond-pulse-driven soft X-ray lasers using a gas puff target irradiated with a Ti:sapphire laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Mocek, T.; Shin, H.J.; Cha, Y.H.; Lee, D.G.; Hong, K.H.; Nam, C.H. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    Experimental investigations on soft X-ray lasers based on optical field ionization of gases with an ultrashort-pulse terawatt laser system are presented. The X-ray laser active medium was created using an elongated gas puff target formed by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas from a high-pressure electromagnetic valve through a nozzle in the form of a slit. The target was irradiated with a laser pulses from a 20-fs. 50-mJ Ti:Sapphire (Ti:S) laser system. Both recombination and collisional soft X-ray laser scheme have been studied. Soft X-ray spectra from nitrogen, oxygen, and xenon targets are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  16. 停运汽动风机高压加热器提高煤气锅炉效率的实践%Practice of Improving Gas Boiler Efficiency by Stopping the Steam-driven High Pressure Blower Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓雷; 彭建军

    2015-01-01

    兴澄特钢一台SG-260/9.8-Q8501型全烧高炉煤气锅炉,利用停运对应的汽动鼓风机高压加热器,降低给水温度,从而降低锅炉排烟温度,达到节约蒸汽,提高锅炉效率的作用。%The SG 260/9.8 Q8501 type all-BFG boiler at Xingcheng Special Steel is introduced. Steam was saved and efficiency of the boiler was improved by shutting down the corresponding steam-driven high pressure fan heater to reduce the temperature of feed water and thereby lower the temperature of boiler flue gas.

  17. Scaling of granular convective velocity and timescale of asteroidal resurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ando, Kousuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    Granular convection is one of the well-known phenomena observed in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Recently, the possbile relation between granular convection and asteroidal surface processes has been discussed. The granular convection on the surface of small asteroids might be induced by seismic vibration resulting from meteorite impacts. To quantitatively evaluate the timescale of asteroidal resurfacing by granular convection, the granular convective velocity under various conditions must be revealed. As a first step to approach this problem, we experimentally study the velocity scaling of granular convection using a vertically vibrated glass-beads layer. By systematic experiments, a scaling form of granular convective velocity has been obtained. The obtained scaling form implies that the granular convective velocity can be written by a power-law product of two characteristic velocity components: vibrational and gravitational velocities. In addition, the system size dependence is also scaled. According to the scaling form, the granular convective velocity is almost proportional to gravitatinal acceleration. Using this scaling form, we have estimated the resurfacing timescale on small asteroid surface.

  18. Applying MDL to Learning Best Model Granularity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Q; Vitanyi, P; Gao, Qiong; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is solidly based on a provably ideal method of inference using Kolmogorov complexity. We test how the theory behaves in practice on a general problem in model selection: that of learning the best model granularity. The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters. Too high precision generally involves modeling of accidental noise and too low precision may lead to confusion of models that should be distinguished. This precision is often determined ad hoc. In MDL the best model is the one that most compresses a two-part code of the data set: this embodies ``Occam's Razor.'' In two quite different experimental settings the theoretical value determined using MDL coincides with the best value found experimentally. In the first experiment the task is to recognize isolated handwritten characters in one subject's handwriting, irrespective of size and orientation. Based on a new modification of elastic...

  19. Sound scattering in dense granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA XiaoPing; LAURENT J; KHIDAS Y; LANGLOIS V

    2009-01-01

    The sound propagation in a dense granular medium is basically characterized by the ratio of wave-length to the grain size. Two types of wave transport are distinguished: one corresponds to coherent waves in the long wavelength limit, the other to short-wavelength scattered waves by the inhomoge-neous contact force networks. These multiply scattered elastic waves are shown to exhibit a diffusive characteristics of transport over long distances of propagation. Determination of the transport mean free path l* and the inelastic absorption (Q~(-1)) allows the inference of the structural properties of the material such as the heterogeneity and internal dissipation. The relevance of our experiments for seismological applications is discussed. Moreover, we apply the correlation technique of the configu-ration-specific sound scattering to monitoring the dynamic behaviour of the granular medium (irre-versible rearrangements) under strong vibration, shearing and thermal cycling, respectively.

  20. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  1. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  2. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M

    2005-01-01

    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  3. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Jop, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solidlike behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: The capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains, confirming our model.

  4. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Benjy; Sandnes, Bjornar; Dumazer, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jon Alm; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2015-06-01

    In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  5. Study on an Integrated Sintered Metal Screen Moving Granular Bed Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋沪; 王洋

    2004-01-01

    A new gas clean-up process called "integrated sintered metal screen moving granular bed" (ISMSMGB) for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressured fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) was developed on the basis of a sintered metal candle filter and a cross-flow moving granular bed filter. This is a combination of the surface and deep bed filtering processes. A set of facilities was established and a series of cold model tests were carried out. The dust removal efficiency and the pressure drop of the filter were measured and analyzed. The results show that this process features the advantages of the moving bed for high capacity as well as high inlet dust load and the surface filter for high efficiency. Meanwhile, the granules moving downward cleans the cake on the screen surface, so that the system is operated at steady state.

  6. Investigation of Heat Exchange Efficiency in the Heat Exchanger Waste Heat Recovery with Granular Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshkova I.L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics of the heat transfer process between the dispersed and gaseous medium for the moving and fixed layer of particulate material. The methods of calculus of thermal and hydraulic regimes of heat exchangers with a dense layer of particles were elaborated. The results of experimental studies of the process of heating of different kinds of granular material, intended for use as a nozzle in the recuperative heat exchanger. The influence of the height of heating chamber, the particle diameter on the output temperature of the granular material has been determined. The dependence of the temperature of the gas and solid components of the height of the nozzle has been presented.

  7. ENERGY AND MASS TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN THE GRANULAR BED OF AN INDIRECTLY HEATED ROTARY KILN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Klose; Arndt-Peter Schinkel

    2004-01-01

    The transport mechanisms of momentum, mass, species, and energy are investigated in detail for the rotary kiln process. The residence time prediction of the granular bed is well improved by considering different flow patterns in the drum. Introducing a mixed flow pattem of the basic slipping and slumping behaviour has the most important effect on the improvement of the residence time prediction. The granular bed is assumed to behave as a Bingham fluid in the active layer of the bed. The transport mechanisms of momentum, species, and energy are modelled on the basis of this assumption and using the kinetic gas theory. Additionally, a mathematical transformation is presented to save computational time. The model results of the temperature field are in very good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Seismic wave propagation in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  9. A model for collisions in granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Spahn, Frank; Hertzsch, Jan-Martin; Poeschel, Thorsten

    2002-01-01

    We propose a model for collisions between particles of a granular material and calculate the restitution coefficients for the normal and tangential motion as functions of the impact velocity from considerations of dissipative viscoelastic collisions. Existing models of impact with dissipation as well as the classical Hertz impact theory are included in the present model as special cases. We find that the type of collision (smooth, reflecting or sticky) is determined by the impact velocity and...

  10. Convection in horizontally shaken granular material

    OpenAIRE

    Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

  11. Structure and stability of methanogenic granular sludge.

    OpenAIRE

    Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria was essential for the development of high rate anaerobic systems for the treatment of waste waters. The most widely applied anaerobic reactor type in which solids retention time is uncoupled from the hydraulic retention time is the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. In this reactor type methanogenic granular sludge is formed by self-immobilization of methanogenic consortia. The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to study microbiologi...

  12. Helical inner-wall texture prevents jamming in granular pipe flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbücheln, Felix; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-06-07

    Granular pipe flows are characterized by intermittent behavior and large, potentially destructive solid fraction variations in the transport direction. By means of particle-based numerical simulations of gravity-driven flows in vertical pipes, we show that it is possible to obtain steady material transport by adding a helical texture to the inner-wall of the pipe. The helical texture leads to a more homogeneous mass flux along the pipe, prevents the emergence of large density waves and substantially reduces the probability of plug formation thus avoiding jamming of the particulate flow. We show that the granular mass flux Q through a pipe of diameter D with a helical texture of wavelength λ follows the equation Q = Q0·{1 - B sin[arctan(2πD/λ)]}, where Q0 is the flow without helix, predicted from the well-known Beverloo equation. Our new expression yields, thus, a modification of the Beverloo equation with only one additional fit parameter, B, and describes the particle mass flux with the helical texture with excellent quantitative agreement with simulation results. Future application of the method proposed here has the potential to improve granular pipe flows in a broad range of processes without the need for energy input from any external source.

  13. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  14. Transport analogy for segregation and granular rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siying; McCarthy, Joseph J.

    2017-08-01

    Here, we show a direct connection between density-based segregation and granular rheology that can lead to insight into both problems. Our results exhibit a transition in the rate of segregation during simple shear that occurs at I ˜0.5 and mimics a coincident regime change in flow rheology. We propose scaling arguments that support a packing fraction criterion for this transition that can both explain our segregation results as well as unify existing literature studies of granular rheology. By recasting a segregation model in terms of rheological parameters, we establish an approach that not only collapses results for a wide range of conditions, but also yields a direct relationship between the coordination number z and the segregation velocity. Moreover, our approach predicts the precise location of the observed regime change or saturation. This suggests that it is possible to rationally design process operating conditions that lead to significantly lower segregation extents. These observations can have a profound impact on both the study of granular flow or mixing as well as industrial practice.

  15. Force transmission in cohesive granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjai, Farhang; Topin, Vincent; Richefeu, Vincent; Voivret, Charles; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azéma, Emilien; El Youssoufi, Said

    2010-05-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate force and stress transmission in cohesive granular media covering a wide class of materials encountered in nature and industrial processing. The cohesion results either from capillary bridges between particles or from the presence of a solid binding matrix filling fully or partially the interstitial space. The liquid bonding is treated by implementing a capillary force law within a debonding distance between particles and simulated by the discrete element method. The solid binding matrix is treated by means of the Lattice Element Method (LEM) based on a lattice-type discretization of the particles and matrix. Our data indicate that the exponential fall-off of strong compressive forces is a generic feature of both cohesive and noncohesive granular media both for liquid and solid bonding. The tensile forces exhibit a similar decreasing exponential distribution, suggesting that this form basically reflects granular disorder. This is consistent with the finding that not only the contact forces but also the stress components in the bulk of the particles and matrix, accessible from LEM simulations in the case of solid bonding, show an exponential fall-off. We also find that the distribution of weak compressive forces is sensitive to packing anisotropy, particle shape and particle size distribution. In the case of wet packings, we analyze the self-equilibrated forces induced by liquid bonds and show that the positive and negative particle pressures form a bi-percolating structure.

  16. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  18. Morphological clues to wet granular pile stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, M.; Seemann, R.; Brinkmann, M.; di Michiel, M.; Sheppard, A.; Breidenbach, B.; Herminghaus, S.

    2008-03-01

    When a granular material such as sand is mixed with a certain amount of liquid, the surface tension of the latter bestows considerable stiffness to the material, which enables, for example, sand castles to be sculpted. The geometry of the liquid interface within the granular pile is of extraordinary complexity and strongly varies with the liquid content. Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of the pile are largely independent of the amount of liquid over a wide range. We resolve this puzzle with the help of X-ray microtomography, showing that the remarkable insensitivity of the mechanical properties to the liquid content is due to the particular organization of the liquid in the pile into open structures. For spherical grains, a simple geometric rule is established, which relates the macroscopic properties to the internal liquid morphologies. We present evidence that this concept is also valid for systems with non-spherical grains. Hence, our results provide new insight towards understanding the complex physics of a large variety of wet granular systems including land slides, as well as mixing and agglomeration problems.

  19. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  20. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Z. M.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Lončarević, I.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Belić, A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Voronoï polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Voronoï cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  1. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestroffer Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining. In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  2. Flow of granular materials-I. Discharge rates from hoppers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedderman, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge, England); Tuezuen, U.; Savage, S.B.; Houlsby, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    This was the first of a set of three review papers on the flow of granular materials. The objective of the papers was to review the published literature in these fields. Much information was drawn from a body of unpulished work represented by internal reports of the Chemical Engineering Department at Cambridge. This paper discussed the experimental results for hopper discharge rates and the correlations of these results. Then theoretical analyses that have been advanced to explain the observations were presented. Also the effects of interstitial pressure gradients were discussed, both those that arise due to deliberate pressurization of the hopper and those caused by the dilation of the flowing material. The flow of coarse, free-flowing materials through orifices seemed to have been adequately investigated experimentally and the correlation of Beverloo or minor modifications of it appeared to predict the flow rates with acceptable precision. Some difficulties were however encountered with narrow angled conical hoppers or in cases where the orifice is close to a vertical wall. The effects of an imposed gas flow were also correlated to reasonable precision at least for modest gas flow rates. Though the correlations seemed satisfactory, there was no really adequate theoretical explanations of the observations. Several theories exist that give qualitative trends in accord with obsrvation but there is no theory that can be used without empirical adjustments of the coefficients. However, with fine particles many more difficulties are encountered. 6 figures. (DP)

  3. Metal-rich multi-phase gas in M87: AGN-driven metal transport, magnetic-field supported multi-temperature gas, and constraints on non-thermal emission observed with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Simionescu, A; Finoguenov, A; Böhringer, H; Brüggen, M

    2007-01-01

    We use deep (~120 ks) XMM-Newton data of the M87 halo to analyze its spatially resolved temperature structure and chemical composition. We focus particularly on the regions of enhanced X-ray brightness associated with the inner radio lobes. Compared to a simple two-temperature fit, we obtain a better and more physical description of the spectra using a model which involves a continuous range of temperatures in each spatial bin. The range of temperatures of the multiphase gas spans between ~0.6-3.2 keV. Such a multiphase structure is only possible if thermal conduction is suppressed by magnetic fields. In the multi-temperature regions, we find a correlation between the amount of cool gas (with a temperature below that of the surrounding X-ray plasma) and the metallicity, and conclude that the cool gas is more metal-rich than the ambient halo. We estimate the Fe abundance of the cool gas to ~2.2 solar. Our results thus point toward the key role of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in transporting heavy elements...

  4. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Geng Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  5. Granular computing analysis and design of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Information granules, as encountered in natural language, are implicit in nature. To make them fully operational so they can be effectively used to analyze and design intelligent systems, information granules need to be made explicit. An emerging discipline, granular computing focuses on formalizing information granules and unifying them to create a coherent methodological and developmental environment for intelligent system design and analysis. Granular Computing: Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems presents the unified principles of granular computing along with its comprehensive algo

  6. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  7. Period tripling causes rotating spirals in agitated wet granular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Rehberg, Ingo

    2011-07-08

    Pattern formation of a thin layer of vertically agitated wet granular matter is investigated experimentally. Rotating spirals with three arms, which correspond to the kinks between regions with different colliding phases, are the dominating pattern. This preferred number of arms corresponds to period tripling of the agitated granular layer, unlike predominantly subharmonic Faraday crispations in dry granular matter. The chirality of the spatiotemporal pattern corresponds to the rotation direction of the spirals.

  8. Experimental Observation of Kink in a Perfect Bidimensional Granular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; MIAO Guo-Qing; HUANG Kai; YUN Yi; WEI Rong-Jue

    2005-01-01

    @@ The kink formation in a vertical vibrated granular layer has been widely studied in three-dimensional systems, but there are few if any experimental reports on bidimensional granular layers. We report the kink formation newly found in a perfect bidimensional granular system. We measure the range of the driving frequencies and dimensionless accelerations for kinks. Furthermore, we observe a heaping process, which is caused by co-operative action of the kink-associated convection and the sidewall-associated convection.

  9. Monodisperse granular flows in viscous dispersions in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Granular flows are encountered in geophysical flows and innumerable industrial applications with particulate materials. When mixed with a fluid, a complex network of interactions between the particle- and fluid-phase develops, resulting in a compound material with a yet unclear physical behaviour. In the study of granular suspensions mixed with a viscous dispersion, the scaling of the stress-strain characteristics of the fluid phase needs to account for the level of inertia developed in experiments. However, the required model dimensions and amount of material becomes a main limitation for their study. In recent years, centrifuge modelling has been presented as an alternative for the study of particle-fluid flows in a reduced scaled model in an augmented acceleration field. By formulating simple scaling principles proportional to the equivalent acceleration Ng in the model, the resultant flows share many similarities with field events. In this work we study the scaling principles of the fluid phase and its effects on the flow of granular suspensions. We focus on the dense flow of a monodisperse granular suspension mixed with a viscous fluid phase, flowing down an inclined plane and being driven by a centrifugal acceleration field. The scaled model allows the continuous monitoring of the flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and mass flow rates at different Ng levels. The experiments successfully identify the effects of scaling the plastic viscosity of the fluid phase, its relation with the deposition of particles over the inclined plane, and allows formulating a discussion on the suitability of simulating particle-fluid flows in a centrifugal acceleration field.

  10. Segregation mechanisms in granular systems: role of gravity and velocity fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    Size segregation patterns are often observed in natural granular systems: dune fields, debris flow deposits, river beds, asteroids surface... Identifying the underlying mechanisms and dynamics would be a significant progress towards understanding the evolution of these systems: discrimationsbetween different processes, relevant time-scales, history of the mechanical solicitation. In the case of the surface of asteroids exhibiting a granular nature, such as Itokawa, the origin of sorting patterns following grain size may have different origins. It can occur as a result of periodic changes in the gravity field, or seismic-shaking due to impacts, or be the signature of re-deposition of ejected material after impacts. It may also be related to size-dependent thermal weathering or impact bouncing dynamics, rather than mechanical segregation. It is thus crucial to explore the different candidate mechanisms and address their likeliness in spatial context. In this contribution, we use a discrete simulation model to reproduce the collective behaviour of rigid, frictional grains exhibiting different sizes. Segregation dynamics is obtained during gravity-driven flows, allowing for the detailed investigation of the micro-mechanical signature of segregation. In particular, we evidence the asymetry of the stress state induced by the different grain sizes. Discriminating between contacts stresses and kinematic stresses, we are able to discuss the respective role of gravity and velocity fluctuations in the segregation process. References L. Staron and J. C. Phillips, Stress partition and micro-structure in size-segregating granular flows, Phys. Rev. E 92 022210 (2015) L. Staron and J. C. Phillips, Segregation time-scales in bi-disperse granular flows, Phys. Fluids 26 (3), 033302 (2014)

  11. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  12. Granular self-organization by autotuning of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Nitsure, Nitin; Bhattacharya, S; Ghosh, Shankar

    2015-09-15

    A monolayer of granular spheres in a cylindrical vial, driven continuously by an orbital shaker and subjected to a symmetric confining centrifugal potential, self-organizes to form a distinctively asymmetric structure which occupies only the rear half-space. It is marked by a sharp leading edge at the potential minimum and a curved rear. The area of the structure obeys a power-law scaling with the number of spheres. Imaging shows that the regulation of motion of individual spheres occurs via toggling between two types of motion, namely, rolling and sliding. A low density of weakly frictional rollers congregates near the sharp leading edge whereas a denser rear comprises highly frictional sliders. Experiments further suggest that because the rolling and sliding friction coefficients differ substantially, the spheres acquire a local time-averaged coefficient of friction within a large range of intermediate values in the system. The various sets of spatial and temporal configurations of the rollers and sliders constitute the internal states of the system. Experiments demonstrate and simulations confirm that the global features of the structure are maintained robustly by autotuning of friction through these internal states, providing a previously unidentified route to self-organization of a many-body system.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of a piston driven shock wave in a hard sphere gas. Final Contractor ReportPh.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Myeung-Jouh; Greber, Isaac

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the piston driven shock wave at Mach 1.5, 3, and 10. A shock tube, whose shape is a circular cylinder, is filled with hard sphere molecules having a Maxwellian thermal velocity distribution and zero mean velocity. The piston moves and a shock wave is generated. All collisions are specular, including those between the molecules and the computational boundaries, so that the shock development is entirely causal, with no imposed statistics. The structure of the generated shock is examined in detail, and the wave speed; profiles of density, velocity, and temperature; and shock thickness are determined. The results are compared with published results of other methods, especially the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. Property profiles are similar to those generated by direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The shock wave thicknesses are smaller than the direct simulation Monte-Carlo results, but larger than those of the other methods. Simulation of a shock wave, which is one-dimensional, is a severe test of the molecular dynamics method, which is always three-dimensional. A major challenge of the thesis is to examine the capability of the molecular dynamics methods by choosing a difficult task.

  14. GRANULAR CELL TUMOR OF BREAST (CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS CONFIRMED BY HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a tumor derived from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and it can occur throughout the body. About 5% of granular cell tumors occur in breast and are mostly benign in nature. We report a case of 30 year old female who presented with a swelling in right breast which on histo pathological examination revealed features consistent with granular cell tumor. This case is highlighted to reveal the importance of histopathology in differentiating granular cell tumor from carcinoma breast which is difficult based on clinical, radiological and cytological examination alone.

  15. Granular Solid-liquid Transition: Experiment and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, M.; Xu, X.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Granular media are amorphous materials, which differs from traditional solid or liquid. In different circumstance, granular behavior varies from solid-like to liquid-like, and the transitions between these regimes are always related to many complex natural progresses such as the failure of soil foundation and the occurrence of landslide and debris flow. The mechanic of elastic instability during the transition from solid-like to liquid-like regime, and the quantitative description of irreversible deformation during flow are the key problems to interpret these transition phenomena. In this work, we developed a continuum model with elastic stable condition and irreversible flow rule of granular material based on a thermal dynamical model, the Two-Granular-Temperature model (TGT). Since infinitesimal elastic deformation in solid-like regime and significant plastic large deformation in liquid-like regime can coexist in the granular solid-liquid transition process, the material point method (MPM) was used to build an effective numerical model. Collapse of rectangular granular pile contains both the transition from granular solid to granular liquid and the inverse process, thus in this work we carried out collapse experiment with clay particles, and simulated the experiment with our continuum model and an open-source DEM model YADE to study the transition processes. Results between experiment and simulations were compared and good agreements on collapse shape and velocity profiles were achieved, and the new model proposed in this work seems to work well on the description of granular solid-liquid transition.

  16. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  17. Growth of Large-Size SnS Thin Crystals Driven by Oriented Attachment and Applications to Gas Sensors and Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lian, Gang; Xu, Zhenghao; Fu, Chen; Lin, Zhaojun; Li, Liyi; Wang, Qilong; Cui, Deliang; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-04-20

    Freestanding large-size SnS thin crystals are synthesized via two-dimensional oriented attachment (OA) growth of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in a novel high-pressure solvothermal reaction. The SnS thin crystals present a uniform rectangular shape with a lateral size of 20-30 um and thickness of time and organic ligands results in polycrystal-to-monocrystal formation and defect annihilation. Furthermore, gas sensor and photodetector devices, based on SnS thin single crystals, are also prepared. The sensing devices present high sensitivity, superior selectivity, low detection limit (≪100 ppb) and reversibility to NO2 at room temperature. The fabricated photodetector devices exhibit a high responsivity of 2.04 × 10(3) A W(1-) and high external quantum efficiency of ∼4.75 × 10(5) % at 532 nm, which are much higher than most of the photodetector devices.

  18. Driven optical matter (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Rice, Stuart A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2016-09-01

    Optical trapping has enabled studying a wide variety of questions and systems in chemistry, biology, physics, and materials science. For example, optical trapping has been used to understand hydrodynamic interactions in dilute and dense colloidal fluids and discover connections to granular materials. In this presentation we show that shaped optical fields and gradients can be used to study the electrodynamic interactions amongst nanoparticles (NPs) and drive them into new ordered states. We demonstrate the formation and use of NP-based optical matter to study a range of nonequilibrium phenomena in solution; field-driven barrier crossing phenomena and noise-driven ordering. Optical matter, a material that forms only in the presence of an optical field, involves NP interactions by optical scattering and interference. Metal NPs can be formed into regular arrangements in minimally shaped fields; e.g., in focused Gaussian beams, line traps, and optical ring traps. Inter-particle interactions and motions are also affected when the optical matter is driven. Particles recirculate in an optical ring vortex trap allowing long term measurements to examine rare events. In particular, particles can hop between optical binding sites, move past electrodynamic obstacles or pass each other while moving around the ring. The polarization state of the optical beam can be used to produce periodic variations of the NP electrodynamic interactions. As particles circulate this "noise" causes NP clusters to be less stable as if the temperature of the system is increased. Conversely, we observe noise-driven ordering in dense systems. We will explain these phenomena using simulations and theory.

  19. Scalar conservation laws with nonconstant coefficients with application to particle size segregation in granular flow

    CERN Document Server

    May, Lindsay B H; Daniels, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    Granular materials will segregate by particle size when subjected to shear, as occurs, for example, in avalanches. The evolution of a bidisperse mixture of particles can be modeled by a nonlinear first order partial differential equation, provided the shear (or velocity) is a known function of position. While avalanche-driven shear is approximately uniform in depth, boundary-driven shear typically creates a shear band with a nonlinear velocity profile. In this paper, we measure a velocity profile from experimental data and solve initial value problems that mimic the segregation observed in the experiment, thereby verifying the value of the continuum model. To simplify the analysis, we consider only one-dimensional configurations, in which a layer of small particles is placed above a layer of large particles within an annular shear cell and is sheared for arbitrarily long times. We fit the measured velocity profile to both an exponential function of depth and a piecewise linear function which separates the she...

  20. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico

    2013-04-01

    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that

  1. A performance -based method for granular based method for granular -paste mix design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornahad, H.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a performance-based method for the design of granular-paste mixtures will be proposed. Focus will be on the selection and proportioning of constituents to produce a mixture with a pre-defined shape holding ability. Shape holding ability of mixtures will be characterized by the shape

  2. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  3. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II. Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, Naomi; Richardson, Derek C; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R; Green, Simon F; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collect...

  4. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain

  5. Energy Content & Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit; Luding, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. Wave propagation through granular materials is often accompanied by energy attenuation which is quantified by Quality factor and this parameter has often been used to characterize material properties, hence, determining the Quality factor (energy attenuation parameter) can also help in determining the properties of the material [3], studied experimentally in [2]. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder [1]. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been invoked. Instead of analyzing deformation-, velocity- or stress

  6. Study on rubber gas actuators driven by the Hydrogen Storage Alloy for in-pipe inspection mobile robots with flexible structure and on an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Hosokai, Hidemi (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Uemura, Masahiro

    1989-06-01

    This paper deals with rubber actuators using Hydrogen Storage Alloy for an in-pipe inspection robot, which has the capability of moving inside pipelines with two inches diameter. Since in-pipe inspection robots require flexible mechanisms for going through complicated construction of pipeline networks, the actuators which are light in weight and flexible must first be developed rather than using conventional actuators. For this purpose, rubber actuators with both stretching and shrinking characteristics are shown here for the application of such a robot. The proposed robot uses these actuators with six degrees of freedom, so that it has more flexibility and adaptability in motion: it can move in the inch worm mode through pipelines and has adaptability to the change of pipe diameters and also of passing over the L-joints and T-joints of pipelines. The method of activating the robot is proposed as the robot dock method, thus the robot actuators can initially be activated by hydrogen gas. The control method is also shown with an example of the T-joint movement. (author).

  7. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaroslav Cvach; on behalf of the CALICE Collaboration

    2012-10-01

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA algorithm based up to now on the simulated data only. Next, the properties of hadron showers were compared to different physics lists of GEANT4 version 9.3.

  8. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  9. Kinetics of Nitrogen Diffusion in Granular Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-zhu; XU Chu-shao; ZHAO Yue-ping

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics and the influence of time on granular manganese nitriding were studied by means of a vacuum resistance furnace, X-ray diffraction technique, and LECO TC-436 oxygen/nitrogen determinator. The longer the nitriding time, the more the nitrogen pickup. Except for a trace of oxide MnO that developed, the metal manganese could thoroughly be nitrided to form Mn4N and a little ζ-phase (the stoichiometric components as Mn2N) with the nitriding time lasting. A kinetic model is developed to reveal the nitriding situation and agrees well with the experimental results.

  10. Speckle visibility spectroscopy and variable granular fluidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P K; Durian, D J

    2003-05-09

    We introduce a dynamic light scattering technique capable of resolving motion that changes systematically, and rapidly, with time. It is based on the visibility of a speckle pattern for a given exposure duration. Applying this to a vibrated layer of glass beads, we measure the granular temperature and its variation with phase in the oscillation cycle. We observe several transitions involving jammed states, where the grains are at rest during some portion of the cycle. We also observe a two-step decay of the temperature on approach to jamming.

  11. Collapse of granular media subjected to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Korchi Fatima Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the collapse of granular materials subjected to wetting action. For soils, the collapse potential depends on several parameters such as liquid limit, matric suction, compactness, initial water content and the amount of fine particles. The effect of grain size, which plays a key role in the rearrangement of grains, remains little studied and poorly understood. To investigate the capillary origin of the collapse phenomenon, we present an experimental study on macroscopic and local scales. Our results show the effect of grain size and water content on collapse.

  12. Longitudinal Viscous Flow in Granular Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Andres

    2008-01-01

    The flow characterized by a linear longitudinal velocity field $u_x(x,t)=a(t)x$, where $a(t)={a_0}/({1+a_0t})$, a uniform density $n(t)\\propto a(t)$, and a uniform temperature $T(t)$ is analyzed for dilute granular gases by means of a BGK-like model kinetic equation in $d$ dimensions. For a given value of the coefficient of normal restitution $\\alpha$, the relevant control parameter of the problem is the reduced deformation rate $a^*(t)=a(t)/\

  13. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andreas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  14. Archimedes' principle in fluidized granular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, D A; Sosa, Victor; Vargas, M C; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2005-09-01

    We fluidize a granular bed in a rectangular container by injecting energy through the lateral walls with high-frequency sinusoidal horizontal vibrations. In this way, the bed is brought to a steady state with no convection. We measured buoyancy forces on light spheres immersed in the bed and found that they obey Archimedes' principle. The buoyancy forces decrease when we reduce the injected energy. By measuring ascension velocities as a function of gamma, we can evaluate the frictional drag of the bed; its exponential dependence agrees very well with previous findings. Rising times of the intruders ascending through the bed were also measured, they increase monotonically as we increase the density.

  15. Structure and cluster formation in granular media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Luding

    2005-06-01

    The two most important phenomena at the basis of granular media are excluded volume and dissipation. The former is captured by the hard sphere model and is responsible for, e.g., crystallization, the latter leads to interesting structures like clusters in non-equilibrium dynamical, freely cooling states. The freely cooling system is examined concerning the energy decay and the cluster evolution in time. Corrections for crystallization and multi-particle contacts are provided, which become more and more important with increasing density.

  16. Starting to move through a granular medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, D. J. [Pennsylvania State University; Scheidemantel, T. [Pennsylvania State University; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Conger, C. [Pennsylvania State University; Klein, K. [Pennsylvania State University; Lohr, M. [Pennsylvania State University; Modig, Z. [Pennsylvania State University; Schiffer, P. [Pennsylvania State University

    2008-01-01

    We explore the process of initiating motion through a granular medium by measuring the force required to push a flat circular plate upward from underneath the medium. In contrast to previous measurements of the drag and penetration forces, which were conducted during steady state motion, the initiation force has a robust dependence on the diameter of the grains forming the pile. We attribute this dependence to the requirement for local dilation of the grains around the circumference of the plate, as evidenced by an observed linear dependence of the initiation force on the plate diameter.

  17. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  18. Uphill solitary waves in granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, E.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Ramos, O.; Måløy, K. J.; Douady, S.; Altshuler, E.

    2007-03-01

    We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move “up the hill” (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models.

  19. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  20. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  1. Nonlinear Phononic Periodic Structures and Granular Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    of the advanced delay equation (13) and they compared the numerically obtained solutions with those of approximated PDEs. Recently, Starosvetsky... KdV ), a nonlinear partial differential equation , and have been discovered in myriad systems and discrete nonlinear lattices of all the above types...granular chain, and derived the following KdV equation : t 0 0 1/2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0, 2 6 , , . 6 xx x xc uc A R c R c Rc m σξ ξ γξ ξξ ξ δ γ σ δ

  2. Preliminary Results of a Microgravity Investigation to Measure Net Charge on Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hansen, Bonnie L.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the electrostatic charge on granular materials has typically been limited to materials with diameters on the order of 10 microns and below due to high settling velocities of larger particles. High settling velocities limit both the time and the acceptable uncertainty with which a measurement can be made. A prototype device has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to measure coulombic charge on individual particles of granular materials that are 50 to 500 microns in diameter. This device, a novel extension of Millikan's classic oil drop experiment, utilizes the NASA GRC 2.2 second drop tower to extend the range of electrostatic charge measurements to accommodate moderate size granular materials. A dielectric material with a nominal grain diameter between 1.06 and 250 microns was tribocharged using a dry gas jet, suspended in a 5x10x10 cm enclosure during a 2.2 second period of microgravity and exposed to a known electric field. The response was recorded on video and post processed to allow tracking of individual particles. By determining the particle trajectory and velocity, estimates of the coulombic charge were made. Over 30 drops were performed using this technique and the analysis showed that first order approximations of coulombic charge could successfully be obtained, with the mean charge of 3.4E-14 coulombs measured for F-75 Ottawa quartz sand. Additionally, the measured charge showed a near-Gaussian distribution, with a standard deviation of 2.14E -14 coulombs.

  3. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II: Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R.; Green, Simon F.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collective motion. In our reduced-gravity simulations both the gravitational conditions and the frequency of the vibrations roughly match the conditions on asteroids subjected to seismic shaking, though real regolith is likely to be much more heterogeneous and less ordered than in our idealised simulations. We also show that collective motion can occur in a granular material under a wide range of inter-particle gravity conditions and in the absence of an external gravitational field. These investigations demonstrate the great interest of being able to simulate conditions that are to relevant planetary science yet unreachable by Earth-based laboratory experiments.

  4. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  5. Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer During Application of a Thermal Gradient for the Study of Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure Using and Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is

  6. Convective and segregative mechanisms in vibrofluidised granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Granular materials display a host of fascinating behaviours both remarkably similar to and strikingly different from those exhibited by classical solids, liquids and gases. Due to the ubiquity of granular materials, and their far-reaching importance in multitudinous natural and industrial processes,

  7. An investigation into clustering and segregation in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, J.S.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I studied the dynamics of granular matter by means of theory, simulations, and experiments. I studied how patterns emerge from a seemly unrelated ensemble of grains in different configurations. I focused on cluster formations in free cooling granular gases, developed an algorithm for

  8. Convective and segregative mechanisms in vibrofluidised granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Granular materials display a host of fascinating behaviours both remarkably similar to and strikingly different from those exhibited by classical solids, liquids and gases. Due to the ubiquity of granular materials, and their far-reaching importance in multitudinous natural and industrial processes,

  9. A Granular Computing Model Based on Tolerance relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-yin; HU Feng; HUANG Hai; WU Yu

    2005-01-01

    Granular computing is a new intelligent computing theory based on partition of problem concepts. It is an important problem in Rough Set theory to process incomplete information systems directly. In this paper, a granular computing model based on tolerance relation for processing incomplete information systems is developed. Furthermore, a criteria condition for attribution necessity is proposed in this model.

  10. Granularity of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter studied through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Hernandez, Anabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A small study, done through simulations, of the energy resolution of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter dependence on granularity is presented. The results could indicate that finer granularity of the calorimeter gives better energy resolution, although it would require better statistics to be sure.

  11. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    that the schema designs are intended to simply store data at the same single level of granularity. This paper on the other hand, presents several extended dimensional data warehousing schema design alternatives to store both detail and aggregated data at different levels of granularity. The paper presents three...

  12. Discrete and continuum descriptions of shaken granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas Abud, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the dynamics of granular materials. Granular matter is defined as collections of macroscopic, dissipative particles. The size of the individual particles (grains) must be large enough so that thermal fluctuations may be ignored. The loss of kinetic energy at every grain

  13. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  14. Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic

  15. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  16. USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  17. Bioconversion of Selenate in Methanogenic Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astratinei, V.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of anaerobic granular sludge to remove selenate from contaminated wastewater was investigated. The potential of different types of granular sludge to remove selenate from the liquid phase was compared to that of suspended sludge and contaminated soil and sediment samples. The selenate r

  18. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  19. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  20. Large mid-esophageal granular cell tumor: benign versus malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Roselil Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms, among which only 2% are malignant, arising from nervous tissue. Here we present a case of a large esophageal granular cell tumor with benign histopathological features which metastasized to the liver, but showing on positron emission tomography-computerized tomography standardized uptake value suggestive of a benign lesion.