WorldWideScience

Sample records for drive socio-economic transitions

  1. Socio-economic transition, inequality, and mortality in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalediene, Ramune; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga

    2004-03-01

    The study assessed inequalities in mortality of Lithuanian urban and rural populations throughout the period of socio-economic transition (1990-2000). Mortality from major causes of death, except cancers in females, was higher among the rural population. Inequality in mortality increased during the period of transition, especially among males, mainly due to more rapidly improving health of the urban population. Cardiovascular diseases and external causes made the largest contribution to the inequality. Differences in mortality of urban and rural populations point to greater social and psychological stress affecting the rural population, unhealthy life styles, inequities in accessibility of health care and lack of preventive programs in rural areas.

  2. Socio-economic status and fertility decline: Insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A; Maloney, Thomas N; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R; Vézina, Hélène

    2017-03-01

    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were the latest to start limiting their fertility. Apart from these similarities, patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly between populations.

  3. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  4. Heterogeneity and increasing returns may drive socio-economic transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisbuch, Gérard; Buskens, Vincent; Vuong, Luat

    2008-01-01

    There are clear benefits associated with a particular consumer choice for many current markets. For example, as we consider here, some products might carry environmental or ‘green’ benefits. Some consumers might value these benefits while others do not. However, as evidenced by myriad failed attempt

  5. ANALYSIS ON LAND-USE CHANGE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FACTORS IN HAINAN ISLAND DURING 50 YEARS FROM 1950 TO 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Land-use change is an important part of global change research (IGBP, 1990 - 1992). But the majorityof researches focus on the natural driving force of land use change. In this paper, the authors studied the relationship between socio-economic driving factors and land-use change with time series in Hainan Island. Based on the study for theevolution of administrative system and policies in Hainan Island and the comprehensive analysis on the social economy data and changes of social policies, the socio-economic policies, human activities and land use of Hainan can be dividedinto three periods with different characters: period from 1950 to 1978 characterized by the planning economic system, peried from 1978 to 1988 characterized by the transfer of economic system and adoption of open policy, new stage from 1988to 1998 with high growing speed.On the other hand the authors describe the character of the periods and land-use changeprocess affected by socio-economic factors. This paper provides an important method for evaluating the development andchanges of Hainam social economy during the 50 years from 1950 to 1999 and forecasting the development of Hainan social economy in future.

  6. Diet and serum lipids: changes over socio-economic transition period in Lithuanian rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since regaining of independence in 1990, Lithuania has been undergoing substantial political, economic, and social changes that affected the nutrition habits of population. Dietary changes might have impact on the trends of dietary related risk factors of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare trends in diet and lipid profile of Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64 during two decades of transition period (1987-2007. Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted within the framework of the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme in five regions of Lithuania in 1987, 1993, 1999, and 2007. For each survey, a stratified independent random sample was drawn from the lists of the inhabitants aged 25-64 years registered at the primary health care centres. Altogether 3127 men and 3857 women participated in the surveys. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Predicted changes of serum cholesterol were calculated by Keys equation. Results The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids has decreased from 18.0 to 15.1 among men and from 17.6 to 14.8 among women over the period of 20 years. The average share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake increased from 5.3% to 7.1% among men and from 4.9% to 7.3% among women. The mean intake of cholesterol declined among women. Favourable trends in fatty acids composition were caused by increased use of vegetable oil for cooking and replacement of butter spread with margarine. Since 1987, the mean value of total cholesterol has decreased by 0.6 mmol/l. Total dietary effect accounts for a 0.26 mmol/l (43.3% decline in serum cholesterol among men and 0.31 mmol/l (50.8% decline among women. Conclusions Improvement in the quality of fat intake was observed in Lithuanian rural population over two decades of transition period. Positive changes in diet, mainly

  7. A speculative analysis of socio-economic influences on the fertility transition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C

    1991-09-01

    A broad range of causes related to institutional and socioeconomic development are examined in terms of their influence on fertility transition in China. The question is raised as to whether a uniform government population policy sufficiently accounts for the urban and rural differences in fertility and declines which preceded policy. Significant changes which may be determinants of fertility decline are discussed as: the 1) the emancipation of women, 2) the socialization of agriculture and industry, 3) social security and other welfare benefits, 4) public health care, 5) the expansion of education, 6) changes in female labor force participation, 5) the rise in urban residence, and 8) the "sending down" campaigns. As a result of these changes, people have become aware of choices and aspire to nontraditional life styles. These socioeconomic changes have been gradual and strenuous, and have given women a new decision-making power in forming their families. A new relationship exists between the individual and society. Children as a course of labor in family enterprises is no longer possible with the elimination of the private sector. Economic uncertainties have been minimized since 1949 so that children are no longer valued as risk aversion. A minimum income is guaranteed. Savings and institutionalized pension and insurance programs have brought security to many Chinese families, and children are no longer crucial to the support of parents in the traditional Chinese family. These changes removed the impetus for high fertility. The feudal marriage system no longer constrains women; educational levels are rising. Changes in rural areas occur rapidly with advances in electrification and road construction. There are alternatives to childbearing. It is the interaction of these dynamic factors and the accumulative process that provided the context for reproductive change, and hence fertility decline. The 1970s was a period of both intense family planning and socioeconomic

  8. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  9. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  10. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  11. Oral Language Competence and the Transition to School: Socio-Economic and Behavioural Factors That Influence Academic and Social Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Oral language competence (skill in everyday talking and listening) is critical in the early years of school in two key respects: it underpins the transition to literacy in the early years, and is the means by which children form and maintain interpersonal relationships in the school setting. In this paper, the role of oral language competence with…

  12. Impacts of climate change on vegetation, hydrological and socio-economic droughts in a transitional wet-to-dry Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Pulquério, Mário; Grosso, Nuno; Duarte Santos, Filipe; João Cruz, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus river basin is located in a transitional region between humid and semi-arid climate. The lower part of the basin is a strategic source of water for Portugal, providing water for agricultural irrigation, hydropower generation, and domestic water supplies for over 4 million people. Climate change in this region is expected to lead to higher temperatures and lower rainfall, therefore increasing climatic aridity. In this transitional region, this could lead to an increased frequency of severe droughts, threatening climatic support for current agricultural and forestry practices, as well as the sustainability of domestic water supplies. This work evaluated the impacts of climate change on drought frequency and severity for the Portuguese part of the Tagus river basin. Climate change scenarios for 2010-2100 (A2 greenhouse emission scenarios) were statistically downscaled for the study area. They were evaluated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model, which simulated vegetation water demand and drought stress, soil water availability, irrigation abstraction, streamflow, reservoir storage and groundwater recharge. Water inflows from Spain were estimated using an empirical climate-based model. Drought occurrence and severity was analyzed in terms of: * meteorological drought, based on (i) the Standardized Precipitation Index and (ii) the Aridity Index; * vegetation/agricultural drought, based on plant water stress; * hydrological drought, based on (i) streamflow rates and (ii) reservoir storage; * socio-economic drought, based on (i) the capacity of the main reservoir in the system (Castelo de Bode) to sustain hydropower and domestic supplies, and (ii) the rate of groundwater extraction vs. irrigation demands for the cultures located in the intensive cultivation regions of the Lezírias near the Tagus estuary. The results indicate a trend of increasing frequency and severity of most drought types during the XXIst century, with a

  13. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  14. LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES UNDER STRESS OF PROJECT IN OLD RESERVOIR AREA --Case Study of Linshui Reservoir Area of Dahonghe Reservoir in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jin-gan; HUANG Xue-qin; QU Ming; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2005-01-01

    The old reservoir areas built in 1950s-1970s left behind many socio-economic problems, because of the administrative backward migration and little migration fund, and all these problems would be tied to land. Based on interviewing with peasant households, combining land use survey and socio-economic statistical index, this paper analyzed land use change and its corresponding driving forces in Linshui reservoir area of Dahonghe Reservoir. Results showed that land use change in the reservoir area was mainly embodied on low-lying land submergence and migration requisition land. The former changed the land use patterns, and the latter mainly reconstructed original land property and made land over-fragmented. Cultivated land per capita was 0.041ha in this area, below the cordon of cultivated land per capita enacted by FAO. Currently, there were still 30.25% of peasant households being short of grain in trimester of one year, and there were 35.27% of people living under the poverty line. The conditions of eco-environment in Linshui Reservoir Area were worse, and healthy and sub-healthy eco-environment accounted for less proportion, composed of green belt around the reservoir area and paddy field ecosystem, and economic forest and orchard ecosystem, respectively. The stress of the reservoir project was macroscopic background to analyze the driving factors of land use change, and real underlying diving factor of the land use change in the area was the change of cultural landscape under the stress of reservoir project. The rapid increase of population was the key factor to induce the change of man-land relationship in the reservoir area, the low level of rural economy was the crucial factor to decide how migrants input for production, and the belief of migrants, influencing the land use patterns in a certain extent, was the inducing factor to keep land use stable. The low-lying submergence and infrastructure construction accompanied the reservoir project were leading

  15. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices......This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...... for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure...

  16. Nutrition transition among adolescents of a south-Mediterranean country: dietary patterns, association with socio-economic factors, overweight and blood pressure. A cross-sectional study in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delpeuch Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the burden of chronic diseases linked to the nutrition transition and associated dietary and lifestyle changes is of growing concern in south and east Mediterranean countries and adolescents are at the forefront of these changes. This study assessed dietary intake and association with socio-economic factors and health outcomes among adolescents in Tunisia. Methods Cross-sectional survey (year 2005; 1019 subjects 15-19 y. from a clustered random sample. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative frequency questionnaire (134 items as was physical activity; the Diet Quality Index International measured diet quality; dietary patterns were derived by multiple correspondence analysis from intakes of 43 food groups. Body Mass Index (BMI ≥85th and 95th percentile defined overweight and obesity. Waist Circumference (WC assessed abdominal fat. High blood pressure was systolic (SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥90th of the international reference for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Results Energy intake levels were quite high, especially for females. The macro-nutrient structure was close to recommendations but only 38% had a satisfactory diet quality. A main traditional to modern dietary gradient, linked to urbanisation and increased economic level, featured an increasing consumption of white bread, dairy products, sugars, added fats and fruits and decreasing consumption of oils, grains, legumes and vegetables; regarding nutrients this modern diet score featured a decreasing relationship with total fat and an increase of calcium intake, but with an increase of energy, sugars and saturated fat, while vitamin C, potassium and fibre decreased. Adjusted for age, energy and physical activity, this modern pattern was associated with increased overweight in males (2nd vs. 1st tertile: Prevalence Odds-Ratio (POR = 4.0[1.7-9.3], 3rd vs. 1st: POR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] and a higher WC

  17. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  18. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  19. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  20. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  1. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic...... position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....

  2. Water drives peptide conformational transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Transitions between metastable conformations of a dipeptide are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water with the peptide's configurational motions indicate that water is the main driving force of the conformational changes.

  3. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  4. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  5. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth).

  6. Socio-economic Aspects of Senior Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    ONDRÁČKOVÁ, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the presented diploma thesis is to evaluate the knowledge of seniors in the field of healthy nutrition. It is furthermore important to find out, whether the seniors have enough relevant information about rational nutrition and which sources they would like to use to gather information about healthy nutrition. Socio-economic aspects, which lead to senior nutrition, are also monitored. A quantitative research strategy and an in-depth interview were used to fulfil the aim of the the...

  7. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  8. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  9. Socio-economic impacts of GKI activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential socio-economic impacts of Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) activities on Uintah Basin. Potential impacts on socio-economic conditions in the Uintah Basin are limited by the scope of GKI operations. In 1978, the population of Uintah and Duchesne counties was nearly 30,000. GKI employees represented 0.1% of the Basin population. 1978 Gross Taxable Sales were estimated to be $167.182 million for the Uintah Basin. GKI expenditures totaled less than 1% of gross taxable sales, even if it is assumed that all expenditures went to Basin businesses. GKI employment and expenditures are likely to increase in the years ahead, but projected increases will have insignificant socio-economic impacts on local communities. However, some employees will already own and others will seek to purchase homes in the area. Resulting impacts, though insignificant, will be positive. Several years ago, Utah State University researchers developed estimates of population changes and impacts associated with employment growth in Uintah County. Their report indicated that a project increasing basic employment by 400 persons would have minor impact, but would increase the tax base of the county. It is unlikely that GKI employment will approach, let alone exceed, the threshold level of 400 employees. In addition, GKI growth will be incremental and gradual, even to commercial scale operations. This leads us to conclude that GKI operations will have minimal adverse impact upon the Uintah Basin and in fact will probably have a net positive impact on the Basin.

  10. ICT and Socio-Economic Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; D'AMBROSIO, CONCHITA

    2003-01-01

    Using an innovative dataset for ICT use for five countries in Europe, we examine the impact and association of ICT on socio-economic exclusion. Using OLS regression we find significant wage premiums for PC and internet usage at the workplace. Following Dinardo/Fortin/Lemieux (1997), we examine the impact of ICT on the distribution of wages. We find that the risk of economic exclusion increases markedly for those not having ICT at the workplace, with the largest effects being found in Britain....

  11. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  12. The socio-economic dimension of modern globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sidenko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of eminent analysts on the driving forces of and explanations for economic globalization today. It examines the main characteristics of this process, such as the growth of world trade, the increased mobility of financial capital, the growing role of transnational corporations and the development of network technologies and the internet. The author analyzes the positive impact of globalization on the development of productive forces and human development. Problems arising from the growing interdependence of a globalized world, such as environmental issues, security, increased worldwide disparity of socio-economic development of countries and regions, are also examined. In conclusion, the author voices the need for establishing a system of global management.

  13. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  14. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  15. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s...... of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalisme and identity construction. The results show that the South Asian youth develop complex diaspora identities, becoming a part of the receiving society and maintaining contact...

  16. Reproduction, fertility and socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of population in the third world countries specially in recent decades has posed an important social problem. There have been some attempts to propose solutions for this problem by scientists from various disciplines. However, it seems that an integrated approach calling for collaboration of various efforts can be more fruitful. In this work, we study the relation of women fertility and socio-economical indices along with government's programmed efforts in the third world countries. Employing a statistical approach, we show that development indices such as gross national product, infant mortality rate, education enrolment, and access to mass media along with government's programmed efforts are effective in reducing the fertility rate, but more important is the interaction between these factors. Thus, an integrated approach emerges as a better solution to population control

  17. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of lifetime socio-economic position (SEP) on adult depression. We examined the association of SEP during the life course with depressive mood in late midlife and explored whether cognitive function at age 20, health-related behaviour and inflammatory...... biomarkers explained any associations. Methods: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood and blood sampling in 2010. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to investigate associations...... among variables. Results: Social circumstances during the life course were associated with depressive mood. Further, low lifetime SEP was associated with lower cognitive score, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass index (BMI) and increased level of high sensitive ProReactive Protein and Interleukin-6...

  18. Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, D J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  20. Socio-Economic Position and Suicidal Ideation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Pirkis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People in low socio-economic positions are over-represented in suicide statistics and are at heightened risk for non-fatal suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Few studies have tried to tease out the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position, however. We used data from Ten to Men (the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to investigate the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position and suicidal thinking in 12,090 men. We used a measure of unemployment/employment and occupational skill level as our individual-level indicator of socio-economic position. We used the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (a composite multidimensional construct created by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that combines information from a range of area-level variables, including the prevalence of unemployment and employment in low skilled occupations as our area-level indicator. We assessed suicidal thinking using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. We found that even after controlling for common predictors of suicidal thinking; low individual-level and area-level socio-economic position heightened risk. Individual-level socio-economic position appeared to exert the greater influence of the two; however. There is an onus on policy makers and planners from within and outside the mental health sector to take individual- and area-level socio-economic position into account when they are developing strategic initiatives.

  1. Socio-economic differences in health among Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Zezula, I.; Tuinstra, J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Post, Doeke

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: Socio-economic differences in health (psychological health: GHQ-12, vitality and mental health scale of RAND, experienced health complaints, chronic illness, use of medicines, self-reported health,

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  3. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  4. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...... which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project...

  5. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  6. Socio-economic determinants of the quality of Irvingia gabonensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of the quality of Irvingia gabonensis harvested by ... Egyptian Journal of Biology ... Injuries from knife cuts while opening or picking the fruits, and attacks by wild animals, were the major problems encountered by ...

  7. Socio-economic constraints affecting youths involvement in national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic constraints affecting youths involvement in national economic development. ... negative effects of some government policies which have made many youths unemployed, incidence of ghost workers in the civil service which ...

  8. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  9. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  10. Socio-economic factors affecting the participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the socio-economic factors affecting women's ... About 41% attended up to secondary school level of education while 4% attended tertiary ... would go a long way in removing some of the barriers to effective participation.

  11. Socio-economic differences in takeaway food consumption among adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miura, Kyoko; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    ...); these latter foods were grouped into ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ choices. Socio-economic position was measured on the basis of educational level and equivalised household income, and differences in...

  12. Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of ... the interest and concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, researchers and school ... of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like ...

  13. Socio-Economic Impacts of Desertification in Nigeria | Eneji | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Impacts of Desertification in Nigeria. ... The latter also affects the social and economic structure and framework, and by implication, ... in widespread breakdown of urban infrastructure, crime and the emergence of urban slums, ...

  14. Socio-economic Constraints to Implementation of Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Constraints to Implementation of Land Management ... and deployed to the farmers to improve productivity but with little implementation. ... data and consultations with key informants were the main methods of data collection.

  15. Education and socio-economic development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis Vicente Amador Muñoz; Francisco Miguel Martínez Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    ... education ceases to have a purely instrumental value to serve the interests of a “privileged few” and becomes the driving force for human development with progress, equality and social justice.

  16. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  17. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death....... This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic status and mortality is to a large degree absent among Danish women who die of cancer. In addition, for men...... the negative correlation between socio-economic status and mortality prevails for some diseases, but for women we find that factors such as being married, income, wealth and education are not significantly associated with higher life expectancy. Marriage increases the likelihood of dying from cancer for women...

  18. Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Conditions on Facial Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434 to analyze the association between an individual's parental socioeconomic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old, controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  19. Socio-economic baseline study: Case study: Nanggung sub-district, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, W.; Suseno, B.; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the socio-economic baseline study was summarized and discussed. The objective was to provide socio-economic data as a basis for socio-economic impact assessment of integrated vegetable-agroforestry systems. The study addressed socio-economic data, farm characteristics, gender roles, household income and consumption and labor availability. The study led to information on the physical characteristics of the sample area, the socio-economic characteristics, land 'ownership,' and farmin...

  20. A pilot socio-economic analysis of QLIF dairy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Dr. Phillipa; Lampkin, Dr Nicolas; Leifert, Prof. Carlo; Butler, Dr. Gillian; Klocke, Peter; Wagenaar, J.P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pilot socio-economic impact assessment was carried out on three dairy projects within QLIF to identify the business, consumer and policy issues likely to influence the adoption of the innovations resulting from QLIF. A socio-economic analysis is pre-sented related to the key outcomes from the three projects which include: manage-ment systems to reduce mastitis and antibiotic use in organic dairy farms and how milk quality can be enhanced through high forage organic feeding systems. Due to...

  1. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  2. People, Aid and institutions in socio-economic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Thea; Weijs, Bart; Haar, van der Gemma

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their

  3. The Citizens' Perspective in a socio-economic evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, M.; Glasius-Meier, A.

    2005-01-01

    The problem formulation of this quick scan is twofold: Is it possible to fully incorporate the citizens' perspective (for example in the form of experiential value) in a socio-economic evaluation? And does it serve a useful purpose? In this context, the concept of the citizen denotes the user of the

  4. Socio-economic variability of safespot cooperative safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R.; Luedecke, A.; Geissler, T.; Westerkamp, U.; Feenstra, P.J.; Kievit, M. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a socio-economic assessment of two cooperative safety systems. One of the systems is based on V2V communication, the other one is based on V2I communication. Both systems are composed of a bundle of applications which have been designed to provide road safety info

  5. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim;

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  6. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  7. Socio-economic variables that influence participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic variables that influence participation of women in rural ... Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the social and economic life of the rural ... Educational qualification (t=2.55) and leadership position (t= 2.34) were ...

  8. Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domac, J. [Energy Institute ' Hrvoje Pozar' , Zagreb (Croatia); Richards, K. [TV Energy Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom); Risovic, S. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2005-02-01

    Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, etc) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others. (Author)

  9. Socio-economic rights in South Africa: symbols or substance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBook review of: _Socio-economic rights in South Africa: symbols or substance?, edited by Malcolm Langford, Ben Cousins, Jackie Dugard and Tshepo Madlingozi, Cambridge University Press, 2014_ This comprehensive, edited volume of 15 chapters canvasses a wide range of contemporary

  10. ROMANIAN VS. EUROPEAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC “IDEAS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanica Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of socio-economic research in the European Research Area, while putting focus on emerging trends in the field. In the meantime, the paper presents and analysis the projects that won the “Ideas” competition: ERC Advanced Inve

  11. Socio-economic rights in South Africa: symbols or substance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBook review of: _Socio-economic rights in South Africa: symbols or substance?, edited by Malcolm Langford, Ben Cousins, Jackie Dugard and Tshepo Madlingozi, Cambridge University Press, 2014_ This comprehensive, edited volume of 15 chapters canvasses a wide range of contemporary pe

  12. Development and prioritization of socio-economic strategies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    managers and executive decision-makers to protect natural resources and ... hydrological and socio-economic systems with the ... points in the management of water and soil resources ... 2015), governmental support mechanisms and policy .... In fact, TOPSIS is a robust decision-making method using quantitative and ...

  13. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic socio-economic development of Russia, the long-term competitiveness in the global economy involves the formation of a new socio-economic institute of management – an active subject of modern innovative economy.

  14. Effects of socio- economic conditions of small-scale traders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of socio- economic conditions of small-scale traders on quality of post ... economies by providing millions with income and consumers with food. ... A structured questionnaire was used to get demographic, socio-economic, safety and

  15. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  16. Measuring socio-economic data in tuberculosis prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, F; Guilatco, R S; Hossain, S; Van't Hoog, A H; Hoa, N B; van der Werf, M J; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Addressing social determinants in the field of tuberculosis (TB) has received great attention in the past years, mainly due to the fact that worldwide TB incidence has not declined as much as expected, despite highly curative control strategies. One of the objectives of the World Health Organization Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement is to assess the prevalence of TB disease in 22 high-burden countries by active screening of a random sample of the general population. These surveys provide a unique opportunity to assess socio-economic determinants in relation to prevalent TB and its risk factors. This article describes methods of measuring the socio-economic position in the context of a TB prevalence survey. An indirect measurement using an assets score is the most feasible way of doing this. Several examples are given from recently conducted prevalence surveys of the use of an assets score, its construction, and the analyses of the obtained data.

  17. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...... at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups....

  18. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  19. Socio-economic inequality and prospects of institutional Econophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is quantitatively measured from data using various indices. The Gini ($g$) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common, while the recently introduced Kolkata ($k$) index gives a measure of $1-k$ fraction of population who possess top $k$ fraction of wealth in the society. This article reviews the character of such inequalities, as seen from a variety of data sources, the apparent relationship between the two indices, and what toy models tell us. These socio-economic inequalities are also investigated in the context of man-made social conflicts or wars, as well as in natural disasters. Finally, we forward a proposal for an international institution with sufficient fund for visitors, where natural and social scientists from various institutions of the world can come to discuss, debate and formulate further developments.

  20. New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Merz; Peter Paic

    2006-01-01

    If certain start-up characteristics will indicate a business success, knowing such characteristics could generate more successful start-ups and more efficient start-up counseling. Our study will contribut e to this by quantifying individual success determinants of freelance start-ups. The data base for the microeconometric analyses of the survival of the first three years is a revised German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 1992 until 2002, which allows to incorporate institutional, personal a...

  1. Socio-economic inequality: Relationship between Gini and Kolkata indices

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is characterized from data using various indices. The Gini ($g$) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common one, while the recently introduced Kolkata ($k$) index gives a measure of $1-k$ fraction of population who possess top $k$ fraction of wealth in the society. Here, we show the relationship between the two indices, using both empirical data and analytical estimates. The significance of their relationship has been discussed.

  2. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  3. New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Merz; Peter Paic

    2006-01-01

    If certain start-up characteristics will indicate a business success, knowing such characteristics could generate more successful start-ups and more efficient start-up counseling. Our study will contribut e to this by quantifying individual success determinants of freelance start-ups. The data base for the microeconometric analyses of the survival of the first three years is a revised German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 1992 until 2002, which allows to incorporate institutional, personal a...

  4. Socio-economic inequality: Relationship between Gini and Kolkata indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2017-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is characterized from data using various indices. The Gini (g) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common one, while the recently introduced Kolkata (k) index gives a measure of 1 - k fraction of population who possess top k fraction of wealth in the society. Here, we show the relationship between the two indices, using both empirical data and analytical estimates. The significance of their relationship has been discussed.

  5. Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.

  6. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  7. Socio-economic differences in health risk behavior in adolescence : Do they exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Post, D

    1998-01-01

    Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The

  8. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  9. Socio-economic consequences of rheumatoid arthritis in the first years of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, JMC; Kuper, HH; van Riel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Van't Hof, MA; van Gestel, AM; Severens, JL

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Few data have been presented to document the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on socio-economic well-being. In this study, exact figures on socio-economic consequences were assessed. Methods. The socio-economic consequences were studied in an inception cohort (186 early RA patients, me

  10. Socio-economic consequences of rheumatoid arthritis in the first years of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, JMC; Kuper, HH; van Riel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Van't Hof, MA; van Gestel, AM; Severens, JL

    Objective. Few data have been presented to document the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on socio-economic well-being. In this study, exact figures on socio-economic consequences were assessed. Methods. The socio-economic consequences were studied in an inception cohort (186 early RA patients,

  11. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.

    2011-09-15

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www

  12. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  13. Contribution of spoken language and socio-economic background to adolescents' educational achievement at age 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-03-01

    were particularly relevant to all three GCSE outcomes. Socio-economic background only remained important for English Language, once language assessment scores and demographic information were considered. Language ability, and in particular vocabulary, plays an important role for educational achievement. Results confirm a need for ongoing support for spoken language ability throughout secondary education and a potential role for speech and language therapy provision in the continuing drive to reduce the gap in educational attainment between groups from differing socio-economic backgrounds. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena K Koivusilta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

    Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

    Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

    Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

  15. Socio-economic factors of the Russian society consolidation: regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Veniaminovich Lokosov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic contradictions have become the key obstacles in the transition of contemporary Russian society to a new model of development, which is to replace the obsolete “gas and oil” one. The novel model involves social consolidation to form a civil Russian nation. On the base of statistical analysis, the author’s empirical data (mass all-Russian and regional focus group inquiries confirm that the social inequality between the rich and the poor has reached extreme critical values making them a disfactor of national integrity. If the gap does not decrease, the Russian society will experience serious difficulties. A number of indicators show that social inequality is caused by inefficient ruling system. Despite positive changes in the quality of life and living standards, the inertia of the social ties destruction and anomie still continue. The transition of the socio-economic system to a new model of reproduction supposes that the values of justice, gradualness, and continuity will be supported by the majority of the population

  16. Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media

  17. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  18. A socio-economic comparison of green and conventional products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik; Grüttner, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the categories of TV-sets, washing machines, textile services, bookshelves and copy paper. The study included development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison as well as the application of the methodology on the selected product groups. The study was funded and published...... products” were “typical” representatives for the main part of the products on the actual market. This analysis comprises the entire life cycle from production, transportation, distribution to consumption and finally disposal where significant differences are identified for the alternatives....

  19. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-10-06

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  20. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio.......2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural and methodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge...

  1. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case...... of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio...

  2. Socio-economic scenarios for the Eurasian arctic by 2040

    OpenAIRE

    Haavisto, Riina; Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina; Harjanne, Atte; Perrels, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improved weather and marine services (WMS) can have a role to play in the safe and secure development of the Arctic region through either a demand-pull (enhanced by growth in activity) or a supply-push (enhances growth in activity) process. To analyse the nature of the process and the future use and benefits of WMS, a better understanding of possible future developments in the Eurasian Arctic is needed. This report presents six socio-economic scenarios for the Eurasian Arctic by 2...

  3. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very

  4. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-10-06

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments,which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.

  5. Linking socio-economic development and environmental pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development paradigm requires new approaches to the study of linkages between socio-economic development and its accompanying environmental pressures. To this end, a three-level regional geographic model of interactions has been developed. This new index attempts to evaluate the level of general balance of development in each country or region, upgrading well established human development index by an environmental aspect (i.e. ecological footprint and consequently strongly modifying deeply rooted images of wellbeing in the world.

  6. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  7. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  8. Socio-Economic Convergence as a Necessary Precondition and Determinant of Societal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudec Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of socio-economic convergence is nowadays more than ever an extremely dominant topic, especially in the case of less developed countries and countries suffering stagnation, mainly due to the integration processes occurring worldwide and the determinant to achieve long-term growth in an effort to advance towards the socioeconomic sustainable level of developed economies. A key assumption towards convergence is that economies with initially lower socio-economic levels will at some point reach (in an idea case or get very close the level of developed economies, gradually reducing the gap between the capital stock and the level of product size between countries, while the lower economic level the country has, the higher the growth rate it will go through the transition period. This suggests that the economies with lower levels of performance will grow on average at a higher rate than economies that are more efficient. It is therefore expected that the growth performance of a country will with its improvement also at some point slow down and quite realistically there can also occur a situation where the levels of development and growth of individual states economies will rather show delay. This is basically an opposite action to the concept of convergence, which is known as the divergence. The aim of our research paper is to analyze closely the concept of convergence, while pointing it is specifically characteristics and overall focusing on the significance of the issue of convergence.

  9. Migration and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context: The case of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Kulu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies show that family migration is usually to the benefit of the man's professional career and that it has a negative impact on the woman's economic well-being and employment. This study extends previous research by examining the effect of family migration on union dissolution. We use the event-history data of two retrospective surveys from Russia and apply hazard regression. The analysis shows that couples who move frequently over long distances have a significantly higher risk of union dissolution than couples who do not move or move only once. Our further analysis reveals that the risk of disruption for frequent movers is high when the migrant woman has a job. Frequent migrants had a high risk of union dissolution during the Soviet period but they faced no such risk during the post-Soviet socio-economic transition. We argue that frequent moving increases union instability through a variety of mechanisms, the effect of which may vary across socio-economic contexts.

  10. Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the members opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy and public administration system (PASy. We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

  11. Research progress of socio-economic water cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China has made great progress in the study of socio-economic water cycle. She has completed national water resources appraisement and medium to long-term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Projects, which has been set as one of the four biggest national projects in the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also done a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer projects from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.

  12. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  13. The Socio-Economics of Women Inclusion in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedeji Olushola Afolabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The female population represents one of the greatest untapped resources for economic growth and revitalization in most sectors. The purpose of the study was to examine the socio-economics of women’s inclusion in green construction. The study utilized the use of questionnaires which were distributed to female professionals in the Nigerian construction industry. A total of 120 female construction professionals were used for this study. The data gathered was analysed using SPSS v17.0 with tests such as Frequencies, Percentages, Mean Score, ANOVA, and Factor Analysis. The result revealed a low level of participation by women in green construction. Women in construction exhibited moderate participation in Solar panel manufacturing, installation, and maintenance and in the enforcement of environmentally friendly practices on-site. The study revealed that the stressful nature of works, low interest from women, low career growth/progression and low investments in green works are significant barriers affecting women’s inclusion in green construction. In conclusion, the study identified three (3 socio-economic benefits of women’s inclusion in green construction. These are family/women related benefits, environment related benefits, and green energy market related benefits. The study suggested measures to increase women’s participation in green construction.

  14. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  15. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes....... Objectives. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years...

  16. Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

  17. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

  18. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola M. Obimakinde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse.Aim and setting: The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.Methods: This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index.Results: The somatising patients were mostly females (70%, with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04 years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04. Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039. Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042 and more conflicts (p = 0.019 in their interpersonal relationship.Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients.

  19. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  20. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjilal Barun; Mazumdar Papiya; Mukherjee Moumita; Hafizur, Rahman M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES)...

  1. Urban Socio-Economic Variables and Intra-Urban Trips in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayiwola, Solanke Muse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relative influence of socio-economic variables of urban centers on intra-city tripgeneration. Data were collected on sixteen socio-economic variables and household trip generation in fourteen urbancenters of the state. The nature and degree of relationships between socio-economic variables and trips generated wereestablished through simple bivariate correlation technique. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain variablesthat predict trips generated. The princi...

  2. Socio-Economic Analogues of the Gas Laws (Boyle's and Charles')

    OpenAIRE

    Angle, John

    2011-01-01

    Most social scientists would reject the possibility of socio-economic analogues of the gas laws (Boyle’s and Charles’) on verisimilitude grounds. The gas laws relate the variables temperature, pressure, and volume. The possibility of socio-economic analogues of the gas laws and their variables is suggested by the similarity of two mathematical models. One model is the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system model that explains a wide scope of socio-economic phenomena. The IP is isomorphic ...

  3. Socio-Economic Farm Types Calculated from the Agricultural Holdings Census in 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Udovc, Andrej; Kovacic, Matija; Kramaric, Franci

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the newly developed methodology for defining a socio-economic structure of farms, which was developed to analyse the socio-economic structure of Slovene farms based on data from Agricultural holdings census performed in year 2000. Developed methodology enables to define four main socio-economic types of farms: fulltime, part-time, supplementary and aged, based on data about employment status and work engagement of the core members of the farm’s family. The results are showi...

  4. Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

  5. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  7. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  8. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  9. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cu...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....... cultivation landscapes on a regional level. On the basis of a recent approximation of the extent of shifting cultivation landscapes for two time periods and disaggregated village level census data, this paper characterizes these landscapes in terms of key socioeconomic parameters for the whole of northern...

  10. Cars and socio-economics: understanding neighbourhood variations in car characteristics from administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Lansley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There were 30.7 million registered cars in Great Britain in 2011, outnumbering the total number of households recorded by the census. Despite this, the Driving and Vehicle Licensing Agency’s (DVLA database of car model registrations remains underexplored as an indicator of socio-economic characteristics. In the past, car ownership itself has been frequently considered as a census proxy variable for affluence. However, this is an increasingly dated interpretation as ownership has become more widespread across society and the value of cars varies considerably. Understanding the geography of different car types, however, is likely to be more informative of local population characteristics as the choice of model is dependent on several factors, notably including the cost and the purpose of the vehicle. In partnership with the Department for Transport (DfT, a car segmentation was produced that grouped every car model registered in England and Wales in 2011 into 10 distinctive categories based on the vehicle’s key characteristics. Data representing the total number of registered cars for each car segment and three age groups were made available at a small area geography (known as lower layer super output areas – LSOAs to be analysed for this study. It revealed that each car segment is uniquely distributed across London, and the rest of England and Wales. The patterns were then compared with key 2011 Census variables on socio-economics to understand the extent to which spatial patterns of broad car characteristics correspond with variances in indicators of social make-up.

  11. Anthropometric normality in adults: the geographical and socio-economic paradox of the nutritional transition in Brazil Normalidade antropométrica de adultos: o paradoxo geográfico e socioeconômico da transição nutricional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to consolidate secondary data and provide some as yet unpublished information on changes in the nutritional status of Brazilian children, and, principally, adults, from an anthropometrical point of view as evaluated in the course of the most recent surveys, laying emphasis on geographical and socio-economic features. METHODS: tables and graphs were used to consolidate data published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and from other sources, along with estimates for results not included in these original documents. Preliminary data from two as yet unpublished studies were also included. RESULTS: it was shown that, alongside the decline in malnutrition in children there are signs of an epidemic increase in obesity and overweight in adults. This is characteristic of the change in epidemiological profile associated with the nutritional transition. There is an apparent paradox that the highest frequencies for normal anthropometric measurements in adults were found in the poorer North and Northeast regions of Brazil. These results were even found in localities with very low indices for human development in the Northeast region. The best anthropometric situation for adult populations in Brazil was found in families with a low income (less than ¼ of one minimum wage per household per capita, with a prevalence rate twice as high among adult males in comparison with the higher household income group. CONCLUSIONS: the results for nutritional anthropo-metry among adults, showing more normal measurements among the low-income population, reflect a peculiar phase in epidemiological terms in the process of the nutritional transition in the country, which constitutes a paradox arising in these specific circumstances, which is probably temporary.OBJETIVOS: consolidar dados secundários e algumas informações ainda inéditas sobre a evolução antropométrica de estado nutricional de crianças brasileiras e, principalmente de

  12. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  13. Age-dependent Effects of Socio-economic Background on Educational Attainment - Evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Kiiver, H.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic background on a child's educational attainment has been discussed as a static concept so far. Existing economic literature as well as the psychology of education literature point however towards a dynamic process where the impact of socio-economic background depends on t

  14. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated

  15. Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

  16. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is

  17. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean. The...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal...

  18. Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant and ... dietary intake as well as some socio-economic and demographic factors. ... Daily food intakes were measured by 24hour-diet recall and food models to ...

  19. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  20. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  1. Socio-Economic Concerns and Essential Elements in Estuary Management Strategies; Haliç Case, Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, Bedri; Isil Cetin, Basak

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are transitional areas between the land and sea and home to a large and growing proportion of the world's population. They are highly productive ecosystems which create jobs, and boosts local economic growth with a higher percentage of collective and private enterprises and a larger share of production. They serve many important socio-economic functions and therefore receive untreated urban wastes and riverine inputs and concentrate various pollutants coming from inland domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Therefore such kinds of complex systems are highly vulnerable because they are usually the sink for the hinterlands. Due to serious environmental problems felt more intensively day by day, central and local governments must adopt an integrated policy and decision making process to promote a balance of uses. As surrounded by many historical attractions, heritage sites, buzzing cultural scenes and other natural resources, the Haliç (the Golden Horn estuary) offers great opportunities and has a vitality fed by widespread economic and cultural factors. The typical landscape of the estuary, its bridges, geomorphic features, oceanographic and hydrodynamic features of its waters, sea bottom characteristics, environmental pollution, make this estuary a critical marine environment which impacts to economy, environment and community. However, rapid urban growth and uncontrolled industrial development (1950-1985) led to a severe increase in pollution levels of its water and cohesive sediments. The siltation due to liquid and solid waste dumped by two streams caused anaerobic decomposition problems. In addition, the ecological processes occurring in the Haliç are rather complex as they are interacted with the socio-economic system. This study focuses on the essential elements of integrated coastal zone management for the Haliç, and its probable impacts to economy, environment and community. All objectives and probable impacts need to be integrated

  2. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  3. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user.

  4. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  5. Rare malignancies in Eastern India, socio-economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Senapati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  6. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  7. Beyond PTSD: Socio-economic Bereavement in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø

    2007-04-01

    By drawing upon data collected through in-depth interviews with 20 victims of the Ethio-Eritrean war, this paper addresses how psychosocial consequences of political war are expressed and conceptualized by people from Tigray, Ethiopia. War events were typically described in terms of their negative impacts on the household's means for income generation, and psychosocial complaints centred on aspects of impaired post-war economy rather than on politically violent experiences. The most reported complaints were (a) household erosion complaints, (b) social marginalization complaints and (c) education abortion complaints. Post-war psychosocial health problems were perceived as consequences of these aspects of impaired household economy, and were described in terms of their negative impacts on future income generation. Informants' expressions of distress were found to be highly informed by the socio-cultural and socio-economic structures of the Tigrayan society. Being the only study of its kind from this context, the study provides a unique illustration of the limitations of western trauma measures and calls for a context-based conceptualization of trauma.

  8. Socio-economic determinants of tourism trips by Jambi residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Hardiani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: 1 karakteristik perjalanan penduduk di Provinsi Jambi baik untuk tujuan wisata maupun tujuan lainnya; 2 karakteristik penduduk yang melakukan perjalanan wisata di Provinsi Jambi; 3 Faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi yang mempengaruhi perjalanan wisata penduduk di Provinsi Jambi. Data bersumber dari “raw data” SUSENAS Tahun 2015 Provinsi Jambi. Untuk menganalisis karakteristik perjalanan penduduk, dan karakteristik individu wisatawan dilakukan secara deskriptif. Untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perjalanan wisata penduduk digunakan model regresi binary logistik. Hasil penelitian menemukan: 1. Aktivitas perjalanan penduduk di Provinsi Jambi masih relatif rendah. Hanya 14,14 persen dari total penduduk yang pernah melakukan perjalanan dalam enam bulan terakhir; 2  Selain rendahnya aktivitas perjalanan tersebut, aktivitas perjalanan untuk wisata juga masih relatif terbatas. Hanya 17,79 persen total penduduk yang melakukan perjalanan untuk berwisata; 3 Objek tujuan wisata penduduk Provinsi Jambi didominasi objek wisata yang ada di Provinsi Jambi sendiri, selain objek wisata yang ada di provinsi-provinsi berdekatan yaitu Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Barat dan Bengkulu; 4. Perjalanan wisata penduduk didominasi oleh perjalanan wisata keluarga, sehingga relatif didominasi oleh anak-anak dan orang tua; 5 Faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap perjalanan wisata penduduk adalah umur, pendidikan dan status dalam keluarga. Selain itu, terdapat perbedaan probabilita perjalanan penduduk untuk wisata antara kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi. Kata Kunci: objek wisata, wisata keluarga, perjalanan wisata    Abstract This study aims to analyze: 1 characteristics of trips generated by Jambi residents both for tourism purposes or other purposes; 2 characteristics of Jambi residents going on a tourism trip; 3 Socio-economic factors affecting tourism trips generated by Jambi

  9. Socio-economic factors in obesity: a case of slim chance in a fat world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2006-01-01

    The global obesity pandemic has been well-documented and widely discussed by the public, the media, health officials, the food industry and academic researchers. While the problem is widely recognised, the potential solutions are far less clear. There is only limited evidence to guide decisions as to how best to manage obesity in individuals and in populations. While widely viewed as a clinical and public health problem in developed countries, it is now clear that many developing countries also have to grapple with this problem or face the crippling healthcare costs resulting from obesity-related morbidity. There is also abundant evidence that obesity is socio-economically distributed. In developed countries persons of lower socio-economic position are more likely to be affected, while in developing countries, it is often those of higher socio-economic position who are overweight or obese. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence that links socio-economic position and obesity, to discuss what is known about underlying mechanisms, and to consider the role of social, physical, policy and cultural environments in explaining the relationships between socio-economic position and obesity. We introduce the concept of 'resilience' as a potential theoretical construct to guide research efforts aimed at understanding how some socio-economically disadvantaged individuals manage to avoid obesity. We conclude by considering an agenda to guide future research and programs focused on understanding and reducing obesity among those of low socio-economic position.

  10. Inclusion and Implementation of Socio-Economic Considerations in GMO Regulations: Needs and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Binimelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic considerations are included in the regulatory frameworks on genetically modified organisms (GMOs of many countries. This is a reflection of an increasing interest in and recognition of the necessity to consider a broader range of issues when conducting a GMO risk assessment. At the same time, there are discussions about how socio-economic considerations can be identified and how their assessment can be carried out. To provide an understanding of the advances achieved so far, we describe the state of the art of existing biosafety institutional frameworks, legislation and policies with provisions on socio-economic considerations. We analyse the scope of the socio-economic considerations that have been included, the methodological options taken and the role of participatory processes and stakeholders involvement in the GMO-related decision-making. Since many of the countries that have legislation for assessing socio-economic considerations lack implementation experience, we provide an analysis of how implementation has evolved in Norway with the intention to illustrate that the inclusion of socio-economic considerations might be based on a learning process. Norway was the first country to include broader issues in its GMO assessment process, and is at present one of the countries with the most experience on implementation of these issues. Finally, we emphasise that there is a great need for training on how to perform assessments of socio-economic considerations, as well as reflection on possible ways for inclusion of participatory processes.

  11. MODELING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC REFORMS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Adžić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting premise of the paper is that for the development of a sustainable recovery of the republic of Serbia one needs to replace the welfare state paradigm with socially responsible state paradigm. The main tasks of the socially responsible state are: (1 Socially acceptable way of dealing with redundant work force, (2 Reduction in the differences of income distribution which are not linked to the manufacturing enterprises, (3 Social Security (pensions, health care, social protection, and (4 Implementation of the National strategy for poverty reduction. In this context, the socially responsible state should cover: (1 Pension system, (2 Health (3 Unemployment insurance, (4 Financial and related support to the poor and the children, and (5 Homes for orphans, disabled and the elderly. The problem of building the model of regulation of social-economic sphere according to the socially responsible state encompasses four dimensions: The first is a determination of the area of activity of the state, as well as the basic principles of how to carry out reforms in the socio-economic sphere. The second is to improve the economic rationality of the structure and quality of social security services on the basis of a compromise between the minimum criteria of the European Union. The third focuses on implementing spatial distribution of regulation functions of the social and economic spheres in four levels (central, regional, sub-regional and local. The fourth is the precise determination of a relationship between the content of the attributes of social, economic and development policies.

  12. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  13. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care.

  14. Socio-Economic Differentials in Contraceptive Discontinuation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Agrahari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility divergence amid declining in use of modern contraception in many states of India needs urgent research and programmatic attention. Although utilization of antenatal, natal, and post-natal care has shown spectacular increase in post National Rural Health Mission (NRHM period, the contraceptive use had shown a declining trend. Using the calendar data from the National Family Health Survey–3, this article examines the reasons of contraceptive discontinuation among spacing method users by socio-economic groups in India. Bivariate and multivariate analyses and life table discontinuation rates are used in the analyses. Results suggest that about half of the pill users, two fifths of the condom users, one third of traditional method users, and one fifth of IUD users discontinue a method in first 12 months of use. However, the discontinuation of all three modern spacing methods declines in subsequent period (within 12-36 months. The probability of method failure was highest among traditional method users and higher among poor and less educated that may lead to unwanted/mistimed birth. Although discontinuation of condom declines with economic status, it does not show any large variation for pill users. The contraceptive discontinuation was significantly associated with duration of use, age, parity, contraceptive method, religion, and contraceptive intention. Based on these findings, it is suggested that follow-up services to modern spacing method users, increasing counseling for spacing method users, motivating the traditional method user to use modern spacing method, and improving the overall quality of family planning services can reduce the discontinuation of spacing method.

  15. Exacerbated vulnerability of coupled socio-economic risk in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Berman, Yonatan; Hu, Ning; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    The study of risk contagion in economic networks has most often focused on the financial liquidities of institutions and assets. In practice the agents in a network affect each other through social contagion, i.e., through herd behavior and the tendency to follow leaders. We study the coupled risk between social and economic contagion and find it significantly more severe than when economic risk is considered alone. Using the empirical network from the China venture capital market we find that the system exhibits an extreme risk of abrupt phase transition and large-scale damage, which is in clear contrast to the smooth phase transition traditionally observed in economic contagion alone. We also find that network structure impacts market resilience and that the randomization of the social network of the market participants can reduce system fragility when there is herd behavior. Our work indicates that under coupled contagion mechanisms network resilience can exhibit a fundamentally different behavior, i.e., an abrupt transition. It also reveals the extreme risk when a system has coupled socio-economic risks, and this could be of interest to both policy makers and market practitioners.

  16. THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

  17. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood : results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Droomers, Mariel

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic

  18. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood : results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Droomers, Mariel

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic heal

  19. Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farah, Rita; Lahoud, Nathalie; Salameh, Pascale; Saleh, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    .... Our objective is to study the dispensing policy of non-medical prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies, assessing the possible influence of the socio-economic level of the area over this practice...

  20. Socio-Economic Impacts of Oil Development in the Niger- Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Impacts of Oil Development in the Niger- Delta, Nigeria. ... oil companies should involve the communities in the development process and develop ... in these activities would sustainable and peaceful development be possible.

  1. Effect of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Parental Care and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Parental Care and Social Adjustment in the UBE ... International Journal of Educational Research ... A questionnaire (Parent/Child Relationship Questionnaire) which was designed by the ...

  2. 419 effect of households' socio-economic condition on crowding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    gentrification, with attendant policy implications. The results ... difference in the degree of crowding among the different socio-economic classifications. This is ..... set up new households (Statistics New Zealand,. n.d.). ... Malaysia, 2, 1159-1169.

  3. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  4. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  5. The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2014-01-01

    ... socio-economic status in this relation. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children. Children (9-12 years old; n = 606...

  6. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark

    2016-01-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the...

  7. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso sub- region of Uganda ... Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda. Introduction ...... level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle.

  8. Do processed vegetables reduce the socio-economic differences in vegetable purchases? A study in France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plessz, Marie; Gojard, Séverine

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable consumption varies highly across households, based on household structure and socio-economic status, but little is known about the share of fresh vs. processed (e.g. frozen or canned) vegetables...

  9. Addressing the Impediments to the Realization and Enjoyment of Socio-Economic Rights under the ICESCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Odusote

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is crucial to overcoming the challenges of abject poverty. These rights offer those living in poverty access to the basic and essential things that are necessary to live a dignified life. However, it is generally agreed that the protection and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is accorded less importance amongst the comity of civilized nations. Majority of governments give priority to the protection of civil and political rights to the detriment of socio-economic rights. Despite the United Nations stance on the non-hierarchical structure within human rights classifications, there is general ambivalence towards the violation of socio-economic rights by those entrusted to protect them. Though many international and regional treaties protect socio-economic rights, which instruments have been domesticated by countries; the picture appears gloomy in terms of effective realisation and protection of socio-economic rights. Their enforcements still remain a challenge for this millennium. The impediments to the realization of these rights are the focus of this paper. Through a detailed analysis of international, regional and domestic legislative framework and jurisprudence, this study provides a systematic exposition of the obstacles that impact on the ability of states to fulfil their socio-economic rights obligations under the various and diverse instruments. The impediments that are discussed in this paper include: a proliferations of human rights; corruption and inept leadership in Africa; inadequate enforcement mechanism; poor and ineffective state reports; international sanctions; wars and conflicts; globalization; debt repayment by developing countries; difficulties of monitoring compliance by State Parties and conflict of laws. In conclusion, the paper proffers a panacea and alternative models for the realization and enjoyments of socio-economic rights.

  10. Impact of socio-economic home environment on student learning achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Dudaitė

    2016-01-01

    Surveys on education intended to test student learning achievement often analyse which educational environment factors have the biggest impact on student achievement. Determination of such factors and assessment of their impact is important in order to control the change in student achievement. Most surveys showed that student achievement is influenced by economic home environment factors, and student’s socio-economic status. The purpose of this article is to analyse impact of socio-economic ...

  11. Development of socio-economic cooperation between Russia and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkova, Antonina; Alieva, Irina; Monakhova, Valeriya

    2014-01-01

    In context of recovery of modern global economy there is a visible trend of social partnership development in the majority of countries. The article deals with socio-economic issues of Russia and the USA. Authors explain in detail the future of Russian and American socio-economic projects in context of the business climate development of the two countries. Both countries have significant experience in this sphere that is why the cooperation in this field will be doubly important for them. In ...

  12. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J.; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal\\ud growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure\\ud in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval\\ud sample (N:450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteona...

  13. WATER QUALITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS AFFECTING FISH PRODUCTION IN CIRATA RESERVOIR, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia, Istiqomah

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate socio-economics factor affecting fish production and to estimate water quality factor affecting fish production in Cirata Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia. Data were obtained from 115 farmers spread over 3 districts in the area of study. Cross section data of socio-economics factors were obtained from the farmer and examined in the study. In addition, historical data of water quality were gathered from the institution. Cobb-Douglass production function was us...

  14. Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Iain [Stakeholder Relations Director, Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    provide a new strategic mode of socio-economic contribution to deliver a sustainable future for the local community. The results so far have been impressive, with over pounds 56 m being committed to socio-economic projects, but the long term aim is to achieve pounds 116 m investment through public/ private partnership. Sellafield is fundamental to this goal. (authors)

  15. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic

  16. Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Lithuania: Evidence from register-based census-linked data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Maslauskaite

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most existing evidence on the socio-economic predictors of divorce in developed countries comes from the USA and from Western and Northern Europe. This study contributes to the scarce literature about socio-economic determinants of divorce in Central and Eastern Europe by examining the case of Lithuania. Objective: The study explores how the levels of educational attainment and economic activity, as well as the interactions of these two variables, influence the risk of first divorce both in the entire population of Lithuania and in its urban and rural sub-populations. Methods: The study uses a census-linked dataset connecting all records from the 2001 census and all first divorce records between the census and December 2003. The impact of education and employment status on the risk of divorce was estimated by applying Poisson regression models. Results: Lower education is related to elevated risks of divorce only in large cities: in rural areas the relationship is inverted. For both urban and rural males, being out of the labor market destabilizes marriage and significantly increases the risk of marital disruption. This pattern was also found for males residing in large cities, regardless of their education. As expected, a lower divorce risk is observed among both urban and rural housewives and other inactive urban females. Unemployment and disability-related inactivity is associated with higher divorce probabilities among rural females. Conclusions: The study finds evidence of individual socio-economic recourses having substantial differentiating effects on first divorce risk in Lithuania. The direction and size of these effects vary notably by sex and place of residence. This suggests that divorce determinants are complex in post-transitional societies in the region.

  17. Emergy-Based Regional Socio-Economic Metabolism Analysis: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated analysis on socio-economic metabolism could provide a basis for understanding and optimizing regional sustainability. The paper conducted socio-economic metabolism analysis by means of the emergy accounting method coupled with data envelopment analysis and decomposition analysis techniques to assess the sustainability of Qingyang city and its eight sub-region system, as well as to identify the major driving factors of performance change during 2000–2007, to serve as the basis for future policy scenarios. The results indicate that Qingyang greatly depended on non-renewable emergy flows and feedback (purchased emergy flows, except the two sub-regions, named Huanxian and Huachi, which highly depended on renewable emergy flow. Zhenyuan, Huanxian and Qingcheng were identified as being relatively emergy efficient, and the other five sub-regions have potential to reduce natural resource inputs and waste output to achieve the goal of efficiency. The results of decomposition analysis show that the economic growth, as well as the increased emergy yield ratio and population not accompanied by a sufficient increase of resource utilization efficiency are the main drivers of the unsustainable economic model in Qingyang and call for polices to promote the efficiency of resource utilization and to optimize natural resource use.

  18. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

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    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us

  19. Socio-economic life course and obesity among adults in Florianopolis, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz; Navarro, Albert; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2017-03-29

    To estimate the association between socio-economic life course and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and general and abdominal obesity in adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1,222 adults (aged 22-63) from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The socio-economic life course was analysed using the educational level of participants and their parents. Height, weight and WC were measured by specially trained staff. Linear and logistic regressions were used with adjustment for confounding factors, and data were stratified according to sex. Mean BMI and WC were about 2kg/m(2) (95% CI: -3.3 to -0.7) and 6cm (95% CI: -9.7 to -2.9) lower in women with a high socio-economic position, while the association was reversed in men with a high socio-economic position, with WC being about 4cm higher (95% CI: 0.1 to 7.5). In addition, women who had always been in a high socio-economic position were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.76) while no such association was found in men. Socio-economic life course influences BMI, WC and obesity, with differences between males and females, thereby indicating that public policies that contemplate a socio-economic life course approach can be effective for controlling obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 青海湖地区生态系统服务价值变化分析%Quantitative Analysis of the Impacts of Climate and Socio-economic Driving Factors of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Services Value in the Qinghai Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠梅; 张安录; 高泽兵; 卓玛措

    2012-01-01

    采用生态系统服务估值、Matlab7.0多元线性回归分析和敏感性分析等研究方法,定量分析了生态系统服务价值的变化及其与气候、GDP、个人储蓄、城市化水平等驱动因子之间的相关性和敏感性,以识别影响青海湖生态环境的主要影响因素,以期为该区域生态保护调控和管理提供依据。研究结果表明:①2000-2008年青海湖地区生态系统服务价值平均为119.226亿元,2008年比2000年下降3.98%;②2000-2008年生态系统服务价值变化与气温和社会经济发展因素存在显著的负相关,对气温、GDP和城镇化率的弹性系数分别为0.896、0.249和0.2988;③2000-2008年,生态系统服务价值变化对城市化率和气温具有很大的敏感性,敏感性系数分别为4.979和1.712。研究表明,青海湖地区的生态系统服务下降是气候暖干化和经济发展的综合作用结果。青海湖地区应该关注农牧民生计,实施生态补偿机制以实现可持续的生态保护战略。%By calculating the value of ecosystem services for wetland, grassland, forestland and farmland in the Qinghai Lake area from 2000 to 2008, presents a quantitative analysis of the sensitivity and the correlation between the changes of ecosystem services value and climate as well as socio-economic factors impacting land use changes including NPP(E), GDP, personal savings and urbanization level, and, by doing so, identifies the main factors and provides a basis for regulations and management of the protection of the Qinghai Lake ecosystems in order to achieve ecological and economic sustainable development for the region. The methods used include: a model for valuation of ecosystem services values, a multiple linear regression model in Matlab7.0, and the coef- ficient of sensitivity analysis. The results indicate: (1) From 2000 to 2008, the average ecosystem services value is 119.226 × 108 yuan, and the ecosystem services value decreases by 3.98%; (2

  1. Formation of the Integrated Approach to the Assessment of the Socio-Economic Development of Regions

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    Valentina Vasilievna Kislitsyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integrated approach to the assessment of the socio-economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation, which is characterized by systematic character and novelty, is presented in the article. This approach is based on the modern techniques used in this sphere. The main purpose of the comprehensive assessment of a region’s socio-economic development level is the elaboration of a possible solution for the strategic development issues taking into account spatial, geographical, natural, socioinstitutional and other features. The authors propose to estimate the socio-economic climate of the subjects of the Russian Federation by the average values of socio-economic indexes for the three-year period. For comparability of multitemporal indicators and regional distinctions, the indicators measured in monetary units are transformed in the form of their relation to the cost of the fixed set of consumer goods and services. In addition, we estimate the dynamics of comparable indicators in absolute and relative expression and introduce scales for the assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic situation and a level of quality (stability of dynamics. On the basis of this technique, the authors examine the socio-economic situation of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012–2014. As a result, we have revealed one of the problems of socio-economic development — the imbalance of the dynamics of the main socio-economic indexes. In the studied period, 7 regions have shown moderate or high growth of the integrated indicator (not less than 9 %, but in 4 of them, the growth was unbalanced of poor quality. Moreover, further 11 regions have shown a considerable and unbalanced decrease in the social-economic situation. This has been revealed on the basis of the integrated indicator. Thus, the offered approach can be applied for an assessment of the level of socio-economic development in Russian regions in medium-term prospect. It can be

  2. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

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    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  3. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents: the mediating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselska, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Reijneveld, S A; van Dijk, J P

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of socio-economic status and the self-esteem of adolescents with physical activity, and their joint effects. A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from Slovakia (mean age 14.3 years, 49% boys) completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and answered questions about the frequency of their physical activity and their parents' educational level. Adolescents with higher socio-economic status were significantly more likely to report physical activity on ≥5 days/week and to report higher self-esteem. In logistic regression, the association between socio-economic status and physical activity decreased after including self-esteem, suggesting that at least a part of this association is mediated by self-esteem. To conclude, youths from lower socio-economic groups have already been identified as a target group, for intervention. These findings suggest that it is important for promotion programmes to focus not only on the enhancement of their physical activity, but also on their self-esteem as a possible mediator. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; McNeil, Debbie; Yee, Wendy; Siever, Jodie; Rose, Sarah

    2014-09-16

    To evaluate a possible association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta births. The study design was a retrospective cohort of all births in Alberta for the years 2001 and 2006. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index for each Statistics Canada census dissemination area. Births were linked to dissemination area using maternal postal codes. The analysis comprised 73,585 births, in which the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks was 5.3%. The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery for each neighbourhood socio-economic category ranged from 4.9% (95% CI 4.5%-5.2%) in the highest category to 6.3% (95% CI 6.0%-6.7%) in the lowest (p<0.001). After controlling for smoking, parity, maternal age and year, we found that women living in the highest socio-economic status neighbourhoods had an adjusted spontaneous preterm birth rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.7%-5.5%) compared to 6.0% (95% CI 5.6%-6.4%) for women living in the lowest (p=0.003). This study documented a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth with low socio-economic status. The possibility of confounding bias cannot be ruled out.

  5. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C.; Montoya, R.; Zevallos, K.; Curatola, A.; Ynga, W.; Franco, J.; Fernandez, F.; Becerra, N.; Sabaduche, M.; Tovar, M. A.; Ramos, E.; Tapley, A.; Allen, N. R.; Onifade, D. A.; Acosta, C. D.; Maritz, M.; Concha, D. F.; Schumacher, S. G.; Evans, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVE To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. DESIGN Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. RESULTS Poverty (46% earned socio-economic interventions were associated with increases in household contact TB screening (from 82% to 96%); successful TB treatment completion (from 91% to 97%); patient human immunodeficiency virus testing (from 31% to 97%); and completion of preventive therapy (from 27% to 87%; all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Socio-economic interventions can strengthen TB control activities. PMID:21740659

  6. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette D. Ncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

  7. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncho, Claudette D; Wright, Susan C D

    2013-01-01

    The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n=17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

  8. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  9. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  10. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost......-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far....... The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey...

  11. Socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    in patients with systemic involvement and patients with an early age at disease presentation. The socio-economic inequalities of this group of blinding diseases emphasize the importance of rehabilitation and need for a substantial and multidisciplinary support from the healthcare, educational and social......PURPOSE: To examine socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with analysis of socio-economic characteristics including income, education, employment status and civil status in 2285 patients from...... with a Danish civil registration number were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy. At the age of 40 years, less patients than controls had a high education (odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI95), 0.41-0.62), a high income (OR, 0.21; CI95, 0.17-0.26) and were married (OR, 0.39; CI...

  12. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-02-28

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

  13. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...... schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic...... trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated...

  14. Socio-Economic Status and Undergraduate Success: A Case Study in Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZYABA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As architecture is related to a lot of disciplines, architects are expected to be versatile persons. At this point socio-economic status appears as an important factor. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of socio-economic status of the students of Architecture during their educational process. In this study, deep interviews were made with the students of 6th semester and their grade point averages (dependent variable were compared with their socio-economic qualities (independent variable with the chi-square test and correlational analysis. As a conclusion, it is determined that five independent variables effect the students’ educational process. These are the gender, the district where the students’ family live, the educational level of the students’ mothers, the average monthly incomes of the students’ families and the people who the students live with

  15. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio......-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus...

  16. The model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy

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    O. A. Kalchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.

  17. Socio-economic status and quality of life in children with chronic disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didsbury, Madeleine S; Kim, Siah; Medway, Meredith M; Tong, Allison; McTaggart, Steven J; Walker, Amanda M; White, Sarah; Mackie, Fiona E; Kara, Tonya; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine

    2016-12-01

    Reduced quality of life (QoL) is a known consequence of chronic disease in children, and this association may be more evident in those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the association between socio-economic disadvantage and QoL among children with chronic disease, and to identify the specific socio-economic factors that are most influential. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to March 2015. Observational studies that reported the association between at least one measure of social disadvantage in caregivers and at least one QoL measure in children and young people (age 2-21 years) with a debilitating non-communicable childhood disease (asthma, chronic kidney disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy) were eligible. A total of 30 studies involving 6957 patients were included (asthma (six studies, n = 576), chronic kidney disease (four studies, n = 796), epilepsy (14 studies, n = 2121), type 1 diabetes mellitus (six studies, n = 3464)). A total of 22 (73%) studies reported a statistically significant association between at least one socio-economic determinant and QoL. Parental education, occupation, marital status, income and health insurance coverage were associated with reduced QoL in children with chronic disease. The quality of the included studies varied widely and there was a high risk of reporting bias. Children with chronic disease from lower socio-economic backgrounds experience reduced QoL compared with their wealthier counterparts. Initiatives to improve access to and usage of medical and psychological services by children and their families who are socio-economically disadvantaged may help to mitigate the disparities and improve outcomes in children with chronic illnesses. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Lecossais, Christelle; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2016-12-01

    The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification. Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found. France. Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study. Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals. Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

  19. Socio-economic inequalities in testicular cancer survival within two clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Ula; Rachet, Bernard; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sydes, Mathew R; Cooper, Nicola; Stenning, Sally; Read, Graham; Oliver, Tim; Mason, Malcolm; Coleman, Michel P

    2012-04-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men under 35 years of age, and has the highest survival for adult male malignancies. Despite the fact that survival is very high, there is evidence that survival differs between socio-economic groups. We analysed survival patterns for 1606 testicular cancer patients diagnosed during 1984-2001 and recruited to one of two clinical studies. The first was a surveillance study to determine relapse-free survival after orchidectomy in 865 patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer diagnosed during 1984-1991 (TE04). The second study was a trial in which 1174 men with stage I seminomatous germ-cell tumours were randomised to receive radiotherapy or one injection of carboplatin between 1996 and 2001 (TE19). The number of men available for analysis from these two studies was 578 and 1028, respectively. We followed these patients up for their vital status, and assigned them an ecological measure of deprivation. Crude and relative survival were estimated at 5 and 10 years by socio-economic deprivation. No significant socio-economic gradient was seen: 1.3% (95% CI -0.3% to 3.1%) at 5 years and 2.1% (95% CI -0.5% to 4.7%) at 10 years. We conclude that, given equal treatment at a given stage of disease, survival from testicular cancer does not depend on socio-economic status. This suggests that the socio-economic gradient in testicular cancer survival in the general population is more likely to be attributable to health care system factors than to personal or socio-economic factors in the men themselves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  1. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...

  2. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva

    2003-01-01

    and natural disasters) and the implementation of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme that have also affected the health of women and their children during the years covered by this study. Other measures of socio-economic position applicable to the rural African setting should be investigated....... statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...

  3. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  4. Review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wekesa, BW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available a literature survey, this paper reviews physical and socio-economic characteristics and the factors attributed to proliferation of the informal settlements and intervention approaches. The main objective was to establish how such settlements could...-1 Habitat International Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 238-245 A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements B.W. Wekesaa, b, , , G.S. Steyna, 1, , F.A.O. (Fred) Otienoc, 2, , a...

  5. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... supported by examples. Traffic modelling of the two light rail projects has been performed and the results are used to generate the time benefits. The time benefits for the two light rail projects using the expected new values of time will increase around 20% compared to the result when using the values...

  6. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  7. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  8. The Mediterranean solar plan: a flagship project of the Union for the Mediterranean area - A co-development and socio-economic transition factor; Le Plan solaire mediterraneen: projet phare de l'Union pour la Mediterranee - Un facteur de co-developpement et de transition economique et sociale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocilnikar, Antoine Tristan [Mission Union Pour La Mediterranee, Presidence De La Republique, Elysee, Paris (France)

    2011-07-01

    The Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) was launched at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, on July 13 2008, which saw the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean. The Summit directed the MSP to all renewable energy, interconnections needed for their deployment and energy efficiency. It mandated the UfM Secretariat for its coordination. The summit was followed by a Franco-German agreement in August 2008 which set a target of 20 GW MSP is already in deployment. In the field of wind energy, 1700 MW are built and in the solar field, several projects are in advanced stages of preparation. It targets co-development. It can also be a project of the 'Partnership of Deauville' set up at the G8 Summit on 26 and 27 May 2011 with the people of the region of North Africa and the Middle East that initiate a transition to a free, democratic and tolerant world, starting with Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan and Morocco, in partnership with countries wishing to support the transition in the region. (author)

  9. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  10. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based

  11. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  12. Socio-economic status, cortisol and allostatic load: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd, Jennifer B.; Simanek, Amanda M.; Aiello, Allison E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL).

  13. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...

  14. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  15. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, M.; Chevalier, V.; Abdo-Salem, S.; Velthuis, A.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Thiry, E.; Roger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to

  16. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced ...

  17. Incidence of HIV in Windhoek, Namibia: demographic and socio-economic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulagnier, M.; Janssens, W.; de Beer, I.; van Rooy, G.; Gaeb, E.; Hesp, C.; van der Gaag, J.; Rinke de Wit, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence in Windhoek, Namibia and to analyze socio-economic factors related to HIV infection. In 2006/7, baseline surveys were performed with 1,753 private households living in the greater Windhoek area; follow-up visits took place in 2008 and 2009. Face-to-face

  18. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study w

  19. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2004-01-01

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of re...... of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities....

  20. Influence of socio-economic status, parents and peers on smoking behaviour of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; Stewart, R; van Dijk, JP; Orosova, O; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of analysing the importance of psycho-social factors in predicting adolescents' smoking behaviour, a model of the interrelations between socio-economic status, parents', peers' and adolescents' own smoking behaviours was tested. The sample consisted of 2,616 adolescents. LISREL analyses

  1. The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private ...

  2. Socio-economic baseline assessment: Thayawthatangyi and Langan Islands, Myeik Archipelago, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, H; Thiha, S.; Pontillas, M.; Ponce de Leon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report details the methodology and results of a 2014 socio-economic baseline assessment of 4 villages in the Myeik Archipelago, Myanmar undertaken as part of a programme to build local stakeholders capacity to use data to inform marine resource planning and managemnt

  3. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  4. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by farm

  5. Elaboration of socio-economic differences in disease-specific prevalence in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kroneman, M.; Volkers, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A low social-economic position is consistently associated with poor health and (physician diagnosed) morbidity. Several diseases are known for their socio-economic gradient: depression, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, arthritis, muscle pain, neck- and back-pain and tension headache, i

  6. The Socio-Economic Dimensions of ICT-Driven Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jorg; Sancho Gil, Juana M.; Hernandez, Fernando; Giro, Xavier; Bosco, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the varied socio-economic implications of ICT-based educational change. Drawing from a rich, 3-year long research project with 20 secondary schools throughout Europe, the social, human, professional, institutional, and economic costs for building the school of tomorrow in close alliance with ICT are discussed. The aim of this…

  7. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  8. (JASR) Vol. 11, No. 2, 2011 9 SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crystal Point

    and sales transaction, marketing cost and returns and finally problems encountered by the traders. Analysis ... Also 87.5% had been in the business for between one to ten ... The price of garri continues to increase at an alarming rate. ... the socio-economic factors affecting the marketing system of garri in Port Harcourt city of.

  9. Research framework of integrated simulation on bilateral interaction between water cycle and socio-economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C. F.; Yang, X. L.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of bilateral interaction between natural water cycle evolution and socio-economic development has been obscured in current research due to the complexity of the hydrological process and the socio-economic system. The coupling of economic model CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) and distributed hydrological model WEP (Water and Energy transfer Processes) provides a model-based tool for research on response and feedback of water cycle and social development, as well as economic prospects under the constraint of water resources. On one hand, water policies, such as water use limitation and water price adjustment under different levels of socio-economic development, are to be evaluated by CGE model as assumed conditions and corresponding results of water demand could be put into WEP model to simulate corresponding response during the whole process of water cycle. On the other hand, variation of available water resources quantity under different scenarios simulated by WEP model may provide proper limitation for water demand in CGE model, and corresponding change of economic factors could indicate the influence of water resources constraints on socio-economic development. The research is believed to be helpful for better understanding of bilateral interaction between water and society.

  10. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  11. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  12. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  13. Incidence of HIV in Windhoek, Namibia: demographic and socio-economic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulagnier, M.; Janssens, W.; de Beer, I.; van Rooy, G.; Gaeb, E.; Hesp, C.; van der Gaag, J.; Rinke de Wit, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence in Windhoek, Namibia and to analyze socio-economic factors related to HIV infection. In 2006/7, baseline surveys were performed with 1,753 private households living in the greater Windhoek area; follow-up visits took place in 2008 and 2009. Face-to-face socio

  14. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  15. Adolescent food frequency and socio-economic status in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... are now commonly consumed, most notably in socio-economically deprived ... as they are routinely targeted by media advertising for globalised foods3-5 and fast .... urban Zulu women.25 It provided eight consumption choices for 61 foods. ... At the time of the study, learners attending both the urban and.

  16. Tax debt: analysis concepts and impact on the socio-economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Yurieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the tax debt in the context of actual problems of governance. It was determined that the tax debt is a nationwide problem, as the shortfall of budget revenues in the planned volumes of the causes of tax debt directly affects the stability of the financial system and to finance state programs of socio-economic development. Article reviews the characteristics and essence of the concept tax debt and investigates of the origin of the definition of «tax debt». The article contains the analysis and generalization of scientific studies regarding the definition and validation of the essence of the concept of the tax debt. As the results of the analysis the author’s point of view regarding the definition of the tax debt offered in article. The impact of the tax debt on the socio-economic relations in the country defined and asked to examine the contents of the tax debt in the legal, moral and socio-economic aspects. The article concludes that the tax debt is the result of errors committed in the state of socio-economic policies and evidence of differences in tax relations that have developed between taxpayers and the state. The interpretation of the nature and content of the tax debt has not only theoretical but also significant practical importance in view of the definition of objectives, priorities and strategy of public administration of the tax debt.

  17. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  18. Housing assets and the socio-economic determinants of health and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan

    2008-09-01

    The influence of socio-economic determinants among the elderly is a complex subject. Although they rely on pension income, the wealth that they have accumulated over their lifetime (primarily housing assets), jointly with housing-related determinants, could have a more significant effect on health production. Hence, owning a house has more potential than income for reducing health inequalities. This study makes use of a representative cross-sectional database on the Spanish population aged 55 or over. Using a continuous variable to measure health and a measure of disabilities in old age, the study explores some socio-economic determinants of health and disability and provides a breakdown of inequalities in socio-economic status and in aggregate individual health. The study's findings indicate that housing equity overrides the effect of income as a determinant of health and (absence of) disability in old age. Furthermore, housing assets account for more than 90% of socio-economic inequalities and 54% of inequalities in disability.

  19. Are socio-economic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Socio-economic disparities in nutrition are well documented. This study tested the hypothesis that socio-economic differences in nutrient intakes can be accounted for, in part, by diet cost. A representative sample of 1295 adults in King County (WA) was surveyed in 2008-2009, and usual dietary intakes were assessed based on a food-frequency questionnaire. The monetary value of individual diets was estimated using local retail supermarket prices for 384 foods. Nutrients of concern as identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee were fibre, vitamins A, C and E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. A nutrient density score based on all seven nutrients was another dependent measure. General linear models and linear regressions were used to examine associations among education and income, nutrient density measure and diet cost. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher-cost diets were significantly higher in all seven nutrients and in overall nutrient density. Higher education and income were positively and significantly associated with the nutrient density measure, but these effects were greatly attenuated with the inclusion of the cost variable in the model. Socio-economic differences in nutrient intake can be substantially explained by the monetary cost of the diet. The higher cost of more nutritious diets may contribute to socio-economic disparities in health and should be taken into account in the formulation of nutrition and public health policy.

  20. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  1. 480 influence of socio-economic factors on land use and vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    the socio-economic drivers of land use and vegetation cover changes and the extent of land use/cover change in ... et al., 2006) on local and global climate and on biodiversity ..... into forest extinction in future if the situation is left unattended.

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  3. Modelling the impact of mining on socio-economic infrastructure development: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluleke, George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.

  4. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  5. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  6. Influence of health risk behavior and socio-economic status on health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2003-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out

  7. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  8. Socio-economic health differences among the elderly population in Krakow, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, A.M.; Brzyski, P.; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether socio-economic health differences persist into old age in Poland and if there are SES-related differences in health by age group and gender. Methods: 528 randomly chosen, not institutionalized elderly people aged 65-85 living in Krakow were interviewed about their socio

  9. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Crawford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Education—and in particular higher education—is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced once we take account of an individual’s education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates’ earnings by socio-economic background, exploiting rich individual-level data to account for more of the ways in which graduates from different socio-economic backgrounds differ from each other than has been possible in previous research on this topic. We continue to find significant differences between the earnings of graduates from lower and higher socio-economic backgrounds, even after accounting for a rich array of characteristics, skills and experiences from before individuals went to university, as well as their labour market experiences subsequently. These results suggest that it is not enough simply to encourage more young people to go to university, or even to ensure that they graduate with “good” degrees; policymakers interested in increasing social mobility also need to focus on what happens to them once they leave university to ensure that higher education is truly able to “level the playing field” between those from different socio-economic backgrounds.

  10. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  11. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has

  12. Socio-economic differences in HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Parry, Charles D H; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    To quantify socio-economic differences in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa for different measures of socio-economic status. Systematic literature search in Web of Knowledge and PubMed. Measures of relative risk (RR) were pooled separately for education, income, assets score and employment status as measures of socio-economic status, using inverse-variance weighted DerSimonian-Laird random effects meta-analyses. Ten studies were eligible for inclusion comprising over 175 000 participants and 6700 deaths. For income (RR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.09), assets score (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.36) and employment status (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.21-1.92), persons of low socio-economic status had an over 50% higher risk of dying from HIV/AIDS. The RR of 1.10 for education was not significant (95% CI 0.74-1.65). Future research should identify effective strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS mortality and alleviate the consequences of HIV/AIDS deaths, particularly for poorer households. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The relationship between parental literacy involvement, socio-economic status and reading literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an

  14. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  15. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study

  16. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast mi

  17. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study w

  18. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  19. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  20. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    data on social behaviour regarding educational level income and relationship stability did not indicate reverse causality. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the risk of MS neither in puberty nor in adulthood. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed...

  1. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  2. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  3. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  4. Socio-economic correlates of municipal-level pollution emissions on Montreal island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premji, S. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). COMERN Inst. of Environmental Sciences; Bertrand, F. [Science-Metrix, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Smargiassi, A. [Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Daniel, M. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Medicine

    2007-03-15

    A study was conducted to examine the social patterning of environmental hazards, with particular reference to socio-cultural characteristics of pollution emissions and the associated higher rates of mortality for disadvantaged populations. Although differential exposure to environmental hazards is a component of the social gradient in health, there have been very few studies that have examined the link between socio-economic characteristics and environmental hazards in a Canadian context. This article presented the results of a study that assessed the relationships between pollution emissions and socio-economic characteristics for 27 municipalities on Montreal Island. Pollution emissions were determined using Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory for 1995-1996 and 2000-2001. Variables that were examined included the number of reporting industries, the average annual releases, and the average annual releases density. These data were then cross-referenced with socio-economic data from the 1996 and 2001 Canadian Censuses, respectively. It was concluded that socio-economic characteristics are associated with municipal-level pollution emissions on Montreal Island and that whether higher emissions are indicative of higher pollution exposure requires further investigation. 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

  6. Socio-economic models of divorces in different societies

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Population dynamic of getting divorced depends on many global factors, including social norms, economy, law or demographics as well as individual factors like the level of interpersonal or problem-solving skills of the spouses. We sought to find such a relationship incorporating only quantitative variables and test theoretical model considering phase transition between coupling (pairs) and free (single) preferential states as a function of social and economic. The analyzed data has been collected by UN across almost all the countries since 1948. Our first approach is followed by Bouchaud's model of social network of opinions, which works well with dynamics of fertility rates in postwar Europe. Unfortunately, we postulate that this pure sociological and pure economic approach fail in general. Thus, we did some observation about why it went wrong and where economy (e. g. Poland) or law (e. g. Portugal) has bigger impact on getting divorce than social pressure.

  7. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor

  8. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  9. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

  10. Driving a Superconductor to Insulator Transition with Random Gauge Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Q.; Hollen, S. M.; Shainline, J.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Typically the disorder that alters the interference of particle waves to produce Anderson localization is potential scattering from randomly placed impurities. Here we show that disorder in the form of random gauge fields that act directly on particle phases can also drive localization. We present evidence of a superfluid bose glass to insulator transition at a critical level of this gauge field disorder in a nano-patterned array of amorphous Bi islands. This transition shows signs of metallic transport near the critical point characterized by a resistance , indicative of a quantum phase transition. The critical disorder depends on interisland coupling in agreement with recent Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We discuss how this disorder tuned SIT differs from the common frustration tuned SIT that also occurs in magnetic fields. Its discovery enables new high fidelity comparisons between theoretical and experimental studies of disorder effects on quantum critical systems.

  11. Are there associations between socio-economic status and known diabetes in an elderly Finnish population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, L A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the associations between socio-economic status and type 2 diabetes in a non-institutionalised population aged 70 years or over. Diabetes was assessed on the basis of self-reports and additionally 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the subjects on diet treatment. Socio-economic status was assessed by questions on marital status, number of residents in household, basic education, self-rated income and economic status. In the population of 379 subjects (141 men), 14% (n = 19) of men and 19% (n = 46) of women had known diabetes. Known diabetes was less common among married compared to unmarried, widowed or divorced subjects. Diabetes was also more common among men with higher compared to lower level of basic education, while a reverse trend was seen among women. Women, who had been engaged in manual labour, had diabetes more often compared to those engaged in administrative work. Diabetes was more common among men who rated their income as good, but the opposite was true of women. Higher income among men and lower income among women were the most powerful variables associated with known diabetes. Known diabetes was more common in elderly women with lower socio-economic status, whereas the opposite was true of men. This finding suggests that the impact of the socio-economic changes that have taken place in Finland in the 20th century on the risk factors for diabetes has been greater among men with higher and women with lower socio-economic status.

  12. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal Barun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI. Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states.

  13. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and

  14. Socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: First, our objective was to estimate socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care (PNC compared with those in the use of care at birth and antenatal care. Second, we wanted to compare inequalities in the use of PNC between facility births and home births and to determine inequalities in the use of PNC among mothers with high-risk births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rich-poor ratios and concentration indices for maternity care were estimated using the third round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in India in 2007-08. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the socio-economic inequalities associated with use of PNC after adjusting for relevant socio-economic and demographic characteristics. PNC for both mothers and newborns was substantially lower than the care received during pregnancy and child birth. Only 44% of mothers in India at the time of survey received any care within 48 hours after birth. Likewise, only 45% of newborns received check-up within 24 hours of birth. Mothers who had home births were significantly less likely to have received PNC than those who had facility births, with significant differences across the socio-economic strata. Moreover, the rich-poor gap in PNC use was significantly wider for mothers with birth complications. CONCLUSIONS: PNC use has been unacceptably low in India given the risks of mortality for mothers and babies shortly after birth. However, there is evidence to suggest that effective use of pregnancy and childbirth care in health facilities led to better PNC. There are also significant socio-economic inequalities in access to PNC even for those accessing facility-based care. The coverage of essential PNC is inadequate, especially for mothers from economically disadvantaged households. The findings suggest the need for strengthening PNC services to keep pace with advances in coverage for care at birth and prenatal services in India through targeted policy

  15. Socio-economic differences in health risk behaviour and attitudes towards health risk behaviour among Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.; Post, D.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Socio-economic differences in the frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, physical exercise, and attitudes toward smoking were explored in a sample of Slovak adolescents (1370 boys, 1246 girls, mean age 15 years). Methods: Identification of socio-economic status was based on

  16. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  17. THE USE OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS (EVIDENCE FROM THE YAROSLAVL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Zholudeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of Cluster Analysis of the Central Federal District regions are presented. The use of cluster analysis methods for definition of the resources utilization degree and the improvement of socio-economic development of any region is considered. The article gives the index of socio-economic development of the Yaroslavl region.

  18. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  19. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  20. Climate and socio-economic scenarios for climate change research and assessment: reconciling the new with the old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Carter, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    A suggestion for mapping the SRES illustrative scenarios onto the new scenarios framework of representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) is presented. The mapping first compares storylines describing future socio-economic developments for SRES and SSPs. Nex

  1. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the international evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the probability of dying in childhood is strongly related to the socio-economic position of the parents or household in which the child is born. This article reviews the evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in

  2. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  3. Insight into the Female Longevity Puzzle: Using Register Data to Analyse Mortality and Cause of Death Behaviour Across Socio-economic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    been driving the standstill for Danish women and within each socio-economic group we further analyse the cause of death pattern. Further, we compare the forecast performance of the Lee-Carter model with the multi-population Li and Lee model. The decline in life expectancy for Danish women is present...... for all subgroups, however with particular large decreases for the low-middle and middle affluence groups. We find that causes of deaths related to smoking partly contribute to the slowdown in female longevity. However the lack of improvements in deaths relating to ischemic heart diseases is dominant...

  4. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...... to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP...

  5. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services.

  6. Working Conditions of Agricultural Workers: A Reflection of Socio-economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R.K. Sinha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during

  7. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  8. The relations between musculoskeletal diseases and mobility among old people: Are they influenced by socio-economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Osler, Merete; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2000-01-01

    Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors......Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors...

  9. Oral health in children and adolescents with different socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante; Sundby, Annette

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of dental caries in children and adolescents and to relate these findings to the subject's socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 12 706 children aged 5, 7, 12 and 15 years was conducted...... in 2006. Data on children's caries experience were collected from public oral health registers and pooled with socio-cultural and socio-economic data obtained from official statistics. The study population represented 76% of all registered inhabitants. RESULTS: Among 5- and 7-year-old children with non......-Danish mothers, the mean caries experience was three to four times higher than among children of Danish mothers, and a doubled rate was seen among the adolescents (p analysis showed that the level...

  10. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Barner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

  11. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  12. The effects of marriage partners' socio-economic positions on the risk of divorce in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The high and increasing incidence of divorce, with the various consequences for adults and children, has aroused interest among social scientists in understanding the contributory factors. Prominent economic and psychosocial theories suggest that the husband’s social and economic resources tend to stabilize a marriage, whereas the wife’s economic success tends to destabilize it (the gendered hypothesis. Register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland on first marriages in Finland that were intact at the end of 1990 and divorces in 199193 (n=21,309, and Poisson regression were used to analyze the impact of the socio-economic positions of the spouses on the risk of divorce. This thesis consists of three articles published in international refereed journals, and a summary article. The aim of sub-study I was to disentangle the influences of various aspects of the spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk and to reveal the causal pathways through which each socio-economic factor was related to it. Sub-study II investigated the joint effects of both spouses’ socio-economic positions. Finally, sub-study III explored the possibility that the effect of spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk might vary according to the duration of the marriage.  When examined individually, divorce risk was inversely associated with socio-economic status for all its various indicators (i.e. each spouse’s education, occupational class, economic activity, and income, as well as housing tenure and housing density except the wife’s income. All of these factors had an independent effect. The independent effect was weak for both spouses’ occupational rankings and housing density, however, and it was positive for the wife’s income. The divorce risk for couples with both partners at the lowest educational level was lower than expected on the basis of its overall inverse association with each spouse’s education. Employed and

  13. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  14. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Boerema

    Full Text Available The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed. Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.

  15. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised...... for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR....... Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups...

  16. Socio-economic monitoring of hiv/aids threat in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thesubject of theinvestigation issocial and economic aspects of thethreat of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation.Theinvestigation was aimed at improving socio-economic monitoring of the HIV / AIDS threat. The methodology of systemic analysis and statistical methods were used. Three main sections of socio-economic monitoring of HIV / AIDS were defined with their problems, challenges and areas for improvement. Results of the study are applicable in justifying and shaping public policy to counter the threat of HIV / AIDS. Planned costs of measures to counter thethreat of HIV / AIDS must be based on requirements, allocation and results achieved. Systemic approach to planning requires an analysis of interrelation between costs, requirements and results. The absence of a systemic approach to coordination of costs and requirements leads to inefficient use of resources

  17. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine......BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.......g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins...

  18. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...

  19. Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

  20. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n......=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997...

  1. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  2. Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejus Kononovičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing

  3. Socio-Economic Implications of Female Inclusion in Organizational Structures and in Leadership Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Alexandra E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of women’s statutory place within organizations has been influenced by gender bias, which has led to discrimination. Lowering barriers related to gender inequality and introducing constructive changes takes a surprisingly long time. This procrastination can, to some extent, be attributed to the fear of potential economic costs, which is a misconception. A deeper understanding of the interplay between socio-economic factors and gender inequality within organizations can result in designing better, less biased, more merit-based structures and provide women with better career opportunities. Countries and organizations promoting gender equality practices prove that women’s inclusion in the labor market can be ‘cost-effective’ and beneficial in socio-economic terms.

  4. Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslaw Jarosz; Ewa Rychlik; Magdalena Siuba; Wioleta Respondek; Malgorzata Ry(z)ko-Skiba; Iwona Sajór; Sylwia Gugala; Tomasz Bla(z)ejczyk; Janusz Ciok

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H py/or/infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups;I-examined group (111 persons with Hpy/or/re-infection) and Ⅱ-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of Hpylori re-infection.

  5. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  6. REACH and the role of stakeholders in its socio-economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingerowski, J.B. (Jan); Kölsch, D.; Tschochohei, H. (Heinrich)

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the so-called REACH regulation (short for Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) came into effect in the European Community. Against the background of REACH, this article investigates who is directly addressed by this regulation (i.e. by means of the legal text) and which social groups are only indirectly affected. The socio-economic analysis (SEA), conducted as an obligatory step prior to substance authorization, demonstrates a general dilemma of chemical regu...

  7. Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh a...

  8. AN IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES OF THE REGION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa B. Kalmykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to assessment of a stability of socio-economic development of the region with use of elasticity coefficients is given in the article. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis the author constructs the dependence equations between the indicators of the region’s development and environment’s conditions. That makes it possible to evaluate the influence of social and economic processes on the ecosystem of the region.

  9. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  10. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Irfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan; Naeem Akhtar; Farooq Nawaz; Muhammad Shahnawaz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and th...

  11. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P; Hawley, Carmel M; Badve, Sunil V; Boudville, Neil C; Brown, Fiona G; Clayton, Philip A; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    ♦ The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 - 9; IRSD deciles 4 - 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  13. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  14. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  15. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  16. METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL AREAS OF FORMING SOCIO-ECONOMIC INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Donichev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems of formation of innovation clusters in the regions, the role and the importance of government in these issues. The characteristics of the main socio-economic and innovative performances of the region are analyzed to determine its potential for creating innovative economic cluster. The methods for detecting possible potential areas of formation of such cluster are developed.

  17. The effect of socio-economic background, personal effort and motivation in English proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Arratíbel, Amaia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether socio-economic background, individual effort, or motivation had more influence in English proficiency; whether there was a relation between individual effort and family background, and whether there was a relation between motivation and family background. For this purpose, a questionnaire was passed to students of 4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education at three different high schools in Navarre. The questionnaire was divided in three...

  18. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced...... preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008....

  19. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  20. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simulta...

  1. The Importance of Early Conscientiousness for Socio-Economic Outcomes: Evidence from the British Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...

  2. Study of knowledge and contraception practices in low socio-economic women of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the knowledge and practice of contraception among the low socio-economic women of reproductive age group in Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 272 low socio-economic women attending a family planning clinic at a Delhi municipal corporation hospital, of which 106 came for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP and 166 came for family planning advice. They were interrogated through a pre-designed structured questionnaire, to evaluate their knowledge and practices towards regular contraceptive methods, Emergency Contraception (EC and medical abortion. They were counselled about the available contraceptive methods and allowed to make choices according to their suitability. Results: All women belonged to low socio-economic group according to the modified Kuppuswamy scale. 22.1% were illiterate. 47.8% were ignorant of contraception. 38.3% women were aware of EC. Only 24.2% knew about medical abortion. The main reasons cited for not using contraception was desire for male child (24.6%, fear of side effects (20%, desire for another child (20%, opposition from family members (15.4%, inaccessibility (4.6% and inconvenience and lack of privacy (5.4%. Conclusions: This study highlights that lack of education, knowledge and awareness led to inadequate usage of regular methods of contraception in reproductive age group women belonging to low socio-economic status. Thus only availability is not sufficient to reach optimum female health. Accessibility need to be increased by educating females and motivating couples to make adequate use of existing family planning methods and resources. In contrast the awareness for emergency contraception is more than regular methods. It mandates need to educate women that emergency contraception should not replace regular methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1022-1026

  3. Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Möllers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...

  4. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; P.I. Ater

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  5. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects a...... in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum...

  6. Start-up success of freelancers New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Joachim; Paic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If certain start-up characteristics will indicate a business success, knowing such characteristics could generate more successful start-ups and more efficient start-up counseling. Our study will contribut e to this by quantifying individual success determinants of freelance start-ups. The data base for the microeconometric analyses of the survival of the first three years is a revised German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 1992 until 2002, which allows to incorporate institutional, personal a...

  7. Indian versus European religious traditions and transformational socio-economic leadership.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vylder, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This contribution explores the relevance of Indian philosophical and religious traditions for modern socio-economic leadership wisdom from a European perspective. Traditions like Sikhism, Sufi Islam, Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism (Vedic traditions and Vedanta) contain concepts and rituals which can be relevant not only for medicine or psychology, but also for contemporary business and leadership wisdom. All these traditions refer to a basic oneness of existence whereby the inner and outer w...

  8. The Influence of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Food Advertisement Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Italia, John

    1999-01-01

    Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those with lower annual incomes, those with lower levels o...

  9. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Design Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Setting Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. Subjects In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45–69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40–60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21 326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Results Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII) = 2·02–5·17) and women (RII = 2·09–3·57). Conclusions The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position. PMID:20843403

  10. Demographic Research On the Socio Economic Background of Students of the Ecological University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Mihaela Mihăilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a socio demographic and economic research performed on the first year students at the Ecological University of Bucharest, where we are focusing on understanding and investigating the conditions inside the families and the social environment in the home towns of these students. This research is a key in understanding the correlations between the socio-economic conditions inside the family geographical area and the actual career options and decisions of the newly admitted students to our faculties.

  11. The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private ...... households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status....

  12. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

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    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  13. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  14. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9...... to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time...... food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy...... from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds....

  15. Differences in the socio-economic distribution of inflammatory bowel disease and microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Turner, K O; Genta, R M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and microscopic colitis are characterized by different geographical distributions across the USA. In this cross-sectional study we utilized demographic and socio-economic information associated with individual ZIP codes to further delineate the epidemiological characteristics of the two diseases. A total of 813 057 patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2008 and 2014 were extracted from an electronic database of histopathology reports. The prevalence of patients with IBD or microscopic colitis was expressed as percentage of the population associated with specific demographic (age, sex, ethnicity) and socio-economic characteristics (population size, housing value, annual income, tertiary education). Both diseases were more common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly White residents and less common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly non-White residents such as Black, Hispanic and Asian. These ethnic variations were more pronounced in microscopic colitis than IBD. Markers of affluence, such as average residential house value and annual income, were positively associated with IBD and negatively with microscopic colitis. The prevalence of both diseases was positively correlated with tertiary education. The occurrence of both IBD and microscopic colitis is influenced by environmental risk factors. The differences in the demographic, ethnic and socio-economic distributions of the two diseases suggest that different sets of risk factors affect the two diseases and that their aetiology is unrelated. Published [2016]. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Socio-Economic Spatial for the Sustainability of the Estuary Ecosystem in Pelabuhanratu Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, L.; Supriatna, J.; Harmantyo, D.

    2017-02-01

    An estuary area is a typical ecosystem where a vast array of fish breed to enlarge populations. These regions are made productive by organic material in the form of foodstuff, while receiving sunlight sufficient enough to illuminate the brackish waters. These zones must be protected due to their fertile waters and surrounding fertile land. Estuary areas are threatened by nearby landfill and waste debris along and upstream of the river, which consequently contaminate the estuary zone. Socio-economic conditions of the community also affect the sustainability of the estuary. In this case, the Socio-Economic Spatial Model, based on Geographical Information System (GIS) and trade off analysis, were used to elaborate the ecosystem sustainability in the Cimandiri estuary, West Java. This research also uses the temporal analysis of land use change upstream and monitors the community activity around the estuary. The research showed a change in the spatial and temporal land use consequently altering the watershed and the socio-economic analysis showed the community use of the estuary as unsustainable for the region and ecosystems within.

  17. Impact of employment instability on socio-economic position of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.

  18. The Global Uncertainty as a Sign of the Transformation of Socio-Economic System

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    Shkodinа Iryna V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that the transformation of socio-economic system is related with an increase in uncertainty, as the usual functional linkages are no longer operational as a result of the emergence of new institutions and interdependencies, leading to complication or replacement of an institutional structure. The article allocates and considers the main phenomena that are fundamentally changing the systemic properties of the contemporary socio-economic system (information technology, networked economy, decentralization of power, virtual economy, sharing economy, non-market production, system of universal basic income, etc., and thus result is transformation of the market economy (capitalism as a model of public organization. A new macro-economy, based on other laws than classical, is emerging. It is therefore necessary to make more active use of economic science, because there is a need to study the profound socio-economic foundations of the transformation of economic systems, for regardless of the extent of transformation (further complication of market-economy institutions or a radical change in the social-economic system, the global peace will not return to the «past» institutional models.

  19. Development of Socio-Economic Potential of Russia: Theory and Practice

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    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of assessing and using the socio-economic potential of Russia is considered within the fundamental monograph prepared on the basis of the Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main achievements of the large research of the problem of the Russian socio-economic potential conducted by a group of authors with the definition of the most rational and important suggestions for the prospects of the Russian economy are allocated. Certain critical comments are noted, and the author’s position is specified concerning the policy of the new industrialization and innovative development within the modern scientific polemic about the subject and tools of economic policy, and also the need of ensuring it by the system efficiency. The main achievement of the presented teamwork of the scientists of the Ural economic school is the development of a methodological framework and hardware (techniques, models of the diagnostics of the socio-economic potential of the economic system of any level of complexity (despite the main specialization of this school on the regional research and measuring base. These achievements will give the chance of more exact identification of a condition of the system and definition of the direction of its movement, which will make it possible to affect the mode of this dynamics by the economic policy of regional and federal level.

  20. Health-related knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic kindergarteners

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    Nemet Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine physical activity (PA and nutrition knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic status kindergarten children. Methods Following height and weight measurement, 795 low socio-economic status kindergarten children (age 3.8-6.8 y.o completed a photo-pair knowledge and preferences food and exercise questionnaire. Results No difference was found between nutrition and PA knowledge scores (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively. There was no difference between the nutrition knowledge and preference score (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 50.9 ± 0.9%, respectively. PA preference was significantly higher than knowledge (56.9 ± 1.5 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively; p Conclusion Our data demonstrate diversities in physical activity and nutrition knowledge and preferences among low socio-economic status kindergarten children. These findings may be important for the development of health promotion programs in low socioeconomic kindergarten children.

  1. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure.

  2. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Qazi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  3. The Importance of Broadband for Socio-Economic Development: A Perspective from Rural Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced connectivity offers rural communities prospects for socio-economic development. Despite Australia’s national broadband infrastructure plans, inferior availability and quality of rural Internet connections remain persistent issues. This article examines the impact of limited connectivity on rural socio-economic opportunities, drawing from the views of twelve citizens from the Boorowa local government area in New South Wales. The available fixed wireless and satellite connections in Boorowa are slow and unreliable, and remote regions in the municipality are still without any Internet access. Participants identified four key areas in their everyday lives that are impacted by insufficient connectivity: business development, education, emergency communication, and health. Rural citizens often already face challenges in these areas, and infrastructure advancements in urban spaces can exacerbate rural-urban disparities. Participants’ comments demonstrated apprehension that failure to improve connectivity would result in adverse long-term consequences for the municipality. This article suggests that current broadband policy frameworks require strategic adaptations to account for the socio-economic and geographic contexts of rural communities. In order to narrow Australia’s rural-urban digital divide, infrastructure developments should be prioritised in the most underserved regions.

  4. Gender, socio-economic variables and target organ damage in new-diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tuero, Gabriel Coll; Barcelò, Maria Antònia; Saez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study as to ascertain whether gender and socio-economic variables can explain differences in the degree of severity of hypertension (HT) at the time of diagnosis. Patients were recently diagnosed and never-treated hypertensives, seen in primary care sites and aged 15-75. This study also included a cohort of normotensive patients. All individuals were invited to respond a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic data. Target organ damage (TOD) is considered a marker of severity. Three hundred and eighty-eight individuals responded to the questionnaire, 277 hypertensive, 111 normotensive. In an ordered probit model, the odds ratio of presenting with more than one TOD were: Aged >67 (OR=1.22; 1.06-1.38), being a smoker (OR=1.21; 1.02-1.40) or ex-smoker (OR=2.89; 1.27-4.51), primary school education (OR=2.17; 1.47-2.87), being male (OR=0.75; 0.59-0.90), being an agricultural worker (OR=0.03; 0.00-0.05) or a salaried professional (OR=0.96; 0.94-0.99). The results show differences in the severity of the HT in the initial assessment of the patient according to gender or other socio-economic variables. It is particularly important at the time of carrying out the diagnosis and the HT assessment.

  5. Socio-Economic Importance Of Associated Plant Species In Short Rotation Coppice Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniak Michal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystem services do not pass through markets. Therefore, the benefits which ecosystems provide to society are largely unrecorded. Fast-growing woody crops represent a quite new and still insufficiently explored ecosystem of agricultural land which has a potential to provide several utility functions. It may contribute to satisfaction of human needs and may enhance regional health. The goal of this paper was to detect the socio-economic importance of associated spontaneous vegetation in plantations of the energy crops (hybrids of the genera Salix and to compare it with the socio-economic importance of adjacent permanently cultivated agricultural field. There was examined the therapeutic, melliferous, feed, allergenic and toxic potential of undergrowth for each experimental plot inside the SRC plantations. The research was carried out on the agricultural land formerly used for growing cereals and root crops – the research base Kolíňany. Our results showed that energy plantation understoreys can be assumed to be the better option for contribution to the total socio-economic value of a region than agricultural fields.

  6. [The influence of socio-economic conditions in renal posttransplant infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianhez, L E; Sampaio, M; Chocair, P R; Fonseca, J A; Sabbaga, E

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and four patients who underwent renal transplantation were followed up as outpatients with a minimum of four years. They were divided into two socio-economic levels: group I - 104 patients who underwent transplantation in a private hospital and 120 patients (group II) with a lower socio-economic standard, treated in a public hospital. In both groups urinary infections and hepatitis were excluded. The incidence of infection in group I was 24% and in group II, 50% (p = 0.0002). There was no difference in relation to viral infection in either groups. However, bacterial infection and infection by opportunistic agents were significantly higher in group II (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0282). The number of hospitalizations and the number of infections of patients were higher in group II. There was a tendency for an increase in mortality owing to infection in group II. There was no difference in the two groups as the parameters of: age, sex, type of donor, primary disease, number of rejections crises, level of serum creatinine and number of patients with ciclosporine. On the other hand, the dose of azathioprine and prednisone was mildly higher in those patients of group II. Low level of socio-economic conditions is a risk factor in renal transplant patients.

  7. What is the impact of socio-economic inequalities on the use of mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Jones, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Amartya Sen, who received the Nobel Prize for Economics, has demonstrated that the incidence of deprivation, in terms of capability, can be surprisingly high even in the most developed countries of the world. The study of socio-economic inequalities, in relation to the utilisation of health services, is a priority for epidemiological research. Socio-economic status (SES) has no universal definition. Within the international research literature, SES has been related to social class, social position, occupational status, educational attainment, income, wealth and standard of living. Existing research studies have shown that people from a more deprived social background, with a lower SES, are more likely to have a higher psychiatric morbidity. Many studies show that SES influences psychiatric services utilization, however the real factors linking SES and mental health services utilisation remain unclear. In this editorial we discuss what is currently known about the relationship between SES and the use of mental health services. We also make an argument for why we believe there is still much to uncover in this field, to understand fully how individuals are influenced by their personal socio-economic status, or the neighbourhood in which they live, in terms of their use of mental health services. Further research in this area will help clarify what interventions are required to provide greater equality in access to mental health services.

  8. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Thomas, Lyndal R; Jolley, Damien; Subramanian, Sv; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the association between area socio-economic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Data were collected by mail survey (64.2 % response rate). Area SES was indicated by the proportion of households in each area earning less than $AUS 400 per week, and individual-level socio-economic position was measured using education, occupation and household income. Food purchasing was measured on the basis of compliance with dietary guideline recommendations (for grocery foods) and variety of fruit and vegetable purchase. Multilevel regression analysis examined the association between area SES and food purchase after adjustment for individual-level demographic (age, sex, household composition) and socio-economic factors. Melbourne city, Australia, 2003. Residents of 2564 households located in fifty small areas. Residents of low-SES areas were significantly less likely than their counterparts in advantaged areas to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar; and they purchased a smaller variety of fruits. There was no evidence of an association between area SES and vegetable variety. In Melbourne, area SES was associated with some food purchasing behaviours independent of individual-level factors, suggesting that areas in this city may be differentiated on the basis of food availability, accessibility and affordability, making the purchase of some types of foods more difficult in disadvantaged areas.

  9. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J.; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  10. Addressing tuberculosis patients' medical and socio-economic needs: a comprehensive programmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carmen C; Millones, Ana K; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Aguilar, Margot; Clendenes, Martin; Toranzo, Miguel; Llaro, Karim; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C; Yuen, Courtney M

    2017-04-01

    For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system. We calculated the prevalence of medical comorbidities and the need for socio-economic support at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis, as well as the proportion of patients successfully linked to care or support. Of 192 patients, 83 (43%) had at least one medical comorbidity other than tuberculosis. These included eight (4%) patients with HIV, 12 (6%) with diabetes and 62 (32%) deemed at risk for a mental health condition. Of patients who required follow-up for a comorbidity, 100% initiated antiretroviral therapy, 71% attended endocrinology consultations and 66% attended psychology consultations. Of 126 (65%) patients who completed the socio-economic evaluation, 58 (46%) reported already receiving food baskets from the municipality, and 79 (63%) were given additional support, most commonly food vouchers and assistance in accessing health care. Carabayllo tuberculosis patients face many challenges in addition to tuberculosis. A collaborative, comprehensive treatment support programme can achieve high rates of linkage to care for these needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-05

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  12. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-06

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage.

  13. What are the socio-economic conditions of local areas affected by wildfires in Portugal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic context of wildfire distribution is paramount to understand the conditions that influence the vulnerability and resilience levels of different communities exposed to wildfire risk. This research had the main purpose to assess the social and economic dimensions of fire occurrence in Portugal, the country most affected by wildfires in Europe. Differences in fire incidence levels, obtained from number of fire events and burned areas recorded between 2007 and 2014, were examined in relation to socio-economic data from the latest Census at local level, describing conditions regarding exposure levels, sociodemographic patterns, infrastructures, agricultural activities and labour conditions for the civil parishes of mainland Portugal. To identify differences between parishes, two groups were retrieved for fire events and burned areas separately, based on quantiles and keeping only the highest and lowest 20% of wildfire incidence data. The relationships between the wildfire incidence groups and the socio-economic variables were assessed with a stepwise approach based on classification trees. First, irrelevant variables for identifying differences between the groups were removed by an interactive process based on misclassification rates. The second step used random Forest analysis with the selected variables to compute the strength of association and rank variables by importance. The third step applied cluster analysis to determine if the clusters created only with the selected independent variables were equivalent to the initial groups. Results showed that the social and economic conditions of civil parishes vary with wildfire incidence levels. Population density, proportion of foreigners, overcrowded housing conditions, proportion of houses occupied seasonally, and agricultural variables, such as pastures and livestock density, appeared as relevant to distinguish the two fire incidence groups, although with differences in their level of importance and

  14. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahiru Sandaruwan Galgamuwa; Devika Iddawela; Samath D Dharmaratne; GLS Galgamuwa

    2017-01-01

    .... It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka...

  15. Socio-economic risk factors for injuries in Swedish children and adolescents: a national study over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Cecilia; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Janson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have assessed if Sweden's injury prevention work has been equally effective for children of different socio-economic backgrounds. The goal of this paper is to review the country's injury rates for children over time, stratified by socio-economic status (SES), to see if the effects are similar across SES levels. This study employs a retrospective case-control study design, using data from the hospitalisation records of 51,225 children, which were linked to family socio-economic data. Children and adolescents in families receiving social welfare benefits, and those living with single parents and mothers with less education had higher risks of injuries leading to hospitalisation. The population-based safety work over the past decades seems to have had only minor effects on reducing the impact of socio-economic based difference in injury risks to younger Swedes.

  16. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respi

  17. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.5 Socio-Economic Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    The general objective of the study is to analyze the socio economic factors that influence ..... adopt a technology learnt by farmers especially in the case of an input – intensive innovation .... Association, July 27 – 29 Orlando Florida, USA.

  18. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent resp

  19. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    ..., (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices...

  20. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent

  1. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic

  2. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  3. Perception of Farmers Towards Small Scale Feed Mill in Terms of Socio-economic Factors in Sindenreng Rappang Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, St; Irmasusanti; A.R Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze farmers??? perception towards small scale feed mill in terms of socio-economic factors. The study was conducted with purposive sampling. Data were analyzed descriptively and likert scale analysis. The results showed that the perception of farmer laying on the socio-economic factors of the small scale feed mill is quite good and positive to support the sustainability of small and medium scale enterprise.

  4. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  5. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, R. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zurich (Switzerland); Bachhiesl, M. [Oesterreichische Bundersforste AG, Purkersdorf (Austria)

    2007-02-15

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success. (author)

  6. Enhancing the Quantitative Representation of Socioeconomic Conditions in the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) using the International Futures Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, D. S.; Siraj, A.; Hughes, B.

    2013-12-01

    The international research community is currently in the process of developing new scenarios for climate change research. One component of these scenarios are the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which describe a set of possible future socioeconomic conditions. These are presented in narrative storylines with associated quantitative drivers. The core quantitative drivers include total population, average GDP per capita, educational attainment, and urbanization at the global, regional, and national levels. At the same time there have been calls, particularly by the IAV community, for the SSPs to include additional quantitative information on other key social factors, such as income inequality, governance, health, and access to key infrastructures, which are discussed in the narratives. The International Futures system (IFs), based at the Pardee Center at the University of Denver, is able to provide forecasts of many of these indicators. IFs cannot use the SSP drivers as exogenous inputs, but we are able to create development pathways that closely reproduce the core quantitative drivers defined by the different SSPs, as well as incorporating assumptions on other key driving factors described in the qualitative narratives. In this paper, we present forecasts for additional quantitative indicators based upon the implementation of the SSP development pathways in IFs. These results will be of value to many researchers.

  7. An integrated modeling framework of socio-economic, biophysical, and hydrological processes in Midwest landscapes: Remote sensing data, agro-hydrological model, and agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Deng

    Intensive human-environment interactions are taking place in Midwestern agricultural systems. An integrated modeling framework is suitable for predicting dynamics of key variables of the socio-economic, biophysical, hydrological processes as well as exploring the potential transitions of system states in response to changes of the driving factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to address issues concerning the interacting processes and consequent changes in land use, water balance, and water quality using an integrated modeling framework. This dissertation is composed of three studies in the same agricultural watershed, the Clear Creek watershed in East-Central Iowa. In the first study, a parsimonious hydrologic model, the Threshold-Exceedance-Lagrangian Model (TELM), is further developed into RS-TELM (Remote Sensing TELM) to integrate remote sensing vegetation data for estimating evapotranspiration. The goodness of fit of RS-TELM is comparable to a well-calibrated SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and even slightly superior in capturing intra-seasonal variability of stream flow. The integration of RS LAI (Leaf Area Index) data improves the model's performance especially over the agriculture dominated landscapes. The input of rainfall datasets with spatially explicit information plays a critical role in increasing the model's goodness of fit. In the second study, an agent-based model is developed to simulate farmers' decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. The comparison between simulated crop land percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields (yield drag). The simulation results given alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed show that, farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form

  8. Inferring urban household socio-economic conditions in Mafikeng, South Africa, using high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Munyati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Updated household socio-economic information is necessary for planning the delivery of municipal services, particularly for cities in third world countries. The repetitive coverage of satellite imagery provides a possibility for sourcing and frequently updating information on household socio-economic conditions in urban landscapes. This paper examines the potential use of satellite imagery in inferring urban household socio-economic variables, using two high-resolution images of 2001 and 2010. Manual image interpretation was employed in deducing selected socio-economic variables that are utilised in census enumerations in South Africa, at four suburbs in Mafikeng. Of the three socio-economic variables that were examined (type of main dwelling, toilet facilities, and energy source for cooking, type of dwelling could more readily be deduced from the high-resolution imagery. Identified change in number of formal and informal houses indicated potential of satellite imagery in monitoring third world setting urban sprawl and the associated growth in informal settlements due to migration, among other factors. Satellite imagery appears useful as a supplementary source of socio-economic data to municipal authorities, for periods between regular censuses.

  9. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grdadolnik, Urška; Sočan, Maja

    2016-03-01

    Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=-0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

  10. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes

  11. [The influence of the socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses on the conditions of husbandry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, P A; Ionita, J C; Doherr, M G; Steiger, A

    2006-04-01

    The socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) in Switzerland is evaluated on the basis of an investigation carried out in 2002 by the Swiss FM breeding federation. Questionnaires were sent to 3500 of its members and the results include data from 968 breeding enterprises, housing a total of 3965 FM. The quality of the husbandry of FM varies according to factors such as the altitude and the geographical situation of the farms and studs. Socio-economic parameters, such as the role of FM in the business, their use (breeding, driving, riding) and the age and level of professional education of the owners may also have an effect on standards of husbandry. The results show that the owners for whom FM represent a source of income more frequently keep their horses in standing stalls, but give them more time to exercise at liberty than the horses belonging to amateur breeders. Younger and better educated breeders are more likely to house their animals in groups.

  12. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, Paula; Kearney, Michael; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Vounatsou, Penelope; Malone, John B

    2012-09-01

    Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  13. Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilkens Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma. Methods Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS ≥ 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I ( 50 years. The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends. Results 510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%. Younger patients (group I were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p Conclusions Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.

  14. The design and realization of a socio-economic statistical spatio-temporal database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cankun; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Haibo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims to introduce a case of Socio-economic statistical Spatio-temporal Database. This database system services in the rural socio-economic statistical work, which is a combination of statistical tables, spatial data, search algorithm and maintenance interface. Administrative codes are the conjunction media of spatial data and attribute data, and also are the key words of database query processing. Through storing the changing information in the database, it could reflect the change of administrative divisions. As the main issues of database design, the studying of the approach to recording and querying these changes as well as the processing of statistical data by the rules of administrative divisions changes, requires a large amount of research work. To address these problems, a series of management analysis tools have been developed to deal with the processing of socio-economic statistical data with changes in the administrative division. A searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database is used to ensure the comparability of the results, which are acquired by the positive sequence and the anti-sequence temporal query under complex spatial changes in the administrative division. According to the spatial changes, searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database mainly translates temporal series statistical data into standard format data which is matched to the benchmark year. The searching algorithm controls the process of inquiry through recursion of the table of the administrative code changes, which are composed of multi-way tree structure and double linked list and record the relationship between upper and lower level administrative units. These search algorithms and meta-data storage structures constitute the spatio-temporal database, so as to serve the spatial analysis of statistical data. The comparability problem mentioned above was well solved by this approach. And a set of functions was provided by this system with spatio-temporal database

  15. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mischler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL, low annual precipitation (45-250 mm, and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC area under the curve (AUC (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively, while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC. This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  16. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Nilsen, T I; Johnsen, R; Vatten, L J

    2000-04-01

    International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22,895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate incidence rate ratios as estimates of the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Reported P-values are two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 644 cases were diagnosed. Risk was elevated among men in occupations of high compared to low socio-economic status (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61), and among men with high education compared to the least educated (RR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.11-2.19). A RR of 1.56 (95% CI 0.97-2.44) suggests a higher risk among divorced or separated men, compared with married men. We also found indications of a weak negative association with leisure-time physical activity (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.03 for high vs low activity), a weak positive association with increasing number of cigarettes (P = 0.046), while alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of prostate cancer. These results show that high socio-economic status is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that divorced or separated men might be at higher risk than married men. Data from this study also indicate that high levels of physical activity may reduce prostate cancer risk.

  17. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

  18. The Idea of Conformation in the Study of Systemic Socio-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valentinovna Brizhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author shows the idea of conformation at studying the issues of intracorporate structure, corporate capital and economic (productive relations in the context of specific systemic socio-economic transformations. The dynamism and depth of current changes makes reflect on their nature, their objective conditionality, their dependence on existing factors. The problems of systemic market reforms are projected to private transformations. They relate both to individual economic entities (firms, companies, corporations, and to individual regions and territories of the national economy. In such conditions the aims of economic system development are changing and being corrected, and the possibilities are being reestimated. In the process of reforming the Russian economy some of the borrowed elements were rejected as inadequate and socially unacceptable. The other part was modified and embedded in public life in the course of implementation, so that they often served the opposite purposes in comparison with those for which they were borrowed. The article reveals the mission of conformation as a seamless integration of this process into the context of systemic socio-economic reforms, ensuring the necessary proportionality of transformations, the prevention of arousing gaps that threaten the sustainable movement in the corporate sector and systemic organization of economic relations at the intra-corporate level. Core development of contradictions, sprouts of post-market relations, components of the traditional capitalist market organization in terms of socio-economic transformation of Russia have impact on the economic behavior of corporations and on the specifics of intracorporate relations and interests. The corporation’s behavior is always focused on the specifics of domestic relations, the stability of legal and political system, property rights protection, preservation of national culture, etc. The author carries out the present research on the

  19. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  20. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex

  1. Socio-Economic and Spatial Correlations of the Eastern European Health Paradox in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Egri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Hungarian aspects and the latest results of the so-called Eastern European health paradox in terms of (micro-regions. In particular, this paper aims at highlighting the spatial correlations of premature mortality and the main causes of death by gender as well as their socio-economic and spatial embeddedness. The tool for our study is represented by exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA: the main health inequalities of Hungary’s micro-regions are described with the use of global autocorrelation tests as well as regression models suitable for the identification of general and spatial features. According to our findings, the causes of premature death are characterised by a marked spatial determination for both genders but mostly for men. The regression models of the causes of premature death have confirmed that neighbourhood relations and micro-regional inequalities in issues like the level of socio-economic development, settlement structure, lifestyle, social capital, healthcare infrastructure or social deprivation have substantial impacts on mortality in a given area in the case of men. These findings are also true for women, except for one issue: neighbourhood assimilation. It should be noted in view of our research findings that, in addition to socio-economic explanatory factors, spatiality (belonging to a region is a major explanatory factor regarding the micro-regional inequalities of premature mortality. In particular, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, known as a former industrial base, should be noted here; this county is a significant and complex crisis area with regard to the health status of both genders in Hungary today. As a short-term measure for the improvement of spatial health status, the development of health awareness and the mitigation of psychosocial stress (by civil organisations are suggested.

  2. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  3. The Relation Between Socio-Economic Characteristics and the Innovation Decision Making of Digital Television Broadcasts

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    Haryati Haryati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Migration from analog to digital technology, requires a lot of preparation, both from the side of the device, the regulation of the broadcasting industry, and the society. This study refers to the Diffusion of Innovations theory (the theory of Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers, 1986 that try to explain how an innovation (technology can be accepted into the community, through a process of decision. The aim of the research is to find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the innovation and decision-making broadcast of digital television. This research uses a quantitative approach with descriptive methods aim to find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the innovation and decision-making broadcast of digital television. The research was carried out in seven counties/cities in West Java Province and Banten Province. The selection of samples is carried out by Multistage Random Cluster Sampling. The number of samples as many as 813 people assigned by Proportional Sampling techniques, with the character category of respondents age 15 years until 64 years. Significance test results with the method at the rate of 5% Pearson pointed out that, the relationship between innovation decision-making variables with socio-economic characteristics on three aspects, namely, education, income, and spending is weak and insignificant, while on access to information, the value of relationships and significant. This suggests the necessity of strengthening the capacity of absorption of community efforts in the face of digital broadcast television, can be done by fixing the value of any existing components on the operational level. As a priority, is how the effort to improve the economy of society, especially in terms of education, income, and expenditure permonth.

  4. Analysing Relationships Between Urban Land Use Fragmentation Metrics and Socio-Economic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.; Goerlich, F. J.

    2016-06-01

    Analysing urban regions is essential for their correct monitoring and planning. This is mainly accounted for the sharp increase of people living in urban areas, and consequently, the need to manage them. At the same time there has been a rise in the use of spatial and statistical datasets, such as the Urban Atlas, which offers high-resolution urban land use maps obtained from satellite imagery, and the Urban Audit, which provides statistics of European cities and their surroundings. In this study, we analyse the relations between urban fragmentation metrics derived from Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data from the Urban Atlas dataset, and socio-economic data from the Urban Audit for the reference years 2006 and 2012. We conducted the analysis on a sample of sixty-eight Functional Urban Areas (FUAs). One-date and two-date based fragmentation indices were computed for each FUA, land use class and date. Correlation tests and principal component analysis were then applied to select the most representative indices. Finally, multiple regression models were tested to explore the prediction of socio-economic variables, using different combinations of land use metrics as explanatory variables, both at a given date and in a dynamic context. The outcomes show that demography, living conditions, labour, and transportation variables have a clear relation with the morphology of the FUAs. This methodology allows us to compare European FUAs in terms of the spatial distribution of the land use classes, their complexity, and their structural changes, as well as to preview and model different growth patterns and socio-economic indicators.

  5. The impact of socio-economic status on net fertility during the historical fertility decline: a comparative analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We used micro-level data from the censuses of 1900 to investigate the impact of socio-economic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the USA). The study is therefore unlike most previous research on the historical fertility transition, which used aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels. Our data included information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence, and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity.

  6. The Virtual Manufacturing concept: Scope, Socio-Economic Aspects and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Noël, Eric; Woelk, Peer-Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The research area "Virtual Manufacturing (VM)'' is the use of information technology and computer simulation to model real world manufacturing processes for the purpose of analysing and understanding them. As automation technologies such as CAD/CAM have substantially shortened the time required to design products, Virtual Manufacturing will have a similar effect on the manufacturing phase thanks to the modelling, simulation and optimisation of the product and the processes involved in its fabrication. After a description of Virtual Manufacturing (definitions and scope), we present some socio-economic factors of VM and finaly some "hot topics'' for the future are proposed.

  7. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMS FOR THE FINANCING OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of European funding shows a great interest for present and, especially, for the future. The common problems of areas implied in the cross-border programs are correlated to socio-economic development of communities. By this paper we propose an analysis, by inventory type, descriptive and qualitative, of implemented projects and of the perspectives for projects in 2014-2020 period. The results of paper consist in identification of solid arguments about the importance and necessity of these programmes and projects.

  8. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

    2011-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ≥18 years under treatment for ≤8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings.

  9. Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

  10. Crowd avoidance and diversity in socio-economic systems and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

  11. Impact of MGNREGA on Socio-Economic Empowerment of Women in Palakkad District of Kerala

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    S. Lakshmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The empowerment of women is very much needed for the development of a country. Thus various provisions are made under the act and its guidelines which ensure that women have equitable and easy access to work, decent working conditions, equal payment of wages and representation on decision making process. However, the women of Kerala are socio-economically empowered when compared to women in other states due to their involvement in Self Help Groups. In this context, the paper analyse the contribution of MGNREGA in empowering women socially and economically and the constraints faced by them.

  12. The Clinical and Socio-Economic Relevance of Increased IPMN Detection Rates and Management Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Christoph; Beyer, Georg; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Increased usage of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has led to a large increase in identified pancreatic cysts of up to 25% in population-based studies. The clinical and economic relevance of identifying so many cystic lesions has not been established. Compared to other organs such as liver or kidney, dysontogenetic pancreatic cysts are rare. Pancreatic cysts comprise a variety of benign, premalignant or malignant lesions; however, precise diagnosis before resection has an accuracy of only 80%. The focus of recent research was the malignant potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) with the aim of establishing clinical pathways addressing risk of malignancy, age and comorbidity, treatment-related morbidity and mortality as well as cost-effectiveness of treatment and surveillance. The focus of this review is to analyze the clinical and socio-economic relevance as well as the cost-benefit relation for IPMNs. For analysis, the following MESH terms were used to identify original articles, reviews, and guidelines in PubMed: ('intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm' OR 'pancreatic cysts') and (incidence OR relevance OR socio-economic OR economic OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit). The retrieved publications were reviewed with a focus on clinical and socio-economic relevance in relation to the increasing incidence of IPMN. Addressing the increasing prevalence of pancreatic cystic lesions, recent consensus guidelines suggested criteria for risk stratification according to 'worrisome features' and 'high-risk stigmata'. Recent prospective cohort studies evaluated whether these can be applied in clinical practice. Evaluation of three different clinical scenarios with regard to costs and quality-adjusted life years suggested a better effectiveness of surveillance after initial risk stratification by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with cyst fluid analysis compared with immediate resection or follow-up without

  13. Socio-economic factors affecting the level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors which are effective in helping dairy cattleenterprises to adopt some innovations in Afyonkarahisar. The data acquired from questionnaires of 80 randomly selected enterpriseswere analyzed with chi-square test in May 2006. Enterprises those have 1-10, 11-35 and more than 35 cattle were classified as small,medium and high scale, respectively. It was found that 12% of enterprises adopt innovations at low level, 65% of them at med...

  14. Conformity of House Physical Condition and Socio-Economic Mobility in Post Disaster Resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeni Puspitaningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mudflow disaster damage job opportunity, disrupt social life and settlement, thus requiring resettlement. Need to understand whether physical condition of resettlement is in accordance with background and housing preference of victim, due to significant differences of housing design. Aspects studied were characteristic of resettlement, physical condition of house and socio-economic mobility. Research was done using qualitative method. Technique of data collection was used retrospective interviews and observation. This research result indicates that most participants experienced conformity in house physical condition and socioeconomic mobility. Reason of unconformity condition is housing facility which has not meet housing standard.

  15. Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

    2014-11-01

    The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America.

  16. Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

  17. Vigorously Develop Satellite Application Industry to Serve National Socio-economic Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ China International Aviation and Aerospace Forum 2010 was held on November 15 in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.Vice President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)Rui Xiaowu delivered a speech at the forum with the theme of "vigorously developing satellite application industry to serve national socio-economic construction".He stated in his speech that as an important method for information transmission, navigation and position and obtaining geographic information satellite applications have been integrated into all industries in the national economy in China and have become one of the indispensable information infrastructures for national security, the economy and society.

  18. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...

  19. COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCES IN EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Anton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research performance measurement and its analysis creates the context where universities are forced to develop strategies to increase the values obtained from indicators such as number of scientific articles, the number of citations of these articles, h-index, g-index, etc. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance differences arising in the socio-economic science between major universities in South-Eastern Europe, many of them EU Members. In addition, to see where they stand compared to Western Europe, will include a brief review of the results of a major university as LondonSchool of Economics and Political Science.

  20. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  1. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  2. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio-economic

  3. Socio-economic rehabilitation programmes of LEPRA India--methodology, results and application of needs-based socio-economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V P; Rao, I R; Palande, D D

    2000-12-01

    There is now a better understanding of the scope and process of rehabilitation. The approach recognizes the impact of leprosy on the individual, aims to understand the needs and concerns of those affected, their families and community in the rehabilitation process, and that aims to restore the person to normal social life. LEPRA India has undertaken socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) activities in its projects in Andrah Pradesh and Orissa States in India with a holistic approach that has been evolutionary, developmental and participatory. A SER Officer (SERO) was posted to each project. A plan was formulated by the SERO with participation of all project staff. The main emphasis of the programme was on active participation of the affected person in the rehabilitation process. A needs-assessment study was conducted in the target population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was elicited about social and economic status, before and after the disease, and the current rehabilitation needs of the persons affected. The next step was meeting the needs through interventions by the SER staff. The impact of the programme on restoration of social and economic status of the affected persons was analysed. The paper stresses the importance of assessing the needs of persons affected by leprosy, structuring a rehabilitation programme with the active participation of the affected person and evaluating the impact of the interventions in restoring normal social and economic life.

  4. MADUREZ PARA LA LECTOESCRITURA EN NIÑOS/AS DE INSTITUCIONES CON DIFERENTES ESTRATOS SOCIOECONÓMICOS - LITERACY MATURITY IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA SIERRA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of initial schooling in the later reading and writing learning development, in this descriptive research, it is identified the maturity level of children literacy who attend the grade transition in three educational institutions in different socio-economic statuses of Barranquilla. The evaluation was conducted to 62 children (the entire population of the study. This was based, in one hand, on the maturity model in the application of ABC Filho L. Test, which assesses the maturity by means of 8 subtests that reference the necessary components for the acquisition of reading and writing. On the other hand, and from a constructivist perspective, it was appreciated the approach and recognition that children show while they face literacy through the application of a technique called “Hypothesis Testing” based on Teberosky and Ferreiro’s theoretical assumptions. The results indicate that half of the study population is at a medium level of literacy maturity and, between the third and fourth level of alphabetic writing system acquisition. In these results, children of institutions of middle and high socio-economic status predominated (45%.

  5. Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. Methods An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban and SES (higher versus lower. Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Results and discussion Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political

  6. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's.

  7. A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Kayunze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc. and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

  8. Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

  9. Socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Eidenzon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of current socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy by the example of Ural Federal District and Siberian Federal District. The main aim of it is to identify the actual socio-economic problems in the development of the regional economies. The authors analyze the economic, ecological and social aspects in the development of regional economies by the examples. They investigate the specifics of the correlation between industrial development, ecological problems and health problems of the local population. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of correlations between the mortality of the population and industrial pollution of air and water. The analysis has resulted in making proposals for optimization of the regional policy in the field of investments, manufacturing and ecology. The special attention is given to environment-oriented projects. The most practicable way in solving the problem of these regional industry imbalances would be the development of regional diversification programs of the Siberia and the Ural economies. It has to support manufacturing and the largest public-private investment projects for the foundation of enterprises in agriculture, food and other industries. The most prosperous among them is the direction of bioenergy and forest-engineering-oriented businesses. The results of the research can be useful in solving the problem of the industry imbalances in the regional economic policy of the Russian Federation.

  10. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  11. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  12. Economic Tomography: Opportunity to Foresee and Respond to Socio-Economic Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the approach based on the authors’ hypothesis is considered: the development of Russia has specific characteristics (on the one hand, its size, mentality and certain closed nature of its economy, on the other hand, the considerable dominating resource and human potential, and, as the result, its real role in the world economic community. The diagnostics of these characteristics (at the level of the individual’s welfare and territory of accommodation reveals crises, estimates threats to region socio-economic development at early stages and helps to evaluate the state of a region for 3-5 years. In other words, managers have time necessary for rapid response to the crisis phenomena and administrative mistakes, for decreasing the impact of the arising threats. The purpose of the article is to present the theoretical and methodological tools of the appearing threats recognition at their early stages, which allows to enter the crisis period with smaller losses. Computational experiments to classify the prior socio-economic crises have been conducted (9 possible options are considered, the trajectories of change of the main indicators of the individual’s welfare and territory of residence influenced by various factors are digitized. On the basis of the proposed approach (named as the economic tomography, the attempt of the comprehensive assessment of the state of Russian typical representative regions is made.

  13. The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching

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    Tony E. Persico

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.

  14. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  15. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  16. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

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    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  17. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  18. TV viewing and BMI by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status.

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    Kerem Shuval

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS, a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. RESULTS: Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3(rd and 4(th quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3(rd quartile-cumulative OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.07-1.92 was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.

  19. The household-based socio-economic deprivation index in Setiu Wetlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Syerrina; May, Chin Sin; Rahman, Nuzlinda Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Deprivation index usually used in public health study. At the same time, deprivation index can also use to measure the level of deprivation in an area or a village. These indices are also referred as the index of inequalities or disadvantage. Even though, there are many indices that have been built before. But it is believed to be less appropriate to use the existing indices to be applied in other countries or areas which had different socio-economic conditions and different geographical characteristics. The objective of this study is to construct the index based on the socio-economic factors in Setiu Wetlands (Jajaran Merang, Jajaran Setiu and Jajaran Kuala Besut) in Terengganu Malaysia which is defined as weighted household-based socioeconomic deprivation index. This study has employed the variables based on income level, education level and employment rate obtained from questionnaire which are acquired from 64 villages included 1024 respondents. The factor analysis is used to extract the latent variables or observed variables into smaller amount of components or factors. By using factor analysis, one factor is extracted from 3 latent variables. This factor known as socioeconomic deprivation index. Based on the result, the areas with a lower index values until high index values were identified.

  20. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan

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    Saleem Ashraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the leading fruit of Pakistan and famous worldwide especially kinnow cultivar because of its pleasant taste and remarkable quality. The yield of citrus per hectare in Pakistan is almost half of potential due to non-adoption of recommended horticultural practices by citrus growers. Adopting a decision regarding the improvement of practices is usually influenced by various factors including farmers' socio-economic attributes. In order to determine the relationship between socio-economic aspects and the awareness and adoption of recommended citrus production practices the present study was carried out in Sargodha district from central Punjab, Pakistan. The Study was based upon cross sectional survey research design due to availability of sampling frame, probability (random sampling was applied for sample selection. Through random sampling, 120 citrus growers were selected as sample. Structured questionnaire administered through interview was used as a research instrument. Analysis of the data collected from the targeted citrus growers revealed a highly significant influence of education on awareness and adoption. Moreover, significant association was found between citrus cultivation area and awareness and adoption of improved practices. Age also showed significant association with awareness and adoption. Moreover, dominancy of middle aged farmers and illiteracyin the study area strongly point the need of provision of formal and non-formal education and training program for farmers. Young generation needs to be focused and reorientation of youth clubs may help in better way to gain the utmost outcome.

  1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND BELT THE ORGANIZATION OF COTTON PRODUCTION-RAW

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    M. Juraev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important requirement imposed; to the strategy of creating a new cotton complex of Tajikistan is its scientific basis in regional – territorial aspect, reflecting the diversity of natural, socio - economic, demographic, geographic and other conditions of the country. If you save the backlog of the industry that is currently taking place, the formation of the basic foundations of the national economy which includes the "Cotton Complex", will be less effective and risky in the socio-economic terms, and would not be achievable conditions for solving a class of useful employment of the rural population. Building a cotton complex objective requires historical – economic approach, ie methodological basis of the values of the industry and its place in the structure of the national economy, which is based on the following scientific – practical approaches: the use of storage still scientific and – technical knowledge; restoring the level of mechanization of agriculture – economic activities; recovery of hydraulic structures; evidence – based delivery of balanced fertilizer elemental based standards; functioning of agrochemical service; the Organization of the introduction of high-yielding seed varieties of cotton resistant to disease; meet the needs of manufacturers of bank loans; the creation of agricultural service workers, taking into account the world practice; create a system of state support for rural enterprise including a system of benefi ts and privileges.

  2. Tracing socio-economic impact of ferry provision in Zadar island archipelago

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    Zrinka Mendas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a socio-economic impact of ferry provision in Zadar island archipelago in Croatia. Poor frequency, accessibility, and unaffordable ferry prices to smaller islands have had a detrimental impact on island communities’ sustainability. This prompts for asking what constitutes the socio-economic impact of ferry provision on remote and rural islands’ sustainability. The paper analyses on one hand, regional traces of demographics of population, migration, employment and education; and on the other local traces of emerging island communities’ activities. Adverse impact from the financial resource scarcity and centralisation remain unavoidable, e.g., litoralisation, social exclusion, lack of trade inflows and outflows, entrepreneurship, and lack of employment opportunities for young generations. Island communities are aware of the need for alternative sustainable ways of managing their local economies and this study captures this through communal entrepreneurial and cultural activities. Political actors also must align with their needs in order to provide a long-term sustainable but limited support. Heterogeneity of space and data provides an opportunity for adopting pluralistic and interpretivistic insight and align more closely academic research with evidence-based policy related to rural planning for island archipelagos.

  3. THE ROLE OF MICRO FINANCIAL INSTITUTION TO IMPROVE SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF THE RURAL COMMUNITIES

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    Moh. Aziz Arisudi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro f inancial inst itut ion had an important role to improve the socio-economicof the rural communit ies. However, in its effort , the result in improving the socio-economicof the rural communit ies, part icularly among the poor is st ill low. The access for the ruralcommunit ies for low interest credit was also limited. The object ives of this research were asfollows. First , to analyze the factors that drove the rural communit ies to borrow money f rommicro credit inst itut ions. Second, to analyze the role of micro credit inst itut ions and itsimpacts on the rural communit ies’ socio-economic, Third, to analyze the rural communit ies’coping st rategies, Fourth, to evaluate the rural communit ies’ percept ions on micro creditinterest rate. This research used both qualitat ive and quant itat ive methods. The results ofthis research were as follows. First , the factors causing rural communit ies to borrow moneyf rom micro credit inst itut ions were to cover their living cost , provision and addit ion of capital.The micro credit inst itut ion had considerably lower interest rate than rentener, and theprocedures were simple and fast . Second, the role of micro credit inst itut ions to improve therural communit ies socio-economic was st ill low. Third, the interest rate of the micro creditinst itut ions was comparably fair and lower than the unlicensed micro bank.

  4. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

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    Sanja Šćepanović

    Full Text Available The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's.

  5. Socio-Economic Factors’ Impact on the Offline Networking: A Quantitative Analysis of Albanian Business

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    Besa Shahini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It exists so many studies and research on networks, especially on business networks, but still there is a little research which explores the factors that influence a manager's’ willingness to participate in business networks. Some of the socio-economic factors that moderate this participation are explored through this paper and the focus is based on offline face-to-face networking activities between companies, especially in an Albanian context. The research findings shows how the socio-economic factors such as gender, age, position and education level, influence the participation of such a business network moderated by the personal networking behavior of an individual. The study is based on a quantitative analysis of Albanian business member of the business networks. The results suggest that these socio –economic effects are important, but they do not come first in the perception of the process. What is important, the analysis, furthermore, finds that personal behavior and attitude are to be considered as key issues when it comes to participation in offline business networks.

  6. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

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    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  7. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

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    Yaping Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

  8. Socio-economic determinants of underweight children in West Bengal, India

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    Bharati S; Chakrabarty S; Som S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the extent of undernutrition at district level and the socio-economic determinants of underweight children aged 0-71 months in West Bengal.Methods: The data were accessed from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey (RCHS-II), which contained information of 7 550 children and their parents. Information of socio-economic variables about the associated families of these children had also been taken for our study. This study computed weight-for-age z-scores to assess the nutritional status of the children using WHO (2006) reference.Results: The prevalence of underweight varied over the districts. Districts with very high prevalence of underweight children were Murshidabad, Burdwan, Purulia, Medinipur, Howrah and South 24 Parganas. High prevalent districts for both boys and girls were Jalpaiguri and Coochbihar. Low prevalent districts for both boys and girls were South Dinajpur, Nadia and Kolkata. The percentage of underweight children were more in rural areas among Muslim families with illiterate parents and low standard of living. In Murshidabad, Bankura, Nadia, Medinipur and South 24 Parganas districts, i.e., where prevalence of underweight children were higher, the rural and urban differences were less. The characteristics like religion, parents' educational status and standard of living index showed significant effect on the children's weights.Conclusions: Public intervention programs on the parent's education and the standard of living of the households at district level should be given high priority to combat the children's undernutrition problems so far as weight for age is concerned.

  9. The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park

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    Susan Oberholzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor’s survey (156 respondents, a community survey (132 respondents and a business survey (11 respondents. We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved.Conservation implications: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATORY INSTRUMENTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY IN UKRAINE

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    M. Rymkina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the administrative regulatory instruments of socio-economic development of solar energy in Ukraine. This article considers that the current state of the energy market requires fundamental change. Analysis of international studies and publications indicates the balance between social, economic and environmental aspects that give rise to the development of alternative energy. Scientific originality of this article in a study of the dynamics of solar energy in Ukraine. International studies show that among the proposed renewable energy is the most environmentally friendly solar power. The practical significance of the study is to seek proposals for ensuring effective socio-economic development of enterprises in the industry for the future. For the implementation and development of the national energy strategy based on alternative energy in Ukraine has everything: raw materials, experience, technical and technological developments, training of highly qualified specialists in higher education. An important issue is the comprehensive state support, which will attract additional investment resources. As a result, at the macroeconomic level to mitigate the potential effects of the energy crisis.

  11. Socio-economic status and antisocial behavior of children and teenagers

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    Schudro S.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available National Insti­tute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE and a number of conducted aim analyses, confirmed the presence of intercommunications between socio-economic status of children and teenagers and their antisocial behavior and distinguished the role of such factors, as their psychological features, age and sex. The clinical and psychological inspection of teenagers enabled to distinguish in them such types of personality forming as: aggressive, labial states, instable, with "absence of brake", sexually-fixed, hysteroid, apathetical, schizoid, paranoidal. Processes of socialization, absence or presence of paternal attention to education, capacity for co-operation between parents and teenagers, depression in a mother or father, genetic and phenotype (external factors cause antisocial behavior of teenagers. It is shown, that genetic factors that affect antisocial behavior of teenagers were more expressive in rich families, while phenotype (external – in poor families. A review of undertaken studies showed, that there is the necessity of deep research of interaction of social and biological factors for understanding of the role of socio-economic factors in forming of antisocial behavior of children and teenagers.

  12. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world.

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

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    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  14. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

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    Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

  15. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

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    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.

  16. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective

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    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghua; Hao, Zhe; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large literature on public health, few studies have examined the associations between public health outcomes and environmental and socio-economic factors. This study bridges this gap by demonstrating the relationships between public health and 10 selected environmental and socio-economic factors from the spatial perspective. In particular, three public health outcomes in China are investigated, namely the number of centenarians per 100,000 people (termed the centenarian ratio), the proportion of nonagenarians of the 65 years and older population (termed the longevity index), and life expectancy at birth. We base our analysis on stepwise regression and geographically weighted regression models, with study areas of 31 provinces in China. Our results show that SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentration decreases the centenarian ratio; PM10 (particles with diameters of 10 μm or less) concentration and coal consumption (CC) per capita decrease the longevity index, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita prolongs life expectancy at birth, while energy consumption (EC) per capita decreases life expectancy at birth. Further, our findings demonstrate that public health outcomes show clear regional differences in China.

  17. SAVINGS BEHAVIOUR IN HOUSEHOLDS OF FARMERS AS COMPARED TO OTHER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN POLAND

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    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Savings generated by the sector of households constitute an important growth factor in every economy. They are the basic source of capital accumulation, determining investment opportunities of the economy. Financial behaviour of households in terms of the accumulation of savings is infl uenced  by numerous factors, both internal, i.e. connected directly with a given household, and external, independent of it. The aim of this paper was to analyse savings behaviour of households of farmers as compared to the other socio-economicgroups in Poland in the years 2003 and 2013. Analyses were conducted on saving propensity, savings rates, and objectives and forms of savings accumulation by households of various socio-economic groups. Analyses showed that in 2013, saving propensity and savings rates in households of farmers were relatively low in comparison to other household groups. In households of farmers the objective of savings was, more frequently than in the other socio-economic groups of households, to ensure provisions for running consumption expenditure, purchase durable goods and expand their economic activity. In contrast, in comparison to the other households, farmers less frequently saved money for recreation and physical therapy.

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ITALY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR COOPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

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    Yu. Agapov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis in Italy after 2008 fully revealed the complexity of the socio-economic model of the country, which in our time is formed not only at national level but also at European and global levels. All these factors should also be taken into account in the analysis of Russian-Italian relations. Italy has traditionally been considered one of the main partners / allies of Russia in Europe / the West, which emphasizes the active economic ties.Socio-economic diffi culties in Italy, creating both challenges and opportunities for the world, Europe and Russia. One of the major challenges for the global economy is the impact of the crisis in Italy for the EU, as one of the world's economic centers.The challenge for the EU crisis in Italy can be the stability of the EU, the challenge for Russia could be the eff ect of reducing the role of the traditional economic and political partner of the EU. Regarding the new features are: the global level – the transformation of one of the major economies of the West and building relationships with updated economic leader of the Mediterranean on a new basis, the regional level - the further development of one of the other German centre’s of the EU, which could serve as a new "stimulus" for the further integration of the Union , national - improve the socio-economic standards of living of citizens in Italy, as well as creating additional opportunities for the development of mutually benefi cial cooperation with other countries, particularly with Russia. The article discusses the causes of the Italian crisis and the challenges and opportunities that are opened at the same time for the world, the EU and Russia. Subject articles relevant due to the perception of the impact of the crisis in Italy for the world economy, the economy of the EU and Russia.The goal / task. The main purpose of the presentation material in this article is to analyze the causes of the crisis in Italy using a three-level model of

  19. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  20. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

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    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  1. REVISED SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE FOR URBAN AND RURAL INDIA – REVISION FOR 2015

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    Guru Raj M.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of any country depends on the socio economic status (SES and the per capita income of the citizens of that country. The SES also decides the affordability and utilization of the health facilities. Socioeconomic status (SES refers to an individual’s position within a hierarchical social structure, which is one of the important determinants of health status. Composite scales are generally used to measure the SES, which has a combination of social and economic variables. Several studies namely hospital and community based require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. This reflects the affordability of health services, necessities and purchasing power of the same. Several methods or scales have been proposed for classifying different populations by socioeconomic status: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. Kuppuswamy classification is used in urban and peri urban areas which consider the education of the head of family, occupation of head of the family and per capita monthly income. Uday Pareekh classification is used for rural areas which takes into account following characteristics namely caste, occupation of family head, education of family head, and level of social participation of family head, landholding, housing, farm power, material possessions and type of family. B.G Prasad’s classification, Standard of living index and poverty line assessment are used in both urban and rural areas. Standard of living indices(SLI is based on following items- type of house, own/ rented house, possession of agricultural land, irrigated land, possession of live stalk, separate kitchen, fuel used for cooking, source of lighting, source of drinking water, type of toilet, items owned by the family e.g. cooker, TV, telephone. Measurement of poverty line is based on the following Scoreable Socio

  2. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

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    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  3. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

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    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  4. A globalization-oriented perspective on health, inequality and socio-economic development.

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    Tausch, Arno

    2012-01-01

    There has been an attention to inequality as a causal factor for deficient health in the medical journals over the last decades (Richard G. Wilkinson et al. and Schnell et al.); however, the reasons for inequality and the interactions of the underlying causes of inequality at the level of the world economy have not yet been properly explored in this kind of literature. The aim of this article is to provide a new, globalization-oriented, multi-disciplinary perspective on life expectancy, under-five mortality, inequality and socio-economic development in the world system, compatible with the advances in international sociological research on the subject over the last three decades. Taking up the traditions of quantitative sociology to study the effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration as a key determining variable for development outcomes such as socio-economic inequality and infant mortality, this article analyzes from the perspective of quantitative political science and economics this particular role of MNC penetration as the key variable for the determination of health, inequality and socio-economic development in 183 countries of the world system, using international social science standard data. As correctly predicted by quantitative sociology, but largely overlooked by the medical profession, the development style, implied by a high MNC penetration of their host countries, reflects the oligopolistic power, which transnational corporations wield over local economies. We took up an idea from Austro-American economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950), which states that the long-term effects of oligopolistic power are negative and lead toward economic and social stagnation. Our data show that although MNC penetration indeed led to certain short-term growth effects after 1990, today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration. There is a negative trade-off between MNC

  5. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  6. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  7. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

    2003-04-01

    The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

  8. How do socio-economic factors and distance predict access to prevention and rehabilitation services in a Danish municipality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Bonde, Ane; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to explore the extent to which a Danish prevention centre catered to marginalised groups within the catchment area. We determined whether the district’s socio-economic vulnerability status and distance from the citizens’ residential sector to the centre influenced referrals......, ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability). Methods: A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability...... was estimated based on the citizens’ educational level, ethnicity, income, and unemployment rate. A socio-economic vulnerability score (SE-score) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to calculate the probability that a person was referred to the centre, attended the initial appointment, and completed...

  9. Designing a socio-economic assessment method for integrative biomedical research: the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Rainer; Stroetmann, Karl A; Stroetmann, Veli N; Viceconti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In integrative biomedical research, methods assessing the clinical or even socio-economic impact of more complex technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based tools for modelling and simulation of human physiology have rarely been applied. The EU funded Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human (VPHOP) research project, part of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) European initiative, will create a patient-specific hypermodel to predict the absolute risk of bone fracture much more accurately than predictions based on current clinical practice. The project has developed an innovative, multilevel generic methodological framework to assess the clinical and socio-economic impact of biocomputational models. The assessment framework consists of three components: a socio-economic cost benefit analysis, health economic analysis of care pathways, and disease cost simulation models. Through its holistic perspective, the method provides a tool to appraise the overall value of biocomputational models for society.

  10. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  11. A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

  12. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  13. Environmental-Socio-Economic Monitoring as a Tool of Region’s Environmental-Economic System Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, T. V.; Baumgarten, M. I.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailov, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the region’s environmental-economic system management through a tool such as the environmental-socio-economic monitoring. The purpose of research - is analysis and development of theoretical assumptions of environmental-socio-economic monitoring system for the effective management of geographically distributed environmental-economic system. The main elements of environmental-socio-economic monitoring are identified, taking into account the characteristics of the studied area. The main result of the research is the development of multi-functional integrated monitoring system for the evaluation of the indicators "gross domestic product" and "gross national product", taking into account the influence of environmental factors. The results of the study conducted may be recommended to the regional and federal governments to support the effective, environment-friendly management decision-making consistent with the overall development concept.

  14. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    -economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...

  15. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p education (p education (p = 0.019). Lower LAZ was associated with male sex (p education (p education (p = 0.014). At 9-12 months of age, HIV-EU infants had non-inferior growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  16. Influence of socio-economic changes on students' health of Siberian Federal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temnykh A.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical researches of morbidity of students of university are presented in times of socio-economic reforms from 1990 to 2011. 1775 students took part in an experiment. The tendency of decline of health of young people level is marked. It is set that principal reason of increase of morbidity is an unhealthy way of life of young people and low level of motive activity. The annual medical inspection of all of students, engaged in a physical culture and sport is recommended. The necessity of maintainance is marked for an educational process on a physical culture volume of employments in an amount 408 hours on 1, 2 and 3 courses. An increase of activity of students and efficiency of employments is possibly at the permanent improvement of financial base. It is recommended to organize in student dormitories sporting rooms with the proper equipment.

  17. Socio-economic and cultural aspecrs of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2009-01-01

    ! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature......, and the way a given society develops. ! is chapter describes the development of the modern Greenland society from a historical perspective and introduces a number of speci" c cases that illustrate the propensity for change in a society that is derived from the Inuit culture. ! e Inuit culture has survived...... at the margin of human existence over a millennium of climate change and external cultural in# uences...

  18. The Neighborhood Environments of Mutual-help Recovery Houses: Comparisons by Perceived Socio-economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Groh, David R; Jason, Leonard A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the setting/House-level characteristics of 160 self-governed, mutual-support substance abuse recovery homes (OHs) across the U.S. These dwellings were located in four different neighborhood types: upper/middle class (n = 23 Houses), urban working/lower class (n = 71 Houses), suburban upper/middle-class (n = 39 Houses), and suburban working/lower class (n = 27 Houses). Interior dwelling characteristics and amenities located within a 2-block radius were similar across the four neighborhood types. However, Houses in urban, working, and lower class neighborhoods reported more alcohol/drug intoxicated persons. Most importantly, despite the greater potential for environmental temptations and easier access for substances, none of the neighborhood factors including neighborhood socio-economic status significantly predicted relapse rates over a 12 month period.

  19. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G;

    2004-01-01

    of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after...... controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between...... type of beverage and mortality was noticed to differ according to socio-economic level, especially where the apparent protective effect of wine consumption tended to be strongest in the lower income and educational groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds the specific effects of beer, wine or spirits...

  20. Economic Citizenship and Socio-Economic Rationality as Foundations of an Appropriate Economic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that social science education needs to convey more than operational mechanisms of society. Especially in socio-economic education, questions of business ethics, i.e. phenomena of economics and society need to be integrated and reflected, decidedly focusing on the moral content of economics. With the introduction of economic citizenship as the ideal economic actor to be the purpose of economic education, this paper proposes that economic education needs to connect economic expertise and moral judgment and should also allude to the necessity of every market action’s conditional legitimization by society. We propose to discuss different ‘sites’ of morality as a heuristic approach to the different areas of economic responsibility. The individual, organizational and political level of responsibility helps to categorize the different moral issues of economic activity and serves as a great pattern to explain economic relations to scholars and students.

  1. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  2. Socio-Economic Factors Assessment Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies on Rwenzori Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabalegwa Wambede Muhamud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the role of socio-economic factors in influencing farmers’ adoption to soil conservation technologies in Bugoye Sub-county, Rwenzori Mountain. A cross sectional household survey design was used in this study, using systematic sampling to obtain 150 household samples. Qualitative analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze these data. Results indicated that only 54% of the sampled households have adopted soil conservation, and revealed that eight of the nine factors significantly influenced farmers’ adoption, which are slope, farm size, farm distance from home, education level, family income, training, membership to NGOs, and credit accessibility. Only family size was insignificant. Other constraints are labour demands, cost of conservation work, land fragmentation, crop pests, and the limited agricultural extension services. It is recommended to perform training for farmers on designing soil conservation structures. Policies for empowering farmers with extra income are crucial to increase the adoption of soil conservation efforts.

  3. Socio-economic Classification and its Scope in Crafting Rural Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinalini Pathak Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the liberalization of the Indian Economy in the mid 1990’s, substantial growth has been seen in the rural areas. Rural India which comprises around 70% of the total population of the country has become an emerging area for marketers. This study tries to identify key market variables that can help in crafting rural market segments. The socio-economic classification (SEC 2011 which segments the market based on education level and possession of consumer durables. This study examines income as another key market variable together with education in the creation of distinct segments or hybrid segments. It then further identifies important criteria like technical, promotional and social in influencing consumers’ behaviour in the context of the purchase of consumer durables which can thereby help to create segments. The study concludes that the increase in education level has higher impact than increase in income on the important identified purchase criteria.

  4. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  5. Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    amount of timetable supplement. Too little timetable supplement will result in many delays, while too high timetable supplement will result in a (too) high planned travel time which will affect every departure whether or not the train is delayed. At present timetable supplement is chosen based...... on experience or estimates. Through a mathematical optimization it is possible to find the optimal timetable supplement. A way to do so is by using the passenger delay model in a socio-economic analysis as done by (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010). A case study of an upgrade of Sydbanen between Ringsted and Rødby has...... been conducted using the passenger delay model and the methods are described in this article. The case study has shown that the optimum timetable supplement is between 6-9 % depending on the scenario. By optimizing the timetable supplement it is possible to achieve a surplus of 250-500 mio. DKK during...

  6. Modelling the socio-economic impacts of modern bioenergy in rural communities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Bolwig, Simon; Miller, Shelie

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses ex-ante socio-economic impacts of biogas systems using a remote rural community in Ghana as a case study. An analysis was performed for a 300 m3 bio-digester that relies on crop residue and animal manure as feedstock to produce methane gas for cooking using selected bioenergy...... economic and social indicators. With a 10% discount rate, a 30 year bio-digester lifetime and methane tariff starting at US$ 0.7/m3, the project will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 22,000, 16 year payback and an Internal Rate of Return of 11%. The project will create 4 full time unskilled...

  7. How uncertainty in socio-economic variables affects large-scale transport model forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    A strategic task assigned to large-scale transport models is to forecast the demand for transport over long periods of time to assess transport projects. However, by modelling complex systems transport models have an inherent uncertainty which increases over time. As a consequence, the longer...... time, especially with respect to large-scale transport models. The study described in this paper contributes to fill the gap by investigating the effects of uncertainty in socio-economic variables growth rate projections on large-scale transport model forecasts, using the Danish National Transport...... the period forecasted the less reliable is the forecasted model output. Describing uncertainty propagation patterns over time is therefore important in order to provide complete information to the decision makers. Among the existing literature only few studies analyze uncertainty propagation patterns over...

  8. On the Laws and Causes of Socio-economic Territorial Differentiation in Minority Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei; Dong Suocheng

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of applying quantitative and qualitative approaches as well as GIS technology,this paper established an index system to make a comprehensive evaluation on socioeconomic development of minority areas in China.The result showed that socio-economic development in minority area presents a series of characteristics that the north is high and the south is low,center-margin pattern is obvious and the areas with middle and lower development indices are distributed centrally and continuously.However,the causes of the socioeconomic characteristics mainly include natural conditions,economic development basic,population cultural quality,regional combination and development conditions of mineral and energy resources,informal institutional factors and distribution of major traffic lines..

  9. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  10. Environmental and socio-economic development of regions: evaluation of regional differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A system of generalized and specific indices characterizing factors of regional environmental and socio-economic development was established. Official statistical data were analyzed for the development of the regional-differentiation system of indices. The data included characteristics of pollution and environmental protection, prevalence of socially significant diseases in the region, the level of economic and demographic potential of the regions. To evaluate and select the most informative relative characteristics describing the differentiation of regional potentials we took into account the matter of the characteristics, their variation and interdependence. The most informative characteristics were used for extracting latent factors explaining regional differentiation. The factors of industrial resources, social deprivation, HIV prevalence and drug addiction were obtained. A system of indices lets classify and rank regions in order to work out federal and regional development programs

  11. A Manner of Being: Body Languages of Socio-Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antohin, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes to move forward analytical work on the human aspect of socio-economic development, by featuring how personal decisions about physical appearance in effect negotiate socio-ethnic positions and desired economic aims that arise from new technologies of living. By envisioning how the body can serve as a conduit of consciousness-making, tattoos work as one cultural practice that produces an interplay between traditional precedents and contemporary trends and permits reflecting on how the categorizations of rural/urban can behave as a dialectical medium for internal anxieties and debates regarding social transformation. This is particularly salient for Ethiopia as a country with one of the most gradual village to city migrations in the continent, which inspires thinking about how such cultural shifts are as much about maintaining historical relationships to identity formation as it is about attaining new subjectivities.

  12. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  13. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  14. Transformational leadership as a prerequisite for organizational innovations during turbulent socio-economic circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many organizations are operating in turbulent socio-economic circumstances which do not represent a matter of certain time, but the only certainty and consistency. There is a necessity for an adequate organizational response to changes so that organizations can remain competitive. The paper highlights the importance of new forms of management and leadership in managing organizations. Transformational leadership represents a form of leadership that encourages and nurtures employee creativity at all levels within the organization - individual, group and organizational, which implies the generating and establishment of organizational innovation. Due to the fact that creativity is a necessary condition for organizational innovation, this paper points out that transformational leadership is essential for the induction of organizational innovations and their management which further results in organizational changes that contribute to the survival and competitiveness of organizations and business systems on the market.

  15. Socio-economic position and time trends in invasive management and case fatality after acute myocardial infarction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mårtensson, Solvej; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Prescott, Eva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lower case fatality and increased use of evidence-based invasive management incl. coronary angiography (CAG) have been reported for patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the last 25 years. This article seeks to investigate whether these advances have benefitted...... patients in all socio-economic groups and how this has impacted on inequality in case fatality. METHODS: Forty three thousand eight hundred and forty three patients admitted with AMI in the period from 2001 to 2009 were included. Socio-economic position was measured using individual information...... fatality is not primarily driven by inequality in invasive management of AMI....

  16. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  17. Business Organizations’ Positive Socio-Economic Impact on Society - a Step Beyond CSR

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    Mirela POPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors argue the necessity of taking a step beyond CSR and tackling the issue of measuring the impact businesses have on society, in general. Even if CSR points out the idea that organizations have responsibilities regarding the well-being of the entire society, it has certain limitations listed in this article. Furthermore, the authors briefly present the socio-economic impact of business organizations including (1 some basic concepts, (2 the most relevant areas/fields for measuring the impact, and (3 the main advantages regarding the development and implementation of effective impact measurement practices. The general purpose of the empirical study refers to the identification of perceptions related to the Romanian business organizations’ socio-economic impact. In this regard, we set the following main objectives: (1 identifying the extent to which Romanian organizations undertake a process of measuring, assessing and managing their impacts on society, (2 analyzing clients, managers and owners’ perceptions regarding the positive impact of seven Romanian organizations’ activities, and (3 identifying the perceptional differences between clients and managers plus owners. The empirical results show that in the managers’ plus owners’ opinions the areas in which the organization’s activities always or almost always have a positive impact are: collecting and paying taxes, keeping a strict control over the costs, and fulfilling government regulations plus obeying laws. The highest differences in clients’ and managers’ plus owners’ perceptions refer to creating jobs and improving people’s personal security and the general well-being of society.

  18. Socio-economic correlates of functional health literacy among patients of primary health care in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toçi, E; Burazeri, G; Kamberi, H; Jerliu, N; Sørensen, K; Brand, H

    2014-09-01

    Functional health literacy (FHL) has been related to individual characteristics, ill-health and disease knowledge. However, the information about FHL in Kosovo is very limited and thus the aim of this study was to assess the demographic and socio-economic correlates of FHL among users of primary health care in Kosovo, a postconflict country in the Western Balkans. Cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo between November 2012-February 2013, including a representative sample of 1035 consecutive primary care users aged ≥18 years (60% females; overall mean age: 44.3 ± 16.9 years; overall response rate: 86%). Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was used to assess FHL. General linear model and logistic regression were used to assess the association of TOFHLA score with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Overall, four out of five participants exhibited inadequate or marginal FHL in this Kosovo sample. FHL score was independently and inversely related to age, but positively associated with educational attainment and being in a situation other than unemployed. Limited or marginal FHL was very common among primary care users in Kosovo and considerably higher than in the neighbouring Serbia. The low health literacy levels in Kosovo may provide an additional barrier towards achievement of health care goals. There is a need to design and implement suitable and effective educational and health system interventions in the Kosovo context. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

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    D. R. Archer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  20. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe: the importance of socio-economic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina; Agyemang, Charles O; Harding, Seeromanie; Juel, Knud; Rafnsson, Snorri Björn; Regidor, Enrique; Rey, Grégoire; Rosato, Michael; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

  1. Assessment of socio-economic potential of regions for placement of the logistic infrastructure objects

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    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, at the regional markets, there is a disproportion between the growing demand for transportation and logistics services and the availability of facilities needed for their implementation, which is because the high logistics costs and does not meet the strategic objectives of the country to create a common economic space. The article describes the system of market factors that have the most significant influence on the distribution of logistics facilities. Study and evaluation of potential changes in the region of logistics facility disposition are proposed to perform using simulation techniques and statistical data analysis. The article presents the engineered multivariate statistical models that control the kind and effect of correlation between socio-economic development factors of regions, as well as a simulation model, which allows to assess the dynamics of these factors and predict demand for logistics infrastructure facilities. The choice of region (subject dislocation of the logistics center is proposed to realize by the developed technique based on the calculation of the integrated index that takes into account differences in the level of socio-economic and infrastructural development of the regions. This technique in conjunction with a simulation model is applicable to a variety of administrative and territorial levels (region, city and allows to take into account both the current demand in the logistics infrastructure and demand dynamics. The technique given in the article can be used to assess the level of attractiveness of the Russian Federation in the development of public and private investment projects for the development of logistics infrastructure

  2. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  3. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

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    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  4. Socio-economic class, rurality and risk of cutaneous melanoma by site and gender in Sweden

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    Gustavsson Per

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.

  5. Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring

  6. On the role of investment in the socio-economic development of territories

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    Tamara Vitalyevna Uskova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of Russia’s socio-economic development is characterized by the lack of budgetary resources to finance both strategic and current tasks. The situation is exacerbated by the introduction of political and economic sanctions, the significant fluctuations in oil prices and the ruble exchange rate, the growing mistrust on the part of business, followed by the increase in capital outflow. These circumstances predetermine the search for the ways to solve the socio-economic problems. The studies of leading Russian and foreign scientists prove that investment plays a major role in ensuring sustainable economic growth and solving the problems of territorial development. Moreover, the recently increasing impact of large companies on the country’s development and the low budget lead to the necessity to attract private investment resources for regional development. In this regard, the authors analyze the investment activity in Russia, present the countries’ rankings by the state of investment climate and disclose the successful experience of business’ participation in socially significant regional projects. The periodicals and Internet resources comprise an information base of this study. To achieve this goal the authors use system and integrated approaches, general scientific research methods (comparative analysis, generalization and comparison, table and graphical methods of information processing. The results of the research help prove the need to attract private investment in distressed areas and provide the Vologda Oblast authorities with the recommendations that can be applied in other regions. The work describes the promising priority projects of the region. Their implementation will contribute to the restoration of positive investment growth. The authors suggest the directions to amend the federal legislation in order to stimulate investment activity of enterprises and, therefore, enhance the role of business in regional

  7. Socio-economic characteristics and quality of life in diabetes mellitus--relation to metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D; Lager, I; Nilsson, P M

    1999-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with wide implications for well-being and social life. The aim of this cross-sectional, observational study was to describe possible differences in clinical characteristics, socio-economic factors and quality of life between diabetes patients in poor and good/acceptable metabolic control, as defined by levels of glycated haemoglobin A1c. From a population-based register of diabetes patients at a clinical chemistry department, we selected 96 subjects in poor metabolic control (HbA1c > 10%), and 96 subjects in good/acceptable (HbA1c 6.5-7.5%) metabolic control, matched for sex, age and duration of diabetes. Each participant was sent a self-administered questionnaire regarding medical history, family situation and socio-economic background, as well as self-rated health based on a validated instrument (SF-36). The diabetes patients in poor metabolic control reported more retinopathy, vascular complications and nervous problems than did the patients in acceptable metabolic control. Furthermore, the group in poor metabolic control was also characterized by a lower educational level, a higher number of sick leave days or disability pension and a lower degree of physical activity. Both of the diabetic groups reported lower scorings for physical functioning, general health, vitality and mental health, than did a comparable non-diabetic group from another study. In summary, diabetic patients in poor metabolic control have a lower educational level and report more complications, nervous problems, sick leave days and disability pensions than patients in good/acceptable metabolic control. The lower degree of physical activity adds to the problems of the first group and should be the target for intervention to achieve better metabolic control.

  8. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public participation in decision-making processes is recommendable. Another conclusion based on perceived medium to low

  9. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007.   Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Socio-economic characteristics, living conditions and diet quality are associated with food insecurity in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Vieux, Florent; Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) in France and to describe its associations with socio-economic factors, health behaviours, diet quality and cost (estimated using mean food prices). Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. FI was assessed using an adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Insufficiency Indicator; dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d open-ended food record; and individual demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Individuals experiencing FI were compared with food-secure individuals, the latter being divided into four categories according to quartiles of their income per consumption unit (FS1 to FS4). Differences among categories were analysed using χ² tests, ANOVA and tests for trend. Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Adults aged 18-79 years (n 2624). Individuals experiencing FI represented 12·2% of the population. They were on average younger, more frequently women and single parents with children compared with those in the other four categories. Their mean income per consumption unit was higher than that in the FS1 category, but they reported poorer material and housing conditions. The prevalence of smoking and the mean daily time spent watching television were also higher in the FI category. No significant difference among categories was found for energy intake, but mean intakes of fruits, vegetables and fish were lower, and diet quality was slightly but significantly poorer in the FI category. Daily diet cost was also lower in the FI category. France is not spared by FI. FI should be routinely monitored at the national level and research should be promoted to identify effective strategies to reduce nutrition inequalities in France.

  11. Dietary patterns of French adults: associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, M; Touvier, M; Dubuisson, C; Dufour, A; Havard, S; Lafay, L; Volatier, J-L; Lioret, S

    2016-04-01

    Although the French eating model may differ from those of other countries, no studies to date have investigated dietary patterns in a wide age range of adults and at the national level. We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DP) of French adults and assess their associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors. The present study included 2624 adults (1087 men, 1537 women) aged 18-79 years from the cross-sectional national French INCA2 dietary survey. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day estimated food record. Clusters of DP were derived using principal component analysis and clustering, conjointly. Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between DP and correlates. Five DP were identified, namely 'traditional', 'prudent', 'diversified', 'processed' and 'sandwiches'. Men were more likely to follow a traditional diet and women the 'prudent' pattern. Members of the 'processed' and 'sandwiches' patterns were younger compared to non-members. Healthier dietary patterns were overall positively associated with a higher socio-economic position, healthier behaviours (in terms of sedentary behaviours and smoking status) and lower body mass index. Under-reporting of energy intake, restrictive diet to lose weight and dietary supplement consumption were also related to specific DP, although differentially in men and women. Associations with contextual factors (i.e. household composition, agglomeration size and region) were also observed. The identification of adults' dietary patterns and associated behaviours (all modifiable) is important for the conceptualisation of multi-behavioural programs. The additional information on social and environmental correlates is also essential for targeting the most vulnerable population groups in the context of such public health interventions. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-04-01

    Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem

  13. Continued Driving and Time to Transition to Nondriver Status through Error-Specific Driving Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Barbara; Petrakos, Davithoula

    2008-01-01

    We developed driving restrictions that are linked to specific driving errors, allowing cognitively impaired individuals to continue to independently meet mobility needs while minimizing risk to themselves and others. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the efficacy and duration expectancy of these restrictions in promoting safe continued…

  14. The Catastrophe Theory as a Conceptual and Methodological Basis for Assessing the Stability of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergienko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been proposed a conceptual approach to studying the instability of main indicators of socio-economic development of Ukraine’s economy aimed at solving problems of assessment, analysis and forecasting the state of territorial systems and providing for the implementation of three major steps: assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic indicators of territorial development and the extent of their relationship, building catastrophe models of dynamics of socio-economic indicators of territorial development, analysis of instability of socio-economic systems. A study of the development dynamics of Ukraine’s economy in terms of the most significant macroeconomic indicators characterizing the state of industrial production, construction, employment, and demographic processes have been carried out. There revealed the instability and non-linearity of their relationship, occurrence of bifurcations and a high probability of catastrophes in the following research areas: dependence of the GDP on the volume of construction works, which makes it possible to determine the presence of the construction crisis in the economy; dependence of the GDP on the level of migration and natural increase in the population of Ukraine, which presents objective information about the demographic crisis in the country. The analytical results obtained can serve a basis for of the concept of regional policy transformation, implementation of investment and strategic programs aimed at stimulating investment of progressive structural changes in the regional and territorial perspective and crisis management.

  15. Socio-economic differences in self-esteem of adolescents influenced by personality, mental health and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that self-esteem is lower among adolescents of low socio-economic status and is associated with a number of intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural factors. Evidence on the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the connection between socio-econ

  16. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that give effect to Socio-Economic Rights in South Africa

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    Oliver Njuh Fuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa. Based on the jurisprudence of courts and some examples of "executive" policies, this article demonstrates that the constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies could be located inter alia in the positive duties imposed on government by sections 24(b, 25(5, 26(2 and 27(2 of the Constitution to "take reasonable legislative and other measures" within the context of available resources to give effect to relevant rights. This article argues that these duties amount to a constitutional delegation of authority to the legislative and executive branches of government to concretise socio-economic rights. In addition, this article demonstrates that where "executive" policies give effect to socio-economic rights pursuant to powers delegated by enabling provisions in original legislation that covers the field of socio-economic rights, such policies may be perceived to have the force of law, thereby providing a legal basis for their judicial enforcement.

  17. Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and student achievement has been prevalent in the literature, yet research focusing on the association between factors and the achievement of school populations with distinct categories of SES is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate various relevant student,…

  18. Influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious decis

  19. Contribution of Spoken Language and Socio-Economic Background to Adolescents' Educational Achievement at Age 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-documented associations exist between socio-economic background and language ability in early childhood, and between educational attainment and language ability in children with clinically referred language impairment. However, very little research has looked at the associations between language ability, educational attainment and…

  20. Book Review: Shrestha, Omkar Lal, and Aekapol Chongvilaivan (eds, Greater Mekong Subregion: From Geographical to Socio-economic Integration

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    Timotheus J. Krahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the edited volume: Omkar Lal Shrestha and Aekapol Chongvilaivan (eds (2013, Greater Mekong Subregion: From Geographical to Socio-economic Integration. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS, ISBN: 978-981-4379-68-7, 270 pages